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Contents
1.Phonetics: .................................................. 5 Grammar: . . to be / to hav .................................................................................... 6 Conversational topic: About myself .................................................................................. 9 2. Phonetics: .......................................................... 13 Grammar: ............................................................................................................... 14 Conversational topic: My family ...................................................................................... 17 3. Phonetics: ........................................................................... 20 Grammar: there is / are. - . ..................................................................... 20 Conversational topic: Working day .................................................................................. 24 4. Phonetics: Phonetics: [p, b, k, g, f, v, m] ............................................................ 27 Grammar: -, ......... 27 Conversational topic: My University ............................................................................... 29 5. Phonetics: [n, l, t, d] .......................................................................................... 32 Grammar: The Present Indefinite (Simple) Tense ............................................................. 32 Conversational topic: Hobby ............................................................................................ 35 6. Phonetics: Phonetics: [s, z] ................................................................................ 39 Grammar: . ...... 39 Conversational topic: Great Britain ................................................................................. 43 7. Phonetics: [e] ...................................................................................................... 47 Grammar: : . ....... 47 Conversational topic: The Russian Federation .................................................................. 52 8. Phonetics: [ ei ] .................................................................................................... 55 Grammar: . ...................... 55 Conversational topic: The USA ........................................................................................ 58 9. Phonetics: [] ....................................................................................................... 62 Grammar: . . .. 63 Conversational topic: Altai Republic ................................................................................ 67 10. Phonetics: Phonetics: [i] ..................................................................................... 70 Grammar: : . , , ........................................................................................... 70 Conversational topic: Russias ancient capital ................................................................. 73 11. Phonetics: [, ] .............................................................................................. 77 Grammar: , , .................. .78 Conversational topic: London .......................................................................................... 82 12. Phonetics: [i:] .................................................................................................... 86 Grammar: : , , , , 86 Conversational topic: Washington ................................................................................... 89 13. Phonetics: Phonetics: [ r ] ................................................................................. 93 Grammar: . Revision the Present Indefinite (Simple) Tense. The Present ............................................................... 93 Conversational topic: Education in Russia ....................................................................... 95 14. Phonetics: Phonetics: [j] ..................................................................................... 99 Grammar: The Present Perfect Tense and the Present Perfect Continuous Tense .............. 99
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Conversational topic: Education in Britain .................................................................... 102 15. Phonetics: Phonetics: [u:], [ju:] ..................................................................... 107 Grammar: Revision of the Present Tenses ..................................................................... 107 Conversational topic: American schooling ..................................................................... 108 16. Phonetics: Phonetics: [ u ] [ , ] ......................................................... 112 Grammar: The Past Indefinite (Simple) Tense. The Past Continuous (Progressive) Tense ....................................................................... 113 Conversational topic: The problem of teenagers ............................................................. 117 17. Phonetics: [ t] ................................................................................................. 121 Grammar: The Past Perfect Tense and the Past Perfect Continuous Tense ...................... 121 Conversational topic: Youth organizations in GB ........................................................... 124 18. Phonetics: Phonetics: [ d ] .............................................................................. 128 Grammar: Revision of the Past Tenses ........................................................................... 128 Conversational topic: Youth problems: unemployment, drugs ........................................ 129 19. Phonetics: ......................................................................................... 133 Grammar: The Future Indefinite (Simple) Tense. The Future Continuous (Progressive) Tense. The Future Perfect Tense and the Future Perfect Continuous Tense .................... 133 Conversational topic: Hollywood ................................................................................... 136 20. Phonetics: Phonetics: [ou] ............................................................................... 140 Grammar: Revision of Tenses ........................................................................................ 140 Conversational topic: William Shakespeare (1564 1615) ............................................. 142 21. Phonetics: Phonetics: [a:] ................................................................................. 146 Grammar: The Passive Voice ......................................................................................... 146 Conversational topic: harlie Chaplin, creator of comedy .............................................. 148 22. Phonetics: [ ai ] ................................................................................................ 152 Grammar: The Passive Voice ......................................................................................... 152 Conversational topic: Music ........................................................................................... 153 23. Phonetics: Phonetics: [w] ................................................................................. 156 Grammar: Modal verbs .................................................................................................. 156 Conversational topic: Air pollution ............................................................................... 158 24. Phonetics: []; [i] ................................................................................... 163 Grammar: Modal verbs .................................................................................................. 163 Conversational topic: Acid rains ..................................................................................... 167 25. Phonetics: [] ................................................................................................... 172 Grammar: The preposions .............................................................................................. 173 Conversational topic: Ecology ........................................................................................ 178 Supplementary reading ................................................................................................... 183 Bibliography .................................................................................................................. 200

Unite I
Phonetics: . , . . . - , .. : bad () - bat ( ) . , . : , . - [t, d, n, l, s, z, t, d] . [ , , , ] - . : [ tin ] tin [ dei ] day [ leit ] late [ neim ] name . : [ nit ni:t ] [ luk lu:z ] [km ka:m ] . , , - : [u - u:] [ i: - i] . - . : [ ful ] - [ fu:l ] [ liv ] - [ li:v ] [ kt ] - [ ka:t ] - . - : ; ; - - : ; ; . .
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( - , - ), . "" , [i] []. , , : [ai], [au]. . ", , " . , .. , . : [ pen ] pen [ si:v ] sieve [ kout ] coat , , , : [, ]. : [ ik ] thick [ in ] thin [ ei ] they [ is ] this - [ w ]. : [ weit ] wait [ wi: ] we [ wai ] why [ ] : [ si ] sing [ s ] song [ raiti ] writing [ r ] : [ rait ] write [ rout ] wrote [ `riv ] river [ : ], . : [ :li ] early [g:l ] girl [t:n ] turn Grammar 1. . . to be / to have. . - , : , , . I translated the text yesterday. .

to be to have Present Indefinite. to be I am We are He is You are She is It is They are to have We have You have They

I have You have He, she, it has

have

Exercise 1 . 1. Russian, she, well, speaks. 2. Me, flower, a, he, beautiful, gave. 3. A, he, student, is. 4. Have, a, I, pencil, long. 5. Not, he, schoolboy, is, a. 6. Have, I, family large, a. 7. Name, Petrov, is, my. 8. Sister, has, a, he. 9. In, she, Gorky, lives, street. 10. On, book, there is, a, table, the. 11. to, go, the, every, cinema, I, week 12. does, play, he, not, to, like, chess.1 3. you, live, do, where? 14. room, your, small, is, or, large? 15. home, 1st, go, us. 1. dark, was, it.1 7. fourteen, there, in, street, are, this houses. Exercise 2. . ) 1. What is your m? 2. How old are u? 3. When were u born? 4. Where are u from? 5. What are you fond of? ) 1. Have u got any books by Jack London7 2. Has ur flat all modern conveniences? 3. Will u have some tea? 4. How often do u have English 1? 5. Has ur mother lot of work to do about the house7 6. Did u have any idea how to solve this problem? Exercise 2. to be Present Simple. 1. What ... your name? My name ... Shirley Frank. 2. What ... your address? My address ... 175 Grand Central Parkway. 3. What ... your phone umber? My phone number ... 718-1930. 4. Where ... you from? I ... from New York. 5. I a pupil. 6. My father ... not a teacher, he ... scientist. 7. ... your aunt a doctor? Yes, she ... . 8. ... they at home? No, they ... not at home, they ,. at work. 9. My brother ... a worker. He ... at work. 10. ... you an engineer? Yes, I ... . 11. ... your sister a typist? No, she ... not a typist, she ... a student. 12. ... your brother at school? Yes, he ... . 13. ... your sister at school? No, she ... not at school. 14. My sister ... at home. 15. ... this your watch? Yes, it ... . 16. She ... an actress. 17. This ... my bag. 18. My uncle ... an office worker. 19. He ... at work. 20. Helen ... a painter. She has some fine pictures. They ... on the walls. She has much paper. It ... on the shelf. The shelf ... brown. It ... on the wall. Helen has a brother. He ... a student. He has a family. His family ... not in St. Petersburg, it ... in Moscow.

Exercise 2. to be to have . } 1. It ... difficult to find job now,... it? 2. 1 want... doctor, that is why I ... student of the Medical Institute. 3. There is school in this village and the children go to the school which... two miles away. 4. How old... u? L.. 1?. 5.... u English lessons twice week? Yes, we .... 6. I ... time to help you yesterday. I ... very sorry about it. 7. ... conference tomorrow. So I ... busy with my report today. 8. There ... only two faculties at the Belarusian University in 1921, now there ... twelve faculties there. 9. sister ... second-year student of the Law Faculty.. She ... lawyer. 10. You ... in the final year at school, ... you? Yes, I .... 11. What ... you fond of? My hobby ... drawing. } 1. The USA ...various natural resources and ... one of the richest entries in the world. 2. The Soviet Union...the first country to send man into space. 3. mother... the only person 1 can talk to. 4. Will u... any lectures tomorrow? 5. Health... priceless possession. 6. Physics... my favourite subject at school. 7. Fortunately the news... not as bad as they- had expected. 8. Your clothes... out of fashion, you should buy something new. 9. ... lot of trouble with his yesterday. 10. Their new furniture... very beautiful and extensive. 11. I think that three days... not long enough for good holiday. 12. grandfather... short grey hair but my grandmother's hair... long and thick. 13. Money spent on the brain... never spent in vain. 14. Your glasses... on the table. 15. knowledge... not enough for making this experiment. to be.
1. to be present 2. to be back 3. to be absent, to be away 4. to be good at - 5. to be ready (for) 6. to be up 7. to be well 8. to be ill 9. to be busy 10. to be free 11. to be glad 12. to be married () 13. to be engaged 14. to be fond of 15. to be going + . 16. to be interested in 17. to be sorry (for smb., about smth.) ( , -}
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18. to be acquainted with ... 19. to be late 20. to be in (on) time 21. to be right 22. to be wrong 23. to be mistaken 24. to be at home 25. to be hungry 26. to be thirsty 27. to be on ( ) 28. to be on pension 29. to be tired ~ 30. to be afraid of 31. to be over 32. to be... years old 33. I am 20 years old 20 34. to be sure 35. to be worth doing smth -

Conversational Topic: About Myself Exercises on the vocabulary: 1. Study the words and word combinations of the active vocabulary 2. Explain the contextual meaning of the underlined lexical units relying on an English-English dictionary. 3. Recall the situations in which the active vocabulary is used in the text stated below. 4. Make up your own situations or sentences with the active vocabulary. Vocabulary: Straight [stret] 1. . 1) ) , ; ) ( ) straight hair ; ) straight timber ( ); ) , ; 2) , ; , even tempered to retire into oneself , appreciate ['pri:et] . 1) , () ; , 2) , 3) , ( ), ( -.) high heels proper ['prp] 1. . 1) ) , ; ) , 2) , ; ; 3) ) , stubborn ['st bn] . 1) ) ; ) , ; , 2) ; diligent ['dl()nt] . 1) , , ( ) 2) , , , ( ) outlook ['autluk] . 1) (for) , ; 2) , , , 3) . , 4) )

blush [bl ] 1. . 1) ; , 2) 2. . 1) , , 2) (blush for) (-.) inclination [`nkl 'ne ()n] . 1) ) , ; 2) ) , ; ) Exercise 1. Read and translate the text. From the very start I should say that it is not an easy thing to speak about myself as it is hard to have a look at yourself from aside, but at the same time who knows you better than you yourself do? I am a girl of seventeen. When I look at myself in the mirror I see a blond girl with short straight hair, dark eyes. As to my appearance I'm rather tall and slim. I have never thought I'm a beauty I wish I were more beautiful. I think that I'm even tempered, rather reserved, calm and modest. But sometimes I can lose my tempo and become either angry or sad. I like staying alone and sometimes I retire into my shell. But at the same time I like my friends, I like to laugh and joke. I have got a sense of humour. It means I understand humour and appreciate it. There are many things in our life I like and some I dislike. I like when everything is OK. Being happy is one way of being wise. I like to study because knowledge is useful sometimes. I'm fond of reading as it gives not only knowledge, but wonderful moments of joy and pleasure. I am neither short nor tall, so I like to wear highheeled shoes, trousers or jeans. I was born on the 25th of April 1985 in the town of Gorno-Altaisk where I live now together with my parents and my younger sister (older brother). My early years which I remember badly, were typical of a child living in a town. I was born in a family of a teacher and a doctor. I was sent to a kindergarten at the age of three as both the parents were working. As all the children of Belarus I went to school at the age of six. Here I should say that it was my lucky chance to study for 11 years at the school of fine arts in the town of Gorno-Altaisk. It turned out to be the best school in our town. There I got a proper training in such subjects as English, Russian and literature and world culture. I usually did a lot of home preparation for them and I liked everything I was doing in them. I really tried hard in them. But despite my efforts I was not good at Math. School for me was not only lessons and learning I had a lot of friends there. We organized extra class activities such as parties and other social activities. I actively participated in most of them. My teachers were very well-educated people with broad outlook and deep knowledge of the subjects. They encouraged me in my desire of choosing my future career. School meant a lot to me and it wasn't just learning and studying. I had made good friends there and met many interesting people. I faced a new life without school with a mixed feeling of sadness and joy.
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I am sociable, so I have got a lot of friends among my schoolmates. As for me I appreciate people's honesty, kindness, sense of justice and intelligence. I don't like when people are rude and aggressive. I am stubborn at times. But to my mind being persistent is not always a bad thing. It means my aim, I never leave things half done. At times I feel dissatisfied with myself, especially when I fail to do something or can't do things the way they should be done. At the same time I think I am hard-working and diligent. My greatest problem at school was talking in front of the class. I always blushed and went red. I had asked myself a lot of times what I wanted to be when I left school. A few years ago it was difficult to give a definite answer. As the years passed I changed my mind several times. But it was only in my last year at school that I finally made up my mind what profession I would most like to have in future. I realized that my strongest desire was to continue specializing in humanities and learn foreign languages in particular. I hope my dream will come true. And now a few words about my inclinations. I haven't got any special hobby, like collecting something but I'm fond of reading books. They give me more knowledge of their people's lives and feelings and broaden my outlook. In my opinion, books are a source of emotional inspiration and romantic feeling. Besides, books help me to continue my own education. The time spend on a good book is never wasted. Reading is a rewarding pasting. And of course I like music! I'm fond of music of the 60-s, like the Beatles, the Rolling Stones and Elvis Priestly. The songs of the Beatles give me much delight and pleasure. Besides, I am a great theatre-goer. Whenever I have some time to spare, I go to the theatre. I'm not keen on television. Sometimes I play different sport games for health and pleasure. I usually play such games as volley-ball, basketball, tennis, and sometimes football. And the last thing I would like to tell you about things I hope to achieve in my life are: to have a very successful career, so this year after finishing school I entered the University, to build the home of my dreams and to find someone in my life to share all that with. Exercise 2. Say whether these statements are true or false and if they are false say why. I dont go to the theatre. Im keen on television. Sometimes I play different sport games for health and pleasure. My sister is fond of music of the 60-s, like the Beatles, the Rolling Stones and Elvis Priestly. Reading books give me more knowledge of their people's lives and feelings and broaden my outlook. I don't like when people are rude and aggressive. I am not sociable, so I have not got many friends among my schoolmates. I usually did a lot of home preparation for English, Russian and literature and world culture and I liked everything I was doing in them.

My teachers were very well-educated people with broad outlook and deep knowledge of the subjects but they didnt encourage me in my desire of choosing my future career. I like when everything is OK. Being happy is one way of being wise. As to my appearance I'm rather tall and slim. I have never thought I'm a beauty I wish I were more beautiful. Exercise 3. Make the right choice from the text above to complete the sentences and translate them. who knows you better than you yourself do? I can lose my tempo . wonderful moments of joy and pleasure. years which I remember badly, . It turned out to be the best . despite my efforts . I feel dissatisfied with myself, . to continue specializing in humanities . emotional inspiration and romantic feeling. And the last thing I would like to tell you . Exercise 4. Answer the following questions: Does she find it difficult to speak about herself? What does she look like? What can you say about her character? Is she tall or short? What do you know about her childhood? She got a proper training in such subjects as English, Russian and literature and world culture, didnt she? Were her teachers very well-educated people with broad outlook and deep knowledge of the subjects? Why did she feel dissatisfied with herself? What was her greatest problem at school? Do you share her opinion on books? If you dont explain why? Exercise 5. Make up your own story about yourself using vocabulary from the text and be ready to recite it in the class.

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Unit II
Phonetics: , : , , . , , . , . [, , , , , ] [p, b, t, d, k, g]. , . [, ] [n, m, ]. , - , . [, , , , , , ], [, , , , s, z, h, f, v, w, r, j, l]. - . , ; . [, ], [t, d]. . , - . [, ], [p, m, w]. , -. [, ], - [f , v]. , : [, ]. [, , , , , ] - , . [t, d, l, s, z] , . . . . , . : [, , , , , , , , , , ] - , : [, , , , , , , , ] . : [b, v, g, d, z, l, m, n, r], - [k, p, s, t, f, t, , , h].

: : -[b] -[v] -[g] -[d] -[] -[z] -[l] -[m] -[n] -[r] - [ d ] - [ ]

: -[p] -[s] -[t] -[f] -[h] - [ t ] -[] -[] -[k]

, , . , , : [i:] []. , , : [a:] [] [ ]. . , [] : [] . [] , : [] - . : , . . , [i:] , [i]. Grammar: . . : , . - , Yes / no ( / ). - , , . , . , " ". , . The passanger ship crosses the Atlantic Ocean.
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What crosses the Atlantic Ocean? ? . What ship crosses the Atlantic Ocean? ? - . . - Is your brother in London? Is he a student? Does your father Can you swim? ? . - Where is your sister What is your brother? work in Manchester?

( ). ( ) Who are Whose is

you? this book?

. , .

now?

Where do you

live

in summer?

Exercise 1. 1. I have got a family of my own. 2. Ned has got a nice flat in Lenin Street. 3. My wife has got a lot of relatives in Kiev. 4. Lily has got a lot of friends at the University. 5. They have got two children. 6. My niece has got an interesting English book. 7. His friend has got these German magazines. 8. Her husband has got plenty of books by foreign writers. 9. His wife has got an elder brother and a younger sister. 10. Nick is a student. 11. This factory is small. 12. My friend is a teacher. 13. I have a nice pen. Exercise 2. . ) 1. You are good at physics. 2. The ice wasn't thick enough to skate. 3. will be angry with me. 4. That was Bill on the phone. 5. She is proud of her children. 6. The weather is usually fine in summer. 7. Kate wasn't at school yesterday. She was ill. 8. will seventeen in month. ) 1. I have new tape-recorder. 2. They haven't enough money to buy these books. 3. She has time to do it now. 4. We'll have holidays in summer. 5. This man had heart attack last month. 6. I hadn't the courage to tell her the truth. ) 1. father usually has breakfast at 7. 2. English people have tea many times day. 3. We had good time out of town. 4. I don't have coffee in the evening. 5. The pupils have classes six days week. 6. friend usually has dinner in our school canteen. Exercise 3. : A. 1. Kate is at home (at school). 2. They are in England (Scotland). 3. Oxford is far from (near) London. 4. She is writer ( painter). 5. She is interested in music (drawing). 5. I am seventeen (eighteen) years old. 6. The ice was thick (thin) on the river. 7. That was Jane (,) on the phone. 8. was rude (polite) with u. 9. It will be cold (warm) tomorrow. 9. The weather will be fine (rainy) next week. 1. They have house ( flat) in Minsk. 2. friend has lot of English (French) books. 3. Our family had rest in the countryside (abroad) last summer. 4. I usually have coffee (tea) in the morning. 5. We have meals three (four) times day. 6. You will have five (six) lessons tomorrow

. , .

Where can I buy a newspaper? ? : what - , when - where - which - how - who - whose - whem - , how much / many - why -

.
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Exercise 4. , to be Present Indefinite (Simple). 1. ? . 2. ? : , 45. 3. ? (... ?) . 4. ( )? . 5. ? . 6. ? . 7. , . 10 , 12 . . 8. . . 9 . .. 10. . . 11.. . 12. ? , , 13.. . 14. . . 15. . . 16. ? , . 17. ? , . . 18. ? , . 19. ? , . 20. ? . ? , . 21. . 22. . . Exercise 5. : 1. The water is deep here,...7 2. This is the front of the queue,...2 3. m was over there,...7 4. They were in hurry,...2 5. The weather isn't bad;...7 6. There wasn't lot of noise,...? 7. Bob will be surprised,...? 8. The book is interesting, ... ? 9. They are at the office, ...? 10. They are not town, ...? 11. is very clever man, ...? Conversational Topics: My family Exercises on the vocabulary: 1. Study the words and word combinations of the active vocabulary stated below. 2. Explain the contextual meaning of the underlined lexical units relying on an English-English dictionary. 3. Recall the situations in which the active vocabulary is used in the text stated below. 4. Make up your own situations or sentences with the active vocabulary. Vocabulary: surgeon ['s()n] . 1) 2) , - , housewife I ['hauswaf] . 1) ) ( ) ) 2) ( ) 3) fool about / around ; ; to be good at (-.) He is good at languages. . look forward to . . ; (-.)
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strict [strkt] . 1) ) , , ; ) , 2) , ( ) to make up ones mind , ( -. -.) historian [hs'trn] . Exercise 1. Read and translate the text. I think that a family is the most important thing for every person. Family are the people that always love you, support you and help you. For me it is impossible to live without my family. My family is rather large. There are: my parents, brother, sister and grandparents. My father is a plastic surgeon; he helps people become more beautiful. He is a professional. My father does his work very well and gets a very good salary. My mother is a housewife. She looks after the house and us, the kids. Mother makes very tasty breakfasts and dinners. Our mother is very kind, but strict to us. She always checks how we do our homework. Mother arranges our free time, so that we cannot just fool around. My elder brother, Jason, is a student of the medical faculty. He wants to become a good surgeon, like our father. Besides he is also a member of the local theatre club. He plays main parts in several plays. My sister, Jenny, is finishing school this year. But she has not yet made up her mind about her future profession. On one hand she loves animals and can become a vet, on the other hand she is very good at mathematics and knows some complex computer programs. Maybe she will have a year off to think over her future possibilities. As for me, I have always loved music. I can play the guitar and piano very well. I love all kinds of music, but mostly I prefer rock. Our grand parents are scientists. Grandfather is a historian and grandmother is a linguist. They give lectures in different universities and write serious books. We all get on with each other very well. Every one in our family is rather busy, but we always look forward to a possibility to spend some time together. My family means a lot to me. Exercise 2. Choose the most appropriate expressions from the text to fill the gaps in these sentences. 1. My father is a plastic _____; he helps people become more beautiful. 2. Our mother is very kind, but ____ to us. 3. Mother arranges our free time, so that we cannot just ___________. 4. He wants to become a good _______, like our father. 5. Every one in our family is rather busy, but we always _______ to a possibility to spend some time together. 6. But she has not yet _________ about her future profession. 7. Grandfather is a ______ and grandmother is a linguist.

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Exercise 3. Choose the word or sentence which best completes each sentence. 1. Family are the people that always , support you and help you. a) very strict b) love you c) creative d) kind and sincere 2. My father does his work very well and gets . a) my mothers applause b) much appreciation c) instruments d) a very good salary 3. But my sister her future profession. a) likes very much b) always dreams c) has not yet made up her mind about d) hates 4. Our grand parents in different universities and write serious books a) give lectures b) read lectures c) translate magazines d) play piano 5. Every one in our family is rather busy, but we always a possibility to spend some time together. a) wait sometimes b) find c) look forward to d) use Exercise 4. Answer the following questions: 1. What does family mean to the author of the text youve read? 2. How many people are there in his family? 3. What is his father? 4. What is his mother? 5. What is his brother? 6. What can you say about his sister? 7. His grandparents are workers, arent they? 8. Does he like his family? If he does, explain why? Exercise 5. Make up your own story about your family using vocabulary from the text and be ready to recite it in the class.

Unit III
Phonetics: - , . . , , . : " - ". - 48 , , 48 . : [ f ] five [ d ] do [ i: ] eat [ ei ] lake [ v ] very [ k ] key [ i ] it [ ai ] like [ ] thick [ g ] gas [ e ] pen [ au ] house [ ] this [ s ] so [ z ] zoo [ ] ship [ ] pleasure [ h ] horse [ p ] park [ b ] book [ t ] tea [ t ] chin [ d ] Jim [ m ] mother [ n ] no [ ] long [ l ] less [ r ] river [ j ] yellow [ w ] white [ ] bad [ a: ] art [ ] box [ ] cup [ u ] cook [ u: ] school [ ju: ] tune [ : ] girl [ ] paper [ i ] boy [ ou ] home [ i ] ear [ ] air [ u ] poor [ ju ] Europe [ ai ] fire [ au ] hour [ : ] all

Grammar: there is / are. - . . there + be , () - , , . ", , ". There are several classifications of these phenomena. . , , , . There are many students in room 205. 205 .

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be : There is / are There was / were There will be There has been / have been There had been Perfect There will have been

Indefinite

goose mouse child sheep deer datum phenomenon

geese mise children sheep deer data phenomena

be , . There is a table and two chairs in the room. . there to be. Are there many students in room 205? How many chairs are there in the room? there + be no be. There are no clouds in the sky. . -s -es . -s -es a bag bags a glass glasses a cat cats a fox foxes a rose roses a watch watches a map maps a bush bushes , -y , -es, - -i. , a dictionary dictionaries. : a boy boys, a day days ( - ). , -f, -fe, -f -v -es. a half halves a wolf wolves a wife wives : roof roofs, safe safes. . . . . . man men Woman women foot feet tooth teeth
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Exercise 1. : furniture, coffee, leaf, food, computer, list, blood, job, work, language, country, advice, information, money, progress, permit, permission, baggage, luggage, beach, traffic, weather, window, knowledge, air, water, holiday, damage, accommodation, scenery, scene, pigeon, bread, mountain, kick, news, accident, laugh, flour, laughter Exercise 2. ( , ), A table, a plate, a fox, a room, a lady, a knife, a chair, a bus, a Negro, a match, a way, a house, a family, a flag, a town, a wolf, a country, a lion, a park, a play. B. A man, a woman, a German, a foot, a tooth, a sheep, a ship, a fish, an ox, a fox, a child, a fireman, a mouse, a swine, a house, a louse, a goose, a mongoose, a deer, a means, a series, a species, an aircraft, an offspring, a Swiss, a Japanese, a Maltese, a Portuguese, a Chinese, a Milanese. C. A passer-by, a mother-in-law, a room-mate, a forget-me-not, a merry-go-round, a fellow-worker, a man-of-war, a school-inspector, a commander-in-chief, a boymessenger, a personnel-manager, a woman-driver, a man-servant, a hanger-on, a face-lift, a spoonful, a cupful, a boyfriend, a grown-up, an office-block, a workmate. Exercise 3. . 1. This is a star. 2. This is a boy. 3. This is a baby. 4. That is a plate. 5. That is a flower, j 6. That is a bookshelf. 7. Is this a sofa? 8. Is this a bookcase? 9. Is this a man? 10. Is that a ball? 11. Is that a train? 12. Is that a plane? 13. Is the window open? 14. Is the door closed? 15. Is the boy near the window? 16. That is not a king, 17. That is not a queen. 18. That is not a bus. 19. This isn't a mountain. 20. That isn't a goose. 21. This isn't a mouse. 22. It is a sheep. 23. It is a cigarette. 24. It is a cat. 25. It is not a girl. 26. It isn't a bag. 27. It isn't a tree. 28. It is not a bad egg. 29. It is a good egg. 30. Is that a flower? Exercise 4. . 1. This is a bird. 2. Is that also a bird? -- No, it isn't. That is a cat. 3. Is that a good horse? Yes, it is. 4. Is that cow big or small? - It is big. 5. This is an apple and that is a flower. 6. Where is the coin? It is in the box. 7. What colour is the box? - It is green. 8. What is it made of? - It is made of wood. 9. What is that man? He is a clerk. 10. Is he in the office? Yes, he is. 11. Is that woman a typist? -- No, she isn't. What is she? She is a doctor. 12. Is his brother at home? - Yes, he is. 13. This house has a balcony looking out on the street. 14. The architecture of this build22

ing is quite modern. 15. This is a new district of St. Petersburg. 16. There is a shop, a cinema and a theatre in the new district. 17. He is a retired worker. 18.1 am a doctor. 19. We hear the sounds of a child's voice. 20. She is a nice girl. Exercise 5. : 1. There are some newspapers on the desk. 2. There is tree in front of house. 3. There is nobody in the room. 4. There are no pencils there. 5. Are there any pictures in the room? 6. There is telegram on the table. 7. There are two sofas in the room. 8. There is girl in the picture. 9. There are no children in their family. 10. There are many high buildings in our town. Exercise 6. there is there are: 1. ... a gas-stove and a fridge in our kitchen. 2. ... a lot of furniture in their flat. 3. ... some chocolate and a piece of cake on this plate. 4. ... no fruit at home. Will you go and buy some? 5. ... some magazines and a telephone on this little table. 6. ... a lot of work to do this afternoon. 7. ... plenty of knives in the drawer. 8. ... good news for you! 9. . . . some money in my purse. You may take it. 10. ... a water-colour and some prints on the walls of his room. Exercise 7. : 1. There are three rooms in our flat. 2. There is a built-in wardrobe in the room. 3. There is no central heating in your house. 4. There are two pencils on the table. 5. There is a carpet on the floor. 6. They have a flat of their own. 7. There are no curtains on the windows in the bedroom. 8. There are taps for cold and hot water in the bathroom. 9. There are a lot of knives, forks and spoons in the drawers of the sideboard. Exercise 8. , there is/are. : 1 see several English books on the shelf There are several English books on the shelf 1. I see much sand on the beach. 2. I see man t the corner. 3. I see many students in my classroom. 4 He hasn't any pictures on the wall. 5. I have red ink. 6. We have lot of ports in the Atlantic Ocean. 7. I can see a letter lying on the floor. 8. I can't see anybody here. 9. I notieced only two mistakes in his dictation. 10. knew only one way out of the situation. 11. I could see yellow curtains on your window. 12. noticed two more mn behind the house. Exercise 9. , : 1. What is there on the wall (blackboard) 2. What is there near the table? (chair) 3. How many windows are there in the room? (two) 4. How many students are there in the classroom? (four) 5. Are there many books in the library? (Yes) 6. What is there in the corner? (TV set)

Exercise 10. . : Model: There is b on the chair. There are some boxes on the chair. There are no boxes on the chair. 1. There is table in the room. 2. There is big clock on the wall.. 3. There is flower on the floor. 4. There is lamp on the desk. 5. There is nice dress in the wardrobe. 6. There is an apple on the plate. 7. There is tree in the yard. 8. There is dog in this house. Conversational Topics: My working day Exercises on the vocabulary: 1. Study the words and word combinations of the active vocabulary stated below. 2. Explain the contextual meaning of the underlined lexical units relying on an English-English dictionary. 3. Recall the situations in which the active vocabulary is used in the text stated below. 4. Make up your own situations or sentences with the active vocabulary. Vocabulary: wake I [wek] 1. .; . . woke, . . . woken, 1) = wake up ) ) jogging ['g] . 1) . , , ( ) to have / take a shower substantial [sb'stn(t)()l] . 1) , , 2) ( ) revise[r'vaz] 1. . 1) ; 2) ) , , ) , 3) , ( ) overcrowded [`uv'kraudd] . rush hours motionless ['mu ()nls] . , ; ; refreshed [r'fret] . ; , Exercise 1. Read and translate the text. My working day usually begins at six o'clock sharp. I have to get up early in the morning as I live far from my school. I am usually woken up by alarm clock. But as I often keep late hours sometimes my mother has to wake me up. I usually sleep
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with the ventilation pane open and it is quite chilly in the room in the morning. After getting up I make my bed. I am fond of jogging that is why whatever the weather might be I leave the house at half past six and jog in the park which is near our house. I wish my brother jogged with me, but he says it is too hard for him to do any morning exercises when he is still sleepy. At a quarter past seven I am back and go to the bath room to have a shower. In fifteen minutes I am ready for breakfast. By this time my parents have already left for their offices. I do not have to cook my breakfast as mother always leaves me something to eat. People' say breakfast should be the most substantial meal of the day, but do not like to eat much in the morning. A couple of sandwiches with tea are enough for me. Before going to school I have a quarter of an hour for revising my homework. I leave home when the clock strikes eight. It takes me about half an hour to get to school. I can go there by bus but I hate public transport. You usually have to wait for long time and besides our buses are always overcrowded during the rush hours. I hate to be squeezed on all side by other passengers. So I prefer walking. My classes begin at half past eight. We have seven lessons every day but Mondays and Wednesdays we have eight lessons. The classes are over at about three o'clock. I hurry home to have lunch. After lunch I let myself rest for a while and then begin to do my homework. In junior forms I used to go to the tennis court. I am fond I tennis. I went in for tennis for 6 years and had my trainings twice a week. But last year I had to deprive myself this pleasure as I needed more time for studies. After several minutes of doing nothing and lying on the sofa I am ready to do my homework. My parents do not like when I lie motionlessly on the sofa, instead having a little walk. But I do not think that it is a waste of time because after that I feel refreshed. I'm used to doing difficult lessons first. These are physics, mathematics and chemistry. After that I go shopping and buy everything my mother asks me. Then my parents come back home and we have dinner at half past seven After that I go on doing the other lessons. At ten o'clock I finish preparing my lessons and have some spare time which I usually spend on either reading a book or watching TV. At about eleven o'clock my mother reminds me my getting up early in the morning. I go to bed rat unwillingly but fall asleep in some minutes. Exercise 2. Construct sentences using the text 1. usually/ alarm/ I/ woken/ by /am/ clock/ up. 2. my/ getting/ after/ I/ make/ bed/ up. 3. their/ parents/ for/ time/ this/ my/ by/ already/ left/ have/ offices. 4. an/ me/ get/ takes/ it/ hour/ school/ about/ to/ half/ to. 5. twice/ in/ 6/ went/ tennis/ for/ I/ years/ and/ my/ for/ trainings/ week/ had/ a. 6. of/ do/ several/ the/ doing/ my/ and/ lying/ I/ ready/ sofa/ to/ homework/ after/ minutes/ nothing/ on/ am. 7. go/ mother/ everything/ that/ buy/ my/ asks/ after/ I/ shopping/ and/ me.
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Exercise 3. Say whether these statements are true or false and if they are false say why. I am an early riser and my mother hasnt to wake me up. I am fond of jogging that is why whatever the weather might be I leave the house at half past six and jog in the park which is near our house. I never hurry home to have lunch. I have it where possible. A couple of sandwiches with tea are enough for me. After lunch I dont let myself rest for a while and begin to do my homework. My parents like when I lie motionlessly on the sofa, instead having a little walk. Difficult subjects for me are physics, mathematics and chemistry. At ten o'clock I finish preparing my lessons and have some spare time which I usually spend on either reading a book or watching TV. Exercise 4. Answer the following questions to the text making use of expressions given in the box below. To my mind; As far as I know; In my opinion: There is no doubt that 1. When does the authors working day begin? 2. He usually sleeps with the ventilation pane open and it is quite chilly in the room in the morning, doesnt he? 3. What is he fond of doing in the morning? 4. Why doesnt he have to cook his breakfast in the morning? 5. Why does he hate public transport? 6. What does he usually do after lunch? Exercise 5. Make up your own story about your working day using vocabulary from the text and be ready to recite it in the class.

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Unit IV
Phonetics: [p, b, k, g, f, v, m] [p, b, k, g, f, v, m] , , . [p, b, k, g, f, v, m] [ , , , , , , ]. [p, k, f] . [b, g, v] . : [ ] - [ p ] - pen () [ ] - [ b ] - box () [ ] - [ k ] - clean () [ ] - [ g ] - goose () [ ] - [ f ] - football () [ ] - [ v ] - vest () [ ] - [ m ] - miss () [p, b, k, g, f, v, m] : Pp [ pi: ], Bb [ bi: ], Kk [ kei ], Gg [ di: ], Ff [ ef ], Vv [ vi: ], Mm [em ]. ph [`pi: `eit] [ f ]: photo [ `foutou ]. Grammar: -, . it: - (It is important to know these facts. ); - (It is 5 km to the port. 5 . It is 5 o'clock now. 5 .); (It is cold. . It is getting. .). Exercise 1. . 1. It is my room. 2. It is the shortest month of the year. 3. It is warmer today than it was yesterday. 4. Is it necessary to go there2 5. It was then that he made his famous discovery. 6. It's fine day today. 7. It's pleasure to walk to the forest on such day. 8. It is my n. 9. It is difficult to study French. 10. It was Mendeleev who discovered the Periodic Law of Elements. 11. It is important not to miss classes. 12. Is it hot in summer?

Exercise 2. . : 1 It is cold 2 It was winter 3 It is hot 4 It is late 5 It is two clock . It was snowing. 7. It is spring.8. It is early morning. 9. It is not far from here. 10. It often snows in February. 11. It was warm summer day. 12. It is clear. Exercise 3. : 1. (rather) , ? 2. (wrong). 3. (to rain). 4. . 5. . 6. . 7. . 8. . 9. . 10. . 11. ? 12. , ? 13. ? 14. . Exercise 4. pycc : 1. Look at the blackboard! 2. Write, please. 3. Don't write now! 4. Don'1 talk! 5. Open the book, will you? 6. Close the door, please. 7. Don't go alone. 8. Take the book, won't you? 9. Don't take the pencil. 10. Make coffee for us, please. 11. Tell her everything, please. 12. It dark. Let us go home, will you? 13. Let her translate this text. 14. Let us discuss this question at the meeting. 15. Let him bring the map. 16. Take the chalk and write! 17. Read the text, won't you? 18. Let's translate the text. 19. Let's speak English. 20. Open ur books at page 10. Exercise 5. - , : 1. One who wants to be teacher should love children. 2. They say she arts to become teacher of biology. 3. One must love one's parents. 4. They say you are fond of music. 5. One should remember one's native place. 6. They say will rain in the evening. 7. One must always do one's morning exercises. 8. They say he is the best football-player. Exercise 6. . ModeL I want to go home. Let us go home. She wants to play Ma1l. Let her play ball. 1. I want to play chess. 2. She wants to speak to Nick. 3. wants to see him. 4. They want to watch TV.5. We want to rest at home. 6. I want to catch bus. 7. wants to help Pete. Exercise 7. : Model: Go home. Don't go home. 1. Put this book on the table. 2. Write the text. 3. in, please. 4. Put on his hat. 5. Begin to write. 6. Take bus. 7. Use the book. 8. Read Lesson 3. 9. Help Nick. 10. Try on () this hat. Exercise 8. -, : 1) ; 2) (agree) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6) ; 7) 9 ; 8) ; 9) .

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Conversational Topics: My University. Exercises on the vocabulary: 1. Study the words and word combinations of the active vocabulary stated below. 2. Explain the contextual meaning of the underlined lexical units relying on an English-English dictionary. 3. Recall the situations in which the active vocabulary is used in the text stated below. 4. Make up your own situations or sentences with the active vocabulary. Vocabulary: to get grants graduate ['grdjuet] . 1) ( ) postgraduate studies / school deliver [d'l v] . 1) , , 2) (), (), ( ); () tutorial [tju:'trl] 1. . 1) , ( ) 2) 3) extramural courses / department / ; , Exercise 1. Read and translate the text. As I have already told you I am a student of agricultural faculty. The Federal Government of Russia pays great attention to the problems of education. When our boys and girls finish schools many roads are open before them. They may work or enter any college or University. Higher education is partly charged in Russia now. There are many different institutions of higher education and universities in our country. Most of the students get grants and live in the comfortable hostels. As I am from Gorno-Altaisk I live with my parents in a big flat. I study at the second course. In some years I shall graduate from the university and become a specialist in agriculture. Our university is large. There are nine faculties and seventeen departments which are housed in three buildings. The geographical faculty with geography and geography-economy departments; the chemical-biological faculty with chemistry-ecology and biology-psychology departments; the economic faculty with economic and finance department and the department of management and law; the faculty of foreign languages with English and German departments are situated in the main administrative four- storeyed building of our university. The new faculty of Teaching-Training professions has been founded three years ago. The physicalmathematical faculty with mathematics and informatics departments takes place in
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the old three-storeyed building of our university. The faculty of the Russian language and literature and Altaisky philology, the agricultural faculty with agronomy and veterinary departments take place in the new comfortable building of the agricultural college in Communistichesky Prospect. Our university has a post-graduate school in some fields of sciences such as mathematics, history, pedagogic, psychology, geography etc. There are many different kinds of laboratories, cabinets and classrooms in our university. Each building has its own library and reading hall. Our lecturers and professors deliver lectures to our students. We never miss lectures and tutorials and take notes of them. We study different subjects such as economics, history, geography, biology, English and many others. There are two terms in a year. In January and June we take examinations. We must work hard to pass our exams successfully. We are internal students and we do not fail in an exam. There is also an extramural department at our university. External students come to the university twice a year in order to listen to lecturers and pass their tests and exams. After summer examination session we have our summer holidays. Some of our students belong to various clubs and societies. They work in different laboratories, carry on experiments and make scientific reports. Exercise 2. Find information in the above text about: a) Higher education in Russia b) faculties of the university c) subjects in universities d) types of training e) students Exercise 3. Say whether these statements are true or false and if they are false say why. When our boys and girls finish schools many roads are open before them if they can pay for it. There are not so many different institutions of higher education and universities in our country. Most of the students get grants and live in the comfortable hostels. In some years I shall graduate from the university and become a specialist in economy. Our university has no post-graduate school in all fields of sciences such as mathematics, history, pedagogic, psychology, geography etc. We never miss lectures and tutorials and take notes of them. There is also an extramural department at our university.

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Exercise 4. Answer the following questions to the text making use of expressions given in the box below. To my mind; As far as I know; In my opinion: There is no doubt that What faculty does he study at? Higher education is partly charged in Russia now isnt it? Are there any institutions of higher education and universities in our country. How many faculties and departments are there in our university? When was the new faculty of Teaching-Training professions founded in our university? What sciences of our university has post-graduate school? Is there any extramural departments at our university? Exercise 5. Make up your own story about your university using vocabulary from the text and be ready to recite it in the class.

Unit V
Phonetics: [n, l , t, d] [n, l, t, d] ( ). . , . [ t ] . , . : [ ] - [ n ] - net () [ ] - [ l ] - less () [ ] - [ t ] - tip () [ ] - [ d ] - dull () [ n, l, t, d ] : Nn [en ], Ll [ el ], Tt [ ti: ], Dd [ di: ]: net, less, tip, dull. [:] [:] - , , [:]. , , , "". , , . . [ : ] : [k:l ] curl - [ h:t ] hurt - [ g:l ] girl - [ t:n ] turn - [ f:st ] first - [ l:n ] learn - [ s:v ] serve [ b:d ] bird - [ p:s ] purse - [ d:ti ] dirty - [ : ] : - e, i, u, y r: verb, girl, turn. - ear + : early, earth. Grammar: The Present Indefinite (Simple) Tense. to. -s -es: We study physics. - .

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He plays football. - . , , : 1. , , : There are many ways of travelling, but I prefer going on foot as it has many advantages. , , . 2. , , : The Russian language is the native language for nearly 140 million people. 140 . 3. : The earth goes round the sun. . 4. , : We get up at seven o'clock, do our morning exercises, wash, have our breakfast and go to the Institute. , , , . 5. : ) ( when , if , after , before , as soon as , till : If the weather is fine they will stay in the wood. , . , to do, does [dz] to. , - : Do you study physics? ? Does he play football? ? to do not. , - not , to: This year we do not study physics. . does not play football. .
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Exercise 1. Present Simple : 1. Wisdom comes with age. 2. There is a reason for everything. Nothing falls from heaven. 3. Do you believe in miracles? I do. 4. Palermo is the capital of Sicily. 5. No one in this world is perfect. 6. Students buy a lot of books at the beginning of each term. 7.1 think that English Grammar is easy. 8. Frank has a good head for figures. 9. A cat purrs when it is pleased, but a dog waves its tail. 10. That's the way it usually happens. 11. The client is always right. 12.1 often sleep with the window open. 13. My mother doesn't like it when we play in the street. 14. The beauty of the Internet is that you can get virtually anything that your heart desires. 15. Every generation has its way. 16. I watch evening news every day. 17. Do you have a sweet tooth? Yes, several. Exercise 2. , Present Simple. 2. What time Andrea usually (to get) up? 3. When she (to catch) the bus? 4. She (to take) a shower in the morning? 5. She (to go) home for lunch? 6. When she (to go) swimming? 7. How she (to get) to the pool? 8. What she (to do) on Saturday evenings? Exercise 3. , Present Simple. () 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. ? - . 5. ? - . . 6. . . 7. ? 8. ? 9. ? 10. ? 11. . 12. . 13. ? 14. . 15. . 16. . 17. . 18. . 19. . 20. . 21. . 22. . Exercise 4. do does. 1. ... you sleep well? Yes, I ... . 2. ... your sister wash the plates? Yes, she ... . 3. What ... the teacher ask you to do? 4. ... Kitty read English books? Yes, she ... . 5. He ... not like porridge. 6. We ... not go to school in summer. Exercise 5. , , . 1. She is late for work. (Always) - ... . 2. George eats meat. (Never) - ... . 3. You can see foxes in the country. (Sometimes) - ... . 4. Does Tim go to school by taxi? (Usually) - ... . 5. We spend summer in France. (Usually) - ... . 6. Tom and Tim are very busy on Mondays. (Often) - ... . 7. My dog is very funny. (Sometimes) - ... . 8. Kate doesnt go swimming. (Often) - ... . 9. Simon does his English homework. (Never) - ... .
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Exercise 6. , , . 1. He ... a good footballer. (be) 2. We ... at school. (be) 3. The roses ... very beautiful. (be) 4. I ... an interesting book. (have) 5. The sun ... very hot. (be) 6. I ... my lessons very carefully. (do) 7. Elizabeth ... a new dress. (have) 8. The students ... English lessons three times a week. (do) 9. I ... a camera. (have) 10. Harry ... a tennis player. (be) 11. Tony ...a coat. (have) 12. The childrens hands ... dirty. (be) 13. Mike ... late for school. (be) 14. Ted ... a good swimmer. (be) 15. Ted ... swimming very much. (like) 16. I always ... my homework. (do) 17. I ...go to school by foot. (go) Exercise 7. , : 1. This man (know) from his experience what it (mean). 2. Nothing (happen) by accident. 3. As man (grow) older, he (tend) to be more sceptical. 4. My mother often (tell) me that you not (leave) your problems behind you when you (go) to another place. Pain and heartache (travel) well. And indeed they (do). 5. Mrs. Osborne (own) this business, and she (run) it herself. 6. He (be) a complete mystery to me. 7. What he (do) for a living? 8. In Rome every building (tell) its own story. 9. When the weather (heat) up and you (need) to cool down, a lake, a river, a pool is what your body and soul (need). 10. My great-grandmother is very old, but she (hear, see and understand) everything quite well. 11. I (remember) that Margaret (own) a villa on the Adriatic. 12. "The Bible (say) that the heart of man is exceedingly wicked," the Pastor replied. Exercise 8. : Example: My brother likes skating. Does my brother like skating? 1. He translates a lot of letters into English. 2.1 had an early morning call at seven o'clock. 3. Little children like to ask many questions. 4. Their classes will last till four o'clock tomorrow. 5. I've already done this task. 6. She spends a lot of time on her English. 7. My children are at college. 8. They had supper at 7 o'clock. 9.1 am going to play tennis in the evening. 10. They were writing when I came. 11. She can play the guitar very well. 12. There are many people in the library now. 13. Brazil won the football World Cup in 1994. 14. He has already read a lot of English books. 15. They have classes at 9 every day. Conversational Topics: My Hobby Exercises on the vocabulary: 1. Study the words and word combinations of the active vocabulary stated below. 2. Explain the contextual meaning of the underlined lexical units relying on an English-English dictionary. 3. Recall the situations in which the active vocabulary is used in the text stated below. 4. Make up your own situations or sentences with the active vocabulary.

Vocabulary: indoor sport chariot ['rt] 1. . 1) .; . pawn [pn] . 1) . knight[nat] 1. . 1) ) . ; ; ) , () 2) ( ) 3) 4) . (-. ); 5) . bishop ['b p] . 1) 2) . ( ) rook [ruk] .; . thereby [`'ba] . 1) . , 2) . remove [r'mu:v] 1. . 1) ) , ; ) , ; ; ) 2) ) , ; ) ( ) 3) ) , ) , (, ..) 4) , , 5) , castle ['ksl] . 3) ( ) prerequisite ['pri:'rekwzt] 1. . ; 2. . promote [pr'mut] . 1) ) ; ; / 5) ( ) adjacent [' es()nt] . 1) (adjacent to smb./smth.) , , ( -./-.) check [ek] . ; to produce a check ; to discover check The king is in check. . shield [i:ld] , ; checkmate ['ekmet] 1. . 1) . 2) , , 2. . 1) . 2) , , ; piece [pi:s] 2) heavy pieces minor pieces
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threefold ['ri:fuld] 1. . ; stalemate ['stelmet]1. . 1) ( ) 2) , , Exercise 1. Read and translate the text. My names Sola. I like doing many things but one thing that I really like doing is playing chess. Chess is an indoor and competitive game played between two players. It is being played in tournaments, online or at home. The origin of chess is traced to India of the 6th century during the Gupta Empire*. The military had four divisions known as "infantry", "cavalry", "elephant" and "chariot". These names are represented in the chess game as: pawn, knight, bishop and the rook respectively. In the 9th century, the game was introduced to Western Europe and Russia. The chess board is made up of 64 squares (eight rows and eight columns) and the colors of the squares alternate (dark and light squares). The pieces which are comprised of a king, a queen, two rooks, two bishops, two knights, and eight pawns are in sets black and white. To start the game, white moves first. The pieces are moved one at a time to an occupied square by an opponent's piece, thereby removing it from play or to a square that is not occupied. However, two pieces are moved simultaneously when castling. Each chess piece has its own style of moving. The pawn moves one or two steps forward to an unoccupied square but one forward diagonal step to an occupied square. The Knight moves in "L" pattern. The bishop moves diagonally. The rook moves horizontally or vertically with as many steps as possible. The queen moves in all directions covering as many squares as possible. And the king moves one step at a time in all directions. The king is permitted to make a move called castling. The king makes two squares towards the rook of the same color and the rook moves onto the square over which the king crossed. The following are the prerequisites to castling: The king and the rook must be on the same color; The king and the rook involved in the castling may not have been previously moved; There must be no pieces between the king and the rook; The king may not currently be in check; Pawns could be promoted to any of the following: a queen, rook, bishop, or knight of the same color when it advances to the eighth rank. Most chess players choose to promote the pawn to a queen. Also, a pawn can capture another pawn that is on an adjacent file next to it via en passant. En passant is when a pawn moves two squares ahead and if the opponents pawn is on an adjacent file next to the destination of the pawn. The king is being checked when it is exposed to an attack from one of the opponents piece. The best response to a check is to get rid of the piece checking the king by capturing it. Another method is to create interference by bringing in a piece to shield the king from the attack. The last method is to move the king. However, a move that would put the king in check is not allowed in the game.
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To win the game, the opponent must be checkmated. Checkmate is when king is in check has there is no way to escape. There are occasions that the chess games do not end with a checkmate. Other way the game ends are: draw by agreement, stalemate, threefold repetition of a position, and the fifty-move rule.
*The Gupta Empire (Hindi: Gupta Rjavaa) was an Ancient Indian empire which existed approximately from 320 to 550 CE and covered much of the Indian Subcontinent [1]. Founded by Maharaja Sri-Gupta, the dynasty was the model of a classical civilization.

Exercise 2. Choose the most appropriate expressions from the text to fill the gaps in these sentences. 1. Chess is an ____ and competitive game played between two players. 2. The military had four divisions known as "infantry", "cavalry", "elephant" and " ____". 3. The chess board is made up of 64 squares (eight rows and eight columns) and the colors of the _________________ (dark and light squares). 4. The pieces are moved one at a time to an occupied square by an opponent's piece, _______ removing it from play or to a square that is not occupied. 5. However, two pieces are moved simultaneously when ______. 6. The following are the ________ to castling. 7. En passant is when a pawn moves two squares ahead and if the opponents pawn is on an _______ file next to the destination of the pawn. 8. _______ is when king is in check has there is no way to escape. Exercise 3. Say whether these statements are true or false and if they are false say why. The origin of chess is traced to India of the 9th century during the Gupta Empire. The names of "infantry", "cavalry", "elephant" and "chariot" are represented in the chess game as: pawn, knight, bishop and the rook respectively. In the 11th century, the game was introduced to Western Europe and Russia. To start the game, black moves first. The queen moves only in two directions covering as many squares as possible. The king is being checked when it is exposed to an attack from one of the opponents piece. Checkmate is when king is in check has there is no way to escape. Exercise 4. Answer the following questions to the text making use of expressions given in the box below. To my mind; As far as I know; In my opinion: There is no doubt that 1. Where is the origin of chess traced to? 2. What military division is represented in the chess game as: pawn, knight, bishop and the rook? 3. What are the prerequisites to castling? 4. What can pawns do when they advance to the eighth rank? 5. What is en passant? 6. What will you do when the king is exposed to an attack from one of the opponents piece? 7.What must the opponent do to win the game? Exercise 5. Put on your own questions upon the text. Exercise 6. Get ready to speak on your own hobby.
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Unit VI
Phonetics: [s, z] [s, z] , , . [s, z] , . , . . [ s, z ] : - Ss [ es ]: some, start, Zz [ zed ]: zebra, Zena - ss [ dbl es ]: less - Cc [ si: ] e, i, y: center, city, cycle. : [] [p] [] [n] [] [b] [] [l] [] [k] [] [t] [] [g] [] [d] [] [f] [] [s] [] [v] [] [z] [] [m] Grammar: . . . , , , it: Moscow is a very large city. There are more than eight million people in it . - . () . , , father , brother , man , boy , . . po he , , , , mother , sister , woman , girl , she : My father is a worker, he works at a factory. -, . My sister studies at the Institute, she is in her first year. , .
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, : teacher - , neighbour - , cousin - , (, ), : girl, boy, man, woman, she, he: woman-worker - girl-friend - he-wolf - she-wolf - , , , , she: Have you ever seen the ship "Russia"? She is very beautiful. - ? . (CASE) : (the Common ase) (the Possessive Case). . : After exams ( ) students () of the history faculty () left for an archaeological expedition. . , . 's ( s) . , , .. . , -s, -ss, -x, ('). [iz]: Dickens' ['dikinziz] works - , -s, ('): his brothers' teacher - , , , , 's: her children 's room

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a) - er, or teacher, actor - ism heroism - ist scientist, artist - ant assistant - ess actress, hostess - ence conference - ment movement - ty cruelty - ance importance, distance - ing building - (t)ion translation - dom freedom - ity majority, complexity - ion discussion -y difficulty, energy - sion revision - ian musician, politician - ness happiness - hood childhood - ure pressure - ship friendship, leadership - ness backwardness - age marriage, passage b) re - reconstruction in - information co - coexistence im - impossibility dis - disarmament un - unemployment mis - misunderstanding il - illiteracy Exercise 1. : a) b) c) young wise live protect child man true high know discover author friend free poor hate move hero patriot good just punish die agent coward wide strong think advise owner mother Exercise 2. . A lion, a tiger, an actor, a poet, a man, an uncle, a husband, a brother, a grandfather, a son, a master, a baron, a count, a shepherd, a host. Exercise 3. . A lady, a girl, a niece, Mrs. Smith, a widow, a stewardess, a French woman, a cow, a queen, a princess, a duchess, a hen, a mother. Exercise 4. , . 1. The room of my friend. 2. The questions of my son. 3. The wife of my brother. 4. The table of our teacher. 5. The poems of Pushkin. 6. The voice of this girl. 7. The new club of the workers. 8. The letter of Pete. 9. The car of my parents. 10. The life of this woman. 11. The handbags of these women. 12. The flat of my sister is large. 13. The children of my brother are at home. 14. The room of the boys is large. 15. The name of this girl is Jane. 16. The work of these students is interesting.

Exercise 5. , . 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. 5. . 6. . . . 7. ? - . 8. ? . 9. ? 10. . 11. . 12. . 13. . 14. . Exercise 6. Example: a piece music a piece of music 1) a lump a) lightening 2) a bit b) thunder 3) a flash c) clothing 4) a stroke d) air 5) a slice e) salt 6) a clap f) bread 7) a sum g) rain 8) an article h) milk 9) a loaf i) soap 10) a bar j) toothpaste 11) a spot k) cloth 12) a carton 1) furniture 13) a tube m) paper 14) a puff n) cheese 15) an item o) money 16) a sheet p) luck 17) a strip Q) ice 18) a grain r) sugar 19) a block s) information 20) a breath t) smoke

Exercise 7. , - Model: Buy some bread or. your way home. Buy a loaf of bread on your way home. 1.I had luck in the casino yesterday. 2. I saw lightening and then heard thunder in the west. 3. How much luggage have you got with you? 4. Would you like some more cake? 5. Daddy brought me milk chocolate! 6, He blew smoke out of his pipe into the open window. 7. How much sugar do you take with your tea? 8. We need to buy some furniture for our kitchen. 9. Give me please brown shoe polish. 10, He told us very interesting information last night,
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Conversational Topics: Great Britain Exercises on the vocabulary: 1. Study the words and word combinations of the active vocabulary stated below. 2. Explain the contextual meaning of the underlined lexical units relying on an English-English dictionary. 3. Recall the situations in which the active vocabulary is used in the text stated below. 4. Make up your own situations or sentences with the active vocabulary. Vocabulary: mild [mald] . 1) , , 2) , , , , 3) , ( ); , , , ( ) 4) , ( , ) 5) , ( ) 6) , ( , ) Snowdon['snud()n] .; . ( ) climbing ['klam] .; . 1) = rock climbing 2) = mountain climbing to flow (in)to oak [uk] 1. . 1) .; = oak tree ash [] .; . (. Fraxinus) beech[bi: ] 1. .; . (. Fagus) pine I [pan] . 1) . (. Pinus) birch [b] 1. . 1) ( ) lizard['l zd] . 1) blackbird ['blkbd] .; . (. Turdus merula) sparrow ['spru] . 1) . starling I ['stl] .; . partridge ['ptr] .; . () pheasant ['fez()nt] .; . Robin Redbreast daffodil ['dfdl] 1. . 1) .; = daffodilly; = daffadowndilly - 2) ( ) woolsack ['wulsk] . 1) ) . ; ) . 2) . ) , () ; )
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Exercise 1. Read and translate the text. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles. It consists of four parts: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. England, Wales and Scotland occupy the territory of Great Britain. Northern Ireland is situated in the northern part of Ireland. The territory of the United Kingdom is about 244000 square kilometers, it takes the 75th place among other countries in the world. Great Britain is separated from the continent by the North Sea, the Irish Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of the Gulf Stream influence the climate of Great Britain. It is mild the whole year round. The surface of Great Britain varies greatly. The northern and western parts of the country are mountainous and are called the Highlands. All the rest (south, east and center) is vast plain which is called the Lowlands. The mountains are not very high. The highest regions are in Scotland and in the North Wales. The highest peak in Scotland is Ben Nevis, 1343 m. In Wales the highest peak is Snowdon. There is also the Pennine chain in North England with some wild mountains for climbing. The rivers are not long. The most important of them are the Severn, the Thames, and the Trent. The Thames flowing to the East is the busiest and the most beautiful river, the Severn flowing to the west is the longest river about 200 miles, the Trent flowing to the north is the fastest. There are many beautiful lakes in the mountainous parts of the country. Here is Lake District which consists of 16 lakes or lochs as they call them. The largest lake is Windermere and the deepest one is Westwater. The commonest trees in England are oak, ash and beech. Scotland has much pine and birch. The animal life is varies. There are several small lizards, snakes and frogs. The most numerous birds are blackbirds, sparrows and starling. Some birds are protected by law. They are partridges and pheasants. The national emblem of England is the Red Rose, the national bird is the Robin Redbreast. The national emblem of Wales is the daffodil and leek. The national emblem of Scotland is the thistle. The national emblem of Northern Ireland is the shamrock. Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country. It is known as one of the worlds largest products, machinery and electronics, chemicals and textile, aircraft and navigation equipment. One of the chief industries of the country is shipbuilding. Seven per cent of the population is engaged in farming. The population is more then 57 million. About 80% of the population is urban. The largest cities of Great Britain are: London, Cardiff, Edinburgh, Belfast, Sheffield, Leeds, Nottingham, Liverpool, Bristle, Manchester, Birmingham, Glasgow. The largest ports of the country are: Belfast, London, Liverpool, Glasgow, Cardiff. The capital of the country is London. The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy. It has a monarch a King or a Queen. The present British monarch is Queen Elizabeth the Second. She became Queen in 1952. The monarch has little power and can reign with the support of Parliament. British Parliament is the legislative body at the country. It consists of two Houses. The House of Commons and House of Lords. Parliament and the monarch have different roles in the Government of the country. In reality, the House of Com44

mons has truth power. It introduces new bills. Then they go to the House of Lords for approval. Then the monarch signs them. The functions of the Queen are: to open the sessions of the Parliament, to head the commonwealth, to be Commander-in-Chief, to declare the war, to make peace. The house of commons is made up of 650 elected knows of members of parliament. The party which has the majority of sits in the Government and its leader usually becomes prime minister. The prime minister forms his or her Cabinet Ministers. The chairman of the House of Commons is the Speaker. The chairman of the House of Lords is the Lord Chancellor. He sits on a special place, which is called the woolsack. It means that wool made England rich. The members of the House of Lords are not elected, they are live peers. There are several political parties in Great Britain. They are the Conservative, the Liberal, the Labor, the Social Democratic and the Communist parties. Prime minister of the country Antony Blair is representative of the Labor party. Exercise 2. Construct sentences using the text 1. greatly/ surface/ Great/ Britain/ the/ varies/ of/ 2. of/ mountainous/ the/ many/ are/ the/ lakes/ parts/ country/ the/ beautiful/ in 3. law/ are/ some/ protected/ birds/ by 4. industries/ the/ is/ of/ the/ chief/ one/ country/ of/ shipbuilding 5. with/ monarch/ the/ little/ and/ can/ reign/ power/ support/ of/ Parliament/ the/ has 6. called/ which/ woolsack/ special/,/ he/ is/ place/ the/ sits/ a/ on Exercise 3. Choose the word or sentence which best completes each sentence. 1. Great Britain is separated from the continent by_____, the Irish Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. a) the English Sea b) the mountains c) the North Sea 2. There is also the Pennine chain in North England with some wild _____for climbing. a) forests b) hills c) mountains 3. The Thames flowing _________is the busiest and the most beautiful river. a) quickly b) to the South b) to the East 4. The national emblem of Wales is the __________________ a) rose b) daffodil and leek c) sparrow

5. The monarch has little power and can reign with the support of________. a) Congress b) Parliament c) House of Commons 6. The ____________of the House of Commons is the Speaker. a) candidate b) chairman c) lord Exercise 4. Find English equivalents for the following in the text: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; . Exercise 5. Put on your own questions upon the text. Exercise 6. Retell the text in your own words.

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46

Unit VII
Phonetics: [e] [e] . . [e] [] ", ". [e] , [n, l, m] . . [e] [ ] "", "". [ bed ] - bed () [ beg ] - beg () [ les ] - less () [ spel ] - spell ( ) [ net ] - net () [ smel ] - smell () [ test ] - test (, ) [ tekst ] - text () [ e ] . [ pen ] pen - [ desk ] desk - [ bed ] bed - [ tekst ] text - [ lesn ] lesson - [ nekst ] next - [ end ] end - [ tent ] tent - [e] Ee [i:], : pen, bed, tent, egg, desk, end, next. [ ] [] , "". [] , , "". . , . , . [] , "", , , . , . [] . [] , 47

[k], [g], [d]. , . [] : [ s ] song - [ l ] long - [ ki ] king [ m:ni ] morning -

[ r ] wrong - [ i:vni ] evening - [ bk ] bank - [ iglnd ] England - [ tk ] tank - [ kidm ] kingdom - [] . [k], [g] [n], n: bank, England. [n] []. [n] [] . [n] . [] , . : [ sin ] - [ si ] sin - sing - [ kin ] - [ ki ] kin - king - [win] - [wi ] win - wing - [fn] - [f ] fan - fang - [bn] - [b] ban - bang Grammar: : . . one , . : a : a book - a flag - an, : an army - an hour's walk - : 1. ( ) : A boy is standing at the window. (- ). 2. ( ) , : My elder brother lives in a big city. ( ).
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3. ( ) : A cadet is a student of a military school. - ( ). 4. : My friend's father is a worker and my father is an officer. , -. 5. rather, quite, such, what ( ) there + to be : She was such a good student! ! There is a forest near our village. . 6. once a day (week, month, year), at a time, in a minute, not a word, one : I'll be back in a minute. () . She uttered not a word. () . 7. a great deal (of ), a number (of), a great many, a little, a few ., to be at a loss, to be in a hurry, as a rule, it 's a shame, it 's a pity, to have a walk, to have a smoke .: Let's have a rest ! ! It's a pity I was not present at your lecture. , . Exercise 1. (a or an). ... academy, ... album, ... bright album, ... actor, ... great actress, ... arch, ... marble arch, ... chance, ... unlucky chance, ... dove, ... ear, ... elf, ... tiny elf, ... horse, ... hour, ... long hour, ... institute, ... lemon, ... mill, ... obelisk, ... opera, ... Italian opera, ... owl, ... paper, ... rabbit, ... quarter, ... train, ... wing, ... voyage, ... year. . , , . , , , no ( not!). Exercise 2. , . 1. This is book. It is my book. 2. Is this your pencil? No, it isnt my pencil, it is my sisters pencil. 3. I have sister. My sister is engineer. My
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sisters husband is doctor. 4. I have no handbag. 5. She has got headache. 6. Have they got car? Yes, they have. Their car is very expensive but reliable. 7. Have you got calculator? No, I havent. 8. Is this watch? No, it isnt watch, its pen. 9. This pen is good, and that pen is bad. 10. I can see pencil on your table, but I can see no paper. 11. Give me chair, please. 12. They have dog and two cats. 13. I have spoon in my plate, but I have no soup in it. 14. My friend says he is going to be millionaire one day. 15. Would you like orange? 16. Mr. Smith is artist, Mrs. Smith is poetess. Exercise 3. , . 1. He hasnt got car. But hes got computer. computer is new. 2. My friends have got cat and dog. dog never bites cat. 3. This is tree. tree is green. 4. I can see three boys. boys are playing. 5. I have bicycle. bicycle is black. My friend has no bicycle. 6. Our room is large. 7. We wrote dictation yesterday. dictation was long. 8. She has two daughters and one son. Her son is pupil. 9. Last year I gave my mother bracelet for her birthday. She liked bracelet. 10. My brothers friend has no dog. 11. This pencil is broken. Give me that pencil, please. 12. She has ball. ball is big. 13. I got letter from my friend yesterday. letter was interesting. 14. When they were in Geneva, they stayed at hotel and sometimes in restaurant. Exercise 4. , . 1. This is pen. pen is red. 2. These are pencils. pencils are black. 3. This is soup. soup is tasty. 4. In the morning I eat sandwich and drink tea. 5. She gave me coffee and cake. coffee was hot. cake was tasty. 6. Do you like ice-cream? 7. I see book in your hand. Is book interesting? 8. Do you need camera? 9. He never eats meat, he always eats vegetables, cereals, seeds, fruit, and nuts. He is vegetarian. 10. This is pineapple. pineapple is delicious. 11. Elaine, apples are good for you! 12. My cousin is upset. Hes got sore throat. 13. This is cottage cheese. cottage cheese is fresh. 14. She bought meat, butter and potatoes yesterday. She also bought cake. cake was very tasty. We ate cake with tea. 15. This is my table. On table I have book, two pencils, pen and paper. 16. This is bag. bag is brown. Its my sisters bag. And this is my bag. It is yellow. , : at _ school, at _ home, at _ work Exercise 5. , . 1. I have two sisters. My sisters are students. 2. We are at home. 3. My brother is not at home, he is at school. 4. My mother is at work. 5. I am not doctor. 6. I have no sister. 7. He is not pilot. 8. I have thirty-two teeth. 9. He has child. 10. She has two children. Her children are at school. 11. Is your father at home? No, he is at work. 12. Where is your brother? He is at home.
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Exercise 6. , . 1. We have large family. 2. My granny often tells us long interesting stories. 3. My father is engineer. He works at factory. factory is large. 4. My mother is doctor. She works at large hospital. She is at work now. 5. My aunt is teacher. She works at school. school is good. My aunt is not at school now. She is at home. She is drinking tea and eating jam. jam is sweet. I am at home too. I am drinking tea and eating sandwich. sandwich is tasty. 6. My sister is at school. She is pupil. 7. My cousin has big black cat. My cousins cat has two kittens. cat likes milk. kittens like milk too. 8. I am engineer. 9. My son is pupil. 10. He is god pupil. 11. This is house. 12. This is my pencil. Exercise 7. , . 1. I see ... bottle of ... pineapple ... yuice on ... kitchen table. 2. Her ... son has ... great ... sense of ... humor. 3. There was ... disco at ... club last Saturday but he didn't go. 4. Is there ... bus stop near ... building? 5. We have ... big dog. ... dog is very clever. 6. My friend has ... very good computer. 7. This ... boy is big. He is ... student. 8. There is ... very large piano in ... hall. 9. This is ... tree and that is not ... tree. It's ... bush. 10. I am ... boy. I am ... pupil. I study at ... school. 11. My sister is at ... work. She is ... secretary. She works at ... large office. 12. This is ...very difficult question. I don't know ... answer to it. 13. Do you see ... little girl with ... big ball in her hands? She is ... pupil of our school. 14. There was ... beautiful flower in this vase yesterday. Where is ... flower now? 15. Last year we were in Geneva. It is ... exciting city to visit, but ... very expensive place to live. there is / there are , , some. Exercise 8. , . 1.There is ... park behind ... hospital. There are ... beautiful ... trees in ... park. 2. There is ... good ... film on TV this ... evening. I am going to watch it. 3. There is ... library between ... school and ... bank. There are ... cushions on ... sofa. 6. There are ... books on ... shelf. Give me ... book, please. 7. Look into ... refrigerator. What can you see on ... shelves? - There is ... butter in ... butter dish. There is ... sausage, but there is no ... cheese. There are ... eggs and ... apples. There is ... orange, ... lemon, and ... jam in ... little vase. 8. There is ... juice in this ... cup? May I drink ... juice? 9. There are ... girls in ... yard, but I can see no ... boys. Where are ... boys? - Oh, all ... boys are playing ... football at ... stadium.

Conversational Topics: The Russian Federation Exercises on the vocabulary: 1. Study the words and word combinations of the active vocabulary stated below. 2. Explain the contextual meaning of the underlined lexical units relying on an English-English dictionary. 3. Recall the situations in which the active vocabulary is used in the text stated below. 4. Make up your own situations or sentences with the active vocabulary. Vocabulary: flat I [flt] 1. . 1) , 2. . 1) , ( ); plain I [plen] 1. . 1) ) , , 2. . 1) ; .; = plains , valuable ['vljubl] 1. . 1) ; , , 2) , ; independent [`nd'pendnt] 1. . 1) , , independent state border['bd] 1. . 1) 2. . 1) ; craft [krft] 1. . 1) ; 2) , , ; grain[gren] 1. . 1) ) ; tableware ['teblw] . Exercise 1. Read and translate the text. Russia is one of the largest countries in the world. It occupies about oneseventh part of dry land. It is situated in Europe and in Asia. Its total area is over 17 million square kilometers, with population of 200 million people. There are 1,030 towns and cities in this country. Moscow, with 9, 5 million people, is its capital. The country is washed by seas and oceans: by Arctic Ocean in the north and the Pacific Ocean in the east. There are many rivers in Russia. The largest rivers are the Volga in Europe and the Yenisei and OB in Asia. The deepest lakes are the Baikal and Ladoga. All rivers flow in the seas. The relief of Russia is mostly flat. Russia is located on two plains the Great Russia Plain and the Western Siberian Plain. There are three main mountains chains in Russia. The Caucasus is a range of mountains which extend from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea. The highest mountain is the Caucasus. The highest mountain is Caucasus in Russian Federation and in the whole Europe Mount Elbrus is. The Urals
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extend from the Arctic Ocean to the steppes. This mountain chain divides the European and Asian parts of Russia. The Urals are famous for their valuable minerals. There are 150 volcanoes in Kamchatka, 30 of which are active. Russian Federation is very rich in minerals resources, such as oil, natural gas, coal, iron, gold and others. Russia borders on fourteen countries including the former republics of the USSR, which are now independent states. Russia borders on Estonia, Latvia, Finland, Poland, China, Mongolia, Korea, Japan, Kazakhstan and so on. Today Russia is one of the world's largest grain producers and exporters. It produced 78 % of all its natural gas, 60 % of steel, 80 % of timber and 91 % of oil. So, today Russia becomes greatest industrial country. The main cities of Russia are: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Krasnoyarsk, Ufa, Perm, Rostov - on - Don, Vladivostok. Many villages in Russia are famous for their specific crafts: painted boxes in Palkn, wooden tableware in Khokhloma, and toys in Dymkovo. Moscow is the capital of Russia. It is one of the biggest and most beautiful cities in the world. Moscow is the modern city. It's the political center, here the government of our country work. Moscow is the port of five seas, as the Volga Canal links Moscow with the Baltic, White, Caspian and Black seas and with Sea of Azov. Moscow is the cultural center. There are a lot of theatres, museums, institutes, libraries and cinemas. Young people like to visit The Central Military Museum. There are many tanks, guns and war documents there. Everyone can see The Kremlin and Red Square in the city. There are many fine buildings, wide streets, green parks, large squares, churches and monuments in Moscow. There are a lot of famous monuments to Pushkin, Fedorov, and many, many others. Moscow is a very big city and its transport must be very comfortable and fast. There are a lot of buses, trolley-buses, trams, a lot of metro stations (about 190 stations). There are 9 railway stations in Moscow and some airports around the city. The main station in Moscow is the Central station in Luzhniki. Many competitions and football matches are held there. The Olympic village was build for the 22 Olympic Games in Moscow in 1980. It's a big complex for sport games. So I'm a patriot of my country and I love it very much. Exercise 2. Make the right choice from the text above to complete the sentences and translate them. towns and cities in this country. This mountain chain . are active. including the former . the world's largest grain producers . wooden tableware in . Moscow is the port of . The Olympic village .

Exercise 3. Look through the following words and phrases. Find their synonyms in the text. self-governing, autonomous; skill, art; hill, hillock, promontory, range; previous, one-time; memorial, tombstone; pour, run, stream; plane, smooth, row, line, rank; useful; self-governing, autonomous. Exercise 4. Answer the following questions: 1. What seas and oceans is the Russian Federation washed by? 2. What are the largest and deepest rivers in Russia? 3. Where is the highest mountain of Russia situated? 4. The Urals divide the European and Asian parts of Russia dont they? 5. What is the Russian Federation rich in? 6. What do young people like to visit in Moscow? 7. How many railway stations are there in Moscow? Exersice 5. Find facts from the text to support these statements: Russia is the largest countriy in the world. Russia is very rich in natural raw materials. Russia borders on many countries. Moscow is the cultural center. Exercise 6. Retell the text in your own words.

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54

Unit VIII
Phonetics: [ ei ] [ei] - , .. . - [e]. [i], . . . : - [ geim ] game - - [ pei ] pay - - [ lei ] lay - - [ seim ] same - - [ bei ] bay - - [ keis ] case - - [ seif ] safe - - [ klei ] clay - - [ peis ] pace - c - [ seil ] sale - [ei] : [ peil ] pale [ pleit ] plate - [ veiz ] vase - [ speid ] spade - [ neim ] name - [ sneik ] snake - [ seil ] sale - [ steil ] stale - [ leit ] late - [ teibl ] table - [ geit ] gate - [ eil ] ale - [ deit ] date - [ eibl ] able - [ teip ] tape - [ eip ] ape - [ei] : - Aa [ei], ( ) + "e", . , , "a" [ei]: name, date, sale, snake, gate, tape, late, stale. - "ey" [ei]: grey [grei], they [ei]. : key [ki:]. Grammar: . . the this , . :[e] , : the theatre - , [] : the apple - the English lesson -
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: 1. , ( ) : This is a map. The map is large. -. ( ) . My children are in the village. { , ). 2. : "The Red Book of the USSR" was published in 1978. " " 1978 . 3. : The first wealth is health. - . 4. , ?, ?, ?, , , : People who have a sense of humour usually have the power of sympathy strongly developed. , , . 5. , , , : Pass the milk, please. , , . The water in the glass is very cold. . 6. , : I get up at seven in the morning. . 7. , : used to come to the Simonovs on Sundays. . 8. , , , , , , , ..: The British Museum was founded in 1753. 1753 . The Kremlin Palace of Congresses near the Troitsky gates was opened on October 17, 1961.

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17 1961 . 9. , , , , : Have you ever been to the Black Sea shore? - ? The Urals divide the territory of Russia into European and Asian parts. . The Volga is the longest river in Europe. - . 10. (, , , . .): Some verbs in the Russian language are never used in the Passive Voice. . 11. , : When at Rome, do as the Romans do. , , . 12. , : the Ukraine the Crimea the Caucasus the Congo the Netherlands the Hague the Lebanon l like the sunny Crimea. . 13. , : the United States - the English Channel - (-) Exercise 1. , . A.1. I have friend who has traveled all over world. 2. Caucasus Mountains lie between Black Sea and Caspian Sea. 3. St. Petersburg is large city, it stands on Neva. 4. Thousands of people go to Mediterranean Sea in summer. 5. What is capital of Canada? 6. Pamirs, which are called Roof of World, are in Asia. 7. On our trip to United States and Mexico we crossed Atlantic Ocean. 8. Spain is in south of Europe. 9. President of USA lives in White House. 10. Declaration of Independence was drawn up in 1776. B. 1. expression on his face frightened her. 2. His face did not change expression. 3. tea was too hot to drink. 4. Would you like tea or coffee? 5. I
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dont like tea. 6. It was situation I was not prepared for. 7. There was pretty woman at the reception desk. woman asked me to wait for few minutes. 8. There is letter for you. Please, give me letter. 9. That night was coldest night of the year. 10. She is best teacher I know. 11. She is very good teacher. C. 1. Do not sit on ground. It is too cold. 2. She lives in small town in country. 3. He lived in new building in the middle of city. 4. Would you open window, please? 5. Would you like orange? 6. Have you looked through magazine I gave you yesterday? 7. He is looking for job. 8. Did he get job he applied for? 9. Statue of Liberty was gift from France to United States. 10. Please give me cup of tea with milk and sugar. 11. Nick plays football and tennis for New York University team. 12 Jane plays piano and Ann plays guitar. Conversational Topics: The USA Exercises on the vocabulary: 1. Study the words and word combinations of the active vocabulary stated below. 2. Explain the contextual meaning of the underlined lexical units relying on an English-English dictionary. 3. Recall the situations in which the active vocabulary is used in the text stated below. 4. Make up your own situations or sentences with the active vocabulary. Vocabulary: fight [fat] 1. . 1) 2. .; . ., . . . fought 1) , , win [wn] 1. .; . ., . . . won 1) , settler ['setl] . 1) , , embrace [m'bres] 1. . 1) ) ; ) 2) ; 3) 4) , ; 5) , 6) , , , 7) rapids ['rpd] 1) , , outlet ['autlet] . 1) , 2) , ( ) 3) , skyscraper ['skaskrep] . , , feed [fi:d] 1. .; . ., . . . fed 1) 2) ,

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vitality[va'tlt] . 1) ) ; , ; willingness ['wl ns] . to express willingness Exercise 1. Read and translate the text. The USA is situated in the central part of the North American continent. The total area is over 9 million square kilometers. The Pacific Ocean washes its western coast and the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico in the south washed its eastern coast. It borders on Canada in the north and Mexico in the south. The USA is a federal republic of fifty states and the District of Columbia. At first it consisted of only 13 states of the Atlantic coast of America. That were English colonies, but they fought against England and in 1776 became an independent state. They won the victory and a new nation was born. As the time went on, settlers from all the countries of Europe moved to the west until the nation reached from the Atlantic to the Pacific. One by one new states were added to the first 13. Much land was taken from the Indians. Some of the territories were bought from France in 1803, others were taken from Mexico. Alaska was bought from Russia in 1817. It became the 49th state of the USA, in 1859. The same year in 1859 the territory of Hawaii was to the UAS as the 50th state. The USA is divided onto three areas: Eastern area is a high land, Central area is a plane, and western area is mountainous and includes the Rocky mountains and the Sierra Nevada. The Northern part of the USA embraces the region of the five Great Lakes. (Lake Superior Huron, Michigan, Erie, Ontario) which are connected by natural channels, cut by rapids. The greatest of these rapids is the Niagara Falls. The water of the five lakes have their outlet into the Atlantic Ocean by the St-Lawrence River. The principal rivers of the USA are the Mississippi, the longest river in the world (17.800 kilometers) which flows into the Gulf of Mexico, the Colorado and the Columbia, which flows into the Pacific Ocean, and the Hudson River, which flows into the Atlantic Ocean. The climate of the USA differs greatly from one part of the country to another. The coldest climate is in the north, when there is heavy snow in winter and the temperature may go down to 40 degrees below zero. The south has a subtropical climate, with temperatures as high as 49 degrees in summer. The climate along the pacific coast is much warmer than that in the Atlantic coast. The capital of the USA is Washington, in the District of Columbia. The USA Congress has its seat in the Capitol, and the White House is the residence of the President. Washington is a beautiful administrative city without much industry. It has many famous monuments: the Library of the Congress of the USA, the Washington Monument, the Abraham Lincoln and others. New York is the largest city and port. It is the financial and business center. It is famous of its skyscrapers. Chicago is one of the biggest industrial cities in the USA. San Francisco on the pacific coast is a big port and ship building center.
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The USA is one of the greatest industrial nations in the world. With only about 5 percent of the world's population and about 6 percent of its land area, the U.S. is the world producer around 25 percent of the world's industrial products, agricultural goods, and services. The USA is the world leader in many branches, for instance, biochemical and genetic engineering, aerospace research and development, communications, computer and information services, and similar high-technology fields. The USA is also the world's leading agricultural nation, which not only feeds her own people but many other people in the world as well. There are many reasons, which can explain why the USA has been able to become the leading industrial and agricultural resources. Another very important reason is America's vitality, its so-called spirit of enterprise and initiative. The rapid progress of American industry and agriculture is also the result of the constant willingness to experiment and to find new solutions to old problems. The USA is divided into regions that have different kinds of land and climate, different ways of living and working, and their own characteristics and problems. And each has its own groups of people whose origin and traditions make them different from any of the others. However, out of these differences the American people were able to create a political and social system in which all of these regions and groups were represented and which formed one nation out of many parts. Exercise 2. Find English equivalents for the following in the text: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; . Exercise 3. Choose the most appropriate expressions from the text to fill the gaps in these sentences. 1. The USA is a federal republic _________and the District of Columbia. a) many countries b) of fifty states c) 13 states 2. Some of the territories were bought from____________, others were taken from Mexico. a) from Russia b) from Mexico c) France in 1803 3. ______ became the 49th state of the USA, in 1859. a) Michigan b) Colorado c) Alaska

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4. As the time went on, _________________________moved to the west until the nation reached from the Atlantic to the Pacific. a) settlers from Africa b) population from all countries c) settlers from all the countries of Europe 5. _________is the largest city, port, the financial and business center with its famous skyscrapers. a) Chicago b) New York c) Washington 6. The rapid progress of American industry and agriculture is also the result of _______________________and to find new solutions to old problems. a) many peoples effort b) hard working c) the constant willingness to experiment Exercise 4. Say whether these statements are true or false and if they are false say why. 1. At first the USA consisted of only 12 states of the Atlantic coast of America. 2. The first american states were French colonies, but they fought against France and in 1776 became an independent state. 3. One by one new states were added to the first ones. Much land was taken from the Indians. 4. The greatest of the rapids of the USA is the Niagara Falls. 5. The climate of the USA does not differ greatly from one part of the country to another. 6. New York is one of the biggest industrial cities in the USA. 7. The USA coud not feed its own people and has to import agricultural resources. Exercise 5. Put on your own questions upon the text. Exercise 6. Retell the text in your own words.

Unit IX
Phonetics: [] , []. [] , . "" "". "" [ ]

[]: [ delt ] delta - [ let ] letter - [ gein ] again - [ peip ] paper - [ ent ] enter - [ tend ] attend - [ geiz ] geyser - [ bet ] better - [ meiz ] amaze - [] : - or [ou a:], er [i: a:], ar [ei a:], : paper, letter, better, doctor, dollar. - []: delta, again, attend. [ ] [] . . [] , . , , , []; . . , "" "". , "" - a pan "" - a pen. : [] : [ kt ] act - [ bd ] bad - [ n ] Ann - [ mp ] map - [ d ] add - [ fmili ] family - [ lis ] Alice - [ pln ] plan - [ lmp ] lamp - [ nrou ] narrow - [] a, , [], : map, plan, cat, sand, Ann.
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[e] []. , . [] - , , . [e] , , . [ bed ] - [ bd ] bed - bad - [ lend ] - [ lnd ] lend - land - [ send ] - [ snd ] send - sand - [ sed ] - [ sd ] said - sad - [ pen ] - [ pn ] pen - pan -

Grammar: . . . : , . (The Positive Degree) - , . (The Comparative Degree) , . than . (The Superlative Degree) , . , -, -er, -ow, -, -est, : dark - darker -(the) darkest simple - simpler -(the) simplest clever - cleverer -(the) cleverest yellow - yellower -(the) yellowest , , -, -er, -ow, more - (the) most , - : useful -more useful - (the) most useful difficult - more difficult - (the) most difficult

less - (the) least , - : This text is less difficult than that one. , . This text is the least difficult of all. . . : good - better - (the) best , bad - worse - (the) worst - - , little -less -(the) least - - , less: hopeless, homeless un: unhappy ful: hopeful, useful in: indifferent ing: boring, frightening pre: prewar ous: famous, courageous ir: irregular en: wooden, woollen im: immortal al: central, formal il: illiterate y/ly: windy, lovely dis: dishonest able: eatable, reliable a: alive ish: foolish, childish non: non-governmental ible: responsible inter: international ant/ent: important, dependent post: post-war Exercise 1. : policy sun hope bore wool depend economy wind use frighten wood complicate Germany rain home interest silk pleasure nature fog respect amuse gold courage Exercise 2. . . Hot, long, short, clever, silly, great, red, black, white, thin, thick, fat, nice, warm, cold, merry ; small, tall, high, weak, strong, heavy, light, green ; dry, clean, dirty, wide, deep, brave. Exercise 3. : 1. is as young as Ann. 2. Pushkin street is as long as Lermontov street. 3. The Baltic Sea is not s deep as the Black Sea 4. This book is not so interesting as that one. 5. This road is worse than any other. 6. Football is more popular than basketball. 7. The more you study the better you ss your exams. 8. The longer is the
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night, the shorter is the day. 9. The less we speak English the worse for us. 10. The earlier you get up the more you can do. Exercise 4. . , , , , , , , , . , , ; ; ; , ; ; ; , . Exercise 5. : ) Are the mountains of the Crimea as high as the mountains of the Caucasus? Is the climate of England as mild as that in our country? Is the Volga longer than the Don? Is the Moscow underground the best in the world? ) Which is the shortest month of the year? Which is the biggest city in Great Britain7 Which is the most beautiful square in Moscow? Which season is the ldest? ) Where is it better to rest: in the South or in the Nth? Where is it better to live: in the city or in the country Where is it warmer: in Italy or in Sweden? Exercise 6. as___as so___as. 1. Mike is___tall___Pete. 2. Kate is not___nice___Ann. 3. My room is___light___this one. 4. This book is not___thin___that one. 5. Sergei is___old___Michael. 6. She is___young___Tom's brother. 7. This woman is___good___that one. 8. Nick's English is not___good___his friend's. 9.1 am not___tall___Pete. 10. This woman is___young___that one. 12. I am___thin___you. 13. Kate is___lazy___her brother. 14. This child is not __small __ that one. Exercise 7. . 1. What is your height? You are taller than me. 2. She felt as strong as her brother. 3. We started earlier than you. 4. He was more careful than I.5. This student is the most attentive in our group. 6.1 need a warmer coat. 7. He is as tired as you. 8. He was one of the most experienced workers at the factory. 9. Better late than never. 10. She was not so attractive as her mother. 11. His work is not so difficult as mine. 12. He was the eldest in the family. 13. It is easier to swim in the sea than in the river. 14. This is the smallest room in our flat. Exercise 8. as___as, so___as than. 1. Our house is not___big___yours. 2. The new cinema in our district is much bigger___the old one. 3. We are___proud of our district___you are of yours. 4. The house I live in is___old___the one my sister lives in. 5. Exercise No.2 is easier___Exercise No.3. 6. Nevsky Prospect is more beautiful___our street. 7. My composition is not___long___yours. Exercise 9. : The nearer the winter, the shorter the days , The brighter the sun, the warmer the days. , The more you study, the more you know. , .
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The sooner you come, the better it is. , The earlier you get up, the more you do. , . The less you read, the less you know , Exercise 10. : The more we study, the more we know. The more we we know, the more we forget. The more we we forget, the less we know. The less we know, the less we forget. The less we forget, the more we know. Why study? Exercise 11. , . 1. This man is (tall) than that one. 2. Asia is (large) than Australia. 3. The Volga is (short) than the Mississippi. 4. Which building is the (high) in Moscow? 5. Mary is a (good) student than Lucy. 6. The Alps are (high) than the Urals. 7. This garden is the (beautiful) in our town. 8. She speaks Italian (good) than English. 9. Is the word newspaper (long) than the word book? 10. The Thames is (short) than the Volga. 11. The Arctic Ocean is (cold) than the Indian Ocean. 12. Chinese is (difficult) than English. 13. Spanish is (easy) than German. 14. She is not so (busy) as I am. 15. It is as (cold) today as it was yesterday. 16. She is not so (fond) of sports as my brother is. 17. Today the weather is (cold) than it was yesterday. 18. This book is (interesting) of all I have read this year. 19. January is the (cold) month of the year. 20. My sister speaks English (bad) than I do. 21. Which is the (hot) month of the year? 22. Which is the (beautiful) place in this part of the country? 23. This nice-looking girl is the (good) student in our group. Exercise 12. , . 1. It is early autumn. I usually get up early. 2. We shall take fast train to Yalta. Don't speak fast, I can't understand you. 3. I have little time. She has slept little today. There is very little difference between them. 4. You would have written the grammar test better if you had learnt the tenses of the English verb. It is the worst result you ever had. 5. You know this problem better than I. Better to do well than to say well. 6. lives in the Far East. lives far from his school. 7. How long did u travel about Great Britain? Oh, it was long and very pleasant journey. 8. Excuse me, how do I get to the University? Go straight down the street and then turn to the left. 9. is very handsome young man, with straight nose, blue eyes and black hair. Exercise 13. aa :. 1. I m (happy, happy) to meet u. They have lived all their life (happy, happily). 2. Don't speak to me s (cold, 1d1). Yur hands are (cold, coldly), put ur gloves. 3. The results of our work were (perfect, perfectly). We have done everything (perfect, perfectly). 4. "I am quite (helpless, helplessly) in solving such problems", she said. She looked at them (helpless, helplessly) not knowing what to do. 5. Can u tell me the (exact, exactly) time of his arrival? Sorry, but 1 don't know (exact. ex66

actly) when he comes back. 6. often comes home (late, lately). I haven't seen him (late, lately). Conversational Topics: Altai Republic Exercises on the vocabulary: 1. Study the words and word combinations of the active vocabulary stated below. 2. Explain the contextual meaning of the underlined lexical units relying on an English-English dictionary. 3. Recall the situations in which the active vocabulary is used in the text stated below. 4. Make up your own situations or sentences with the active vocabulary. Vocabulary: livestock ['lavst k] livestock breeding dairy ['dr] farming highway ['hawe] . , ; , maintain [men'ten] . , ancestry ['nsestr] 1) , ; 2) ; to trace one's ancestry , treaty ['tri:t] . , , junction ['k()n] , ; () emerald ['em()r()ld] . 1) ( ) 2) -, - ( ) gateway ['getwe] . 1) ; 2) ) ; ) , , iron ore harsh [h] . , ( ) elevated ['el vetd] . , () believer [b'li:v] . 1) . 2) 3) , accessible [k'sesbl] .1) ; chilly ['l] . 1) ; 2) signatory ['sgnt()r] 1. .; . 1) , formerly ['fml] . 1) -, , ,
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Exercise 1. Read and translate the text. Altai Republic is situated in the very centre of Asia in the south-west Siberia. Its total area is about 92 600 square kilometers. It borders on Kemerovo Oblast, the Republic of Khakassia, the Tuva Republic, Altai Krai, China, Kazakhstan. Our region is mountainous. Bordering on Mongolia in the south, it contains most of the Altai Mountain. Livestock raising and dairy farming are important, and grain is cultivated. Forests cover about 25% of the republics territory. The majority of the populations are Russians; the rest are Altaians. Altaians, numbering about 45 000, are Turkic-speaking people with Mongolian ancestry. The vast majority of the Republics inhabitants live along the main Chuiskiy highway. Between 1922 and 1948 the Republic was called the Oirot Autonomous Region. It was renamed Gorno-Altaisk in 1948, a name was maintained until the mid-1990s. Gorno-Altai, was given republic status in 1991 and was a signatory, under the name Republic of Gorny-Altai, to the Mart 31, 1992, treaty that created the Russian Federation. The republic was formerly sometimes known as Mountain Altai. The Republic's largest rivers are the Katun and the Biya, both of which originate in the mountains and flow northwards. The junction of the two rivers eventually forms the Ob River, one of the longest rivers in Siberia, which flows northward to the Arctic Ocean.The source of the black Biya River is Lake Teletskoye, the region's largest lake located in an isolated area far south in the mountains. The emeraldcolored Katun River has its source at the Gebler glacier, which is situated on the Republic's highest point, Mount Belukha. The Katun River in particular holds a religious significance for native Altaians, as well as for many Russians who live in the area, as Mount Belukha is known in Altai folklore to be the gateway to mystical Shambhala. Water resources are among the most important natural resources of the Republic. Mineral resources in the region primarily include gold, silver, iron ore, and lithium. The republic has a temperate continental climate with relatively short and hot summers (June-August); and long, cold, and often quite frosty winters (NovemberMarch). In general, the climate of the southeastern areas of the republic, such as the (Ulagansky and Kosh-Agachsky Districts), is harsher than the climate of the less elevated northern areas. The head of government in Altai Republic is the Head of the Republic, popularly elected every four years. The supreme legislative body of the republic is the State AssemblyEl Kurultai, with 41 deputies popularly elected every four years. With the Soviet Union's collapse, the Altai Republic's tourism industry has greatly expanded. Although wealthy Russians from neighboring Russian republics are the most common sort of tourist in Altai, foreign interest has also grown in the area, especially due to the area's spiritual significance to New Age believers and others. Popular tourist destinations tend to be concentrated in the north, where the roads are more accessible. They are also almost entirely located along the Chuiskiy highway, which is the main road from the north into the mountains (although it is
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currently only two lanes wide). The north is also significantly warmer than the elevated southern areas, which tend to be chilly even in the summer. Some of the more well-known tourist spots in the Altai region include Lake Aiya (a popular bathing spot), Belokurikha (known for its mineral water springs), and the picturesque Chemal region. More adventurous travelers may wish to visit the more remote Lake Teletskoye or Mount Belukha in the south Exercise 2. Make the right choice from the text above to complete the sentences and translate them. They are also almost entirely located along. formerly sometimes known as . The vast majority of the Republics . dairy farming are important . one of the longest rivers in Siberia the climate of the less elevated northern areas. foreign interest has also grown Mineral resources in the region . centre of Asia . Exercise 3. Look through the following words and phrases. Find their synonyms in the text. To be focused; colorful, graphic, vivid; far apart; main road, freeway; cold, frosty; next door, adjacent; severe, rough, tough, rude; sustain; connection, link, joint; Exercise 4. Find English equivalents for the following in the text: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; (); ; ; ; ; ; ; -, ; ; . Exersice 4. Find facts from the text to support these statements: Altai Republic is a multinational unit. Altai Republic has one of the most unique nature in the world. Popular tourist destinations tend to be concentrated here. Exercise 5. Divide the text into parts and entitle them. Summarize the contents of the text according to your outline.

Unit X
Phonetics: [i] [i] , . [i] "" " ". [m, n, l] [i] , [p, t, k, s] . : "" - [ film ] film "" - [ risk ] risk - "" - [ il ] ill - "" - [ disk ] disk - "" - [ lik ] lick - "" - [ fini ] finish - "" - [ siti ] city - "" - [ kritik ] critic - , , [ i ]: [ pin ] pin - [ pit ] pit - [ it ] it - [ til ] till - [ lip ] lip - [ iz ] is - / [ fil ] fill - [ tip ] tip - [ in ] in - [ liv ] live - [ mis ] miss - [ ilevn ] eleven - [ dip ] dip - [ nil ] nil - [ il ] ill [ i ] : - Ii [ai], : pin, tip, fill, miss, ill. live [ liv ] . - e [ i ]: eleven. Grammar: : . , , . , , . , : m , his , what ; , : myself , one another - . , , , , , , , , . :

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(the Nominative Case) 1- I 2- 3- he she it 1- we 2- you 3- they

(the Objective Case)

me him her it us you them

. he , she , . whose? ? : . 1- my mine 2- 3- his his her hers its its 1- our ours 2- your yours 3- their theirs . Exercise 1. , Model: I see him ... I see him and he sees me.. 1. We meet her ... 2. They like her ... 3. I need you ... 4. He helps you ... 5. She reads us ... 6. I know him ... 7. We understand them ... 8. They speak to us ... 9. I tell you ... 10. He often waits for me ... Exercise 2. : 1. Kate needs five cups, so ... goes and takes .... 2. Ann eats an apple. ... likes .... 3. We don't understand the film; explain to . 4. The girl doesn't read well, please,
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help ... . 5 do my exercises at home and read ... at the lesson. 6.... explains the rules and ... repeat .... 7. We like ... town. 8. Kate lives in Gorky street. The bus stop is not far from ... house. 9. Please open books and read the text. 10. I like ... new dress. Exercise 3. , . (my, your, his, her, its, our, their) 1. We have a big garden. garden is young. 2. The book is new. contents is rather interesting. 3. She is a nice girl. Whats name? 4. Im Kathy Brown. family is large. 5. He has a lot of friends. friends are also students. 6. The Smirnovs have a car. car is expensive. 7. You are doing well. marks are always good. 8. We have a cat. character is kind. Exercise 4. , . : I take my examinations three times a year. Rosa take ones examinations My friends read many books in ones childhood I be pleased with ones holiday You keep ones book in order George loose ones temper We do ones homework in the evening Exercise 5. . : We have our breakfast at 8 oclock. 1. She is doing homework. 2. We have English lesson in the evening. 3. He is putting on rain-coat. 4. I often do homework with friend. 5. This ladys surname is Smith. Whats first name? 6. Please sit down. Is it document? 7. They do morning exercises in the open air. 8. This table is too small. Whats length? Exercise 6. , . .1. This is a black pencil. - These are black pencils. 2. That is my book. - Those are my books. 1. Give Ben this contract. 2. That bag is nice. 3. That man is manager. 4. Please give me this pencil. 5. This book isnt interesting.
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6. That teacher teaches English. 7. Look at this picture! 8. Where is that document? Exercise 7. . 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. - . 6. . 7. . 8. . 9. . 10. . Conversational Topics: RUSSIA'S ANCIENT CAPITAL Exercises on the vocabulary: 1. Study the words and word combinations of the active vocabulary stated below. 2. Explain the contextual meaning of the underlined lexical units relying on an English-English dictionary. 3. Recall the situations in which the active vocabulary is used in the text stated below. 4. Make up your own situations or sentences with the active vocabulary. Vocabulary: amid ['md] . , , marsh[m] . , principality [`prn(t)s'plt] . 1) ; ; 2) yoke [juk] 1. . 1) ) ; 2), , , plunder['plnd] 1. . 1) , ; , (, ) 2. . 1) , , ( ) invaders plundered the town sack [sk] 2. . ) ( ) ) ; , throw off . . 1) (-.), (-.) to throw off the yoke 2) , Repulsing ||
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foundry ['faundr] . 1) , ( ) 2) , () devastate ['devstet] . , , drive out We had to use cats to drive the rats out. , . masterpiece ['mstpi:s] .1) enduring masterpiece to create a masterpiece 3) . -. -. , invasion [n've()n] . 1) ) , fascination [`fs'ne()n] . , ; , , special fascination Exercise 1. Read and translate the text. Moscow, with a population of nearly nine million, is spread over a vast area of a thousand square kilometers. Originally, however, it was nothing but as small fortress lost amid woods and marshes. Founded in 1147 by Prince Yuri Dolgoruky, Moscow was named after the Moskva River on the bank of which it was built. In the course of time Moscow grew into a real city which became the centre of a principality. In the 13th century ancient Rus, which included the Moscow Principality, fell under the yoke of the Tatar-Mongol invaders for two hundred years. They plundered and sacked Moscow in 1238. It was only in 1480 - a hundred years later after the historic battle of Kulikovo field - in the reign of Grand Duke Ivan III, that the foreign yoke was finally thrown off. By that time, Rus had grown into a big powerful state capable of repulsing any enemy. By the end of Ivan's reign, the prince of Moscow was, in fact, the ruler of Russia. In the 15th century, Moscow became the capital of the Russian state and the largest economic and cultural centre in the country. Crafts, trade, foundry work and construction began to develop rapidly in the city. It attracted master builders and artists from all over Rus. Many famous architects from Italy were invited. Everybody can see the Cathedral of St. Basil the Blessed, a unique example of the 16-th century Russian architecture. In the early 17th century the capital was occupied by Polish and Lithuanian invaders, who sacked and devastated the city. It was only in 1612 that a people's volunteer army, headed by merchant Kuzma Minin and the Voevoda Prince Dmitry Pozharsky, drove the invaders out of the city. There then followed two centuries of peace in the life of Moscow. In the late 18th century, a number of outstanding architects such as Vassili Bazhenov, Matvei Kazakov and Giacomo Quarenghi created their masterpieces in Moscow. Then came the year 1812. The invasion of the French Army began. After the famous Battle of Borodino Mos74

cow surrendered to the enemy. Once again the city was plundered and destroyed by fires and once again it rose from ashes. Now it became more beautiful. The city centre was replanned. The city was enriched by a number of remarkable structures such as Bolshoi and Maly Theatres, the Manege, etc. Moscow also continued its development as a major cultural centre. It was the home city of the oldest Russian university, which was founded in 1755, and numerous museums, theatres, and publishing houses. In the early 20th century, the Moscow proletariat played a major part in the First Russian Revolution of 1905-1907 years. The general political strike started by Moscow workers in October 1905 developed into a nation-wide one. Numerous names in the city reflect the events of those days. Among them are Krasnaya Presnya, the district of Moscow, where there was a bitter fighting in December 1905, Ulitsa 1905 Goda (Year 1905 Street), Barricadnaya Ulitsa (Barricade Street). In March 1918, the Soviet government headed by Lenin, moved from Petrograd to Moscow, and the city once again became the capital. The rapid growth of the city and the expansion of its boundaries have been accompanied by reconstruction of the central part of Moscow. The development of the city was sporadic at times, particularly in the early days. That is why we can often see buildings of different periods and styles which sometimes even seem incomparable - from Baroque to Constructivism - standing side by side. And this is exactly what creates the unique character of the city and gives it a particular fascination. Nowadays, it is a political, administrative, economic, educational, and cultural centre of the country. The centre of the city and the historical heart of Moscow is the Kremlin. Within the walls of the Kremlin are located the meeting places of the government of Russia. Among these are the former Senate building, the Kremlin Great Palace, and the modem Palace of Congresses. Along the east wall of the Kremlin is Red Square, the ceremonial centre of the capital. The Lenin Mausoleum stands beneath the Kremlin walls, and the Cathedral of St. Basil the Blessed is at the southern end of the square. GUM, one of the largest department stores of the city, faces the Kremlin, and the State Historical Museum closes off the northern end of the square. Moscow has a large concentration of educational institutions. Moscow State University is the leading one. Among the specialized educational centres are the Moscow Timiryasev Academy of Agriculture and the Moscow P.I. Tchaikovsky State Conservatory. Theatre, music, and art are important in the city's life. The State Academic Bolshoi Theatre, Maly Theatre, and Moscow Art Theatre are world famous. There are many places of interest in Moscow. The city is famous for its historical monuments, museums, art galleries and theatres. The State Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts and the State Tretyakov Picture Gallery are nation-wide pride. Moscow is the country's largest sports centre. It often becomes a scene of international sports festivals. Exercise 2. Reread the text and complete the sentences according to its contents. 1. Originally, however, Moscow was nothing but as small fortress . 2. It was only in 1480 - a hundred years later after the historic battle of Kulikovo field - in the reign of Grand Duke Ivan III .
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3. Crafts, trade, foundry work and construction began . 4. It was only in 1612 that a people's volunteer army, headed by merchant Kuzma Minin and the Voevoda Prince Dmitry Pozharsky . 5. The rapid growth of the city and the expansion of its boundaries have been accompanied . 6. The centre of the city and the historical heart . 7. The city is famous for . 8. Along the east wall of the Kremlin is Red Square, . Exercise 3. Reproduse the situations in which the following phrases are used: amid woods and marshes Moscow Principality attracted master builders Lithuanian invaders French Army sporadic at times historical heart specialized educational centres famous for Exersice 4. Find facts from the text to support these statements: Prince Yuri Dolgoruky was the founder of Moscow. Powerful state capable of repulsing any enemy was formed only under the reign of Grand Duke Ivan III. Merchant Kuzma Minin and the Voevoda Prince Dmitry Pozharsky were liberators of Moscow in 17th century. French Army destroyed Moscow in the 18th century. Moscow is an old educational centre. Moscow is also cultural and historical centre. Exercise 5. Divide the text into parts and entitle them. Summarize the contents of the text according to your outline.

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Unit XI
Phonetics: [, ] , [, ] . , , . - . , , . - , . . [, ] , . [] , [] . , . C , . ", " [ z, t, d ]. : [ ei ] they - [ ik ] thick - [ em ] them - [ in ] thin - [ en ] then - [ mi ] myth - [ is ] this - [ ten ] tenth - [ bei ] bathe - [ timi ] Timothy [ , ] th. [ ], , : - (the) - (this, that, they, them) - e (bathe) - th , [], : tenth. [] - [s] - [t]: [], [s], [t] , . [] . . [t, s] . [t] . [s] . : [ feis ] - [ fei ] face - faith - [ mis ] - [ mi ] miss - myth - [ tens ] - [ ten ] tense - tenth - [ tin ] - [ in ] tin - thin - [ tru: ] - [ ru: ] true - through - [tri: ] - [ ri: ] tree - three - [ sik ] - [ ik ] sick - thick - [] [z], [d], . [] . , [] . [z, d] . :
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[ bei ] - [ beiz ] [ bri: ] - [ bri:z ] [ si: ] - [ si:z ] [ ei ] - [ dei ] [ en ] - [ den ]

bathe - base breathe - breeze seethe - seize they - day then - den

- - - -

Grammar: , , . . : 1- myself ourself 2- yourselves 3- himself herself themselves itself , - (-): "I mean I'll enjoy myself a little..." " , ..." : The town itself and its population were very hospitable. . some, any, all, each, every, both, either, other, another, many, much, little, a little, few, a few, one , somebody, anybody, something, anything, someone, anyone, everybody, everything, everyone - . one , - other : one - ones other - others one, other, , -one -body : attracted everybody's attention by his laughing. ( ). some, any . , , . some . some , , : Some of my friends can speak English.
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-. some , , : Bring me some water, please! , () ! When I have some free time I read English books in the original. , . who , what , ( ), , whose , which . . Exercise 1. : 1. Have a good time. Try to relax___and enjoy___. 2. She decided to excuse___his bad behavior. 3. Why don't you want to concentrate___? Pull___together and start work. 4. She did not know where to hide___. 5. Though it was rather cold in the room he felt__hot. 6. Have you shaved___today? 7. She found___in an awkward situation. 8. Did the children behave___? 9. We protected___against damage. 10. She stopped crying, washed___, and decided to go downstairs. Exercise 2. some, any . 1. There are___pictures in the book. 2. Are there___new students in your group? 3. There are___old houses in our street. 4. Are there___English textbooks on the desks? Yes, there are___. 5. Are there___maps on the walls? No, there aren't___. 6. Are there___pens on the desk? Yes, there are. ___8. Are there___sweets in your bag? Yes, there are___. 9. Have you got___English books at home? -- Yes, I have___. 10. There are___beautiful pictures in the magazine. Look at them. 11. There is___ink in my pen: I cannot write. Exercise 3. something, anything, nothing everything 1. ___is all right, the patient is much better today! 2. Is there___interesting in the program of the concert? 3. I could see___: it was quite dark. 4. Give me___to drink. 5. I didn't take any money with me so I couldn't buy___. 6. My new eyeglasses are very good, I can see___now. 7. I saw___near the wood that looked like a tent. Exercise 4. something, anything, nothing everything. 1. Give me___to read, please. With pleasure, 2. I don't know___about your town. Tell me .., about it. 3. Please give me___warm: it is cold here. 4. I understand___now. Thank you for your explanation. 5. There is___white in the box. 'What is it? 6. Is there___that you want to tell me? 7. Where is the book? It is on the table. - No, there is. . there. Exercise 5. somebody, anybody, nobody everybody. 1. Has___in this group got a dictionary? 2. ___left a magazine in our classroom yesterday. 3. The question was so difficult that___could answer it. 4. I am afraid I shan't be able to find___in the office now: it is too late. 5. ___knows that water is necessary
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for life. 6. Is there___here who knows French? 7. You must find___who can help you. 8. ___knew anything about America before Columbus discovered it. 9. I saw___in the train yesterday who looked like you. 10. There is___in the next room. I don't know him. 11. Please tell us the story. ___knows it. 12. Is there___in my group who lives in the dormitory? 13. Has___here got a red pencil? 14. ___can answer this question. Itisveryeasy. Exercise 6. some , any , no . 1. Here are___books by English writers. Take___book you like. 2. There are___boys in the garden because they are at school. 3. I can see___on the snow, but I don't know what it is. 4. Are there___desks in the classroom? - Yes, there are many. 5. There are___books on this desk, but there are...._ exercise-books. 6. Did he say___about it? No, he said. ___7. What shall I do now, Mom? I have done my homework. - You can do___you like. 8. There was___in the street because it was Very late. 9. ___wants to see him. 10 Is there___hewho knows this man? 11. Have you___books on Dickens? I want to read___about him. I have read___books by Dickens and I am interested in the life of the writer. 12. Can___tell me how to get to the Public Library? Yes, take___bus that goes from here towards the railway station and get off at the third stop. 13. Please bring me___apples, Mary. 14. That is a very easy question ___can answer it. Exercise 7. : some , any , no , the . 1. () . ___soup contains much water. 2. . ___soup is ready.3. . Give me___soup. 4. . The name of___soup is borshch. 5. . First of all we must heat___water. 6. . First of all we must heat___water. 7. . ___water consists of hydrogen and oxygen. 8. . ___soap is necessary for washing. 9. . There is___soap on the wash-stand. 10. . ___soap is on the shelf. 11. . I don't like the colour of___soap. 12. ? Have you got___carbolicsoap? 13. , . There are many factories in Karelia that produce___paper. 14. . ___paper for the wall-newspaper is on the table 15. . Giveme___paper. 16. . I like this sort of___paper very much. 17. . Pass me___butter, please. 18. . Give him___butter. 19. . I don'twant___butter. 20. . This farm produces___butter. 21. . There is___milk in this glass. 22. . Take___jam. 23. . Take___jam.24. ? Do you like___bacon? 25. ? What is the price of___bacon? 26. . never puts___sugar in his tea. 27. . ___sugar is an important food product.

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Exercise 8. . , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . Exercise 9. much many. 1. Please don't put___pepper on the meat. 2. There were___plates on the table. 3. I never eat___bread with soup. 4. Why did you eat so___ice-cream? 5. She wrote us___letters from the country. 6. ___of these students don't like to look up words in the dictionary. 7. ___in this work was too difficult for me. 8. ___of their answers were excellent. 9. ___of their conversation was about the institute. 10. There are___new pictures in this room.ll. There are___teachers at our school, and___of them are women. 12. ___of these plays are quite___new. 13. Thanks awfully for the books you sent me yesterday. Don't mention it, it wasn't___bother. 14. ___of her advice was useful. 15. He had___pairs of socks. Exercise 10. little few. 1. I have___time, so I can't go with you. 2. He [ has___English books. 3. There is___ink in my pen. Have you got any ink? 4. There are___bears in the zoo. 5. Tom Canty was the son of poor parents and had very___clothes. 6. There is tool___soup in my plate. Give me some more, please.7. The children returned from the wood very sad because they had found very ___ mushrooms.8. There was too___light in the room, and I could not read. There are very___people who don't know that the earth is round. Exercise 11. much, many, little few. 1. My brother is a young teacher. Every day he spends___time preparing for his lessons. 2. I know I very___about this writer. It is the first book I am reading. 3. The pupils of our class ask___questions at the lesson. They want to know everything. 4. You do not make___mistakes in your spelling. Do you work hard at it? Oh, yes, I do, I work very. ___5. Does your sister read___?-- Yes, she does. And your brother? -- Oh, he doesn't. He has so___books, but he reads very___. 6. Have you___work todo today? -- No, not very___. 7. Walk quicker, please. We have very___time. 8. I am sorry to say, l have read very___books by Walter Scott. Exercise 12. . , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . Exercise 13. much, many, little, few, a little a few. 1. He had___English books at home, so he had to go to the library for more books. 2. She gave him___water to wash his hands and face. 3. I'd like to say___words about my journey. 4. After the play everybody felt___tired. 5. Let's stay here___longer: it is such a nice place. 6. There were___new words in the text, and Peter spent___time
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learning them. 7. There was___hay in the barn, and the children could not play there. 8. There was___water in the river, and they decided to cross it. 9. My mother knows German___and she can help you with the translation of this letter. 10. When we walked___farther down the road, wemet another group of students. 11. Have you got I___ink in your pen? 12. At the conference we met I___people whom we knew well. 13. There are very___old houses left in our street. Most of them have already been pulled down. 14. If you have___spare time, look through this book. You will find___stories there which are rather interesting. 15. There are___things here which I cannot understand. 16. Shall I bring___more chalk? No, thank you. There is___chalk on the desk. I hope that will be enough for our lesson. Exercise 14. , one 1. Why are you putting on your old skates? Put on your new ones. 2. I don't like this pen. Please, give me another one. 3. If you don't like this hat, you may take that one. 4. All right, I shall take this book if it's a good one. 5. One must do one's duty. 6. His room is good, but that one is better. 7. One must answer the letters at once. 8. There is no glass. Please, bring one. 9. I don't like green apples, give me red ones. 10. One who writes poems is cared a poet. 11. One can find him in the next room. 12. She will come to you one day. 13. Do you know an Ivanov who lives in your house? 14. One never knows what he says. Exercise 15. each other, one another. 1. They can't help themselves, they love ... . 2. The place is full of crazy people who talk to ... all the time and ignore everybody else. 3. They have known ... for years and years. 4. The members of this club meet regularly in ...'s homes. 5. She and John looked at... . 6. He began opening bottles, ... after ... . 7. We know ..."s minds very well. 8. All the children kept silent. They didn't dare to look at.... 9. She found ... excuse after ... to postpone the meeting. 10. We'll get there ... way or ... . 11. He ate ... sweet after... till the box was empty. 12. They hatebeing apart. They phone ... every day. 13. The business failed because the partners distrusted ... . Conversational Topics: LONDON Exercises on the vocabulary: 1. Study the words and word combinations of the active vocabulary stated below. 2. Explain the contextual meaning of the underlined lexical units relying on an English-English dictionary. 3. Recall the situations in which the active vocabulary is used in the text stated below. 4. Make up your own situations or sentences with the active vocabulary.

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Vocabulary: steady ['sted] 1. .1) ) ; , 2) ) , 3) , ; ; vast [vst] 1. . 1) , , ; , , dominate ['dmnet] .1) , 2) , 3) , , commercial [k'm()l] 1. . 1) , 2) extend [k'stend] .1) ) , ; palace ['pl s], ['pls] .1) , 2) , royal palace commemoration[k`mem're()n] . 1) (); -. must [mst] .; . 1) , 2) , (Exercise is a must. . These valuable books are musts for you. .) grief[gri:f] . 1) , , 2) , , f touching['t] 1. . 2. . , touching episode greenbelt ['gri:nbelt] .; = green belt ( ) Exercise 1. Read and translate the text. Modern London is not one city that has steadily become larger through the centuries; it is a number of cities, towns, and villages that have, during the past centuries, grown together to make one vast urban area. London is situated upon both banks of the River Thames; it is the largest city in Britain and one of the largest in the world. Its population is about 7 million people. London dominates the life of Britain. It is the chief port of the country and the most important commercial, manufacturing and cultural centre. There is little heavy industry in London, but there is a wide range of light industry in Greater London.

London consists of three parts: the City of London, the West End and the East End. The City extends over an area of about 2.6 square kilometers in the heart of London. About half a million people work in the City but less than 6,000 live here. It is the financial centre of the UK with many banks, offices and Stock Exchange. But the City is also a market for goods of almost every kind, from all parts of the world. The West End can be called the centre of London. Here are the historical palaces as well as the famous parks. Hyde Park with its Speakers Corner is also here. Among other parks are Kensington Gardens, St. Jamess Park. In the West End there is Buckingham Palace, which is the Queens residence, and the Palace of Westminster which is the seat of Parliament. The best-known streets here are Whitehall with important Government offices, Downing Street, the London residence of Prime Minister and the place where the Cabinet meets. Fleet Street where most newspapers have their offices, Harley Street where the highest paid doctors live, and some others. Trafalgar Square is so-named in commemoration of Nelsons great victory. In the middle stands the famous Nelson Column with the statue of Nelson 170 feet high so as to allow him a view of the sea. The column stands in the geographical centre of the city. One of the musts for the sightseer is the Houses of Parliament, facing the Thames, on one side, and Parliament Square and Westminster Abbey, on the other. The House of Commons sits to the side of the Clock Tower (Big Ben), the House of Lords to the Victoria Tower side. Westminster Abbey is the crowning and burial place of British monarchs. It has its world famed Poets Corner with memorials to Chaucer, Shakespeare, Milton, the Brontes sisters, Tennyson, Longfellow, Wordsworth, Burns, Dickens, Thackeray, Hardy, Kipling and other leading writers. Only a few however, are actually buried there. Here too is that touching symbol of a nations grief, The Grave of the Unknown Warrior. The name West End came to be associated with wealth, luxury, and goods of high quality. It is the area of the largest department stores, cinemas and hotels. There are about 40 theatres, several concert halls, many museums including the British Museum, and the best art galleries. It is in the West End where the University of London is centered with Bloomsbury as Londons student quarter. The Port of London is to the east of the City. Here today are kilometers and kilometers of docks, and the great industrial areas that depend upon shipping. This is the East End of London, unattractive in appearance, but very important to the countrys commerce. In recent times London has grown so large, that the Government has decided that it must spread no farther. It is now surrounded by a green belt a belt of agricultural and wooded land on which new buildings may be put up only with the permission of the planning authorities. Exercise 2. Construct sentences using the text 1. both/ River/ upon/ London/ banks/ of/ is/ Thames/ situated/ the
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2. famous/ are/ as/ the/ here/ palaces/ parks/ historical/ well/ as/ the 3. in/ column/ the/ the/ centre/ city/ geographical/ of/ stands/ the 4. actually/ a/ only/,/ are/ there/ few/ however/ buried 5. cinemas/ the/ is/ of/ area/ largest/ it/ stores/,/ department/ and/ hotels/ the Exercise 3. Answer the following questions to the text making use of expressions given in the box below. To my mind; As far as I know; In my opinion: There is no doubt that 1. Where is London situated? 2. Is London the largest city in Britain? 3. What is its population? 4. What is the role of London in the life of Britain? 5. What parts does London consist of? 6. What can the West End be called? What places of interest are situated in the West End? 7. What are the best known streets? 8. What is the most famous park in London? 9. What is Downing Street known for? 10. What is the name West End associated with? 11. Why is Trafalgar Square so-named? 12. Where were British monarchs crowned? 13. London is a big cultural centre, isnt it? 14. Why is Buckingham Palace so interesting for tourists? 15. What is the financial centre of Great Britain? 16. Is the East End of London attractive in appearance? 17. Who lives there? 18. What famous museums would you like to visit in London? 19. What is the symbol of London and Great Britain? 20. If you found yourself in London what would you like to visit first? Exercise 4. Put on your own questions upon the text. Exercise 5. Retell the text in your own words.

Unit XII
Phonetics: [i:] [i:] , . [i:] "" "", "", "" . [i:] "", . : "" - [ mi:l ] meal - "" - [ li:st ] least - "" - [ pi:l ] peel - "" - [ kli:n ] clean - "" - [ si:n ] seen - "" - [ kri:k ] creek - "" - [ ni:t ] neat - "" - [ sti:l ] steel - [ i: ] : [ ki: ] key - [ ti: ] teeth - [ gi:s ] geese - [ i:m ] theme - [ bi:t ] beat - [ di:l ] deal - [ pi:t ] Pete - [ si:m ] seem - [ fi:ld ] field - [ mi:n ] mean - [i:] : - Ee [i:], + e : these, Pete, Eva - : ea, ee, ei, ie, : veal, need, ceil, field - : key [ki:]. [i] [i:]. . , . . [ sit ] - [ si:t ] sit - seat - [ liv ] - [ li:v ] live - leave - , [ dip ] - [ di:p ] dip - deep - [ tim ] - [ ti:m ] Tim - team - [ fil ] - [ fi:l ] fill - feel - [ bit ] - [ bi:t ] bit - beat - Grammar: : , , , , . (CARDINAL NUMERALS) 1 12: 1 - one [wan] 2 - two [tu:] 3 - three [()ri] 4 - four [fo:] 5 - five [faiv] 6 - six [siks] 7 - seven ['sevn]
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8 - eight [eit] 9 - nine [nain] 10 - ten [ten] 11 - eleven [i'levn] 12 - twelve [twelv] 13 19 -teen : fourteen sixteen nineteen , , -ty : sixty seventy -th : four -(the) fourth seven -(the) seventh eighteen -(the) eighteenth one, two, three: one -(the) first [fe:st] two -(the) second ['sekond] three -(the) third five, eight, nine, twelve -th : five -(the) fifth eight -(the) eighth nine -(the) ninth twelve -(the) twelfth , -ty, - -ie: twenty -(the) twentieth forty -(the) fortieth : (the) forty-eighth (the) fifty-third (Common Fractions) , : 1/7- one seventh , , -s: 2/4 - two fourths - 2/3 -two thirds - 3 1/5 - three and one fifth -
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1/2 - one second, a second, one half, a half - , 1/4 -one fourth, a fourth, one quarter, a quarter - , ( Decimal Fractions) , . nought [no:t] ( - zero ['zierou]). 4.25 four point twenty-five; four point two five 0.43 nought point forty-three; nought point four three , , , -of: 2/3 metre- two thirds of a metre 0.05 ton - nought point nought five of a ton , , of: 35 1 /9 tons -thirty-five and one ninth tons 14.65 metres -one four ( fourteen) point six five ( sixty-five) metres , [u]: 24-58-06 ['tu:'tu:'fo:'faiv'eit'ou'siks] Exercise 1. -: 1. 1). 462; 2). 2'/ 2; 3). 2,345; 4). 6,75; 5). 0,25; 6). 31/,; 7). 1,250,000; 8). 10,04; 9). 47%; 10). 20 September; 11). 3 July; 12). 602 8477 (phone number); 13). 5 centigrade; 14). In 1903; 15). In 1876. in 1965; in 1907; in 1945; in 1998; in 2000; in 2008; 2. at the beginning of 2000; at the end of 1729; by the beginning of 2005; by the end of 2004. 3. 1/2 kilometer; 1/8 ton; 0.5; 4.26; 1.234. 4. 15.11. 1893; 22.06.1844; 27.03.1987; 17.07.1327; 12.10.1043; 16.08.1906; 1.09.1765; 24.05.1632. 5. 10:20; 13.30; 7:45; 5:50; 12:25; 15:15; 18:10. Exercise 2. : 1. How many minutes are there in two hours? 2. How many kilometers are there in a mile? 3. What is your normal temperature? 4. How much do you weigh? 5. How many cents are there in $2,5? 6. How many days are there in a year? 7. When were you born? 8. What is your telephone number? 9. What is the number of your flat? 10. What is the approximate population of Russia? 11. When were you born? 12. How much do you weigh? 13. What is the number of the flat or house where you live?14. Is that an odd or an even number?15. What is the approximate population of your town?16. What is the approximate population of your country?17. What is the normal temperature of a healthy person?18. How many years are there in a millennium?

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Conversational Topics: Washington Exercises on the vocabulary: 1. Study the words and word combinations of the active vocabulary stated below. 2. Explain the contextual meaning of the underlined lexical units relying on an English-English dictionary. 3. Recall the situations in which the active vocabulary is used in the text stated below. 4. Make up your own situations or sentences with the active vocabulary. Vocabulary: separate to be named in honour except , scrap paper hollow , to enjoy a wonderful view of - cherry-trees on the other bank to be founded conception , skyscraper except suburb marshy wilderness jurisdiction exhaust fumes canvas ['knvs] . 1) , ; ; ( ) 2) . 3) , ; The small boat was put under canvas again. . Exercise 1. Read and translate the text. Washington, the capital of the United States of America, is situated on the Potomac River in the District of Columbia. The district is a piece of land ten miles square and it does not belong to any separate state but to all the states. The district is named in honour of Columbus, the discoverer of America. The capital owes much to the first President of the USA George Washington. It was G. Washington, who chose the place for the District and laid in 1790 the corner-stone of the Capitol, where Congress sits. Washington is not the largest city in the USA. It has a population of 900 000 people. Washington is a one-industry town. That industry is government. It does not
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produce anything except very much scrap paper. Every day 25 railway cars leave Washington loaded with scrap paper. Washington has many historical places. The largest and tallest among the buildings is the Capitol with its great House of Representatives and the Senate chamber. There are no skyscrapers in Washington because no other building must be taller than the Capitol. The White House is the President's residence. All American presidents except George Washington (the White House was not yet built in his time), have lived in the White House. It was built in 1799. It is a two-storied, white building. Not far from the Capitol is the Washington Monument, which looks like a very big pencil. It rises 160 metres and is hollow inside. A special lift brings visitors to the top in 70 seconds from where they can enjoy a wonderful view of the whole city. The Jefferson Memorial was built in memory of the third President of the USA, Thomas Jefferson, who was also the author of the Declaration of Independence. The memorial is surrounded by cherry-trees. The Lincoln Memorial is devoted to the memory of the 16th President of the US, the author of the Emancipation Proclamation, which gave freedom to Negro slaves in America. On the other bank of the Potomac lies the Arlington National Cemetery where President Kennedy was buried. American soldiers and officers, who died in World Wars I and II are buried there too. The beautiful city of Washington D.C. is the capital of the United States and the centre of its government. The capital was named after the first president George Washington and was founded in 1790. It is situated on the Potomac River in the District of Columbia. Washington is not the largest city in the USA. It has about 900 000 inhabitants. Washington D.C. has nothing characteristically American in it, as its conception is purely French. It has long wide avenues, gardens, beautiful parks and no skyscrapers at all. Washington is the residence of the President and the Congress of the USA. The White House is the President's residence, the Capitol the seat of the American Congress. The largest and the tallest among the buildings is the Capitol with its great House of Representatives and Senate Chamber. There are no scyscrapers because no other building must be taller than the Capitol. All american presidents except George Washington (the White House was not yet built in his time) have lived in the White House. It was built in 1799. Washington is a large scientific and cultural centre, where there are many research institutes, five universities, the National Academy of Science and the Library of Congress. There is one more well-known building in Washington Pentagon, the residence of the US Military department. It is situated in the suburbs to the south of the Potomac. Washington sprang out of a marshy wilderness. It's named after George Washington, the first President of the United States. Washington is situated on the Potomac River in the District of Columbia. The District of Columbia is outside the jurisdiction of any state and subjects only to the control of the Federal Congress. Washington is the seat of the Federal Government of the United States. It has been the capital of the USA since 1800. It has about 900 000 inhabitants.

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Washington is one of the least industrialized metropolises in the world. However, in many ways it's a typical American city. Washington often rates as "dangerous" on the scale of air pollution. The air is periodically toxic from exhaust fumes. The water in Potomac is polluted. There are traffic jams in rush hours in its streets. Washington is often called the city of underprivileged and poor blacks. In spite of all its problems, Washington has another nickname the American Paris. The major attractions for tourists are in the heart of Washington. Among them the National Museum of History, the National Museum of Natural History. The National Gallery of Art exhibits thousands of the world's finest canvases. The Library of Congress is the younger rival of the London Library of the British Museum. It contains a lot of books, prints and photos. There's hardly a park, a square or an open area in the capital without monument or a memorial. The most impressive and best-known of them are the Lincoln Memorial and the Washington Monument. The Washington Monument is the highest structure of the city. The oldest building in Washington is the White House, the official residence of the President. Washington's broad and long streets add to the poise of the city. Most of them are called after states Pennsylvania Avenue, Connecticut Avenue. The capital is also proud of its two universities Georgetown University and George Washington University. Exercise 2. Find English equivalents for the following in the text: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; . Exercise 3. Find facts from the text to support these statements: George Washington was the founder of the USAs capital. Washington is not the largest city in the USA. Washington has many historical places. Washington is a typical American city. Washington has another nickname the American Paris. Exercise 4. Answer the following questions to the text making use of expressions given in the box below. To my mind; As far as I know; In my opinion: There is no doubt that 1. What city is the capital of the USA? 2. Where is Washington situated? 3. To which state does the city of Washington belong?
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4. In whose honour is the district of Columbia named? 5. Who was the first President of the USA? 6. Who chose the place for the District? 7. Is Washington the largest city in the USA? 8. What is the population of Washington? 9. What industries are situated in the city? 10. What do 25 railway cars leave Washington loaded with? 11. Why are there no sky-scrapers in Washington? 12. Where is the President's residence? 13. When was the White House built? 14. In whose memory was the Jefferson Memorial built? 15. Who is the author of the Declaration of Independence? 16. Which document gave freedom to Negro slaves in America? 17. Who was buried at the Arlington National Cemetery? 18 What is the capital of the USA? 19. Who was the first President of the USA? 20. Is White House situated there? 21. Did George Washington live in the White House? 22. Name the famous buildings in Washington. 23. Is there any industry in Washington? Exercise 5. Look through the text, divide it into parts and find the key sentences in each of them.

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Unit XIII
Phonetics: [ r ] [r] . [r] ( ). . [r], "" , . [r] : [ rein ] rain - [ veri ] very - [ riv ] river - [ meri ] merry - [ ri:zn ] reason - [ beri ] berry - [ red ] red - [ britn ] Britain - [ ritn ] written - [ stri:t ] street - [r] Rr [ a: ]. : rain, river, very. [ i ] [i] [i] []. , . [ i ] : [ ni ] near - [ it ] theatre - [ di ] dear - [ pirid ] period - [ hi ] here - [ rili ] really - [ wiri ] weary - [ sivi ] severe - [ kli ] clear - [ pi ] appear - [ i ] : - e, r + : here, severe, period. - ear: appear, clear, weary, dear. - eer: engineer, sheer. Grammar: . Revision the Present Indefinite (Simple) Tense. The Present Continuous (Progressive) Tense. - , . , , . (Finite Forms) (Non-finite Forms). : , , , , , . , , . We live in Russia. . (Infinitive), (Gerund), (Participle). , , . .

4 . I II III - II Infinitive Past Indefinite Participle II

IV I Participle I (-ing ) writing developing

to write to develop

wrote developed

written developed

Exercise 1. Participle I . sing, read, run, help, write, look, stay, eat, take, pick, go, brush, sit, swim, do, clean, play, jump, buy, set, make, begin, sleep, talk, speak, hit, meet, fly, spend, shave, drop, lie, live, die, type, wish, rain, cut, listen, trick. Exercise 2. , Present Continuous. (NOW) 1.. Timothy (to feed) his dog. 2. Mr. Jones (to clean) his yard. 3. Nancy (to paint) her kitchen. 4. Our neighbours (to wash) their car. 5. I (to wash) my hair. 6. Who (to fix) your sink? 7. What she (to do) now? She (to dance). 8. The children (to brush) their teeth. 9. What he (to do) at the moment? He (to fix) his bicycle. 10. They (to have) a big dinner together. 11. The boys (to run) about the garden. 12. I (to do) my homework. 13. John and his friends (to go) to the library. 14. Ann (to sit) at her desk. She (to study) geography. 15. A young man (to stand) at the window. He (to smoke) a cigarette. 16. The old man (to walk) about the room. 17. The dog (to lie) on the floor. 18. You (to have) break? 19. What language you (to study)? 20 Who (to lie) on the sofa? 21. What they (to talk) about? 22. It still (to rain). 23. I (to open) an umbrella. 24. John (to play) computer games. Exercise 3. , Present Continuous. () 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. ? 5. ? 6. . 7. . 8. . 9. . 10. ? 11. ? 12. . 13. . 14. . 15. . 16. ? 17. . 18. . 19. ? 20. . 21. . 22. ? 23. ? 24. ? 25. . 26. ? 27. ? 28. ? 29. ? 30. ? 31. . 32. . 33. . .

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Exercise 4. , Present Continuous Present Simple. I (to read) now. He (to sleep) now. We (to drink) tea now. They (to go) to school now. I (not to sleep) now. She (not to drink) coffee now. I (to read) every day. He (to sleep) every night. We (to drink) tea every morning.They (to go) to school every morning. I (not to sleep) in the daytime. She (not to drink) coffee after lunch. We (not to watch) TV now. They (not to eat) now. My mother (not to work) now. You (to work ) now? He (to play) now? They (to eat) now? Your sister (to rest) now? What you (to do) now? What you (to read) now? What they (to eat) now? What your brother (to drink) now? We (not to watch) TV in the morning. They (not to eat) at the lesson. My mother (not to work) at an office. You (to work) every day? He (to play) in the afternoon? They (to eat) at school? Your sister (to rest) after school? What you (to do) every morning? What you (to read) after dinner? What they (to eat) at breakfast? What your brother (to drink) in the evening? Exercise 5. , Present Continuous Present Simple. 1. I (not to drink) coffee now. I (to write) an English exercise. 2. I (not to drink) coffee in the evening. I (to drink) coffee in the morning. 3. Your friend (to do) his homework now? 4. Your friend (to go) to school in the morning? 5. Look! The baby (to sleep). 6. The baby always (to sleep) after dinner. 7. My grandmother (not to work). She is on pension. 8. My father (not to sleep) now. He (to work) in the garden. 9. I usually (to get) up at seven o'clock in the morning. 10. What your sister (to do) now? She (to wash) her face and hands. 11. When you usually (to come) home from school? I (to come) at three o'clock. 12. Where your cousin (to work)? -- He (to work) at a hospi-taJ. 13. Your sister (to study) at an institute? - No, she (to study) at school. 14. My cousin (to go) to school every day. 15. My mother (not to play) the piano now. She (to play) the piano in the morning. Exercise 6. , Present Continuous Present Simple. 1. I (to read) books in the evening. 2. I (not to read) books in the morning. 3. I (to write) an exercise now. 4. I (not to write) a letter now. 5. They (to play) in the yard now. 6. They (not to play) in the street now. 7. They (to play) in the room now? 8. He (to help) his mother every day. 9. He (to help) his mother every day? 10. He (not to help) his mother every day. 11. You (to go) to school on Sunday? 12. My friend (not to like) to play football. 13.1 (not to read) now. 14. He (to sleep) now? 15.We (not to go) to the country in winter. 16.My sister (to eat) sweets every day. 17. She (not to eat) sweets now. 18. They (to do) their homework in the afternoon. 19. They (not to go) for a walk in the evening. 20. My father (not to work) on Sunday. 21. He (to work) every day. Conversational Topics: EDUCATION IN RUSSIA Exercises on the vocabulary: 1. Study the words and word combinations of the active vocabulary stated below.
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2. Explain the contextual meaning of the underlined lexical units relying on an English-English dictionary. 3. Recall the situations in which the active vocabulary is used in the text stated below. 4. Make up your own situations or sentences with the active vocabulary. Vocabulary: mandatory ['mndt()r] 1. . 2) , in-depth [`n'dep] . , , advanced studies / courses , commute [k'mju:t] 1. .1) (commute into / for) ( ) 2) , vocational school - Syn: trade school approach ['pru] .1) ; 2) ) , , ) . , ( ) 3) ( , ) approximately['prksmtl] . , , , , competitive [km'pet tv] . 1) , , 2) , (, ) 3) () applicant ['plk()nt] .1) , , ; prospective [pr'spektv] . 1) ; ; ; undergo[`nd'gu] .; . . underwent; . . . undergone 1) , 2) (-.) to undergo a medical examination . . Exercise 1. Read and translate the text. Secondary education is mandatory in Russia. Children start school at the age of 6 and finish at 17. As a rule, a child attends the school located in the neighborhood, the one which is the closest to home. However , there in big cities there are also socalled "special" schools , offering more in-depth studies of the major European languages ( English , French, or German), or the advanced courses in physics and mathematics, and children attending one of these may have to commute from home. There are no school buses in Russia. The first stage of education is elementary school for grades 1 through 4.
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The second is secondary school for grades 5 through 9. Upon graduation from secondary school (which is not the equivalent of having completed their secondary education), students are given the choice of either continuing to attend the same school (high school; grades 10 and 11), or entering a vocational school or trade school. Both vocational school and trade schools are meant to provide one, long with the certificate of secondary education, with a number of useful skills (e.g., those of an electrician, technical, or computer operator).One attends the former for two years and the latter for three or four. Having completed one's secondary education, one can either become part of work force or go on to college ( " institution of higher learning " ). There are universities and so-called "institutes" in Russian. The former stress a more theoretical, fundamental approach to education, while the latter are more practice oriented. There are no medical schools or departments with in the structure of Russian universities. Future doctors attend medical institutes. There are no degrees in Russian equivalent to those of bachelor's or master's. Students spend approximately five years in college or six in a medical institute. To be admitted to an institution of higher learning, one has to pass a series of oral and written tests. Grades in the certificate of secondary education are also taken account. Entry to higher education is quite competitive. Some college departments (philologist, foreign languages-especially English, law, journalism) have dozens of applicants for one prospective student's position. The same is true of medical and theatre institutes. Up to the present, neither college students nor schoolchildren have had any say in the selection of courses they had to take. Everyone has studied according to uniform series of guide lines approved by the Ministry of Higher Education. Evidently, this situation is going to change in the near future. Education in Russian has until recently been free on all levels. College students with good grades were rewarded with a modest stipend. All institutions of higher learning were subsidized by the government. Now that the country is changing to a market-place economy, the system of education is also bound to undergo profound changes. The first private schools, gymnasiums and lyceums, have already been founded in Moscow and St. Petersburg, in an attempt to revive the pre-1917 traditionals of Russian educational system with its high standards of excellence Exercise 2. Find English equivalents for the following in the text: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; . Exercise 3. Find facts from the text to support these statements: Secondary education is mandatory in Russia.
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Upon graduation from secondary school, students are given the choice of either continuing to attend the same school or entering a vocational school or trade school. Entry to higher education is quite competitive. There are no medical schools or departments with in the structure of Russian universities. Education in Russian has until recently been free on all levels. Exercise 4. Answer the following questions to the text making use of expressions given in the box below. To my mind; As far as I know; In my opinion: There is no doubt that 1. Are there any special schools , offering more in-depth studies of the major European languages in russia? 2. What do the pupils do upon graduation from secondary school? 3. How long do the students study in vocational schools and trade schools? 4. There are universities and so-called "institutes" in Russia arent there? 5. Are there any medical schools or departments with in the structure of Russian universities? 6. Is it competitive to entry to higher education? 7. Why have college students nor schoolchildren had any say in the selection of courses they had to take? 8. What new schools have already been founded in Moscow and St. Petersburg? Exercise 5. Put on your own questions upon the text. Exercise 6. Retell the text in your own words.

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Unit XIV
Phonetics: [j] [j] . "", . [j] , , "". , . [j] : [ jet ] yet [ jel ] yell [ jes ] yes [ ji:ld ] yield [j] - . y [wai], . : yet, yes, yell, yield, yard, yoke. [l] [t, d], . , , . [t, d] + [l] . . [ ketl ] kettle [ midl ] middle [ setl ] settle [ metl ] mettle [ litl ] little [ ni:dl ] needle Grammar: The Present Perfect Tense and the Present Perfect Continuous Tense. , . , . She has read this book. . ( .) Present Perfect just , already - , yet - , lately - , of late - , recently - . The mail has just come. . He has seen many films lately. . , , , , today - , this week - , this month - , this century - . I have written a letter this morning. .
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, . I have known him all my life. . I have known him for 2 years. 2 . He has not seen his parents since January. . Present Perfect always - , often - , seldom - , ever - -, never - . She has never been to London. . Have you ever been to Moscow? - ? Present Perfect to have Present Indefinite Participle II ( II) . I, we, have seen I, we, have not Have I (we, you, they) you, they you, they seen seen? He, she, it has seen He, she, it has not seen Has he (she, it) seen? The Present Perfect Continuous Tense to be (shall have been, will have been) (Participle I) . shall will , - . shall will not. , . . By the end of September we shall have been living here for seven years. . Exercise 1. Present Perfect. . 1. The pupils are writing the dictation. 2. My friend is helping me to solve a difficult problem. 3. I am learning a poem 4. She is telling them an interesting story. 5. Kate is sweeping the floor. 6. The waiter is putting a bottle of lemonade in front of him. 7. I am eating my breakfast. 8. We are drinking water. 9. He is bringing them some meat and vegetables. 10 You are putting the dishes on the table.
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Exercise 2. , since for. . 1. last summer. 2. ... 1995. 3. ... a long time; 4. ... last month; 5. ... two weeks; 6. ... 2 March; 7. ... two hours; 8. ... 1975; 9. ... six days; 10. ... a month; 11. two years; 12. ... three days; 13. ... ten minutes; 14. ... three hundred years; 15. ... Wednesday; 16. ... seven days; 17. ...three o'clock. 18. ... 18 September; 19. ... my last birthday; 20. ... a cetury; 21. ... 2001. Exercise 3. Present Perfect. 1. John (write) his name. 2. I (draw) a picture. 3. Tom (blow out ) the light. 4. The cat (drink) its milk. 5. The tree (fall) across the road. 6. John (give) his bicycle to his brother. 7. You (make) a mistake. 8. We (eat) our dinner. 9. The train just (go). 10. I just (tell) the answer. 11. George never (be) in Australia. 12. John and Richard just (go away). 13. The baker (sell) all his cakes. 14. I (read) this book. Exercise 4. : 1. Jack has washed the dog. 2. Father has already cleaned his car. 3. Mr Snowdon has made a speech at the conference. 4. Granny has bought me some cakes. 5. They have paintedtheir old house. 6. Liz has bought some flowers. 7. My sister has just cooked breakfast for the family. 8. The cat has already eaten fish. 9. Mrs Gracy have gone to London. 10. I have never been to India. 11. She has just broken a vase. 12. We have cleaned the room. 13. Cris has phoned his friend. 14. The train has just arrived. 15. It has just started to rain. 16. Kelly has gone to America. 17. We have left our books to school. 18. The stree has changed a lot. 19. You have worked here for a long time. 20. Mandy has been to Greece. Exercise 5. . write, win, sell, try, read, play, find, visit, stop, study, die, do. Exercise 6. , : (you / ever / be / to Italy) - Have you ever been to Italy? 1. You ever / be / to South America? 2. You / read / any English books? 3. You / live / in this town all your life? 4. How many times / you / be / in love? 5. What's / the most beautiful country / you /ever / visit? 6. You ever / speak / to a famous person? Exercise 7. , the Present Perfect Continuous Tense: Run, study, work, do, speak, paint, consider, walk, wait, snow, try, make. 1. He __ for two hours, tell him to rest a little. 2 "I ___a long time for you," said my friend with a displeased air. 3. They___ a noise since I came here. 4. How long
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you___to get in touch with your friend? 5. Your face is dirty with paint. What you___? You___the house? 6. They___this problem for more than two hours. 7. I ask you to keep to the point, You___for fifteen minutes, but the subject of your report is not clear yet. 8. He is a rather experienced specialist. He___his business for seven years. 9. There is a lot of snow in the street as it ___since yesterday. 10. How long your brother___as a doctor? 11. I've got sore feet. We___for six hours already. Exercise 8. the Present Perfect Continuous Tense the Present Perfect Tense. 1. I (try) to get into contact with them for a long time, but new I (give) it up as hopeless 2, My shortsighted uncle (lose) Ins spectacles. We (look) for them everywhere but we can't find them, 3, She (be) of great help to us since she (live) for such a long time with us, 4. You ever (work) as interpreter? Yes, thai is what I (do) for the last five months, 5. They (make up) their quarrel? I don't know. I only know that they (not be) on speaking terms since September. 6. Our pilot (ask) for permission to take off for ten minutes already, but he (get) no answer yet. 7. A skilful photographer (help) me with the development of summer films for two weeks, but we (develop) only half of them, 8.1 (know) them since we met at Ann's party 9. You (open) the door at last I (ring) for an hour at least, it seems to me. 10. Look s the typist (talk) all the time, she already (miss) several words. Conversational Topics: Education in Britain Exercises on the vocabulary: 1. Study the words and word combinations of the active vocabulary stated below. 2. Explain the contextual meaning of the underlined lexical units relying on an English-English dictionary. 3. Recall the situations in which the active vocabulary is used in the text stated below. 4. Make up your own situations or sentences with the active vocabulary. Vocabulary: core [k] . , core curriculum attainment ['tenmnt] . 1) ; 2) (attainments) , , scientific attainments award ['wd] 1. . , (, , ) whilst [(h)walst] lodging ['l ] . 1) , foundation [faun'de()n] . 1) , 2) , ; , a
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to ensure () ambitious [m'b s] . 1) 2) ; ( -.); (-.) 3) An ambitious mind wants success. . employment [m'plmnt] . 1) ; ; ( ) redbrick university . " " (, 19 - 20 .; roughly ['rfl ] .1) , ; (, , -.) 2) , , ( -.) 3) , , expenses .; . . , Exercise 1. Read and translate the text. In England and Wales compulsory school begins at the age of five, but before that age children can go to a nursery school, also called play school. School is compulsory till the children are 16 years old. In Primary School and First School children learn to read and write and the basis of arithmetic. In the higher classes of Primary School (or in Middle School) children learn geography, history, religion and, in some schools, a foreign language. Then children go to the Secondary School. When students are 16 years old they may take an exam in various subjects in order to have a qualification. These qualifications can be either G.C.S.E. (General Certificate of Secondary Education) or "O level" (Ordinary level). After that students can either leave school and start working or continue their studies in the same school as before. If they continue, when they are 18, they have to take further examinations which are necessary for getting into university or college. Some parents choose private schools for their children. They are very expensive but considered to provide a better education and good job opportunities. In England there are 47 universities, including the Open University which teaches via TV and radio, about 400 colleges and institutes of higher education. The oldest universities in England are Oxford and Cambridge. Generally, universities award two kinds of degrees: the Bachelor's degree and the Master's degree. The National curriculum. Until 1988 the programmes of study varied from school to school and from region to region. One of the most important changes in education brought about by the Education Reform Act of 1988 is the introduction of a National Curriculum, for children aged 5- 16 in all state schools in England and Wales. The National Curriculum consists of 10 subjects which all the children must study at school. 1. Core subjects: English, mathematics, science.
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2. Foundation subjects: history, geography, a modern language, technology, art, music, physical education. 3. Religious Education is taught. 4. Attainment tests are given at the ages of 7, 11, 14, 16. Schools offer other subjects in addition to those in the National Curriculum. The National Curriculum aims to ensure that all children study essential subjects and have a better all-round education. Examinations. Pupils sit the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) exams at the end of the 5-years course. They usually take as many subjects as possible. Weak pupils may only sit for three or four subjects whilst better students will take ten subjects. Consequently pupils in Britain leave school at the age of 16 with examination certificates in the individual subjects they have passed. The sixth form. More ambitious pupils continue with very specialized studies in the sixth form. They remain at school for two more years. At the sixth form stage studies are highly specialized in only 3 or 4 main subjects which will prepare students either for entry to University or College of higher Education, or for direct entry into employment in industry or commerce. Examinations. The GCE Advanced Level (A-level) is normally taken after the two years of study in the sixth form. The GCE Advanced Supplementary (AS), new examinations introduced for the first time in 1989, provides an opportunity for six-form pupils to take up a much wider curriculum than was previously possible. A student can take mathematics and physics at A-level but also study a modern language and economics at AS-level. A-levels or a mixture of A- and AS-levels are the main standard for entrance to university or other higher education. University. Today there are 89 universities in Britain, compared with only seventeen in 1945. They fall into 4 broad categories: the ancient English foundations, the ancient Scottish ones, the redbrick universities, and the plate-glass ones*. All the British universities are private institutions. Each has its own governing council; including some local business people and local politicians as well as a few academics. The state began to give them grants 60 years ago. Students have to pay fees and living costs, but every student may obtain a personal grant from local authorities of the place where he lives. This is enough to pay his full costs, including lodging and food but the amount depends on the parents income. If the parents dont earn much money, their children will receive a full grant which will roughly cover all the expenses. Students studying for first degrees are known as undergraduates. They have lectures, there are regular seminars, at which one of the students read a paper of he or she has written. The paper is then discussed by the tutor and the rest of the group. The Bachelors degree. After 3 or 4 years (depending on the type of the university) the students will take their finals. Those who pass examinations successfully are given the Bachelors degree: bachelor of Arts (BA) for History, Philosophy, Language and
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Literature and sometimes Social Studies or Theology; or bachelor of Science (BSc) or Commerce or Music. The Masters degree. The first postgraduate degree is normally that of Master: Master of Arts (MA); Master of Science (MSc). In most universities it is only the science faculties that any large numbers of students stay to do postgraduate work. Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) is the highest degree. It is given for some original research work which is an important contribution to knowledge. *The name "Plateglass Universities" was apparently first used by Michael Beloff in his 1968 book
The Plateglass Universities, published only a few years after the group of "New Universities" (as they were generally called at the time) had been created. Beloff invents the term "Plateglass Universities" to describe the 1960s universities specifically Sussex, York, East Anglia, Essex, Lancaster, Kent and Warwick

3. What subjects do children learn in Primary School? 4. What kind of exam do students have to take when they are 16? 5. Do students have to leave school at the age of 16 or to continue their studies? 6. How do private schools differ from the regular ones? 7. How many universities are there in England? 8. What is the Open University? 9. What kinds of degrees do universities award? Exercise 5. Put on your own questions upon the text. Exercise 6. Retell the text in your own words.

Exercise 2. Construct sentences using the text 1. years/ is/ the/ children/ are/ school/ 16/ compulsory/ till/ old 2. go/ then/ to/ Secondary/ School/ children/ the 3. before/ the/ and/ after/ continue/ students/ or/ either/ school/ working/ their/ same/ school/ as/ that/ can/ leave/ start/ studies/ in 4. for/ choose/ private/ their/ some/ schools/ children/ parents 5. specialized/ ambitious/ form/ more/ continue/ very/ studies/ the/ sixth/ pupils/ with/ in 6. that/ most/ it/ is/ only/ the/ faculties/ any/ large/ numbers/ of/ students/ to/ do/ postgraduate/ work/ in/ universities/ science/ stay Exercise 3. Reproduse the situations in which the following phrases are used: children learn geography, history, religion start working or continue their studies private schools the Bachelor's degree and the Master's degree. National Curriculum Attainment tests ambitious pupils Advanced Level to pay fees and living costs regular seminars

Exercise 4. Answer the following questions to the text making use of expressions given in the box below. To my mind; As far as I know; In my opinion: There is no doubt that 1. When does compulsory school begin? 2. How long does a child stay in compulsory school?
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Unit XV
Phonetics: [u:], [ju:] [u:] . [u:] , , "". [ju:] . [u:]. [ju:], [j]. [ju:] "", , . : "" - [ ku:l ] cool - "" - [ ju: ] you - / "" - [ su:p ] soup - "" - [ vju: ] view - "" - [ gu:s ] goose - "" - [ sju: ] sue - "" - [ mu:s ] moose - "" - [ pju: ] pew - "" - [ bu:m ] boom - "" - [ bju:ti ] beauty - "" - [ stu:l ] stool - [u:], [ju:] : [ pu:l ] pool - [ pju:pl ] pupil - [ su:n ] soon - [ bju:tiful ] beautiful - [ klu:] ] clue - [ stju:dnt ] student - [ spu:n ] spoon - [ institju:t ] institute - [ sku:l ] school - [ ju:z ] use - [u:] : - oo + k, : spoon, room, pool, cool, boot, school - u, l e, : blue, clue. - ou, soup [u:]. [ ju: ] : - Uu [ju:], + e, : tune. - [ l, r ] u [ u: ]: ruler, blue. - ew [ i: d bl ju: ]: new. Grammar: Revision of the Present Tenses. Exercise 1. , : Present Simple , Present Continuous , Present Perfect , Present Perfect Continuous . 1. He (to run) now. He (to rim) for ten minutes without any rest. 2. What they (to do) now? They (to work) in the reading-room. They (to work) there for already three hours. 3. Where he (to be) now? He (to be) in the garden. He (to play) volley-ball with his friends. They (to play) since breakfast time. 4. I (to live) in St. Petersburg. I (to live) in St. Petersburg since 1990. 5. She already (to do)her homework for two
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hours; but she (not yet to do) half of it. 6. I (to wait) for you since two o'clock. 7. What you (to do)? I (to read). I (to read) for already two hours. I already (to read) sixty pages. 8. This man (to be) a writer. He (to write) books. He (to write) books since he was a young man. He already (to write) eight books. 9. What you (to do) here since morning? 10. Lena is a very good girl. She always (to help) her mother about the house. Today she (to help) her mother since morning. They already (to wash) the floor and (to dust) the furniture. Now they (to cook) dinner together. 11. This is the factory where my father (to work). He (to work) here for fifteen years. 12. You (to find) your note-book? No! I still (to look) for it. I already (to look) for it for two hours, but (not yet to find) it. 13. You (to play) with a ball for already three hours. Go home and do your homework. 14. Wake up! You (to sleep) for ten hours already. 15. I (to wait) for a letter from my cousin for a month already, but (not yet to receive) it. 15. It is difficult for me to speak about this opera as I (not to hear) it. 16. I just (to receive) a letter from my granny, but I (not yet to receive) any letters from my parents. 17. The weather (to be) fine today. The sun (to shine) ever since we got up. 18. Every day I (to wind) up my watch at 10 o'clock in the evening. 19. Come along, Henry, what you (to do) now? I (to wait) for you a long time. 20. Where your gloves (to be)? I (to put) them into my pocket. Conversational Topics: AMERICAN SCHOOLING Exercises on the vocabulary: 1. Study the words and word combinations of the active vocabulary stated below. 2. Explain the contextual meaning of the underlined lexical units relying on an English-English dictionary. 3. Recall the situations in which the active vocabulary is used in the text stated below. 4. Make up your own situations or sentences with the active vocabulary. Vocabulary: somewhat ['smwt] 1. . -; - 2. . , , ; peculiarity [pkju:l 'rt ] . 1) ) ; , , ) , ( ) 2) , ; 3) , , public Board of Education () accrediting agencies , junior high school () senior high school ()
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spelling , charge a fee -. (for smth.) primarily [pra'mer()l] . 1) 2) , certify ['stfa] . 1) , , 2) 3) , , She was certified as a teacher. . comprise [km'praz] . 1) ; , 2) extracurricular [`ekstrk'rkjl] . ; , ; chorus ['krs] 1. . 1) , requirement [r'kwamnt] . 1) ; 2) , , , Exercise 1. Read and translate the text. The American system of education differs somewhat from the systems of other countries. It has certain peculiarities of its own which are closely connected with the specific conditions of life in the New World and the history of American society. There are free, state-supported, public schools which the majority of American children attend. There are also a number of private elementary and secondary schools where a fee is charged for admission and children are accepted or rejected on the basis of an examination. These include many church-supported schools, usually Catholic, which also charge a fee. Most public schools are coeducational, that is, girls and boys study together, but a lot of the church-supported schools are for boys or girls only. Under the United States Constitution the federal government has no power to make laws in the field of education. Thus, education remains primarily a function of the states. Each state has a Board of Education (usually 3 to 9 members elected by the public or appointed by the governor), not subject to federal control. State laws determine the age of compulsory education, the length of the school year, the way in which teachers shall be certified and many of the courses which must be taught. With so much local control there is some degree of uniformity of education provided in different parts of the USA, because state and national accrediting agencies insist that certain standards be maintained and certain things be taught. Education is compulsory for every child from the age of 6 up to the age of 16 except in Maine, New Mexico, North Dakota and Pennsylvania where it is compulsory to the age of 17 and in Nevada, Ohio, Oklahoma and Utah where children must go to school until the age of 18. Elementary (primary) and secondary (high) schools are organized on one of two bases: eight years of elementary school and four years of secondary school, or six
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years of elementary, three years of junior high school* and three years of senior high school. Elementary school children in the US learn much the same things as do children of the same age in other countries. The program of studies includes English (reading, writing, spelling9, grammar, and composition), arithmetic (sometimes elementary algebra or plane geometry in upper grades), geography, history of the USA, and elementary natural science. Physical training, music, drawing are also taught. Some schools teach a modern language, such as French, Spanish, or German. The junior high school is a sort of halfway between elementary and secondary school. It continues some elementary school subjects, but it also introduces courses in mathematics and science, and usually gives students their first chance to study a foreign language. It usually comprises grades seven, eight and nine, although sometimes it is only grades seven and eight. The high school prepares young people either for work immediately after graduation or for more advanced study in a college or university. Although there are some technical, vocational and specialized high schools in the United States the typical high school is comprehensive in nature. The subjects studied in elementary school are dealt with in greater detail and in more advanced form in high school. In addition one can specialize in home economics, chemistry and physics, music, humanities, automobile mechanics, etc. High school students study 4-5 major subjects a year and classes in each of them meet for an hour a day, five days a week. The United States have the shortest school year in the world, an average of 180 days. An important part of high school life is what is called extracurricular activities. The student is free to join a chorus, band or school orchestra; enter the debating team, or participate in sports of all kinds as well as a variety of social activities. The fundamental task the US faces today is the modernization of the entire school system. It is not only to provide more and better schools, but also to reexamine the contents of the education and to bring it into line with modern requirements. Exercise 2. Find English equivalents for the following in the text: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; . Exercise 3. Find facts from the text to support these statements: The American system of education differs somewhat from the systems of other countries. The program of studies in Elementary school includes many subjects. Education is compulsory for every child in America. An important part of high school life is what is called extracurricular activities. Every State has its own local Board of Education.
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Exercise 4. Answer the following questions to the text making use of expressions given in the box below. To my mind; As far as I know; In my opinion: There is no doubt that 1. What is the main division in the educational system of the USA? 2. What schools do the majority of American children attend? 3. Who controls public schools? 4. Is there any uniformity in the organization and curricula of American schools? 5. What is the compulsory school age in the majority of the states? 6. How many grades are there in American elementary and secondary schools? 7. What subjects does the program of elementary school include? 8. What does the high school prepare young people for? 9. What programs of study may a high school student follow? 10. What activities are sponsored by the school outside its academic program? Exercise 5. Put on your own questions upon the text. Exercise 6. Look through the text, divide it into parts and find the key sentences in each of them.

Unit XVI
Phonetics: [ u ] [u] , . [u:] , . , [u] [u:], , . : "" - [ stud ] stood "" - [ tuk ] took "" - [ hud ] hood "" - [ luk ] look "" - [ fut ] foot "" - [ put ] put [ u ] : - oo + k. : book, look, cook, took, rook (: good, stood) - u ( , p, b) [u]: put, pull, push, bush. [u:] [u]. . , . [ fu:l ] - [ ful ] fool full [ pu:l ] - [ pul ] pool pull [ bu:m ] - [ bul ] boom bull [ ru:m ] - [ grum ] room groom [ ru:t ] - [ ruk ] root rook [lu:z ] - [ luk ] loose look [, ] , . [] , , . [] . [, ] : ", ". [h] : [ ip ] ship [ i:p ] sheep [ eip ] shape [ ou ] show [ ai ] shy [ fini ] finish [ tre ] treasure [ me ] measure [ ple ] pleasure [ vin ] vision

[] : - sh: ship, shelf, shut, fish, finish. tion, sian: vacation, Russian. [] . 111 112

: sure, sion: pleasure, measure, vision. Grammar: The Past Indefinite (Simple) Tense. The Past Continuous (Progressive) Tense. THE PAST INDEFINITE TENSE , .. . -ed to. to talk - -talked [to:kt] to place - -placed [pleist] : to run - -ran to write - - wrote to be - -was, were to have - -had to go - -went , . . (Past Indefinite) (Past Participle). , , , . . to do - did, , to: Did you make a report yesterday? ? Did he serve in the army last year? ? , , , .. to do - did not , : I did not make a report yesterday. . did not serve in the army last year. .

THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE to be (was, were) (Participle I) : was listening to the radio when I came in. , . to be , - . Was he listening to the radio when I came in? , ? to be not: was not listening to the radio when I came in. , . : 1. , - . ( ) , - Past Indefinite, , (, , ). The twins were examining Ralph curiously, as though they were seeing him for the first time. , . 2. , . , all day long , the whole evening , from ... till ... , : They were directing the fire by radio. . Exercise 1. see, read, cut, hear, stand, put, sing, take, write, run, bring, eat, drink, speak, go, be, have, give, teach, sleep, know, buy, get, come. Exercise 2. 2 : Regular Verbs Irregular Verbs: begin, leave, see, have, come, make, lose, visit, travel, stay, start, buy, take, drive, paint, write, do, enjoy, speak, meet. Exercise 3. :

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1. I play in the field. 2. He wants to go home. 3. The driver stops the car. 4, He drinks tea every day. 5. It begins to rain. 6. They like our house. 7. I dream every night. 8. My sister cleans the room. 9. The teachers gives us dictation. 10. He sits at his desk and writes a letter. 11. Mary comes early. 12. The cat catches the fish in the river. 13. The dogs eats its dinner. 14. The boys go for a holiday. 15. Richard knows George. 16. The plane flies very high. 17. He teaches us English. 18. I wash my hands every day. 19. He goes to school. Exercise 4. : I didn't go to New York. I went to Chicago. 1. We ... Jim, we ... Max (meet. 2. He ... last Tueday, he ... last Thursday. (leave) 3. We ... Jack, we ... David. (see) 4. They ... a Volvo, they ... a Fiat. (buy) 5. You ... the answer, Tom ... the answer. (know) 6. I ... my passport, I ... my ticket. (lose) 7. We ... the pizza, we ... hot dogs. (have) 8. He ... a letter, he ... a posrcard. (write) 9. The film ... at 6.30 p.m., it ... at 7.30 p.m. (begin) Exercise 5. 1. morning / you / time / get / up / what / in / the / did? 2. dinner / night / have / what / last / you / for / did? 3. did / train / last / you / by / when / travel? 4. do / what / Sunday / you / last / did? 5. did / summer / go / where / last / you? 6. visit / you / art gallery / an / last / did / when? 7. travel / on / you / how / work / did / to / Monday? Exercise 6. . On Monday we have five lessons. The first lesson is Russian. At this lesson we write a dictation and do some exercises. Nick goes to the blackboard. He answers well and gets a "five". Pete does not get a "five" because he does not know his lesson. After the second lesson I go to the canteen. I eat a sandwich and drink a cup of tea. I do not drink milk. After school I do not go home at once. I go to the library and take a book. Then I go home. Exercise 7. , Present Past Simple . 1. I (to go) to bed at ten o'clock every day. 2. I (to go) to bed at ten o'clock yesterday. 3. My brother (to wash) his face every morning. 4. Yesterday he (to wash) his face at a quarter past seven. 5. I (not to have) history lessons every day. 6. We (not to rest) yesterday. 7. My brother (not to drink) coffee yesterday. 8. My mother always (to take) a bus to get to work, but yesterday she (not to take) a bus. Yesterday she (to walk) to her office. 9. You (to talk) to the members of your family every day? - Yes, I. ___But yesterday I (not to talk) to them: I (to be) very busy yesterday. 10. You (to come) home at six o'clock yesterday? - -No, I. ___Yesterday I (to come) home from school at half past eight. I (to be) very tired. I (to have) dinner with my family. After

dinner I (to be) very thirsty. I (to drink) two cups of tea. Then I (to rest). 11. Your sister (to go) to school every day? Yes, she___. Exercise 8. , Present Continuous Past Continuous 1. I (to write) an English exercise now. 2. I (to write) an English exercise at this time yesterday, 3. My little sister (to sleep) now. 4 My little sister (to sleep) at this time yesterday. 5. My friends (not to do) their homework now. They (to play) volley-ball. 6. My friends (not to do) their homework at seven o'clock yesterday. They (to play) volley-ball. 7. You (to eat) ice-cream now? 8. You (to eat) ice-cream when I rang you up yesterday? 9. What your father (to do) now? 10. What your father (to do) from eight till nine yesterday? 11. Why she (to cry) now? 12. Why she (to cry) when I saw her yesterday? 13. She (to read) the whole evening yesterday. 14. She (not to read) now, 15. Now she (to go) to school. 16. What you (to do) now? -I (to drink) tea. 17. You (to drink) tea at this time yesterday? No, I (not to drink) tea at this time yesterday, I (to eat) a banana. 18. My sister is fond of reading. She (to read) the whole evening yesterday, and now she (to read) again, 19. Look! My cat (to play) with a ball. 20. When I went out into the garden, the sun (to shine) and birds (to sing) in the trees. Exercise 9. , Past Simple Past Continuous. 1.1 (to play) computer games yesterday. 2. I (to play) computer games at five o'clock yesterday. ; 3. He (to play) computer games from two till three yesterday. 4. We (to play) computer games the whole evening yesterday. 5. What Nick (to do) when [ you came to his place? 6. What you (to do) when I rang you up? 7. I (not to sleep) at nine o'clock yesterday. 8. What he (to do) yesterday? He (to read) a book. 9. What he (to do) the whole evening yesterday? He (to read) a book. 10. She (to sleep) when you came home? 11. My brother (not to play) tennis yesterday. He (to play) tennis the day before yesterday. 12. My sister (not to play) the piano at four o'clock yesterday. She (to play) the piano the whole evening. 13. When I came into the kitchen, mother (to cook). 14. She (to cook) the whole day yesterday. 15. We (to wash) the floor in our flat yesterday. 16. We (to wash) the floor in our flat from three till four yesterday. 17. You (to do) your homework yesterday? 18. You (to do) your homework from eight till ten yesterday? 19. Why she (to sleep) at seven o'clock yesterday? 20. He (to sit) at the table the whole evening yesterday. Exercise 10. , Present Perfect PastSimple. 1. We (to travel) around Europe last year. 2. My father knows so much because he (to travel) a lot. 3.1 (to see) Pete today, 4. She (to see) this film last Sunday. 5. Alex (to meet) his friend two hours ago. 6.1 just (to meet) our teacher. 7. The children already (to decide) what to do with the books. 8. Yesterday they (to decide) to help their grandmother. 9. Helen speaks French so well because she (to live) in France. 10. She (to live) there last year. 11. The rain (to stop) and the sun is shining in the sky again. 12. The rain (to stop) half an hour ago. 13. Mary (to buy) a new hat. 14.1 (to buy) a pair of gloves yesterday. 15. The wind (to blow) off the man's hat, and he cannot
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catch it. 16. The weather (to change), and we can go for a walk. 17. The wind (to change) in the morning. Conversational Topics: The problems of teenagers Exercises on the vocabulary: 1. Study the words and word combinations of the active vocabulary stated below. 2. Explain the contextual meaning of the underlined lexical units relying on an English-English dictionary. 3. Recall the situations in which the active vocabulary is used in the text stated below. 4. Make up your own situations or sentences with the active vocabulary. Vocabulary: adult ['dlt], ['dlt] 1. . , ; 2. . , , acute ['kju:t] . 1) , 2) , 3) , ; , acute need , acute problem , generation gap 1) , 2) - inevitable['nevtbl] 1. .1) , , 2) , generate ['en()ret] . 1) , , 2) ; , regrettable [r'gretbl] . , accommodation [`k m'de()n] . 1) , , urgent ['()nt] . 1) , , to be in urgent need of smth. -. residential area for the sake of making money - adjust ['st] .1) 2) () 3) , , 4) , stir [st] 1. . 1) ) ; ; ) ; 2) = stir up , , ; 3) = stir up ,
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hijacking ['hak] . 1) , to carry out / commit a hijacking violent ['val()nt] . 1) , , 2) ) , ; ) , 3) , ; 4) 5) , Exercise 1. Read and translate the text. Youth is the time when a person is trying to find his place in the world. And during this search he or she comes across different problems which are as important as those of the adults. The youth of the 21st century face almost the same problems which were acute to their parents when they were young. One of them is a generation gap. Every generation is unique in its experience. It has its own ideals and a system of values concerning every aspect of human life. Adults always complain that the young people do not blindly accept the ideals of their parents. And this is inevitable as different generations take different directions. Grown-ups always teach the young how to live. But the latter want to live their own life. And it generates the conflict of the generations. Another problem of the youth is the problem of love. Young people fall in love when they reach the age of Romeo and Juliet. Romanticism and idealism very often accompany the love of the young. It is regrettable, but the young are not always ready to have stable relations. For a happy family life two people must understand and respect each other. It should be said, that the young have other problems as well. They are concerned with education (which is rather expensive), money, employment, hobby, spending, their free time, communication and the like. And of course, one of the most urgent problems is the accommodations problem. Not many young people in our country have their own apartments. In the main, they share the apartments with their parents even after getting married. As far as I know, many young Americans do not live with their families. They prefer to live in apartment blocks or residential areas where everyone is more or less of the same age. One more problem should be stressed. Its the problem of the youth unemployment. The number of young people looking for job is constantly increasing. They are looking for job not only for the sake of earning money, but because they want to be independent from their parents. Job gives the young people a chance to adjust themselves to the real life of adults and stir their ambitions. School-leavers can be part-time workers, seasonal workers and so on. In general, their job is not welcomed. Very often preference is given to adult people. I think that our government should work out some social employment programmers. Our young people can be considered only a part of our society. So just the same problems our society is facing nowadays, are typical of the young people. They are drug-taking, alcohol, smoking, prostitution, hijacking, murders, stealing, kid118

napping, robberies and the like. Young people are more violent then ever. Many people say that their lives have been made miserable by young people out on the street late at night. All those groups or subcultures are awful, because all of their members are violent. They only think about rebellion against society, its laws, they reject everything, they protest against their parents and school. As for the American youth, their problems are connected with their beliefs and values. Hard work is part of the American Dream. To be a success is important in America. Society doesnt like those who have achieved nothing. Thats why all young Americans want to work hard and be a success. The first step to it is a high diploma. Without it, its almost impossible to be successful. In order to get it you should compete. And of course, communication can be one of the most important problems not only of the young Americans, but of all young people of today. If you dont like noisy clubs and other places of entertainment, you cam make friends without leaving your apartment. The Internet gives such an opportunity. But the problem is that people can sit at the displays for 24 hours without eating, sleeping, having a rest, working or learning properly. I am sure, that its a great problem of the present and future. Exercise 2. Construct sentences using the text generation/ of/ is/ gap/ them/ one/ a must/ life/ a/ each/ for/ happy/ people/ and/ respect/ family/ two/ understand/ other with/ even/ the/ married/ apartments/ in/ main/,/ share/ parents/ getting/ the/ they/ their/ after is/ very/ to/ preference/ adult/ given/ people/ often be/ success/ to/ a/ is/ America/ important/ in Exercise 3. Reproduce the sitations in which the following phrases are used: the same problems which were acute to their parents how to live the problem of love urgent problems youth unemployment preference is given more violent then ever To be a success Exercise 4. Find information in the above text about: Adults do not understand the young people. The problem of love is urgent to all generations. Not many young people in our country have their own apartments. Communication can be one of the most important problems not only of the young Americans, but of all young people of today. Internet, its role today.
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Exercise 4. Answer the following questions to the text making use of expressions given in the box below. To my mind; As far as I know; In my opinion: There is no doubt that Why do grown-ups always teach the young how to live? What is nessasary for For a happy family life? One of the most urgent problems is the accommodations problem for the young isnt it? What problems are are typical of the young people today? Why are young people more violent then ever today? What can you say about American youth? Do you agree with the articles writer on the topic about the young pople today? Exercise 5. Put on your own questions upon the text. Exercise 6. Look through the text, divide it into parts and find the key sentences in each of them.

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Unit XVII
Phonetics: [ t] [t] ( ). "" (, ), [t]. . [t]. , [t]. [t] :: [ dit ] ditch [ eit ] h [ ri:t ] reach [ bent ] bench [ ti:z ] cheese [ test ] chest [ tik ] chick [ t ein ] chain [ bentiz ] benches [ mitil ] Mitchell [ pikt ] picture [ ti:t ] teacher

[t] : - ch [ si: eit ]: bench, chick, cheese, chain. - tch [ ti: si: eit ]: ditch, Mitchell - 4- : , 4- , , h , . ch, tch. : each, bench, teach, reach, match, scotch, catch. - ture [t]: picture, lecture. Grammar: The Past Perfect Tense and the Past Perfect Continuous Tense. THE PAST PERFECT TENSE to have had (Participle II) : had written a letter when I came in. , () . They had come back by two o'clock yesterday. () .

to have , -.: Had he written a letter when I came in? () , ? Had they come back by two o'clock yesterday? () ? to have not: had not written a letter when I came in. , . : 1. , , , ..: We had finished our work by five o'clock. () . 2. , : had written three letters and was just starting on the fourth, when the door was suddenly flang open and ElsieClayton rushed into the room. , , . THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE to be (had been) (Participle I) : I had been working till late in the evening yesterday. . to have , - : Had you been working till late in the evening yesterday? ? to have not: I had not been working till late in the evening yesterday. . , - , . .

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looked very tired when I came to his place for he had been preparing for his exams for several days. , , . Exercise 1. , Past Simple Past Perfect. 1. When I (to come) home, mother already (to cook) dinner. 2. When father (to return) from work, we already (to do) our homework. 3. When the teacher (to enter) the classroom, the pupils already (to open) their books. 4. Kate (to give) me the book which she (to buy) the day before. 5. Nick (to show) the teacher the picture which he (to draw). 6. The boy (to give) the goats the grass which he (to bring) from the field. 7. Mother (to see) that Nick (not to wash) his hands. 8. The teacher (to understand) that Lena (not to do) her homework. 9. I (to know) that my friend (not yet to come). 10. Tom (to return) from the cinema at five o'clock. 11. Tom (to return) from the cinema by five o'clock. 12. I (to finish) my homework at seven o'clock. 13. I (to finish) my homework by seven o'clock. 14. He (to think) that he (to lose) the money. 15. Ann (to tell) me that she (to see) an interesting film. 16. When I (to wake) up yesterday, father already (to go) to work. 17. Nick (to think) that his father (not yet to come) home. 18. Mary (to tell) us that she (to cook) a good dinner. 19. Yesterday I (to find) the book which I (to lose) in summer. 20. When we (to come) to the station, the train already (to leave). Exercise 2. , Past Simple Past Perfect. 1. (to study) French before he (to enter) the university. 2. Lanny (to say) that he (to get) his education in Cape Town. 3. The boy (to want) to act the main part in the play because he (to organize) the theatre. 4. Lanny (not to know) who (to attack) him in the darkness. 5. The girl (to be) glad that she (to find) a seat near the window. 6. Suddenly he (to remember) that he (not to ring) her up in the morning. 7. By the time the train (to reach) the city, he (to make) friends with many passengers. 8. When his uncle (to leave), he (to hurry) to the station to book a ticket. 9. She (to think) that Gert and Lanny (to quarrel). 10. By the time we (to come) to see him, he (to return) home. 11. During the holidays my friend (to visit) the village where he (to live) in his childhood. 12. When they (to enter) the hall, the performance already (to begin). 13. When I came home, my mother (to tell) me that she (to receive) a letter from grandfather. 14. Where you (to work) before you (to enter) the institute? 15. By two o'clock the teacher (to examine) all the students. 16. On my way to school I (to remember) that I (to leave) my report at home. 17. All my friends (to be) glad to hear that I (to pass) all the examinations successfully. 18. Poor Oliver (to lie) unconscious on the spot where Sikes (to leave) him. 19. He (to open) his eyes, (to look) around and (to try) to remember what (to happen) to him. 20. All the passengers (to see) at once that the old man (to travel) a great deal in his life.

Exercise 3. , Past Simple, Past Continuous Past Perfect. I. By eight o'clock yesterday I (to do) my homework and at eight I (to play) the piano. 2. By six o'clock father (to come) home and at six he (to have) dinner. 3. By nine o'clock yesterday grandmother (to wash) the dishes and at nine she (to watch) TV. 4. When I (to meet) Tom, he (to eat) an ice-cream which he (to buy) at the corner of the street. 5. When I (tq come) home, my sister (to read) a book which she (to bring) from the library.6. When mother (to come) home, the children (to eat) the soup which she (to cook) in the morning.7. When I (to ring) up Mike, he still (to learn) the poem which he (to begin) learning at school.8. When I (to look) out of the window, the children (to play) with a ball which Pete (to bring) from home. 9. By ten o'clock the children (to settle) comfortably on the sofa and at ten they (to watch) a TV film. 10. When father (to come) home, we (to cook) the mushrooms which we (to gather) in the wood. 11. When I (to see) Ann, she (to sort) the flowers which she (to pick) in the field. 12. When I (to come) home yesterday, I (to see) that my little brother (to break) my pen and (to play) with its pieces. 13. When I (to open) the door of the classroom, I (to see) that the teacher already (to come) and the pupils (to write) a dictation. Exercise 4. , the Past Perfect Continuous Tense: Consider, burn, drive, hope, rain, write, work, try, quarrel, practice. 1. He___the car for many hours before he came to the crossroads, 2. The pianist ___ the passage hour after hour till he mastered it, 3, When I met her, her eyes were red. She and Mike again____. 4, When I came, they___ this question for more than an hour. 5. It was evening and he was tired because he___since dawn. 6. He ___ to get her on the phone for 15 minutes before he heard her voice. 7. By 12 o'clock they _____ a composition for two hours. 8. The fire___for some time before a fire brigade came. 9.I___to meet her for ages when I bumped into her by chance. 10. When I left home, it was raining, and as it___since morning, the streets were muddy. Conversational Topics: Youth organizations in Great Britain Exercises on the vocabulary: 1. Study the words and word combinations of the active vocabulary stated below. 2. Explain the contextual meaning of the underlined lexical units relying on an English-English dictionary. 3. Recall the situations in which the active vocabulary is used in the text stated below. 4. Make up your own situations or sentences with the active vocabulary. Vocabulary: council ['kaun(t)s()l] . 1) ( ) town council , student council .
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voluntary ['vlnt()r ] 1. . 1) ; 2) , , , ( ) knotting['nt] . 1) , 2) , , ; ( ) obey ['be] . 1) , , to obey the law / rules , handshake ['hnd ek] . badge [b] . 1) , ; 2) ; ; motto ['mtu] . 1) , child care needlework['ni:dlwk] . , (; , ) birdwatching (uncountable) observing or identifying wild birds in their natural environment Exercise 1. Read and translate the text. Youth and youth movement have become important factors in the life of the country. Numerous youth organizations have been formed since the Second World War, uniting young people from all classes and sections of the population. There are about 60 youth organizations in Great Britain. Youth Council, which represents the youth of the country both nationally and internationally. All youth organizations can be divided into three large groups: 1. non-political organizations; 2. youth organizations associated with political parties; 3. youth organizations controlled by religious bodies. The two largest non-political youth organizations are the associations of the Boy Scouts and the Girl Guides. There are about 1300000 boys and girls in them. The membership is voluntary. The Scout Association was formed in 1908 by General Baden Powell. His idea was to train boys in mapping, signaling, knotting, first aid and all the skills that would arise from camping and outdoor activities. Most important of all for a Scout was to make a promise that he would do his best to do his duty to God and the Queen, to help other people and to obey the Scout Law. The Boy Scouts had a left-handed handshake, a special badge and the motto Be Prepared. The Scout Law embraces honour, obedience, cheerfulness, thrift and cleanliness in thought and deed. The Scout movement was intended for boys from 11 to 14 (15), but in 1916 Baden Powell introduced a programme for younger people. He called them Wolf Cubs. They had special uniforms, badges, a special training system and the motto Do your best! The Wolf Cub pack is based on Kiplings Jungle Book about learning to survive.
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The Girl Guides Association was founded by Baden Pawell in 1910. Its divided into three sections: Brownies (from 7.5 to 11), Guides (from 11 to 16), Rangers (from 16 to 21). The programme of training is planned to develop intelligence and practical skills including cookery, needlework, childcare. Like a Scout a Girl Guide must be a friend to animals. The Girl Guides Association has extensive international links. There are some other non-political organizations: the Combined Cadet Force, Sea Cadet Corps, the Woodcraft Folk, the Youth Hostels Association, the National Federation of Young Farmers Clubs, and Greenpeace. Youth Organization Greenpeace deals with most urgent ecological problems. It protests against nuclear weapon tests, sea and soil pollution, etc. Sport clubs are characteristic youth organizations in the UK. They unite people who are interested in baseball, football, golf, etc. There also exist interest clubs. You can attend any club: from theatre to bird-watching clubs. By the way, bird watching clubs are very popular in Great Britain. There are several youth organizations associated with political parties. The Youth Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (YCND) unites young people and organizes mass rallies and meetings, demonstrations, marches of protest, festivals. It cooperates with the National Union of Students. Religious young organizations and groups aim at helping to elderly people or working in hospitals. There are even groups where young people help released prisoners to start them life a-new. Religious organizations pay attention not only to the study of religious views but involve youth into such activities as music festivals and amateur theatre. As you see, all there organizations aim at preserving and strengthening the social and political system existing in the country. Many of them have done and still are doing useful work in providing leisure facilities for young English people. Exercise 2. Say whether these statements are true or false and if they are false say why. 1. Numerous youth organizations have been formed since the Second World War, uniting young people from all classes and sections of the population. 2. All youth organizations can be divided into two large groups. 3. Most important of all for a Scout was to make a promise that he would do his best to do his duty to God and the Queen, to help other people and to obey the Scout Law. 4. The membership in a Scout is compulsory to all boys. 5. The Wolf Cub pack is based on Kiplings Jungle Book about learning to survive. 6. Like a Scout a Girl Guide must be a friend to animals and the membership in it is compulsory too. 7. Religious organizations pay attention not only to the study of religious views but involve youth into such activities as music festivals and amateur theatre.

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Exercise 3. Make the right choice from the text above to complete the sentences and translate them. the associations of the Boy Scouts and the Girl Guides. to train boys in mapping, signaling, knotting . a left-handed handshake . a programme for younger people. Like a Scout a Girl Guide . bird watching clubs . The Youth Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (YCND) . preserving and strengthening. Exercise 4. Answer the following questions: 1. How many youth organizations have been formed in Great Britain? 2. What groups can be youth organizations divided into? 3. What are the main two non-political youth organizations in Great Britain? 4. The membership in the Boy Scouts and the Girl Guides is voluntary isnt it? 5. When was the Scout Association formed? 6. What is the the motto of the Scout Association? 7. What is the Wolf Cub pack based on? 8. Are there any other non-political organizations in Great Britain? Exercise 5. Put on your own questions upon the text. Exercise 6. Divide the text into parts and entitle them. Summarize the contents of the text according to your outline.

Unit XVIII
Phonetics: [ d ] [d] [t], . , . [d] : [ dim ] gym - [ vilid ] village - [ dein ] Jane - [ keid ] cage - [ dil ] Jill - [ led ] ledge - [ du:n ] June - [ si:d ] siege - [ deind ] danger - [ peidiz ] pages - [ eidiz ] ages - [ ingeidmnt ] engagement - [d] : - j [ dei ]: Jill, Jane, June. - g [ di: ] e, i, y: Gem, cage, gym - : get [ get ], give [ giv ], gift [ gift ]. - . [ d ] [ t ] , : [ tin ] - [ din ] chin - gin - - - - [ tein ] - [ dein ] chain - Jane [ test ] - [ dest ] chest - jest [ tu: ] - [ du: ] chew - Jew

[ rit ] - [ rid ] rich - ridge - Grammar: Revision of the Past Tenses. Exercise 2. , Present Perfect, Present Simple, Present Continuous, Past Simple Past Continuous. 1. They (to go) to the Hermitage last week. 2. They (to be) to the Hermitage twice this week. 3. After school yesterday he (to come) home, (to have) dinner, (to read) an article from the latest magazine and (to begin) doing his homework. 4. When your friend (to return) from the south? She (to return) yesterday. You (to go) to the station to meet her? No, I..., I (to be) too busy. 5. With whom you (to discuss) this question yesterday? 6. I (to see) this film this week. I like it very much. 7. When I (to enter) the kitchen, I (to see) that my mother (to stand) at the table and (to cut) some cabbage. She (to cook) dinner. 8. As soon as I (to hear) a cry, I (to run) out of the room and (to see) that a child (to lie) on the ground and (to cry). What (to happen)? Why you (to cry)? You (to hurt) yourself? I asked. 9. As soon as I (to see) him, I (to understand) that he (to work) hard. He (to write) something and (not to notice) anything. 10. When I (to come) home yesterday, the children (to run) and (to sing) merrily. We (to learn) a new song! they cried. 11. When the young man (to enter) the room, she (to look) at him in surprise.What you (to want) to tell me? she (to say).
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Why you (to come)? 12. It (to rain) hard when I (to leave) home yesterday, so I (to return), (to put) on my raincoat and (to start) again. 13. Your brother (to return) from the north? Yes, he (to come) a few days ago. 14. You (to be) to the Crimea? When you (to be) there? I (to be) there in 1993. 15. Where (to be) your brother? He just (to come) home. He (to take) a shower in the bathroom now. Conversational Topics: Youth problems: unemployment, drugs... Exercises on the vocabulary: 1. Study the words and word combinations of the active vocabulary stated below. 2. Explain the contextual meaning of the underlined lexical units relying on an English-English dictionary. 3. Recall the situations in which the active vocabulary is used in the text stated below. 4. Make up your own situations or sentences with the active vocabulary. Vocabulary: pernicious [p'ns] . ; ; ; ; pernicious influence pernicious disease susceptible [s'septbl] .1)) ; ) ; ); 2) 3) ; susceptible to diseases to commit suicide prediction [pr'dk ()n] . 1) ; ; distinction [d'st k()n] . 1) , ; 2) , 3) , deprive[d'prav] . 1) , , (-.) to deprive of self-control mount [maunt .1) ) , ) , hit [ht] . 1) , ; 2) ; 3) , ; 4) , 5) , , , ; ; ; 6) , frustration [frs'tre()n] . 1) (), () 2) , (- -. )
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internecine [`nt'ni:san] . 1) ; ( , ) 2) , , lot [l t] 1. . 1) ) ; ) , 2) , , 5) . ) (the lot) , Move over the lot of you! - ! ) , (-. ) surplus['spls] 1. . , , 2. .1) , ; accusation[`kju'ze()n] . uselessness , assert ['st] . 1) ; , , 2) , , (-.) assert one's rights / oneself Exercise 1. Read the following text. Try to understand it in details. When you leave school you understand that the time of your independence life and the beginning of a far more serious examination of your abilities and character has come. You also understand that from now youll have to do everything yourself, and to fight with everybody around you for better life. The first problem that young people meet is to choose their future profession; it means that they have to choose the future of their life. Its not an easy task to make the right choice of a job. You know children have a lot of dreams about their future: to become a superman or a policeman or a doctor Its very easy they think, but when they become older and see real world they understand that in all professions need to know perfectly about what you do, you must be well-educated and wellinformed. Thats why I think its very important to have a good education at school. And if you work hard everything will be OK. Another problem of young people is drugs. This is a relatively new problem but it is becoming more and more dangerous. Million young people today are using drugs, and most of them will die. Usually they want just to try it, then again and again and after year may be two years they will die. It is true. Because there are no medicine to help you. Thats why never do it, if you do - it goes bad, very bad. I think that police must work hard to protect young people from drugs. Because drugs will kill our young generation and our future will be very bad. People of almost every age are susceptible to this pernicious disease but it hits the youth the hardest. Its name is unemployment. The percent-age of unemployed youth in the total number of the jobless is high. In many developing countries the situation is more serious. Many young people commit suicide. Unless the economic situation in the world changes, youth unemployment will mount.
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This prediction refers to all categories of workers-with high and low skills in town and country. For all there possible distinctions, these young people over outside the production structure of society. They are deprived the possibility of creating; there are "surplus" from time to time some may get a hit of luck, but the lot of the majority is to feel their uselessness, to lose their ideals and become disillusioned. Unemployment is greatly internecine tendency among the youth towards, drug education, frustration and crime. This is a time bomb and is a heavy accusation of any social economic system. There are many young people in our country. Each of them has one's own view point on their life and their future. There are many problems which are common for all young people. For example: how to spend their free time, what to do after school, choosing a profession, how to deal with girl and boy-friends and so on. The problem number one of the most of the young people is the problem of fathers and sons. All young people want to be independent; they want their parents to listen to their opinion, not to interfere in their private life. Some parents neglect their children, because they cant find a common language with each other. Many problems were hushed up, but now we can speak openly about them. I think that the most difficult and serious problem of modern teen-ages is drug-habit. Some young man use drugs, because they think that will be cool guys. But they don't understand that it's wrong. Some of them can't stop that, and they become dependent on drugs. And they commit different serious, because they need some money to buy drugs. There are also many other problems: alcoholism, smoking and so on. There are many youth organizations in our country, which unite young men on different principles. Members of every organization have ones own world outlooks. Each of them has their own moral qualities. There are some informal organizations, for example: skinheads, hippies, panks and so on. Now there exists the problem of misunderstanding between different youth groups. We also face the problem how to spend our free time. We can do it in different ways. Some of teen-ages spend their free time in different night clubs. Other young people spend their free time in the streets. As for me, I spend my free time at home or in the night clubs. I also have some problems with my parents. But every time when I have them I try to solve them without quarrel. Now we are young people and we are the future of our country. Teen-ages play an important role in the modern society. Grown up's must remember that we are the future of our country and in present moment our character is formed and that's why our parents must not assert pressure on us. Exercise 2. Construct sentences using the text 1. future/ that/ the/ their/ problem/ young/ meet/ is/ to/ choose/ profession/ first/ people 2. another/ is/ of/ people/ drugs/ problem/ young 3. different/ we/ do/ it/ ways/ can/ in 4. young/ be/ all/ people/ to/ independent/ want 5. in/ spend/ other/ people/ young/ free/ the/ time/ streets/ their

Exercise 3. Reproduse the situations in which the following phrases are used: far more serious examination an easy task to make the right choice more and more dangerous youth unemployment accusation of any social economic system the problem of fathers and sons misunderstanding between different youth groups the future of our country Exercise 3. Choose the most appropriate expressions from the text to fill the gaps in these sentences. 1. Other young people spend their ________ in the streets. 2. There are many youth organizations in our country, which unite young men___________. 3. Some young man _________, because they think that will be cool guys. 4. Unemployment is greatly ___________among the youth towards, drug education, frustration and crime. 5. For all there possible_______, these young people over outside the production structure of society. 6. People of almost every age are susceptible to this pernicious disease but it hits the youth the hardest. Its name is___________. 7. Its very easy young people think, but when they become older and see real world they understand that in all professions need to know perfectly about what you do, you must ______________________. Exercise 4. Answer the following questions: 1. What dreams about their future have all children? 2. Drug is a relatively new problem but it is becoming more and more dangerous, isn it? 3. Why is unemployment greatly internecine tendency among the youth? 4. What can you say about youth organizations in our country? 5. What other urgent problems of the youth can you name? 6. Do you know any possible ways to decide these problems? Exercise 5. Put on your own questions upon the text. Exercise 6. Divide the text into parts and entitle them. Summarize the contents of the text according to your outline.

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Unit XIX
Phonetics: , a . , . , "" "" . , .. , [s, z, n, t ] [, ] , [, ]. : [ in ] In the text - [ n ] On the plate - [ t ] At the desk - [ iz ] Is this a pencil? - ? [ h ] [h] . [h] . [h] "" , . [h] : [ hi: ] he - [ hiz ] his - [ houm ] home - [ help ] help - [ hei ] hay - [ hum ] whom - [ hai ] high - [ ha:d ] hard - [ hau ] how - [ houtel ] hotel - [ h ] Hh: hot, help, how, home, he, hay, high. Grammar: The Future Indefinite (Simple) Tense. The Future Continuous (Progressive) Tense. The Future Perfect Tense and the Future Perfect Continuous Tense. The Future Indefinite (Simple) Tense. (Future Indefinite) : - - . The Mayor will open a new stadium tomorrow. . - - , . I'll go to the theatre with you. .
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. I'll do the shopping. . I, we He, she, it, will go you, they I, we will not go He, she, it, you, they Shall (will) I (we) go? Will he (she, it, you, they) go?

The Future Continuous Tense. (Future Continuous) , .. . Future Continuous . He will be writing a letter to his friend at 5 o'clock tomorrow. from 5 to 6 on Sunday. when I come. 5 . 5 6 . . I will (shall) be visiting him tomorrow. . ( Future Continuous) to be Future Indefinite -ing I, we He, she, it, will be you, they writing I, we He, she, it, will not be you, they writing Shall (will) I (we) be writing? Will he (she, it, we, you, they) be writing?

The Future Perfect Tense. Future Perfect , . He will have finished his work when I come. by 3 o'clock tomorrow. by the time you come back. , . 3- . , .
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Future Perfect to have Future Indefinite Participle II ( II) . I, we I, we Shall (will) I (we) have He, she, it, will have He, she, it, will not worked? you, they worked you, they have Will he (she, it, you, they) worked have worked? The Future Perfect Continuous Tense to be (shall have been, will have been) (Participle I) . shall will , - . shall will not. , . . By the end of September we shall have been living here for seven years. . Exercise 1. , Future Simple. 1. I want to get a medical checkup. I (to go) to my doctor tomorrow. 2. He (to give) me a complete examination. 3. The nurse (to lead) me into one of the examination rooms. 4. I (to take) off my clothes and (to put) on a hospital gown. 5. Dr. Setton (to come) in, (to shake) my hand, and (to say) "hello". 6. I (to stand) on his scale so he can measure my height and my weight. 7. He (to take) my pulse. 8. Then he (to take) my blood pressure. 9. After he takes my blood pressure, he (to take) some blood for a blood analysis. 10. He (to examine) my eyes, ears, nose and throat. 11. He (to listen) to my heart with a stethoscope. 12. Then he (to take) a chest X-ray and (to do) a cardiogram (ECG or EKG). 13. After the checkup I (to go) home and (to wait) for Dr. Settons call. 14. Dr. Setton (to call) me tomorrow afternoon and (to say) to me: Stop worrying! Your blood analysis is excellent. He is a very good doctor. Exercise 2. , : Future Simple, Future Continuous Future Perfect. 1. I (to do) my homework tomorrow. 2. I (to do) my homework at six o'clock tomorrow. 3. I (to do) my homework by six o'clock tomorrow. 4. When I come home to135

morrow, my family (to have) supper. 5. When you come to my place tomorrow, I (to read) your book. I (to do) my homework by the time you come. 6. Don't come to my place tomorrow. I (to write) a composition the whole evening. 7.1 (not to go) to the cinema tomorrow. I (to watch) TV the whole evening. 8. What you (to do) tomorrow? 9. What you (to do) at eight o'clock tomorrow? 10. You (to play) volley-ball tomorrow? 11. You (to do) this work by next Sunday? 12. When you (to go) to see your friend next time? 13. How many pages you (to read) by five o'clock tomorrow? 14. Tomorrow I (to begin) doing my homework as soon as I come from school. I (to do) my homework from three till six. My father (to come) home at seven o'clock tomorrow. I (to do) all my homework by the time he comes, and we (to go) for a walk together. Exercise 3. , the Future Perfect Tense. Go, tidy up, pack, learn, type, buy, paint, receive, cook, see. 1. She _ an urgent paper for the conference. 2, Bob __ his room by his mother coming. 3 He already _____ a portrait for the exhibition. 4, Peter _ dinner by the time his wife comes. 5. She__ a wedding dress by the time her wedding takes place, 6, They __ by the time we come here. 7. _ s. letter by the end of "the week.' 8. The train is to leave at nine o'clock. They ___theirsuitcase by that . 9.1 _ the film by 9 o'clock. 10. She _ the new words for the spelling test, which her teacher is going to give tomorrow. Exercise 4. . 1. I am afraid I shall be late. 2. Do you think we shall pick all the apples in three days? 3. He hopes you will often visit him. 4. They expect he will be at home in a few days. 5. Are you afraid we shan't be in time? 6. She promises that she will finish the work in a week. 7. I think Henry will help us. Exercise 5. , Future Simple Future-in-the Past Simple. 1. I know we (not to be) late. 2. I knew we (not to be) late. 3. I want to know whether he (to be) at home. 4. I wanted to know whether he (to be) at 'home. 5. When you (to be) ready? he asked. 6. He asked when I (to be) ready. 7. I can't say whether Bob (to do) the work perfectly, but he (to do) his best. 8. He asked me whether he (to see) Olga there. 9. Are you sure that we (to have) time to do that? 10. I was afraid he (to say): I don't think I (to be) able to come. 11. I did not know what he (to speak) about. Conversational Topics: HOLLYWOOD Exercises on the vocabulary: 1. Study the words and word combinations of the active vocabulary stated below. 2. Explain the contextual meaning of the underlined lexical units relying on an English-English dictionary. 3. Recall the situations in which the active vocabulary is used in the text stated below. 4. Make up your own situations or sentences with the active vocabulary.
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Vocabulary: aim [em] . 1) (aim at / for) (-.), to aim at gaining the prize , blossom['blsm] . 1) ; ; 2) (blossom into) , (-.) 3) , motion picture industry release (.) nervous breakdown advertisement [d'vt smnt] . ; ; , profit ['pr ft] 1. . 1) , , to make a profit on huge [hju:] . , , , stardom ['stdm] . ) ( ) ) (, ..) commonplace['k mnples] . , , , commonplace people mercilessly ['mslsl] . ; ; ; figurine ['fgjuri:n] . script [skrpt] 1. . 1) ) ; . C Exercise 1. Read the following text. Try to understand it in details. "Hollywood" is the name of a Los Angeles district which appeared in 1910, and it also stands for American cinematography. It is part of American entertainment industry aimed at amusing, educating and giving the public what it wants. American cinema was born in the East when "Patent Cinema Company" was formed in 1908. It included 8 cinema-making firms. Those who did not go into this company went to the West. The "independent" producers soon made half of the American movies; the number of film companies in California was growing. In the twenties American film industry blossomed. Producers needed more money and American banks readily gave money as movies brought big profits. Producers grew more and more dependent on businessmen. Unknown actors could become famous in a day, poor people became rich all of a sudden and Hollywood became the "town where all dreams come true". The 1920s saw Hollywood as the centre of movie industry with a world-wide market. The production of films began in Hollywood in the late 1920s and resulted in building huge sound stages many of which are used even now. Hollywood helps to create the "American Dream" and to convince people that the American way of life is the ideal one. At the beginning movies were like a dream
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giving an escape from reality and showing that longing for happiness and success could be fulfilled. The fate of a movie often depends on advertisement. Before the release, grand shows, parties with big stars, interviews are organized. At the same time in 1980s more than 1/3 of American actors were unemployed. The star-system is also cultivated because it gives big profits. A star is a kind of goods that can be bought and sold. Everything, including stars' private lives, is used by managers to build up their public image. A star must compete with other stars; a star must always be in a good form. Not everybody can stand the stress and strain of stardom. Nervous breakdowns are a commonplace phenomenon in Hollywood. Stars are often used mercillessly and are forced to appear in weak movies, as they have signed a contract with the studio. The contracts are signed for several years and stars have no right to appear in films made by other studios. As a reaction to this already in 1913 Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks, Charles Chaplin, Bill Hart founded their own company "United Artists". In the fifties several actors became producers Lancaster, Douglas, Waine, Sinatra, Grant. Stars demonstrated their ability to be independent. In 1969 Barbara Streisand, Sidney Poitiers, Paul Newman founded their own association "First Artists". Later Steve McQueen and Dustin Hoffman joined them. They decided to work without pay, to make movies using set budgets and then to divide the profits equally. One of the greatest events in Hollywood is the annual presentation of Oscar, the legendary figurine which is the highest Award of the American Cinema Academy. This organization was founded in 1927. Its aim was to further the development of cinematography. Every year in February the American press publishes the titles of films which have been chosen for the competition. On the presentation day there is a magnificent show in Los Angeles Music Centre. Awards are given to the best actor, to the best actress, for the best script, for music, etc. Foreign films also participate in the competition. Soviet films War and Peace and Moscow does not believe in tears have been awarded Oscars by the American Cinema Academy. Another tradition is the ceremony of leaving ones footprints or handprints on the pavement in front of the Chinese Theatre. Some actors consider it too pompous and do not accept the invitation for the ceremony. Exercise 2. Say whether these statements are true or false and if they are false say why. 1. Hollywood is part of American entertainment industry aimed at amusing, educating and giving the public what it wants. 2. Producers needed more money and American banks coudnt give money as movies brought little profits. 3. Unknown actors could become famous in a day, poor people became rich all of a sudden and Hollywood became the "town where all dreams come true". 4. A star neednt compete with other stars; a star is always a star. 5. In 1917 Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks, Charles Chaplin, Bill Hart founded their own company "United Artists". 6. One of the greatest events in Hollywood is the annual presentation of Oscar, the legendary figurine which is the highest Award of the American Cinema Academy.
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Exercise 3. Choose the correct word or phrase to complete the following sentences. 1. Hollywood is the name which is considered to be synonymous to American (art / cinematography / business). 2. American cinema was born in the (east / west / south) of the country. 3. American film industry began to develop rapidly in the (20s / 30s / 40s). 4. Hollywood became a symbol of the American (prosperity / independence / dream). 5. The star system is the basis of the Hollywood prosperity, because it gives (a stimulus to competition / a possibility to reveal ones talent / big profits). 6. United Artists company was established by some well-known american actors striving for their (independence / success in movie industry / stability in film business). 7. To receive an Oscar in Hollywood means to get the highest (recognition / award / appraisal) of the American Cinema Academy. Exercise 4. Reproduse the situations in which the following phrases are used: cinema-making firms development of cinematography dependent on businessmen Dustin Hoffman in the late 1920s Exercise 5. Put on your own questions upon the text. Exercise 6. Divide the text into parts and entitle them. Summarize the contents of the text according to your outline.

Unit XX
Phonetics: [ou] [ou] - . [ou] , , . [], [u]. : [ bout ] boat - [ ouk ] oak - [ vout ] vote [ ounli ] only - [ rouz ] rose - [ ould ] old - [ nout ] note - [ oupn ] open - [ loud ] load - [ snou ] snow - [ foutou ] photo - [ jelou ] yellow - [ou] : - o + e : note, rose, chose, those. - boat, coat, oak, load. - ow, , [u]: snow, yellow. - ld o [ou]: old, potato, tomato. [au] [au] - . [ai], [u]. . "", . [au] : [ aut ] out - [ daun ] down - [ baut ] about - , [naun ] noun - [ aul ] owl [klaud ] cloud - [ bau ] bow - [ braun ] brown - [ taun ] town - [ draun ] drown - [au] : - ou: house, noun, cloud, about. - w: town, how, owl, brown, drown, down. - : country [ kntri ], cousin [ kzn ]. Grammar: Revision of Tenses. Exercise 1. , : Present, Past, FutureSimple; Present, PastContinuous; Present, PastPerfect.

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1. We (to go) to school every day. 2. Nick (to do) his home-work by seven o'clock yesterday. 3. You (to help) your father tomorrow? 4. We (to bring) a lot of berries from the wood. Now we shall make jam. 5. Look! Jane (to swim) across the river. 6. What you (to do) at six o'clock yesterday? 7. You ever (to see) the Pyramids? 8. I (to go) to the Caucasus two years ago. 9. When Nick (to come) home yesterday, his mother (to return) and (to cook) dinner in the kitchen. 10. When I (to go) to school yesterday, I suddenly (to remember) that I (to forget) to take my English exercisebook. 11. Yesterday grandfather (to tell) us how he (to work) at the factory during the war. Exercise 2. , . 1. ? , . . 2. , . 3. : . 4. , . 5. , . 6. , . 7. , . 8. , . 9. , . 10. , , Exercise 3. , . 1. When we (to come) to the station, the train already (to arrive). The passengers (to hurry) to occupy their seats in the carriages. 2. The concert (to be) a greater success than we (to expect). We were very glad. 3. He (to tell) me that if no one (to Icome) to meet me at the station, I (can) leave the suit-cases in the cloak-room and go to the hotel where he (to reserve) a room for me. 4. He (to be) here five minutes ago, but you (to be) out. He (to ask) me to tell you that he (to come) again tonight. 5. Lanny (to return) home after seven years of absence. During these seven years he (to study) in Cape Town where his people (to send) him. Lanny was glad at the thought that he (to do) what they (to hope) he (to do) and that soon he (to be) among his people again. 6. You (to read) The Murder of Roger Ack-royd by Agatha Christie? No, I (not yet to read) it. But I (to hear) that it (to be) a very interesting book. I (to read) it as soon as I (to get) it. Exercise 4. , Present Simple, Present Continuous, Present Perfect, Present Perfect Continuous. 1. . 2. . . 3. . . 4. ? ? 5. .6. . ? 7. . 8. . 9. . 10. ? " . 11. ? . 12. . 13. . 14. . 15. ? ,

. . . Exercise 5. , . 1. When we (to come) to the station, our train already (to leave), and we (to have) to wait for two hours before another one (to come). 2. I was anxious to see the place where I (to spend) my childhood. 3. Victor asked me to explain the new rule to him, as he (to miss) the previous lesson. 4. John Gray (to visit) Russia in 1989 and (not to be) here since that time. 5. When the train (to stop), I (to look) out of the window but (not to see) any of my friends there. I (to send) them a telegram and hoped that they (to meet) me. As I (to discover) later, they (to receive) it ten minutes before the train arrived and could not meet me. 6. We were greatly surprised not to find Ann at home. It turned out that her sister (to forget) to give her our message, and Ann (to leave) the house fifteen minutes before we (to come). 7. I decided not to put on my raincoat as it (to stop) raining already and the sun (to shine) brightly. Conversational Topics: William Shakespeare (1564 1615) Exercises on the vocabulary: 1. Study the words and word combinations of the active vocabulary stated below. 2. Explain the contextual meaning of the underlined lexical units relying on an English-English dictionary. 3. Recall the situations in which the active vocabulary is used in the text stated below. 4. Make up your own situations or sentences with the active vocabulary. Vocabulary: plain [plen] . 1) , , alderman ['ldmn] . , , high bailiff ( ) earn one's living descendant [d'sendnt] . , direct / lineal descendant improve[m'pru:v] . 1) ; ; , treatment ['tri:tmnt] , ; victimize ['vktmaz] . 1) ; to be victimized by smb. / smth. -. / -. feud I [fju:d] 1. . 1) , , ; hasty['hest] ( , ); , ( , )
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Montagu(e) ['mntgju:] . ( ) skill [skl] . , ; ; ; , verse [vs] . ; knight [nat] . . ; iambic pentameter Exercise 1. Read the following text. Try to understand it in details. Wherever the English language is spoken, and English books are read, the name and the writings of William Shakespeare are known. It is strange to think that though the name and the writings of William Shakespeare are familiar to the entire world, we really know very little about the great writer himself. In the Elizabethan Age people did not bother much about the lives of mere writers, let alone playwrights and actors. It is remarkable that we still do know something about the Elizabethan actor-dramatist named Shakespeare. As it is generally believed, William Shakespeare was born in 1564, at Stratford-upon-Avon, in Warwickshire. He was the son of John and Mary Shakespeare. It is not known exactly what the occupation of his father was, but it is plain that he held a good position among his fellow-townsmen. At various times he was appointed Alderman and High Bailiff of Stratford. Little is known about William Shakespeare himself. It is probable that he studied at the Stratford grammar school. He must have received a good education, and, like most boys of the time acquired some knowledge of Latin. In 1582, in his nineteenth year, he married Anne Hathaway, who was from Shottery, a small village within a mile of Stratford. Five years later William left Stratford for London. All this time he was in difficulties for want of money. Many different stories are told about how the great poet was put to earn a living. According to one version, he picked up a few pence by holding the horses at the theatre door. He is also said to have been a call-boy, whose duty was to inform the actors when it was their turn to go out on the stage. But it is certain that between 1588 and 1589 he began writing his great plays. In 1597 William Shakespeare returned to Stratford and bought a house there. Now it is called New Place to distinguish it from the old house where he was born. At New Place Shakespeare lived until his death on 23 April 1616. This date traditionally, but not definitely, said to be his birthday too. Shakespeare was buried in Holy Trinity Church in Stratford. William Shakespeare had three children, his family soon died out, and none of his descendants live at the present day. The order in which his plays were written is uncertain. Perhaps he began his literary career by improving the works of other dramatists, and the three plays telling the story of King Henry VI may be an example of this. It is generally agreed that William Shakespeare wrote thirty-seven plays. Most of Shakespeares plays are well known all over the world. But the favourite with both the audience and readers is Romeo and Juliet. Famous for its poetic treatment of the ecstasy of youthful love, Romeo and Juliet dramatizes the fate of two
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lovers victimized by the feuds and misunderstandings of their elders and their own hasty temperaments. The tragedy is the greatest love story which has ever been written. Romeo and Juliets passionate love is set in Verona amid the heated feud of the Montague and Capulet families. There had already been written several novels about the tragic story of the young couple, and one of the versions was included into The Palace of Pleasure by William Painter. This book of short stories was extremely popular in Elizabethan England and may have served as the main source of Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet . The dramatist, however, developed the plot in his own way. For example, none of the stories contained the famous scene in the garden. Shakespeares most popular comedy is The Twelfth Night. The whole play is alive with humour and action. The skill in the changes from bright to dark, from gentle to severe is matched by the skill in the arrangement of the verse and prose. The Duke Orsino believes that he is in love with the Lady Olivia, but he is more in love with love. The twins, Viola and Sebastian, cause great confusion when the girl dresses like her brother. Lady Olivia falls in love with Viola who serves as Orsinos page. Orsino believes his favourite servant to be a traitor. All the main characters suffer from the unreturned love till Sebastian appears and meets Viola. Additional amusement is provided by two knights, Sir Toby Belch and Sir Andrew Aguecheek who are great in drinking and making foolish plans. Shakespeare was also a great poet. He wrote a lot of beautiful poems. In 1590s, he created Venus and Adonis and Lucrece and a sequence of 154 sonnets (1592 1598, published in 1609). Shakespeares plays are mostly written in verse, although there are some scenes in prose, especially in comedies. The rhythm (metre) used in the verse is the iambic pentameter. It means that each line consists of ten syllables. These syllables are alternately unstressed and stressed. In some plays Shakespeare also used rhyme. The use of rhyme is most characteristic of his early writings. The plays of Shakespeare have been read, repeated, or acted by so many million of English-speaking people since the time when they were written, that the very phrases they contain have become part of the English language. Shakespeare said so many things well, and put so many good thoughts into such good words, that people who came after him have found no better way of saying the same things, and have begun to use the words used by Shakespeare. To be or not to be?, Whats in a name?, Much ado about nothing, All that glitters is not gold and many other phrases become common of English speech. Exercise 2. Make the right choice from the text above to complete the sentences and translate them. 1. It is strange to think that though the name and the writings of William Shakespeare _______________, we really know very little about the great writer himself. 2. It is not known exactly what __________________, but it is plain that he held a good position among his fellow-townsmen. 3. According to one version, he picked up a few pence by holding the horses _________. 4. _________. This date
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traditionally, but not definitely, said to be his birthday too. 5. The tragedy is the greatest love story which has ever been written. __________________ love is set in Verona amid the heated feud of the Montague and Capulet families. 6. The use ______ is most characteristic of Shakespeares early writings. Exercise 3. Find English equivalents for the following in the text and reproduse the situations in which they are used: ; ; ; -; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; -. Exersice 4. Find facts from the text to support these statements: we really know very little about the great writer Shakespeares father held a good position among his fellow-townsmen William Shakespeare began his literary career by improving the works of other dramatists The Twelfth Night is alive with humour and action Romeo and Juliet is famous for its poetic treatment of the ecstasy of youthful love Exercise 5. Look through the text, divide it into parts and find the key sentences in each of them.

Unit XXI
Phonetics: [a:] [a:] . . ( , . !) "" [a:] . : [ ga:dn ] garden - [ da:k ] dark - [ ka:m ] calm - [ la:k ] lark - [ a:sk ] ask - [ ra:ft ] raft - [ a:nt ] aunt - [ spa:k ] spark - [ a:ft ] after - [ kla:s ] class - [ a: ] : - a + r: park, car, dark, lark, art, jar. - a [ a: ] f, nt, th: raft, after, father, bath, plant. - a + s + : class, ask, grass. - : aunt. Grammar: The Passive Voice . (Active Voice) , , . He often asks questions. . (Passive Voice) , , . He is often asked questions. . to be Participle II ( II) .
Indefinite Present I he (she) we(you, they) I he (she) we(you, they) I he (she) we(you, they) Past I he (she) we(you, they) am being I asked he (she) is being asked we(you, are being they) asked have been I asked he (she) has been we(you, asked they) am asked is asked are asked
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was asked were asked was being asked were being asked

Future I he (she) we(you, they)

will be asked

Continuous

Perfect

I he (she) we(you, they)

will have been asked

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Exercise 1. , 1. They are coming on Tuesday. 2. The driver wanted a holiday. 3. Ann was taken in her friend's car. 4. Nick was rather surprised. 5. Tom knocked on the door. 6. The door was opened by aunt Mary. 7. The rabbit was killed by the dog. 8. Mr. Brown will teach us tomorrow. 10. The coffee was brought by Nary. 11. The article was written on Monday. Exercise 2. , 1. The lecturer makes a report. A report is made by the lecturer. 2. The students translate this text. The text is translated by the students. 3. They show a new film at our cinema. A new film is shown at our cinema. 4. They told me about the meeting. I was told about the meeting. 5. Her father wrote this letter. This letter was written by her father. 6. She washed her dresses. Her dresses were washed (by her). 7. We shall learn this rule. This rule will be learned (by us). 8. She will meet us at the station. We shall be met at the station (by her). Exercise 3. . 1. I was told a very interesting story. 2. He was shown the way to the village. 3. The doctor was sent for. 4. Petrov was listened to with great interest. 5. He was always laughed at. 6. My children are looked after by my grandmother. 7. This film was much spoken about. 8. Will the documents have been typed by the time 1 leave'? 9. He was asked to sing to her guests. 1D. The new book is much spoken about; 11. You were given a nice flat. 12. She was looked for everywhere. 13. You will be sent for. 14. He is known as one of the best workers at the plant. Exercise 4. 1. Nick opens the door. 2. Mary helps the teacher. 3. Mr. Smith weIcomes the visitors. 4. Ann brings us the coffee. 5. I finish my work at o clock. 6. Popov invented the radio in 1895. 7. He fulfilled his work in time. 8. They are building a new house in our street. 9. They have already me I the guests. 10. My brother will send the telegram tomorrow. Exercise 5. : 1. This letter (to write) yesterday. 2. This question (to answer) at the last lesson. 3. This text (to translate) by him tomorrow. 4. The task (to give) by the teacher at every lesson. 5. This agreement (to sign) next month. 6. You (to show) the way to the city tomorrow. 7. The house (to build), soon we shall move into a new flat. 8 you often (to ask) by the teacher at the lessons? Exercise 6. : 1. . 2. .. . 4. . 5. . . . 7. . 8. . 9. . 10. .
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Conversational Topics: CHARLIE CHAPLIN, CREATOR OF COMEDY Exercises on the vocabulary: 1. Study the words and word combinations of the active vocabulary stated below. 2. Explain the contextual meaning of the underlined lexical units relying on an English-English dictionary. 3. Recall the situations in which the active vocabulary is used in the text stated below. 4. Make up your own situations or sentences with the active vocabulary. Vocabulary: (Part I) bowler hat['bulht] . - cane [ken] 1. . 1) ; 2) ; to carry a cane timeless['tamls] . 1) ; 2) ; to keep one's grip () slums [slm] 1. . decisive [d'sasv] . 1) , lingering ['lg()r] . 1) ) , ; b) , 2) ) , ( , fascination[`fs'ne()n] . , ; , , trench [tren(t)] 1. . 1) , ; ; 2) . , to tackle controversial subjects sheer [] 1. . 1) , , , to hit the nail on the head irresistible [`r'zstbl] . ) skit perceive [p'si:v] . 1) , , ; (Part II) survivor antics , star[st] . 4) ) , unheard-of
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premiere ['prem] .; .; . reentry (.) memoir['memw] . 1) () 2) (memoirs) , reverence ['rv()r()n(t)s] 1. . 1) ) ; ; ; crucial['kru:()l] . 1) ; , Exercise 1. Read the following text. Try to understand it in details. (Part I) Charlie Chaplin has broken all records in making people laugh. No one has to set a whole world laughing as the little man with the bowler hat, the cane and overlarge shoes. Much has been written about Chaplin's art and his legendary career, and opinions have varied widely. But perhaps the commentator who called him "the most universal human being in our life" came closest to the truth. Those who have called him a genius stress the timeless and universal qualities in his work. It is an art filled with tragic undertones and deep human feeling, with which an audience cannot help but become involved. It is for these reasons, I believe, that the figure of "Charlie" has kept its grip on generation after generation. All his biographers agree that Chaplin's miserable childhood in the London slums was the decisive influence in his development and in the type of films he made. Chaplin himself emphasizes it in his memoirs. The more one reads about his earliest period, the more one is inclined to agree. For Chaplin, his suffering youth has a lingering fascination: it gave him a world that he could transform with his imagination onto the movie screen. Chaplin was never afraid to tackle controversial subjects in his films. He released a parody on war (Shoulder Arms) only a few weeks before the American troops came home from the hell of the trenches in World War I (1918). This was regarded as sheer madness, but the parody was well received. So perfectly did it hit the nail on the head that even the homecoming soldiers found it irresistible and deeply appreciated this skit on what for them had been grim reality. Churchgoers raged when Chaplin, in The Pilgrim (1923), attacked nonconformist religions. In City Lights (1931) he took his turn at mocking capitalism. Modern Times (1936) parodied the inhuman destruction of the machine age. The Great Dictator (1940) made fun of Hitler and proclaimed Chaplin's views of world politics. Chaplin, in his comic satirical way, fought what he perceived as tyranny and injustice. COMIC GENIUS OF THE CINEMA SCREEN Sir Charles Chaplin was the last survivor from among the founding fathers of the American cinema, one of the greatest comic creators in film, and achieved greater, more widespread fame in his own lifetime than perhaps anyone else in the
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history of mankind. The intellectuals loved to theorize on the significance of his comedy, its social responsibility, its relation to the great tradition of circus clowning. But he also had to a unique degree the common touch people of almost any culture were able to respond with laughter to his screen antics, and for generation after generation of children he was the first introduction to the magic world of the cinema. Charles Chaplin was born on April 16, 1889, in London. His parents were music-hall performers and Charlie's early life was spent touring England. Finally, he himself became a dancer in music halls. Chaplin joined Fred Karno's Company and accompanied the Karno troupe in America, at which time he was starring in principal comedy parts. Chaplin soon entered the motion picture field (in 1913) and within one year became a world-famous star. In 1916 he signed a contract with Mutual Company for what was, in those days, an unheard-of salary. But by now he was world famous, and was writing and directing his own films. More important still was the fact that the character of "the little fellow" had become firmly established in his mind. For Mutual Chaplin made some of his best short comedies, including The Rink, and Easy Street. In 1918 he joined First National, and for them made eight films, including A Dog's Life and Shoulder Arms. Then he built his own film studios and formed his own company, and in 1919 he joined with the other leading film-makers of the period D. W. Griffith, Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford in forming the United Artists Corporation. The 1920s were the golden age of the silent cinema, and Chaplin entered this golden age with wealth, power, authority, and complete freedom as an independent producer of his own work. The 1950s marked the beginning of an unhappy period in Chaplin's life. When he left America for the European premiere the State Department banned his reentry (which they could do as he had never become an American citizen), and Chaplin took up residence in Switzerland. In 1973 he was at last received back with open arms into the American film establishment, given a special Oscar in recognition of his lifetime contribution to film art, and commemorated with a statue at the historic corner of Hollywood and Vine. During the intervals of filmmaking Chaplin wrote My Autobiography (1964), a fascinating document which is of particular value for its memoirs of the London of his childhood and his early struggles in the theatre. His old age was a satisfying crown to a life of activity bringing honours and universal reverence for the man and his work. Whatever the ups and downs of tastes in the years to come, his greatness as a clown and his crucial role in the history and serious acceptance of the cinema as an art form are certain to stand the tests of time. Exercise 2. Reread the text and complete the sentences according to its contents. a whole world laughing For Chaplin, his suffering youth has a lingering fascination: He released a parody on war . he took his turn at mocking capitalism.
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one of the greatest comic creators in film, . he was the first introduction to the magic world of the cinema. Chaplin joined Fred Karno's Company . had become firmly established in his mind. The 1950s marked the beginning of . given a special Oscar in recognition of his lifetime contribution to film art, a satisfying crown to a life of activity bringing honours and universal reverence . Exercise 3. Compare the arguments given in both texts concerning the following. 1. What arguments do both texts produce speaking about the significance of Charlie Chaplin's genius? Do they speak about his influence on the subsequent generations? 2. Which text speaks about the peculiar features of his image? What are they? 3. Both texts speak about the activities of Charles Chaplin as a film-maker. Which of them mentions the subjects of his film? What aspect of film-making activities is revealed in the other text? 4. Which text speaks about Charles Chaplin in a more emotional way? What makes you think so? (Pay attention to the use of certain expressions, words indicating the authors' points of view. What are these words? What do they tell you about their points of view?) Exercise 4. Talk it over. What is the most prestigious award in the American motion picture world? Is there any similar award in your country? Do you remember any of its winners? Why do you think Charles Chaplin was called "the most universal human being" in our life? Have you seen any of his films? What do they make fun of? What American film that you have seen do you like best? Why?

Unit XXII
Phonetics: , [ p ], [ b ], [ k ], [ g ], [ t ], [ d ], [ t ] , [ d ], . , , . , . : [ gud dei ] good day! - ! [ da:k ga:dn ] a dark garden - [ big tri: ] a big tree - [ red da: ] a red jar - [ ti:t tim t ski: ] teach Tim to ski - [ ai ] [ai] - , . []. [i]. [i] . [ai] "". , , , ! [ai] : [ ais ] ice - [ laif ] life - [ wai ] why - [ aitm ] item - [ taim ] time - [ bait ] bite - [ ailnd ] island - [ t aim ] chime - [ trai ] try - [ maild ] mild - [ rait ] write - [ drai ] dry - [ fail ] file - [ kaind ] kind - [ hai ] high - [ai] : - i + e: time, life, chime, jive, ice, item. - y , [ai]: why, try, dry. - ld, nd, gh i [ ai ]: mild, kind, high. Grammar: The Passive Voice Exercise 1. A: the Indefinite Tenses ( , 2 ). Example: Tom gave her a book. She was given a book. The book was given to her. 1. He broke my watch. 2. The teacher explained the rule to the students. 3. He often asks me to help them. 4. They usually do written exercises in class. 5. She will make a new discovery soon. 6. Steve will make a report at the conference. 7 They play tennis all year round, 8. His friends never forgave his betrayal, 9, The manager offers

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me several jobs. 10. They will promise you much, but don't imagine they will give you everything. 11. His parents regularly sent him parcels with fruit from their garden. : ay attention to prepositions Example: She looks after him well. He is well looked after (by her). 1. We sent for the police. 2, They speak much about this book. 3. They often laugh at him. 4. They listened to our conversation very attentively. 5.1 think they will wait for us only in a week. 6. Nobody took notice of his late arrival. 7. We looked through all the advertisements very attentively. 8, He was a brilliant speaker, and whenever he spoke, the audience listened to him with great attention, 9. They will look after him in hospital much better. 10. Everybody looked at her new dress with interest. : the Continuous Tenses. Example: They are solving a difficult problem now. The problem is being solved now. 1. Don't come in! The professor is examining students. 2. Can I read the article? No, the secretary is typing it. 3. We had to hurry. They were waiting for us. 4. It was noisy. Nobody was listening to him. 5. Does he realize that they are laughing at him? 6, Look at this man. I think he is following us. 7. Listen carefully! He is giving a very interesting talk. 8, The waiter is serving us rather fast, 9. The secretary was looking through morning mail. 10. The interpreter is translating their conversation rather well. D: the Perfect Tenses Example: They have already brought the medicine. The medicine has already been brought. 1. You have repaired our house lately. 2. When the fire brigade came, the fire had destroyed the building. 3. The athlete has shown much better results since this coach trains him, 4.1 will have answered all the business letters by noon. 5. The president of the board has signed the document. 6. Is she washing the floor? No, she has already washed it. 7. By his arrival they had repaired his car. 8. He has booked the tickets and the clerk will have brought them by 2 o'clock. 9. They had painted the house by his arrival. 10. The police haven't found the reason for the accident yet. Conversational Topics: MUSIC Exercises on the vocabulary: 1. Study the words and word combinations of the active vocabulary stated below. 2. Explain the contextual meaning of the underlined lexical units relying on an English-English dictionary. 3. Recall the situations in which the active vocabulary is used in the text stated below. 4. Make up your own situations or sentences with the active vocabulary. Vocabulary: devotee [`devu'ti:] . , lumber-camp ['l mbkmp] .; . ;
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rhythm ['r()m] . 1) ( - , ) alienation [`el 'ne()n] . 1) , , self-pity [`self'pt] . longing ['l ] 1. .(for / after) , , (-.) genre[r] .; . 1) , hostile ['hstal] .1) , 2) , , clash [kl] , , convention [kn'ven(t)()n] . 1) , , , 2) , , 3) ( ) jockey ['k] 1. . 1) disc jockey ., disk jockey . - video jockey Exercise 1. Read the following text. Try to understand it in details. Since the United States were settled largely by Europeans, it is not surprising that classical music and folk-songs were brought over from the continent. Scottish and Irish ballads, German folksongs have been sung in America by so many generations and so often that many Americans do not even know that these songs are of foreign origin. However, America produced its own music. Railroad workers, the men in lumber camps, cowboys had their songs about work, life and love. American music has also assimilated the peculiar rhythm of African music growing into the American reality together with the Negro slaves. Negro music was greatly influenced by Puritan hymns, resulting in Negro hymns "spirituals", which are considered the highest achievement of American folk art. In the 19th century Negro lyric songs "blues" spread among the white population. Negro musical folklore preserved the rhythm and intonations of African music, but it was created in America and acquired new features. The usual themes of blues pieces are unhappy love, alienation, self-pity, or longing for home. Blues has had a great influence on the development of jazz, rock, and other types of modern music. The most popular modern blues musicians are Bessie Smith, Muddy Waters and B. B. King. Ml At the end of the 19th century the first symphonic orchestras were formed in the USA. At the turn of the centuries, the first opera house "Metropolitan Opera" was opened in New York. At the same time a new, truly American genre appeared the musical, which combined the best features of the European operetta and American music. It became very popular and over the years has shown its ability to exist side by side with other musical genres. Authors try to use the libretto, songs and dances to achieve a real dramatic effect. The best examples are Loewe's My Fair Lady and
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Bernstein's West Side Story. The latter is a good example of the new form. Although it was the old pattern of musical comedies love between a boy and a girl, the end is tragic the boy is killed. Set in New York City, it shows hostile relationships and clashes between Puerto Ricans and native New Yorkers, resembling the story of Romeo and Juliet, but with a modern racial colouring. In the 20th century another break took place in American music, again under the influence of national music. Jazz was perhaps the Negro's greatest contribution to American music. It emerged as a result of all kinds of rhythmical and melodic experiments. Jazz was free of convention and written arrangements. It has been made popular all over the country by such men as Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington. Scott Fitzgerald called the 20s of this century the "Jazz Age". Even serious composers like George Gershvin in America, and Stravinsky and Ravel in Europe were influenced by American jazz. George Gershvin used Negro themes and jazz elements in symphonic pieces. Porgie and Bess (1935) is the best example of a true unity of national roots and professional culture. Thirty years after jazz another kind of popular music appeared big beat* (big rhythm). In 1954 the disc jockey Alan Freed started to broadcast the Negro rhythmand-blues records. He called this music Rock-and-roll after an old blues "My Baby Rocks Me in a Steady Roll". White musicians began to imitate this music. The big white stars were Elvis Presley and Chuck Berry. Rock-'n-roll conquered Europe. Among the imitators of Chuck Berry was a group from Liverpool who called themselves "The Beatles." American "pop" music abounds in different trends and styles, but Americans have varied musical interests and at least 25 per cent are devotees1 of classical music. Boston, Philadelphia and San Francisco symphony orchestras are famous all over the country and abroad.
*big beat: music (as rock) characterized by a heavy persistent beat

Unit XXIII
Phonetics: [w] , : - . . - , . . - [w] , . . : [ wu:l ] wool - [ wi:l ] wheel - [ wou ] woe - [ wi ] with - () [ weit ] wait - [ wet ] wet - [ wel ] well - [ wi:k ] week - [w] Ww [ dbl ju: ]: wait, week, wet, wheel, woe. [w], "", "". [w] . [f, v] "". : [ fi:l ] - [ wi:l ] feel - weel - [ fou ] - [ wou ] foe - woe - [ fel ] - [ wel ] fell - well - [ feil ] - [ weil ] fail - whale - [ fu:l ] - [ wu:l ] fool - wool - [ wet ] - [ vet ] wet - vet - [ weil ] - [ veil ] wail - veil - [ wi:l ] - [ vi:l ] wheel - veal - [ west ] - [ vest ] west - vest - [ wein ] - [ vein ] wane - vane - Grammar: Modal Verbs - , , . can, may, must, ought (to), need, should. , , , , , . : 1. . to. -

Exercise 2. Answer the questions. 1. What musical traditions has American music assimilated? 2. What is the origin of spirituals? 3. When were the first symphonic orchestras set up in the USA? 4. What are the characteristic features of a musical? Have you seen any American musicals? 5. How did jazz emerge? 6. What musicians made a great contribution to the popularization of jazz? 7. When did Rock-'n-roll appear on the musical scene? 8. Do many people in the USA like classical music? Exercise 5. Put on your own questions upon the text. Exercise 6. Retell the text in your own words.

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: I can look out of the window and see, can't I? , ? 2. , . . -s (-es): I can remember drinking tea... , ... All this must be changed. . (.: ). 3. : May I ask, sir, by what right it has been taken from me? , , ? You need not be nervous about it. - . 4. , , . 5. . 6. can, may (could, might), must . Exercise 1. : Can & could 1. I couldn't see anything in the darkness. 2. Come when you like. I can see you at any moment. 3. Could you pass me the bread, please? 4. You could play the piano very well if you practised. 5. She couldn't have forgotten to post your letter. 6. Look! I can lift this chair with one hand. 7. He said that foreigners could not occupy these houses. 8. I can lend you an umbrella if you like. 9. She is unwell, she can't leave her room. 10. A policeman arrived and told him he couldn't park there. May & might 1. She murmured that he might stay if he wished. 2. "May I escort you home?" he said. 3. He may have forgotten about your appointment or he may have come. 4. "Were you afraid that that I might have found out the truth by coming here?" asked Vivien. 5. For all you know he may be a happily married man. 6. If he knew the facts he might tell us what to do. 7. You might at least get better marks in English. 8. He said that I might come to him any day I liked. 8. I asked if I might bring my wife down next Saturday. 9. If he walks from the station, he may arrive in the course of the next half an hour. If he drives he may be here any moment. 10. It was some special occasion. I don't remember what. It may have been my birthday. Must (to have to, to be to), should, ought 1. You really must work harder if you want to pass your exams. 2. Dan is too tired. He should not drive really. 3. I feel sick. I should not have eaten so much ice157

cream. 4. It's a very good book. You ought to read it. 5. You must move your car. It blocks the way. 6. He ought to have passed his driving test easily. 7. Why should I do the cooking? 8. Kate should be happy. She's passed her exam. 9. The baby oughtn't to play with a box of matches. 10. I must leave you, but I will never forget you. Exercise 2. , may. MODEL: Possibly you left your book behind. You may have left the book behind. 1. Perhaps you left your umbrella in the bus. 2. Perhaps he went to the cafe to wait for us. 3. Perhaps it was Helen who rang you up. 4. Perhaps they came by plane. 5. Perhaps it was too cold for the children to go out. 6. It is possible that he took his children to the zoo. 7. Possibly they have seen the new play. 8. Possibly Mary misunderstood you. Exercise 3. may (might) can (could). 1. I use your pen? 2. I find a pen on that table? 3. You read this book: you know the language well enough. 4. You take this book: I don't need it. 5. I help you? 6. I ask you to help you? 7. you help me? 8. I not imagine her speaking in public: I knew that she was so shy. 9. Something was wrong with the car: he not start it. 10. A fool ask more questions than a wise man answer. 11. She asked me if she use my telephone. 12. Waiting be endless. 13. you tell me the nearest way to the city museum? 14. They think that I am too weak to take part in the excursion, but I am strong enough to do any kind of hard work, indeed. 15. He knew this period of history very well: he had read everything on the subject he find in the rich university library. Exercise 4. can, may must. 1. What we see on this map? 2. you speak Spanish? No, unfortunately I 3. At what time you come to the University? 4. I come in? 5. You not smoke here. 6. take your book? I am afraid not: I need it. 7. He not speak English yet. 8. I have very little time: I go. 9. They not go to the park today because they are busy. 10. You read this text: it is easy enough. Conversational Topics: Air Pollution Exercises on the vocabulary: 1. Study the words and word combinations of the active vocabulary stated below. 2. Explain the contextual meaning of the underlined lexical units relying on an English-English dictionary. 3. Recall the situations in which the active vocabulary is used in the text stated below. 4. Make up your own situations or sentences with the active vocabulary.

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Vocabulary: pollution [p'lu:()n] . air pollution outcome ['autkm] . , , , carbon monoxide ['kbnm 'nksad] .; . , carbon dioxide .; . , hydrocarbon [`hadru'kb()n] .; . sulphur dioxide nitrogen oxides () fossil fuel oxidation [`ks'de ()n] .; . carcinogen [k'sn()n] .; . , dust particles inhalation [`nh'le()n] c. radioactive fallout subsequent ['sbskwnt] . , , underestimate [`nd()r'estmet] . , emission ['m()n] . 1) , (, , ); gas emissions catalytic converter[`kt'l tkkn'vt] .; lead I [led] 1. . 1) . Exercise 1. Read the following text. Try to understand it in details. Air, is the most essential element for all living organisms and yet, most humans play a big role on polluting this essential resource. Air pollution may not be as dangerous in its direct outcome as nuclear or water pollution can be, but in the long term it will have a tremendous effect on the environment and health of its organisms living in. Asthma, cancer, acid rain, and the disability to photosynthesize are only a few causes of air pollution. The atmospheric pollutants with the greatest effect onto the environment are the carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, dust particles, radioactive isotopes, and chlorofluorocarbons*. The major sources that enable carbon monoxide to enter the atmosphere are the exhausts of cars, the burning of fossil fuels, and the oxidation of natural methane. Carbon dioxide is caused by the consumption of fossil fuels only and it causes the possible greenhouse effect which has global warming as an outcome. Hydrocarbons are caused by the combustion of oil and petrol and it effects the environment with carcinogen.

Carcinogen is a chemical agent that causes cancer. Sulphur dioxide is certainly one of the major atmospheric pollutants considered that it causes stinging eyes, lung damage, asthma, and acid rain. It is the result of coal-fired power stations. Nitrogen oxides that is produced by the exhaust of cars, causes pneumonia and asphyxia. The outcome of the well known dust particles is often underestimated. It is caused by industrial chimneys, car exhaust, and volcanic eruptions and it effects the environment by toxic effects and damage of the lungs. Radioactive isotopes which are caused by small quantities from nuclear waste and nuclear accidents have an carcinogenic effect on the environment as well. The outcome of chlorofluorocarbons, which had been first discovered in the 80s, is that it destroys the ozone layer. Many of those major atmospheric pollutants combined produce the dangerous and well known smoke and gas emission called smog. Smog or dust dome is most often formed when a layer of cool air is trapped beneath a layer of still warmer air. The mixture of benzopyrene* ( a cancer causing substance that is produced by the evaporation of petrol), the waste of hydrocarbons, combined with nitrogen dioxide, oxygen, and sunlight produce the photochemical smog which can be recognized as the yellow cloud over every big city in the world. Besides that optical effect it causes an increase of ozone in the lower atmosphere and the health conditions of the particular organism living in such an area. For example, it is estimated that Washington DC receives 10% less sunlight than at the begging of the century due to the shielding of atmospheric pollution. The ozone enters the leaves of plants turning them brown and makes it difficult for plant to photosynthesize. In addition to that, it causes skin cancer on humans. Most seriously though, it increases the acidity of the rain which is mainly caused by the rise of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides that get caught up by clouds. All ready unpolluted rain is slightly acid due to dissolved carbon dioxide, but polluted rain may be very acidic. The effect of acid rain on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems can be very different. In Scandinavia, which receives a high proportion of its air pollution from Britain, once productive lakes are now completely devoid of fish. In addition to its direct effect on water, acid rain allows metal ions such as aluminum, which is highly toxic to fish, to be leached from the soil. Acid rain reduces the growth of trees and disables plants to photosynthesize which destroys them in the long term. It also reduces the activity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. In the event of a nuclear accident or war, the main risks do lay only partly in the pollution of air and air as a carrier of the polluted particles. The main risks arise from inhalation of contaminant particles, fallout of radioactive isotopes on soil with subsequent incorporation into food, and contamination of water supplies. The outcome of all those pollutant factors are enormous. The smoke from car engines which contains lead, that causes brain damage in children, stinging eyes, damage of the lung, the death rate of 40.000 asthma patients every year, and the destruction of whole forests includes only a few examples of the effects of air pollution. There are many ways to control and reduce air pollution and it is not the lack of technology but the unwillingness of the humans to change their attitudes and life styles.
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It exists a wide range of technology for effective air pollution. Emissions of dust can and should be controlled by filters which remove solid particles before gases are discharged. Low sulphur fuels could be used in order to reduce the sulphur emission from coal-fired power stations. For all other forms of waste that get released during production into the air, technology provides a wide range of filters which are able to remove 80-95% of sulphur dioxide gas. The control of emission from the most common pollutant, the car, improvements can be made. The use of lead free patrol and catalytic converters would reduce toxic emissions to a fraction of their present level and prevent damage to the environment. Of course are the big companies the one which produce most waste and cause most pollution, but in order to change and reduce the air pollution, everyone, even the smallest household, needs to change its attitudes and be more responsible with the limited sources the nature is providing. If humans would be less greedy for money and willing to ensure a safe and clean environment for the children of tomorrow, vast improvements could be made that would be beneficial for the whole world. *chlorofluorocarbon (plural chlorofluorocarbons) (abbreviation CFC) (organic chemistry) Any of a
class of organic compounds in which the hydrogen atoms of a hydrocarbon are replaced with those of chlorine and fluorine; formerly used as refrigerants and aerosol can propellants but withdrawn due to causing damage to the ozone layer. *carcinogen in cigarette smoke: a yellow crystalline solid that is highly carcinogenic. Source: tobacco smoke, coal tar. C20H12; an aromatic hydrocarbon, CH, found in coal tar, cigarette smoke, etc. and known to be a cause of cancer in animals

Exercise 4. Answer the following questions to the text making use of expressions given in the box below. To my mind; As far as I know; In my opinion: There is no doubt that What are the major sources that enable carbon monoxide to enter the atmosphere? Hydrocarbons are caused by the combustion of oil and petrol and it effects the environment with carcinogen, arent they? What does Nitrogen oxide cause? What technologies for effective air pollution are there today? What are the main risks in the event of a nuclear accident or war? Why do all these pollutions happen today? Why dont people think of their future? Exercise 5. Put on your own questions upon the text. Exercise 6. Retell the text in your own words.

Exercise 2. Add the beginning to the following sentences from the text: 1. but in the long term it will have a tremendous effect on the environment and health of its organisms living in. 2. greenhouse effect which has global warming as an outcome. 3. it causes stinging eyes, lung damage, asthma, and acid rain. 4. it effects the environment by toxic effects and damage of the lungs. 5. produce the photochemical smog which can be recognized as the yellow cloud over every big city in the world. 6. makes it difficult for plant to photosynthesize. 7. contamination of water supplies. Exercise 3. Find information in the above text about: a few causes of air pollution greenhouse effect dust particles Smog or dust dome The effect of acid rain The ozone many ways to control and reduce air pollution to ensure a safe and clean environment for the children of tomorrow

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Unit XXIV
Phonetics: [ ] [ ] ( : ), , . , "" "". : [ bks ] box - [ kk ] cock - [ gt ] got - [ pt ] pot - [ fn ] often - [ lt ] lot - [ sft ] soft - [ rtn ] rotten - [ wt ] what - [ fis ] office -

[] o : box, got, pot, soft, ox, odd, often. [ i] [i] - , .. . - []; [i]. , "". : [bi] boy - [ ti] toy - [ vis ] voice - [ niz ] noise - [ pizn ] poison - [ kin ] coin - [ ili ] oily - [ ikspl it ] exploit -

[ i ] : - oi: noise, coin, poison - oy: boy, toy, enjoy Grammar: Modal Verbs 1. n . , . could. He : It is generally acknowledged that nuclear war can lead only to the suicide of the human race. , .
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n : This work could be done at once. . 2. may . , . might. : that comes first to the hill may sit where he will. , , . ( , .) may ( ): may not know about it . . (, .) 3. must , , . , , . must, . . . Whatever his political opinions he must help us. , . must ( ): Ten minutes must have passed before we again heard the lookout's warning. , , . 4. ought . , , , . ought, . . . ought to: I suppose I ought to confiscate it, but I hate to treat an officer in that way. , , . ought , : ought to have done this work. . 5. need . , . need, . . :
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We need talk of this no more. . need to do , to: Need we answer this letter? Do we need to answer this letter? ? You need not answer this letter. You do not need to answer this letter. . 6. should. should , . , . should: The instructions should be written in clear language. ( ) . Exercise 1. , to be to. MODEL: The lecture is supposed to begin at eight. The lecture is to begin at eight. 1. What am I supposed to do if they come too early? 2. It was arranged that the youngest children would play on the beach. 3. We expect you to show the palace to her. 4. I am expected to leave tomorrow morning. 5. This is Dora. It is arranged that she will share the room with you. 6. And who will do the cooking? 7. It is expected that two more apartment houses will be built here. 8. Who will meet you at the station? Exercise 2. to have to to be to. 1. She to send a telegram because it was too late to send a letter. 2. They decided that she to send them a telegram every tenth day. 3. You to learn all the new words for the next lesson. 4. Do you know this man? He to be our new teacher of physics. 5. Who to go to the library to get the new books? I was, but I couldn't because I to finish some work at the chemical laboratory. 6. It is raining. You to put on your raincoat. 7. "The patient to stay in bed for a few days," ordered the doctor. 8. The child had stomach trouble and to take castor oil. 9. I told her she to open the window for a while every day. 10. The agreement was that if Johny White could not repay the money he had borrowed, then Luke Flint to have the right to sell the land. 11. If I don't ring up before six o'clock, then you to go to the concert hall alone and wait for me at the entrance. Is that clear? 12. The farmers to gather their cotton at once, as they had been warned that heavy rains were expected. 13. I to wear glasses as my eyesight is very weak.

Exercise 3. , need. MODEL: It is not necessary to go there. You need not go there. It was not necessary to go there. You need not have gone there. 1. There was no necessity for her to do it herself. 2. There is no reason for you to worry: he is as strong as a horse. 3. Why did you mention all these figures? The situation was clear as it was. 4. It was not necessary for you to remind me about her birthday. I remember the date very well. 5. It was not necessary for mother to cook this enormous dinner: we have brought all the food the children may want. Exercise 4. may, must need. 1. we hand in our compositions tomorrow? No, you not, you hand them in after Sunday. 2. John really do this today? No, he not, he do it tomorrow if he likes. 3. You not let this cup fall: it break. 4. I help you with your coat on? 5. I take this book for a little while? I am sorry, but I return it to the library at once. 6. They come at any time they like between ten and twelve in the morning, but they not come if they don't want to. 7. I go there right now? Yes, you . Exercise 5. can, may, must , need. 1. You not go out today: it is too cold. 2. I take your pencil? Yes, please. 3. We not carry the bookcase upstairs: it is too heavy. 4. We not carry the bookcase upstairs ourselves: the workers will come and do it. 5. When you come to see us? I come only on Sunday. 6. Shall I write a letter to him? No, you not, it is not necessary. 7. you cut something without a knife? 8. Peter return the book to the library. We all want to read it. 9. Why not you understand it? It is so easy. Exercise 6. : 1. She can swim and what about you? 2. He can't speak French and you? 3. Ann may stay here and what about Peter? 4. Mary is not allowed to walk after dark and what about her sister? 5. He has to look a few words in the dictionary and what about you? 6. I can't find our seats and you? 7. She must do these exercises again and what about Mike? 8. She will be able to speak fluent English in few months and you? 9. Mother will have to go to a doctor and what about father? 10. I shan't be able to stay and what about your friend? 11. He had to earn his living and what about his sister? Exercise 7. : 1. Everybody has to be honest. 2. You must help me. 3. She must have seen you there. 4. We have to write the essay now. 5. The children must be playing somewhere in the street. 6. They will have to come back soon. 7. The letter must have been sent long ago. 8. Alice had to call her boss. 9. This man will have to leave. 10. You must never speak to her like that. 11. The wall had to be painted. 12. You must buy me a new phone. 13. I have to finish this article by tomorrow. Exercise 8. : 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. ? 5. 166

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. 6. . 7. ? 8. . 9. . 10. . 11. . 12. . 13. . 14. ? Conversational Topics: ACID RAINS Exercises on the vocabulary: 1. Study the words and word combinations of the active vocabulary stated below. 2. Explain the contextual meaning of the underlined lexical units relying on an English-English dictionary. 3. Recall the situations in which the active vocabulary is used in the text stated below. 4. Make up your own situations or sentences with the active vocabulary. Vocabulary: vinegar ['vng] . decline [d'klan] . 1) , ; , , 2) , (, ) foliage ['ful] . ; drive ou t strip [strp] 2. . 1) ) ; ; ; ) 2) , ; ; 3) (-.) 4) (strip of) , (-.); (-.); curb [kb] 1. . , (-.) leach [li:] 1. . ( ) 2. .; = leach away, = leach out 1) , 2) , Much of the goodness has been leached from the soil by the action of continuous heavy rain. . calcium ['klsm] .; . aquatic ['kwt k] . ; dilute [da'lu:t] . 1) , ( , ) 2) , ( ) safeguard ['sefgd] . , ; suspended [s'spendd] 4) .
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suspended matter particulate ground level lead I [led] 1. . 1) . vehicle ['vi:kl] .1) ) detonation [`det'ne()n] . ; trigger ['trg] . 1) . ; 2) = trigger off , (-.) to control emissions to cut / reduce emissions fallout ['flaut] .; = fall-out 1) = radioactive fallout 2) () (-.) subsequently ['sbskwntl] . , , , , lichen ['lakn] . 1) . ; 2) . caribou ['krbu:] .; .; ( ) fluidized fluidized bed . fluidized-bed gas producer insidious [n'sds] . , ; cesium ['si:zm] = caesium .; . fossil fuel Exercise 1. Read the following text. Try to understand it in details. Other very dangerous pollutants are sulphur and nitrogen oxides. These gases are released by factories and power plants when fossil fuels are burned and by cars. These oxides reach high into the atmosphere and mix with water and other chemicals to form rain that can be as acid as vinegar. Acid rains are responsible for the decline of many forests. Tiny droplets of acid attack plant leaves, disrupting the production of chlorophyll. It also weakens the tree by altering the chemistry of the soil that surrounds its roots. Acid falls down to earth as rain and snow. Black snow, as acid as vinegar, fell in Scotland in 1984. Acid rain affects everything it falls on. Rivers, lakes and forests are at risk throughout Europe and North America. In Sweden more than 18000 lakes have become acidic, 4000 of them very seriously indeed. This kills fish and drives out fish-eating wildlife. Forests are particularly badly affected by acid rain and in many places previously green, luxuriant trees show bare branches at the top, stripped of foliage. In West Germany 50 per cent of trees are affected and, unless some curb is placed on pollution, the figure is certain to rise. In Austria, if nothing is done, scientists and environmentalists have predicted that there will be no trees left by the end of the century.
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There is a possibility that damage to ecosystems from acid deposition may be more fundamental and long-lasting than was first believed. Scientists now report that acid rain leaches as much as 50 per cent of the calcium and magnesium from the forest soils. These minerals neutralize acids and are essential for plant growth. If soil chemistry is changed in this way, it may take many decades for all linked ecosystems to recover. Besides this, acid rain releases heavy metals and other toxic substances, providing a persistent source of toxicity to surrounding vegetation and aquatic life. Buildings "die" too. Some of the most beautiful historic buildings in the world are being eaten away by the dilute acid, rained on them. Notre Dame, Cologne Cathedral and St Paul's Cathedral have all been damaged. A major problem with air pollution is that it does not obey national boundaries. The planet's wind cycles and currents can carry pollution hundreds of miles away from its original source. So Britain is a large contributor to air pollution in Sweden and creates more for Norway than Norway does itself. The pollutants of the USA end up on the eastern coast of Canada. Acid rain emerged as a concern in the I960s with observations of dying lakes and forest damage in Northern Europe, the United States and Canada. It was one of the first environmental issues to demonstrate how the chief pollutants - oxides of sulphur and nitrogen - can be carried hundreds of miles by winds before being washed out of the atmosphere in rain, snow and fog. Many nations have adopted air quality standards to safeguard the public against the most common pollutants. These include sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, suspended particulate matter, ground-level ozone, nitrogen dioxide and lead - all of which are tied directly or indirectly to the combustion of fossil fuels. Substantial investments in pollution control have lowered the levels of these pollutants in many cities of some developed countries. But poor air quality is still a major concern throughout the industrialized world. Meanwhile, urban air pollution has worsened in most large cities in the developing world, a situation driven by population growth, industrialization and increased vehicle use. Despite pollution control effects, air quality has approached the dangerous levels, recorded in London in the 1950s, in such megacities as Delhi, Jakarta and Mexico City. In some parts of Asia, such as Southeast China, Northeast India, Thailand and the Republic of Korea, and in the Pacific region acid rain is now emerging as a major problem. In the Asia region the use of sulphur-containing coal and oil is very high. In 1990 34 million metric tons of sulphur dioxide were emitted there, which is over 40 per cent more, than in North America. The effects are already being felt in the agriculture. In India wheat growing near a power plant suffered a 49-per cent reduction in yield. Other ecosystems are also beginning to suffer. Pines and oaks in acid rainaffected areas of the Republic of Korea showed significant declines in growth rates since 1970. Many countries in the world are trying to solve the problem of air pollution in various ways, cars, so fewer poisonous gases are produced. In some countries, like Sweden for example, new power plants use a method called fluidized bed combustion, which cuts sulphur emission down by 80 per cent. In Germany sulphurous smoke is
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sprayed with lime to produce gypsum, which is then used for building roads. Developing technologies like this may raise the price of electricity a little, but will save millions of trees, plants and animals and human health. Nuclear radiation is usually considered a form of pollution, although all life on Earth is and always has been exposed to some nuclear radiation from the usually low-level background radiation present in the air, soil, and rocks, and even from other organisms. Nuclear radiation is the spontaneous emission of nuclear particles, such as neutrons, protons and electrons, as well as short wave energy like X rays, from radioactive isotopes (radioisotopes). The difficulty for people and the environment comes less from low-level natural radiation than from higher levels of radioactive exposure associated, for example, with the detonation in the atmosphere of a nuclear weapon or the release into air and water and onto the land of uncontrolled emissions from nuclear power plants. This concern arises in part because higher levels of radioactive exposure can damage or kill organisms and trigger diseases such as cancer. Atomic explosions provoked this concern in the 1950s and 1960s, when the United States, the Soviet Union, China, France, and Britain were all conducting atmospheric testing. More insidiously, radioisotopes can also enter the mineral cycles and ecological food chains that sustain life and the environment. The classic documented case involves cesium 137, a radioisotope released into the atmosphere by atomic bomb tests and subsequently part of the fallout deposited on soil and plants in the Arctic regions of North America. As the cesium fell on lichens and was eaten by caribou that, in turn, became meat for the Eskimo the concentration of the toxic material relative to concentrations of other materials in the bodies of organisms increased at each level of the food. Exercise 2. Construct sentences using the text 1. rains/ for/ many/ responsible/ the/ acid/ decline/ forests/ are/ of 2. which/ building/ Germany/ smoke/ is/ with/ to/ gypsum/,/ is/ roads/ in/ sulphurous/ sprayed/ lime/ produce/ then/ used/ for 3. the/ many/ have/ quality/ to/ public/ the/ common/ pollutants/ nations/ adopted/ air/ standards/ safeguard/ against/ most 4. its/ miles /currents/ planet's/ cycles /carry/ hundreds/ away/ original/ the/ wind/ and/ can/ pollution/ of/ from/ source 5. world/ quality/ poor/ major/ still/ a/ concern/ the/ industrialized/ air/ is/ throughout 6. magnesium/ rain/ now/ that/ the/ acid/ 50/leaches/ as/ per/ cent/ the/ and/ forest/ soils/ scientists/ as/ report/ much/ of/ calcium/ from Exersice 3. Find facts from the text to support these statements: rain that can be as acid as vinegar many natural objects in the world were affected by aicid rain air pollution is that it does not obey national boundaries buildings "die" too quality standards to safeguard the public against the most common pollutants
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acid rain is now emerging as a major problem in many countries of the world in Germany people use a new method of reducing sulphurous smoke nuclear radiation atomic explosions are the most dangerous for people and animals

Unit XXV
Phonetics: [] [] . [] , . . "", , . [] "" "". : "" - much - "" - buck - "" - pun - "" - some - "" - cup - [ ] : [ bt ] but - [ lv ] love - [ dl ] dull - [ gn ] gun - [ km ] come - [ kntri ] country - [ s ] us - [ gli ] ugly -

Exercise 3. Find English equivalents for the following in the text: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; . Exercise 5. Answer the following questions to the text making use of expressions given in the box below. To my mind; As far as I know; In my opinion: There is no doubt that How are sulphur and nitrogen oxides produced? What are the acid rains responsible for? Black snow, as acid as vinegar, fell in Scotland in 1984, didnt it? What are acid rain affects on trees? What does scientists report now about calcium and magnesium? Where is the problem of acid rain actual today? What is nuclear radiation? What was the documented case concerned with atomic bomb tests in the Arctic regions of North America? Exercise 6. Put on your own questions upon the text. Exercise 7. Divide the text into parts and entitle them. Summarize the contents of the text according to your outline.

[ sm ] summer - [ st di ] study - [] : - u, : but, dull, just, gun, under. - o m, n, v, th: ome, mother, love, front. [] [a:] [] [a:] - , . [] , - . , "" "". [a:] , . . : [ km ] - [ ka:m ] come - calm [ dk ] - [ da:k ] [ lk ] - [ la:k ] [ bt ] - [ ba:t ] [ pk ] - [ pa:k ] duck - dark - luck - lark - but - Bart - () puck - park

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Grammar: THE PREPOSITION , , , , . : 1. , : in - for - on - 2. , : across - below - 3. , : into (in + to) upon (up + on) without (with + out) 4. , : according to - as for - . : Winter comes after autumn. () . Our students will go to camp after they pass all their exams. () , . : 1. : in - ( -): lives in Moscow. . on - ( ): My book is on the table. . behind - ( ): Our house is behind the forest. . over - : A lamp is over the bookshelf. .

. by - , ( ): Student N. is sitting by the window. . . at 1) , , ( ); at) , ( - ): There is a chair at the door. . was at the meeting. . 2. : to - , , ( ): We shall go to the theatre. . into (in + to) - ( ): May I come into your room? ? from - , , , ( ): I am going from my friend's. . Take the book from the bookshelf. . out of - ( ): went out of the room. . through : We shall better go through the forest. . 3. : at - ( ): Our lessons begin at nine. . in 1) ( , ); 2) : Winter begins in December. . was born in 1946. 1946 . will come in an hour.
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under - : A box is under the table.

in front of - : There is a garden in front of our school.


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. on - ( , ): will go there on Sunday. . The academic year begins on the first of September 1- . , , : to look - to look for - to look through - to look in - to call - ; to call up - ( ) to call at - , , , : to address - () to answer - () to enter - () to follow - () to join - () . answered all your questions, I guess. , . : in fact - , , in time - on the contrary - on the one hand - for example - for the first time - . Exercise 1. () ) On the table, on the floor, on the sofa, on the chair, on the window-sill, on the ground, on the roof, on the bridge, on the platform, on the shelf, on the cupboard, on the bench, on the snow, on the ice, on the wall, on the blackboard, on the table, on the floor, on the sofa, on the chair, on the window-sill, on the ground, on the grass, on the roof, on the bridge, on the platform, on the shelf, on the cupboard, on the bench, on the snow, on the ice, on the wall, on the blackboard. B) In the room, in the kitchen, in the house, in the car, in the box, in the cupboard, in the bag, in the pocket, in the hall, in the plate, in the cup, in the glass, in the bottle, in the snow, in the water, in the river, in the lake, in the sea, in the wood, in the park, in the garden, in the yard, in the classroom. ?
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Into the room, into the kitchen, into the house, into the car, into the box, into the cupboard, into the bag, into the pocket, into the hall, into the plate, into the cup, into the glass, into the bottle, into the snow, into the water, into the river, into the lake, into the sea, into the wood, into the park, into the garden, into the yard, into the classroom. Exercise 2. on , in into . 1. Where is the book? It is___the table. 2. Where is the tea? It is___the cup. 3. Put the plates___the table. 4. Put the book___the bag. 5. There is a beautiful picture___the wall. 6. He went___the room. 7. I like to sit___the sofa___my room. 8. Mother is cooking dinner___the kitchen. 9. She went___the room and sat down___the sofa. 10. There are many people___the park today. 11. There is a girl standing___the bridge. Why is she crying? - She has dropped her doll___the water. 12. There is no tea___my cup. 13. Pour some tea___my cup. 14. Put these flowers___thewindow-sill. 15. I saw many people___the platform waiting for the train. 16. We went___the garden and sat down___a bench. 17. The teacher hung a picture___the blackboard. 18. I opened the door and went___the classroom. The teacher was writing some words___the blackboard. The pupils were writing these words___their exercise-books. There were some books and pens___the teacher's table. There were two maps___the wall and some flowers___the window-sills. I saw a pen___the floor. I picked it up and put it___the table. 19. He put his hand___his pocket, took out a letter and dropped it___the mail-box which hung___the wall of the house. Then he got___his car and drove off. ? At the theatre, at the cinema, at the museum, at the swimming-pool, at the library, at the shop, at the institute, at the port, at the railway-station, at the concert, at the exhibition, at the stadium, at the stop, at the factory, at work1, at school1, at the lesson. ? To the theatre, to the cinema, to the museum, to the swimming-pool, to the library, to the shop, to the institute, to the port, to the railway-station, to the concert, to the exhibition, to the stadium, to the stop, to the factory, to work1, to school1, to the lesson. Exercise 3. , to into . 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. . 6. . 7. . 8. . 9. . 10. . 11. . 12. " . 13. . 14. . Exercise 4. in to. 1. We did not want to stay___town on such a hot day, so we went___the country. 2. It is very late: Go___bed at once. 3. Where is your little sister? She is___bed. Mother always puts her___bed at eight o'clock. 4. Insummer my mother does not go___work and I don't go___school. We live___the country. My father goes___work every day, so he stays___town. But sometimes he comes___the country after work and goes back___town early in the morning, when I am still___bed. 5. Inwinter I
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usually go___bed at ten o'clock because I learn___school and have to get up early. But in : AT Exercise 5. at on. 1.1 get up___seven o'clock or___a quarter past seven. 2. ___Sunday I usually get up___nine o'clock or half past nine. But last Sunday I slept very long and got up only___noon. 3. Lev Tolstoy liked to get up___sunrise. 4. Our lessons are usually over___twenty minutes to two. 5. They returned from the wood___sunset. 6. I began writing my composition___seven o'clock and finished only___midnight. 7. My birthday is___the ninth of July. 8. The school [ year begins___the first of September. 9. ___the twen-ty-fifth of December people celebrate Christmas. 10. ___Wednesday I usually have a lot of homework. : IN. 1997 -- in1997. in March : this year; last year; next year : this month; last month; - next month. | : - this week. - in an hour; - in a year; - in two days; in a few minutes Exercise 6. . 1. . 2. , . 3. . 4. . 5. . . . : . . . . . . . , , . . with by . with ( ) eg. with a knife by ( ) eg. by my brother Exercise 7. with by. 1. The boy cut his finger___a knife. 2. The boat was carried___the waves into the open sea. 3. The teacher was pleased___our work. 4. America was discovered___Columbus. 5. Hamlet was written Shake. 6. We eat soup___a spoon. 7. He was killed___a knife. 8. He was killed___the robbers. 9. He was knocked down___a big stick. 10. He was knocked down___a car. 11. He was taken to hospital ___an ambulance. 12. He was treated___very effective drugs. 13. He was cured___a very skilful doctor. 14. He wrote his letter___a pencil. 15. He was scolded___his mother.
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: - in an hour - across the road - across the field - through the wood (, , ) -across the river ( , ) -over the river - over the fence : - along (down) the street -down (up) the river - across the sea - about the town - about the room along the corridor - about the country 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. , - . 5. , , . , . 6. . . 7. , . 8. . 9. , . 10.
Conversational Topics: Ecology Exercises on the vocabulary: 1. Study the words and word combinations of the active vocabulary stated below. 2. Explain the contextual meaning of the underlined lexical units relying on an English-English dictionary. 3. Recall the situations in which the active vocabulary is used in the text stated below. 4. Make up your own situations or sentences with the active vocabulary. Vocabulary: slope [slup] 1. . 1) ) , ) , ; , fume [fju:m] 1. . 1) , , . . exhaust [g'zst] . ) , ( ) ) abundance ['bndn(t)s] . . , soot [sut] 1. . ; ; acid soot fatty / oil soot futurologist [`fju:'rlst] . dedication [`ded'ke()n] . 1)
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2) ; 3) , UNO . United Nations Organization , extinction [k'stk()n] . 1) ; 2) , 4) ( , ) 5) , indefinite [n'def()nt] . 1) ; 3) , , fitness ['ftns] c. (), , habitat ['hbtt] .; . , , (, ) delay [d'le] . 1) , ; breeder reactor () -, pressure group , ( ) the environmental pressure group Greenpeace to draw smb.'s attention to smth. -. - exceed [k'si:d] ; , sustain [s'sten] ( ); ; ( -.); greed [gri:d] . , Exercise 1. Read the following text. Try to understand it in details. We live on a very beautiful planet on the Earth. Our planet has very rich resources: the bright blue of the sky, fresh, crystal-clear mountain lake water, the rich green of the mountains slopes, wild flower, picturesque views all these sceneries of nature fill us with admiration. Thats why those who live in cities prefer spending their days off and their holidays far from the noise of the city, to be closer to nature. Perhaps they like to breathe fresh air or to swim in clear water because the ecology is not so poor as in the cities. Ecology is the study of the ways in which organisms (plants and animals) depend upon each other and upon their surroundings. Each organism requires conditions in order to be able to live and breed. These conditions are its environment by changing the ecological conditions. So, pollution is one of the most burning problems of nowadays. Now millions of chimneys, cars, buses, trucks all over the world exhaust fumes and harmful substances into the atmosphere. These poisoned substances pollute everything: air, land, water, birds animals and people. So, it is usually hard to breathe in the large cities
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where there are many plants. Everything there is covered with soot and dirt. All these affect harmfully. Water pollution is very serious, too. Ugly rivers of dirty water polluted with factory waste, poisoned fish are all-round us. And polluted air and poisoned water lead to the end of the civilization. So, nowadays a lot of dead lands and lifeless areas have appeared. Because our actions and dealings can turn the land to a desert. So, we see that our environment offers an abundance of subject matter for discussion. The problems and prospects of the blue planet interest not only scientist and futurologists, but also politicians, industry, the public and above all, young people! There is hardly a young person who is not conserned with the preservation of our natural habitat. To recognize environmental problems and master them, to reduce and avoid environmental pollution, to discover and develop ecologically sound technologies there are the essential building blocks for our future. Whether scientist or politicians, bankers or student, whether Greek, Norwegian, Hungarian or Finn all are encouraged to make a contribution towards protecting the environment. Dedication and the courage to change ones way of thinking are called for. We are to stop pollution. So, we can grow plants and trees, to purify waste, to start urgent campaigns in order to preserve environment For example, in 1989 in Australia, Sydney. In a year the same kind of action was held all over Australia and it was called Clean up Australia the following years 110 countries hold the similar actions within the ecological program of the UNO. Nowadays there are many different pressure and interests groups in British, which try to find solutions to the problems of pollution at the national and international level. So they are groups of people with a common interest in trying to draw the public attention to environment problems, to influence the government decisions. Greenpeace is a very famous pressure group. It started functioning in 1971. Its headquarters are at Amsterdam, but it operates in 25 countries worldwide. The aim of Greenpeace is to protect wildlife of toxic wastes, nuclear tests. Friends of the Earth (FoE) is one of the British pressure groups with an international reputation. Its general aim is to conserve the planets resources and reduce pollution. FoE was established in 1971 and now it operated in 44 countries worldwide. It campaigns among other things, for recycling and renewable energy, and the destruction of wildlife and habitat. The main campaigning issues of the FoE are: The protection of all animals and plants in danger of extinction. An end to the destruction of wildlife and habitats. A program of energy conservation measures, etc. So, a number of campaigns resulted in: The ban or other hunting in England and Wales And indefinite delay in the construction of the Commercial East Breeder Reactor, etc. But not only great groups can influence the problem of pollution. So, different people have their own opinions on this problem:

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The continued pollution of the earth, if unchecked, well eventually destroys the fitness of this planet as a place for human life. (B. Commoner). The Earth has enough for every mans need, but not for mans greed. (Ganlui). And I agree with them because it is really so. And terrible examples prove them. The Baltic Sea is a special case. Because it is such a small sea and it becomes dirty very easily. Its waster changes slowly through the shallow straits. As many as 250 rivers run into the Baltic. There are hundreds of factories in these rivers and millions of people live along them. Quite a lot of big cities lie on its coast. All these combined with the active navigation of the sea naturally affects the state of the sea water and the shore line flora and fauna. People suffer from the waster pollution; cancer deaths increase peoples concern. And there is no escape from this ecological crisis without organizing a single body dealing with the environmental problems, developing and carrying out a nationwide program of environmental protection and co-operating with international schemes. Population Fears. Scientists now predict that by the year 2050 the population will be doubled what is today. The fact remains that the rate of food production fell behind population growth in many of developing countries. The annual fish catch already exceeds what the worlds oceans can successfully sustain. If we go on using our natural recourses at todays rates, we will have used up the entire reserves of cooper, natural gas and oil by the year 2054. But the problem ahead lie not so much in what we use but in what we waste. What faces us is not so much a recourse crisis as a pollution crisis. The only solution is to try to change the areas of consumption, technology and population. Changes in technology must be baked by slower population growth. And it can be achieved by education in health and womens rights. And there is a little hope of reducing consumption over the next half century. Exercise 2. Add the beginning to the following sentences from the text: wild flower, picturesque views all these sceneries of nature fill us with admiration. the ecology is not so poor as in the cities. air, land, water, birds animals and people. poisoned fish are all-round us. the preservation of our natural habitat. to influence the government decisions. the destruction of wildlife and habitat. destroys the fitness of this planet as a place for human life. and millions of people live along them. much in what we use but in what we waste.

Exercise 3. Look through the following words and phrases. Find their synonyms in the text: evolution, increase, expansion; calamity, catastrophe, distress, disaster; flee, run away; defence, maintenance; contamination, soiling, dirtying; sway, ascendancy; effect, fulfil, realize ; attract, evoke, bring forth; agitate, crusade; hot, urgent puzzle; devotion, enthusiasm, keenness; transcend; avidity, avarice; conformity, accordance Exercise 4. Find English equivalents for the following in the text and reproduse the situations in which they are used: ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; . Exercise 5. Answer the following questions to the text making use of expressions given in the box below. To my mind; As far as I know; In my opinion: There is no doubt that Our planet has very picturesque views, hasnt it? What is Ecology deals with? Why is it difficult to live in the large cities where there are many plants? What do polluted air and poisoned water lead to? Where are different pressure and interests groups which try to find solutions to the problems of pollution at the national and international level? What are they? Can you name them? What do the scientists predict by the year 2050? Exercise 6. Put on your own questions upon the text. Exercise 7. Divide the text into parts and entitle them. Summarize the contents of the text according to your outline.

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SUPPLEMENTARY READING

RADIOACTIVE POLLUTION OF ENVIRONMENT to prohibit smth. -. About 200 years ago people lived in greater harmony with nature and their environment, because industry was not as developed and the world was not as crowded as now. Aborigines took good care of nature and never took more than they needed for life. Today the contradictions between man and nature are great. Every year world industry pollutes the atmosphere with about 1000 million tons of dust and other substances, The waste from factories and plants, electric and atomic power stations gets into lakes, rivers and seas, it poisons the air , it destroys plants and animals. Radioactivity can be natural, caused by presence of radioactive elements (K-40, Uranium-235, Uranium-238 and some others), and artificial, appearing as a result of nuclear weapon tests, Atomic Power Stations and the others. Artificial radiation is much more dangerous than natural one because people and ecosystems have already adapted to natural radiation. The most dangerous factors of radioactive pollution of biosphere are tests of nuclear weapons being held in the USA, France, China and other countries. There were about 1349 tests of nuclear weapons in period from 1945 to 1985. There are two polygons in Russia: Semipalatinsk and Novaya Zemlya Island. But nowadays any tests of nuclear weapons are prohibited in Russia. The pollution of the environment affects man's health greatly. It can lead to such diseases as asthma, bronchitis, cancer, it tells on the central nervous system and so on. Since the first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, Japan, on Aug. 6, 1945, there has been an increased awareness of the environmental threat posed by nuclear weapons and radioactive fallout. Many scientists are concerned about the long-term environmental impacts of full-scale nuclear war. Some suggest that the large amounts of smoke and dust thrown into the atmosphere during a nuclear explosion would block out the sun's light and heat, causing global temperatures to drop. Even the testing of nuclear weapons directly affects the environment. Such tests are rarely conducted above ground or in the ocean. International concern over the effects of these tests led the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union to sign the Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty in 1963. On April 26, 1986, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the Soviet Union malfunctioned creating the worst peacetime nuclear disaster. Many details of the Chernobyl accident remain undisclosed, but it is known that the radioactive core of the power plant became exposed, and there was a partial meltdown, releasing large amounts of radioactive materials. Because the medical effects of exposure to nuclear radiation can take years to become apparent, it is not yet known how many additional cases of cancer, birth defects, and skin disease will have been caused by the Chernobyl accident. Another immediate environmental problem is the disposal of nuclear wastes. Some radioactive substances have a half-life of more than 10,000 years, which means they remain radioactive and highly dangerous for many thousands of years. In nuclear physics, a half-life is the period of time required for the disintegration of half of the atoms in a sample of a radioactive substance. Science has not yet found a safe method of permanent disposal of high level radioactive wastes. Even temporary storage of these wastes is a dangerous and expensive problem. Experiments are underway to investigate the possible use of salt mines several thousand feet below the surface of the Earth as repositories for spent nuclear fuel rods and similar highly radioactive substances.
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Ecological ignorance of the people leads to the further destruction of nature and worsens the living conditions for all living beings-A lot of forests are cut, marshes and lakes are dried - And it breaks the ecological balance and deprives lots of animals of places to live. In the course of its history mankind has waged destructive wars which didn't spare the nature. People have destroyed nature by building huge cities, cutting woods, excavating mountains and digging mines. But that wouldn't have been too bad, if the man hadn't been clever enough to invent; and develop different sciences. Due to them all kinds of industries appeared and here mankind vent mad. In pursuit of new inventions and discoveries, as well as higher and higher profits man has forgotten about nature and it has led him to the edge of the ecological catastrophe. Mankind has nearly committed suicide. So our goal is to stop destroying the planet we live on first of all. And then step by step we must begin to restore what has been destroyed, so that future generations could happily live here, Its our noble though very difficult task. The Sun THE SUN The big burning ball of gas that holds nine major planets in orbit is not unlike many stars in the universe. The Sun makes up 99.86 percent of the solar system's mass and provides the energy that both sustains and endangers us. Scientists have lately begun calling its tremendous outpouring of energy "space weather." The Sun can be divided into three main layers: a core, an irradiative zone, and a convective zone. The Sun's energy comes from thermonuclear reactions (converting hydrogen to helium) in the core, where the temperature is 15 to 25 million degrees. The energy radiates through the middle layer, then bubbles and boils to the surface in a process called convection. Charged particles, called the solar wind, stream out at a million miles an hour. Magnetic fields within the sun slow down the radiation of heat in some areas, causing sun spots, which are cool areas and appear as dark patches. Sunspot activity peaks every 11 years. The next peak is due in 2000. During this so-called solar maximum, the sun will bombard Earth's atmosphere with extra doses of solar radiation. The last peak, in 1989, caused power blackouts, knocked satellites out of orbit and disrupted radio communications. (See our special report on Sunspots.) Though NASA scientists aren't predicting any record-setting space weather in 2000, the peak is expected to be above average. "It's like saying we're going to have a mild or cold winter," says Dr. David Hathaway at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. But as communications rely increasingly on satellites, there are more targets in the sky and more significant consequences to any disruptions. And there may be more to sunspots than disrupted communications. An active sun, known to heat the Earth's outer atmosphere, may also affect our climate. Scientists say a small ice age from 1645 to 1715 corresponded to a time of reduced solar activity, and current rises in temperatures might be related to increased solar activity. The Sun frequently spews plumes of energy, essentially bursts of solar wind. These solar flares contain Gamma rays and X-rays, plus energized particles (protons and electrons). Energy is equal to a billion megatons of TNT is released in a matter of minutes. Flare activity picks up as sunspots increase. The Sun's charged, high-speed particles push and shape Earth's magnetic field into a teardrop shape. The magnetic field protects Earth from most of the harmful solar radiation, but extreme flares can disable satel185

lites and disrupt communication signals. The charged particles also excite oxygen and nitrogen in the atmosphere to create the aurora borealis, or northern lights. More solar radiation during the upcoming solar maximum means an increase in the aurora. Similar to a solar flare, a coronal mass ejection is a bubble of gas and charged particles ejected over several hours. It can occur with or without solar flares, and can also threaten Earth's atmosphere. If you stood on the Sun, its gravity would make you feel 38 times more heavy than you do on Earth. But it's kind of hot, so please don't try it PRESERVATION OF NATURE Preservation of nature has become a serious issue by the end of the 20th century. Government officials and politicians speak a lot of this problem. For them it is a good chance to attract public attention and get scores in their political campaigns. In fact, very little is done to make our lives healthier by preserving nature. Big industrial corporations keep polluting water in rivers, lakes and seas. Oil tankers dump oil into seas and oceans. Many countries use cheap electricity from nuclear power plants which, besides being unsafe and dangerous, also account for polluting nature. Forests are felled, including rain forests. As a result, animals, birds and fish are killed. Life in big cities is also affected by big industries and transport. Many people are anxious to leave cities for suburban areas in search of a better ecology. But ecology is threatened there also. Lets take for example acid rains. What do a forest in Germany, a lake in Sweden and the Great Lakes on the borders of Canada and the United states have in common? They are all threatened by acid rain. All over Europe, particularly in Russia, and in North America, there are lakes and forests which are dead or dying, and the cause is acid rain. All fossil fuels, that is oil, coal, and gas contain sulphur. When these are burnt, for example, in motor vehicles, they form sulphuric acid. This acid goes up into the air, and soon it falls back to earth, into lakes and onto trees in forests. As a result, lakes become acidic, fish disappears and trees are killed. The pollution is carried great distances by the wind, so sulphuric acid produced in Britain can travel as far as Scandinavia. The main source of acid rain is electric power stations. Some countries have passed laws requiring power stations to install filters that prevent the acid getting out into the air. If petrol used in motor vehicles were lead-free, then it would be possible to filter exhaust fumes which are a major cause of pollution. These filter mechanisms cannot work unless the lead is removed. So, it is possible to do something about acid rain and pollution. But unless the problem is faced very soon, it may be too late. There are very good examples of nature preservation. The river Rhine in Germany was known to have been seriously polluted some years ago by industrial plants and sewage water. The government of Germany took very decisive and serious steps punishing those responsible for the pollution. The result is striking: fisherman can be seen catching fish in the Rhine. But such results can only be achieved if there is a government which seriously thinks of its people and of its country. THE MOON Though a satellite of Earth, the Moon is bigger than Pluto. Some scientists think of it as a planet (four other moons in our solar system are even bigger). There are various theories about how the Moon was created, but recent evidence indicates it formed when a huge collision tore a chunk of the Earth away. Because it takes 27.3 days both to rotate on its axis and to orbit Earth, the Moon always shows us the same face. We see the Moon because of reflected sunlight. How much of it we see depends on its position in
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relation to Earth and the Sun. The 27.3-day number is what scientists call a sidereal month, and it is how long it takes the Moon to orbit the Earth in relation to a fixed star. Another measurement, called a synodic month, is measured between in relation to the Sun and equals 29.5 days. Full moons and new moon are measured by the synodic month. Earth's gravity keeps the Moon in orbit, while the Moon's gravity creates tides on our oceans Like the four inner planets, the Moon is rocky. It's pockmarked with craters formed by asteroid impacts millions of years ago. Because there is no weather, the craters have not eroded. The Moon has almost no atmosphere, so a layer of dust -- or a footprint -- can sit undisturbed for centuries. And without an atmosphere, heat is not held near the planet, so temperatures vary wildly. Daytime temperatures on the sunny side of the Moon reach 273 degrees F; on the dark side it gets as cold as -243. In June of 1999, reserchers discovered by accident that a huge cloud of sodium gas trails behind the Moon. The Lunar Prospector in 1998 provided evidence of ice near the Moon's poles, perhaps as much as 6 billion tons of it. The Moon travels around the Earth at a little more than half a mile per second; its speed is slowing and the satellite is gradually moving away from Earth. IT IS SCIENCE THAT DOES US GOOD OR DOES IT BRING DISASTER? To answer the question whether science does us good or does it brings disaster isn't a simple task. We should take into consideration many facts. On the one hand a lot of outstanding discoveries made the life of the people more comfortable and pleasant. Without scientific discoveries and inventions no progress would be possible. Thanks to discovery of electricity we can listen to the radio, watch TV, see films, people learned how to produce steel and metal alloys - now we use railways and airplanes. Development of chemistry led to new synthetic fibers and people got more clothing and food. People learned to use scientific achievements in curing incurable earlier diseases. But on the other hand such outstanding discoveries of the 20th century as atom fission led to creation of the weapons of mass destruction. We should say that science has a potential for both good and evil. Alfred Nobel invented a new explosive (dynamite) to improve the peacetime industries of road building, but saw it used as a weapon of war to kill and injure his fellow men. He was born in Stockholm on October 21st 1833, but moved to Russia with his parents in1842. Most of the family returned to Sweden in 1859, where Alfred began his own study of explosives in his father's laboratory. He had never been to school or university, but had studied privately and by the time he was 20 was a skillful chemist and excellent linguist, speaking Russian, English, German, French and Swedish. He was very imaginative and inventive. His greatest wish, however, was to see an end to wars, and thus between nations, and he spent much time and money working for this cause, until his death in 1896. His famous will in which he left money to provide prizes for outstanding discoveries in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology, Medicine, Literature and Peace, is a memorial to his interests and ideals. Medical men use laser to cure and investigate diseases and the same time laser can be used for destruction. Achievements of biology and chemistry are also used to cause damage to people. All this shows that science can take good forms and evil forms. What form does it take depends on the way people work with science. It is impossible to stop progress, to stop people to investigate and explore the world. But people should care it wouldn't be led in wrong direction. Scientists need you thinking in a new much broader way than before. In this respect the education and cultural level are of great importance. They have to influence politicians, warn them
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of possible effects of using new discoveries. Scientists and politicians think that it's their responsibility for not using scientific developments to cause damage and destruction. There is a lot of work to be done in this direction. TEXT The door of his office opened, and professor Fox saw a young man, about twenty-one, enter behind his secretary. Erik Gorin was a little above middle height, slender, and wearing not very good clothes. He had dark, living eyes and straight black hair. Mr. Gorin, said the secretary. Fox rose to shake hands, and asked the young man to sit down. His own voice sounded cold to him, and he wished it could be more affable. He returned to his chair and tried to remember who had recommended Gorin. Dr. Hollingsworth? Fox asked suddenly. How is he? Very well, sir, said Gorin. He spoke in a slow steady voice, and he sat up straight as though prepared for any onslaught. But he had to clear his throat before answering, and Fox felt sorry for him though he was sure that the quick eyes would have been amazed at any expression of sympathy. He saw the bright watchful face and the eager intelligence it held. My God, he thought, hes scared, hes probably hungry, and he still wants to set the world on fire. We are very glad to have you here, Mr. Gorin, he said gently. This year weve taken on only one new assistant. Youve come with excellent recommendations and youll have every opportunity to live up to them. As you know, youll be teaching freshman physics lab while you take your own courses towards your doctorate. Youll probably find first year rather confusing and hard work between the two schedules, but things will straighten out for you after a while. Is there any field of physics in which you are especially interested so far? No, said Erik after the slightest hesitation. I really dont know enough about any of them yet. All I had as an undergraduate were the usual courses in mechanics, light, thermodynamics and electricity. Fox nodded. He knew that Gorin must have been tortured for a moment by the conflict between the fear that he might make a poor impression and the desire to tell the truth. Youll have plenty of time to make up your mind, he said, and there are any number of researches going on to help your choice. Unfortunately, most of the staff is away and work wont start for another two weeks. Professor Beans is the man to whom youll be responsible for your undergraduate teaching. He gives the freshman physics lecture. Professor Cameron will be your adviser in your graduate work. In the meantime, leave your address with Miss Prescott, the secretary. Each year just before the semester starts, Mrs. Fox and I hold an open house for all the members of the staff so that the new men can meet everyone else. Naturally, were expecting you, but Mrs. Fox will prefer to send you an invitation anyhow. This just about made up the usual speech and Fox knew that his tone had warmed as he went along. Was there anything he had left out, he wondered. The invitation, the names of Beans and Cameron, the general air of encouragement he had remembered them all. Oh yes, one more touch Did you have a pleasant summer, Mr. Gorin?

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A pleasant summer? Erik was silent for the time of two long breaths. His dark gaze never moved from Foxs face. No, sir, he said explosively. I damn well did not have a pleasant summer! What did you say? Fox asked out of surprise. I said that the summer was pretty awful, said Erik once more. May I smoke? Fox pushed an ash-tray along the desk. Thanks. All I can say is Im glad its over, Erik went on. He had come with no intentions of saying this or anything personal. But there was something so damned gentle and sincere about Fox, he thought, that you couldnt help but tell him everything about the past two months; and the words came tumbling out, faster and faster to ease the pressure in his throat. You see , I was absolutely broke when Hollingworth Professor Hollingworth told me at commencement that I had got the appointment here. I wont even tell you what that meant to me to study physics at Columbia. He was very decent and asked me to spend the summer with him and his family at a place they have in Wisconsin. But I couldnt see myself sponging on him for all that time, so I settled for two weeks. It was wonderful there. Im sure it was, Fox said. His amazement was still growing. Wisconsin is a beautiful state. Oh, it is. But at the end of two weeks, I left them saying I was coming East to visit a cousin. I dont have any cousin, but I got on the train because the whole Hollingworth family came down to the station to see me off, and I knew theyd feel bad if they thought I had no place to go. On the train I bought a ticket for the next town, a place called Catlett. I got out there and took a lift on the highway from a fellow who was driving his car to Cleveland to sell it there. He liked the car, because you see he had so long to buy it. He was sad all the way and told me over and over how he had fixed this part and repaired that one. But here he was out of a job and all of his savings gone and finally the car was going too. Somehow it scared me. At Cleveland, I got another lift out of town and once, when we stopped for gas in a place called High Hope, I got into conversation with the owner of the station. He offered me a job for a place to eat and sleep. I was supposed to help him in repairs and service and I could keep whatever money I got for fixing automobile radios. In three weeks, I fixed one radio, but I quit because one day I went into town and a fellow stopped me. He was almost crazy because he said I had taken his job. He used to make thirty a week and I was doing the work for practically nothing. He was married and had a family, so I moved on. I dont know whether he got the job back, but I know I didnt want it any more. You see, I knew all the time that I had this appointment here, waiting for me. Erik put out the cigarette as if he had just become aware of the extent of his rambling. He cleared his throat and stood up, hoping to be dismissed painlessly. No, sit down, said Fox. Sit down and tell me what happened. Erik sat down again. Here i am, he thought, talking to Earle Fox, a scientist who won the Nobel Prize. Were all alone in the room and he is listening to me go on like an idiot about my summer. To me. He thought of all the people Fox had shaken hands with the President of the United States, the king of Denmark, every living creature whose name was famous. Go on, said Fox. What happened?
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Nothing much. You see, now that Im safe, its almost as though nothing had happened. In Schenectady I had a job of washing dishes for a while, and when I got to New York, I came up here at once but you were still away on your vocation. For two weeks until yesterday I worked in a bath house at an open air pool on the East Side. I used to laugh all the time because it was so funny. Funny? No matter what was happening, no matter what kind of craze job I had, I used to say to myself, Im really a physicist. He checked himself. I can call myself a physicist, cant I? Or is that presumptuous? No, said Fox after a moment. His voice was gentle. Youre a physicist. The point is this, Erik said. He was standing and his eyes seemed very dark. I want you to know what this chance means to me, and when you say that Ill be given every opportunity, I dont need every opportunity. All I ask is just one, thats all, just one. Yes, said Fox. Yes, I see. DAILY BREAD Miss Martha was forty years old, and she wasnt married. She had a good heart and two thousand dollars in the bank: many women marry who have less. Martha wasnt married, but she always showed a smiling face to the people who came every day to buy bread in her little bakery. She sold fresh and stale bread. Fresh bread cost five cents a loaf and stale bread cost five cents for two loaves; two for five, as she said to the middle aged man she had begun to be interested in. He came to the bakery two or three times a week. He had light brown hair and blue eyes. His clothes were not new, but always very clean. He always bought two loaves of stale bread, never fresh, and Miss Martha decided that he was very poor. He had long, very white hands; she could see that he wasnt a workman. Perhaps he is an artist, she thought, a very poor artist, living in a cold dark room and painting beautiful pictures. She often thought of him when she sat down to her dinner of meat and vegetables, and bread and butter and tea and jam. She thought of him sitting alone in his cold dark corner, eating his dry, stale bread. How sorry she was that she could not invite him to have dinner with her! (We have told you that Miss Martha had a good heart.) Or perhaps he wasnt an artist. Perhaps he couldnt find any work and walked the streets all day long, looking for something to do. That was even worse. Miss Martha was ready to cry whenever she thought of it. She wanted to talk to him, to know more about him. But how? He never spoke to her, except to ask for two loaves of stale bread. At last she thought of a plan which, she hoped, would not only help her to discover his profession, but would let her begin a conversation with him. In her room behind the shop, Miss Martha had a painting which she always liked to look at. It was a painting of a wonderful white palace on an island in a lake. There was a little boat on the blue water of the lake; and in the boat lay a beautiful girl, with one hand in the water. Miss Martha brought the painting from her room and put it on the wall just behind the place where she kept the loaves of bread. The next day the man came in, and said, as usual, Two loaves of stale bread, please. As Miss Martha turned to him with the loaves of bread, her heart began to beat more quickly. She saw that he was looking at her picture: there was even a smile on his face.
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You have a fine picture here, madam, he said as she handed him the bread. I am glad you think so, Miss Martha answered. Its my favourite picture. She turned and looked at the picture. I admire art so much, she said, and she was going to say, and the artists, but she stopped: it was too early to say that. and paintings, she finished instead. Do you think it is a good picture? The man looked at the picture again, this time more carefully, then said: Yes, the picture isnt bad, not bad at all. But Im afraid the proportions of the place arent quite right. He took the bread without saying anything else and left the shop. Miss Martha went to the window and looked after him. How nice he was! How his blue eyes shone behind his eyeglasses! How quickly he saw that the prportions in the picture were wrong! She was sure now that he was an artist. An artist and living on stale bread! His life was so hard: it could be so much easier with her two thousand dollars in the bank, with her bakery, with her heart that understood but she stopped herself. These were day-dreams she had no right to think such things. Often now, when he came, he stopped to talk a few minutes to Miss Martha. He seemed to like her smile, the sound of her voice, her conversation. But he continued to buy only stale bread. Never a cake, never even a loaf of fresh bread. He looked thinner, she thought, and unhappy. How she wanted to put something good onto the parcel together with his stale bread! But she hadnt enough courage for that. She knew how proud artists were, how they hated gifts in any form. Miss Martha began to wear her silk blouse in the shop. She was wearing it one day when her artist came in and asked, as usual, for two loaves of stale bread. Miss Martha had just turned to the shelf to get the loaves, when there was a great noise in the street, and fire-engines began to pass the house. The artist ran to the door to look, and at that moment the great idea came to Miss Marthas mind. On the lower shelf there was a big piece of fresh butter that she had bought that morning. Miss Martha took a knife, made a hole in each loaf of bread and put a big piece of butter in it. When the artist turned round, she had already made a paper parcel with the two loaves in it. When the artist had left after a very pleasant little conversation, Miss Martha smiled to herself, but her heart was beating faster than usual. She hoped the artist would not be angry when he discovered the butter. But no, how could he be angry about such a small thing? Nobody thought of butter as a gift! She thought of what was happening in the artists room. It was lunch time, her artist had stopped painting and was looking at his beautiful picture, in which the proportions were quite right. Soon he would sit down to his cup of tea and dry bread. He would break one of the loaves ah would he think as he ate, of the hand that had put the butter into that loaf? Would he ? The bell over the shop door rang and two men came in. one of them was a young man she had never seen before. The other was her artist The artists face was very red, his hat was on the back of his head, his eyes were wild. You foolish old woman! he shouted at Miss Martha. At Miss Martha! The younger man tried to pull him away. No, I wont go! the artist cried, freeing his arm. I wont go until I tell her! Then to Miss Martha; You have ruined my life; you have ruined everything! You are a foolish old cat!
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Miss Martha closed her eyes. She held one hand to her face, the other was on her silk blouse over her heart. She felt that the shelves full of bread were going round her in great circles. The young man took the artists arm again. Youve said enough; come on! He pulled the angry artist to the door and pushed him into the street. Then he closed the door and came back to Miss Martha. Ill explain what happened, he said. I couldnt, while he was in the room. You see, he is an architect. We work together in the same office. He has worked hard for six months, drawing a plan for a new city hall. It was a prize competition. He finished his plan today. You know, an architect always makes his drawing in pencil first, and then draws over the lines in ink. When it is finished, he takes away the pencil lines with stale bread. Its better than rubber. My friend bought his stale bread here. Well, today well, you know butter isnt very good for well, he cant show that plan to anybody now. Miss Martha went into her room behind the shop. She took off the silk blouse and put on her brown one. Then she sad down and cried. THE ADVENTURE OF MY AUNT My aunt was a big woman, very tall, with a strong mind and will. She was what you may call a very manly woman. My uncle was a thin, small man, very weak, with no will at all. He was no match for my aunt. From the day of their marriage he began to grow smaller and weaker. His wifes powerful mind was too much for him; it weakened his health. My aunt took all possible care of him; half the doctors in town visited him and prescribed medicine for him enough to cure a whole hospital. She made him take all the medicines prescribed by the doctors, but it didnt help him. My uncle grew worse and worse, and one day she found him dead. My aunt was very sorry by the death of her poor dear husband. Now she was sorry that she had made him take so much medicine and felt, that he was the victim of her kindness. Anyhow, she did all that a widow could do to honour his memory. She spent very much money on her mourning dress, she wore a miniature of him about her neck as large as a small clock; and she had a full-length portrait of him always hanging in her bedroom. All the world praised her conduct. A woman who did so much to honour the memory of one husband, deserves soon to get another, said my aunts friends. Some time passed, and my aunt decided to move to Derbyshire where she had a big country-house. The house stood in a lonely, wild part of the country among the grey Derbyshire hills. The servants, most of whom came with my aunt from town, did not like the sadlooking old place. They were afraid to walk alone about its black-looking rooms. My aunt herself seemed to be struck with the lonely appearance of her house. Before she went to bed, therefore, she herself examined the doors and windows and locked them with her own hands. Then she carried the keys from the house together with a little box of money and jewels, to her own room. She always saw to all things herself. One evening, after she had sent away her girl-servant she sat by her toilet-table, arranging her hair. For, in spite of her sorrow for my uncle, she still cared very much about her appearance. She sat for some time looking at her face in the glass first on one side, then on the other. As she looked, she thought of her old friend, a rich gentleman of
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the neighborhood, who had visited her that day and whom she had known since her girlhood. Suddenly she thought she heard something move behind her. She looked round quickly, but there was nothing to be seen. Nothing but the painted portrait of her poor dear husband on the wall behind her. She gave a heavy sigh to his memory as she always did whenever she spoke of him in company, and went on arranging her hair. Her sigh was re-echoed. She looked round again, but no one was to be seen. Oh, it is only the wind, she thought and went on putting her hair in papers, but her eyes were still fixed on her own reflection and the reflection of her husbands portrait in the looking-glass. Suddenly it seemed to her that in the glass she saw one of the eyes of the portrait move. It gave her a shock. I must make sure, she thought and moved the candle so that the light fell on the eye in the glass. Now she was sure that it moved. But not only that, it seemed to give her a wink exactly as her husband used to do when he was living. Now my aunt got really frightened. Her heart began to beat fast. She suddenly remembered all the frightful stories about ghosts and criminals that she had heard. But her fear soon was over. Next moment, my aunt who, as I have said, had a remarkably strong will, became calm. She went on arranging her hair. She even sang her favourite song in a low voice and did not make a single false note. She again moved the candle and while moving it she overturned her work-box. Then she took the candle and began without any hurry to pick up the articles one by one from the floor. She picked up something near the door, then opened the door, looked for a moment into the corridor as if in doubt whether to go and then walked quietly out. She hurried down the stairs and ordered the servants to arm themselves with anything they could find. She herself caught a red-hot poker and followed by her frightened servants, returned almost at once. They entered the room. All was quiet and exactly in the same order as when she had left it. They came up to the portrait of my uncle. Pull down that picture, ordered my aunt. A heavy sigh was heard from the portrait. The servants stepped back in fear. Put it down at once, cried my aunt. The picture was pulled down, and from behind it, they pulled out a big, blackbearded fellow with a knife as long as my arm, but trembling with fear from head to foot. He said that he had stolen into my aunts room to get her box of money and jewels, when all the house was asleep. He had once been a servant in the house and before my aunts arrival had helped to put the house in order. He had noticed the hiding place when the portrait had been put up. In order to see what was going on in the room he had made a hole in one eyes of the portrait. My aunt did not send for the police. She could do very well without them: she liked to take the law into her own hands. She had her own ideas of cleanliness also. She ordered the servants to pull the man through the horse-pond in order to wash away his crimes, and then to dry him well with a wooden towel. But though my aunt was a very brave woman, this adventure was too much even for her. She often used to say, It is most unpleasant for a woman to live alone in the country. Soon after she gave her hand to the rich gentleman of the neighborhood.
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PASTORAL Gervase rang up Mr. Ellison in the middle of the morning. She said: This is Section officer Robertson speaking from the aerodrome. Mr. Ellison, you know everybody round here. Who lives in Kingslake House? I dont know, I could find out for you. Could you? I want to know this morning, if I can. She hesitated. I tell you what its about. Theres a lake there with a lot of trout in it. Some of us were wondering if the owner of the house would let us go fishing there. I get you, he said. Give you a ring back in half an hour. He telephoned her later in the morning, About those trout you want to fish, he said. You havent got a hope. Nobodys allowed near them. Whose house is it? Well, theres a Brigadier Carter-Hayes, who lives there with his mother, Mrs. Carter-Hayes. Theres only the old lady now, and she wont let anybody near those fish. She is keeping them for her son. Gervase thanked him and put down the receiver. That did not sound too promising. And then she thought that she could try. If she went out to visit this old lady and to ask for permission for the crew to go fishing in the lake, the worst that she could get would be a refusal. Good afternoon. Can I see Mrs. Carter-Hayes? said Gervase to the grey-haired maid who opened the door. I am sorry, madam. Mrs Carter-Hayes is not at home to anybody today, the maid said politely. Please, couldnt you ask her if she would see me just for a minute? Ive bicycled seven miles because I wanted to see her. Mrs Carter-Hayes is not very well today but I could ask her. She soon reappeared with Would you kindly step this way, madam? The maid showed Gervase into a long drawing-room. She saw an old lady sitting very upright in a chair before the fire; she wore a black dress. Her thin grey hair was parted in the middle; she had black eyebrows and a white face. Gervase said shyly: Mrs. Carter-Hayes? My name is Robertson. Its awfully good of you to see me. Well, come in, child, said the old lady. Dont stand over by the door. Gervase moved forward to the fire. What sort of costume have you got on? Is that uniform? Yes. Its Royal Air Force uniform. Im a section officer. My maid told me that you had bicycled a long way. What is it you wanted to see me about? Gervase hesitated, wondering how to put the matter of the trout fish to this old woman. Well, sit down there. Will you have a cup of tea with me? Id like to awfully, Gervase said. Its such a funny thing to ask. Its about one of our bomber crews. The men who fly the bombers over Germany. Its a terrible strain on them, going out like that night after night. Each night some of them dont come back. They just get killed. I was wondering if the pilots could come and fish in your lake when they are off duty.
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Well? Whats all this got to do with fishing? Do you take sugar with your tea? Yes, please, Gervase thought for a moment and then said. They are all fish men in that crew. They used to go fishing together. It made them forget things . And they have been unhappy since the fishing season stopped. And so you thought if they could come and fish in my lake, they might get together again and be happy. Thats exactly what I thought. There was a pause while the old lady poured out tea with a very shaky hand and gave the girl a slice of bread and butter. Very slowly and painfully the old lady raised herself from the chair and reached for her stick. My son thinks very highly of the Air Force, she said. I am going to show you a letter that arrived from him only last week, the last letter we have had. She moved very slowly across the room to her desk and unlocked a drawer. She picked a letter and took it from the field service envelope. She examined the three pages of the letter carefully, took the middle page and handed it to Gervase. This is the part, I think, she said. Read that, child. Gervase took the sheet. It said: The Air Force have been wonderful all through. They helped us to get through to Tunis. All day over and over again they came down to prepare the ground ahead of us. But it was very costly to them. In the last few days we have found many crashed planes. Gervase handed back the letter gravely. Im sure if my son were here he would want to help you, the old lady said gently. Gervase rode back very pleased with pleased with herself. She went first to her office at Headquarters; on her table was a message asking her to give a call to Mr. Ellison. When she telephoned he said, Oh, look Miss Robertson. I have learned a bit more about that Kingslake House. I think you shouldnt go there. Why not? Leave it a bit. You know I said there was a son who was Brigadier in the Army. Well, he is been killed out in Tunisia. The old lady only got the news yesterday. A GOOD LITTLE FEATURE He was a shabby little old man, but his shabbiness was that of the country worker rather than the city poor. It was obvious that he had never been in a police station before. Do you want to make bond? the desk sergeant asked. I dont, he quavered, and it was plain that he did not understand what a bond was. You can put up one hundred dollars cash to guarantee your appearance in court tomorrow morning, the sergeant explained. Thats a heap of money, the prisoner protested. You can telephone someone to come down and make your bond. Dont know nobody. Ill have to lock you up, then. The sergeant turned to a patrolman. Search him and take him downstairs. The prisoner did not like the idea of being searched, and when the officer discovered and removed a cotton bag pinned beneath his shirt, he protested volubly.
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Give me back that, now. Thats mine. You haint no right to take it. Youre arobbin me, and I wont stand for it. The desk sergeant gasped. Say, old man, dont you know its dangerous to carry all that money with you? At these words a young man sitting in one corner of the cage threw aside his magazine, arose, and strolled up to the desk. How much dough has he got, Sergeant? The officer pointed to a pile of bills he had removed from the cotton bag. Must be at least five thousand dollars, he estimated. Its fifty-five hundred there, the prisoner corrected. Silas Jones paid me that for my farm when me and Ma decided to move to town, Silas can tell you the same, and Ill thank you to give it back to me. The police reporter for the Riverton Evening Star was interested. He read aloud from the docket: Henry Tucker, Nine-one-six Tenth Street, petty larceny. Whatd he steal, Sergeant? About seventy cents worth of groceries from that chain store at the corner of Tenth and Cherry streets. With all that money in his pockets! the reporter marvelled. Taint so! the prisoner shrilled indignantly. I warnt tryint get away, like they said. I was lookin for the feller in charge of that crazy store. I never stole nothin in my life. The reporter laughed. He is probably telling the truth. Listen, old man, said the sergeant. There is no need for you staying in jail when you have money to make bond. Very carefully and patiently he explained the nature of a bond, and finally the prisoner was made to understand that his one hundred dollars would be returned to him after his case had been heard in court. And do I get the rest of my money back now? the prisoner asked. Yes, but you better take it to a bank before somebody robs you. Ive been aimin to, but me and Ma just got here and I haint had time t pick me out a good bank. The little old man pinned his money under his shirt again and departed. The reporter looked at the clock. Almost time for the edition, he said. Guess Ill drag into the office. Wait a minute, Charlie, the sergeant called. He followed the reporter to the door. I wouldnt print anything about this if I were you. Why not? Its a good little feature. If you publish that story the old man will be robbed of his savings before morning. The reporter hesitated. Guess youre right, Sergeant, he agreed reluctantly, but I hate to lay off. I could have made a good funny story out of him. However, I dont want to get the old man robbed. Nevertheless, the final edition of the Evening Star carried the story on the front page under a two-column head. And, as the reporter suggested, it was a good little feature. He had made of his material, treating the incident humorously but sympathetically. Well, howd you like my story, Sergeant? the reporter asked on the following morning. Wasnt it a good one?
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Yes, the officer agreed unsmilingly, it was a good story. But you promised me you wouldnt use it. The reporter chuckled. Well, I havent seen the morning sheet, but Ill bet a buck our country friend wasnt robbed last night. No. he wasnt robbed. I thought not. The reporter was well pleased with himself. You see, I followed the old man out of here, took him to a bank, and saw him deposit his fifty-four hundred. After that Something in the officers face stopped him. Why, whats wrong, Sergeant? You should have mentioned the bank deposit in your story, the sergeant said in a tired voice. Henry Tucker was murdered in front of his home last night. We found his bankbook in the gutter. THE OPEN WINDOW My aunt will be down presently, Mr. Nuttel, said a very self-possessed young lady of fifteen; in the meantime you must try to put up with me. Framton Nuttel endeavored to say the correct something which should duly flatter the niece of the moment without unduly discounting the aunt that was to come. Privately he doubted more that ever whether these formal visits on a succession of total strangers would do much towards helping the nerve cure which he was supposed to be undergoing. I know how it will be, his sister had said when he was preparing to migrate to this rural retreat; you will bury yourself down there and not speak to a living soul, and your nerves will be worse than ever from moping. I shall just give you letters of introduction to all the people I know there. Some of them, as far as I can remember, were quite nice. Framton wondered whether Mrs. Sappleton, the lady to whom he was presenting one of the letters of introduction, came into the nice division. Do you know many of the people round here? asked the niece, when she judged that they had had sufficient silent communion. Hardly a soul, said Frampton. My sister was staying here, at the rectory, you know, some fore years ago, and she gave me letters of introduction to some of the people here. He made the last statement in a tone of distinct regret. Then you know practically nothing about my aunt? pursued the self-possessed young lady. Only her name and address, admitted the caller. He was wondering whether Mrs. Sappleton was in the married or widowed state. An indefinable something about the room seemed to suggest masculine habitation. Her great tragedy happened just three years ago, said the child; that would be since your sisters time. Her tragedy? asked Frampton; somehow in this restful country spot tragedies seemed out of place. You may wonder why we keep that window wide open on an October afternoon, said the niece, indicating a large French window that opened on to a lawn. Its quite warm for the time of the year, said Frampton; but has that window got anything to do with the tragedy?
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Out through that window, three years ago to a day, her husband and her two young brothers went off for their days shooting. They never came back. In crossing the moor to their favourite snipe shooting ground they were all three engulfed in a treacherous piece of bog. It had been that dreadful wet summer, you know, and places that were safe in other years gave way suddenly without warning. Their bodies were never recovered. That was the dreadful part of it. Here the childs voice lost its self-possessed note and became falteringly human. Poor aunt always thinks that they will come back some day, they and the little brown spaniel that was lost with them, and walk in at that window just as they used to do. That is why the window is kept open every evening till it is quite dusk. Poor dear aunt, she has often told me how they went out, her husband with his white waterproof coat over his arm, and Ronnie, her youngest brother, singing Bertie, why do you bound? as he always did to tease her, because she said it got on her nerves. Do you know, sometimes on still, quiet evenings like this, I almost get a creepy feeling that they will all walk in through that window She broke off with a little shudder. It was a relief to Framton when the aunt bustled into the room with a whirl of apologies for being late in making her appearance. I hope Vera has been amusing you? she said. She had been very interesting, said Framton. I hope you dont mind the open window, said Mrs. Sappleton briskly; my husband and brothers will be home directly from shooting, and they always come in this way. Theyve out for snipe in the marshes today, so theyll make a fine mess over my poor carpets. So like you men-folk, isnt it? She rattled on cheerfully about the shooting and the scarcity of birds, and the prospects for duck in the winter. To Framton it was all purely horrible. He made a desperate but only partially successful effort to turn the talk on to a less ghastly topic; he was conscious that his hostess was giving him only a fragment of her attention, and her eyes were constantly straying past him to the open window and the lawn beyond. It was certainly an unfortunate coincidence that he should have paid his visit on this tragic anniversary. The doctors agree in ordering me complete rest, an absence of mental excitement, and avoidance of anything in the nature of violent physical exercise, announced Framton, who laboured under the tolerably wide-spread delusion that total strangers and chance acquaintances are hungry for the least detail of ones ailments and infirmities, their cause and cure. On the matter of diet they are not so much in agreement, he continued. No? said Mrs. Sappleton, in a voice which only replaced a yawn at the last moment. Then she suddenly brightened into alert attention but not to what Framton was saying. Here they are at last! she cried. Just in time for tea, and dont they look as if they were muddy up to the eyes! Framton shivered slightly and turned towards the niece with a look intended to convey sympathetic comprehension. The child was staring out through the open window with dazed horror in her eyes. In a chill shock of nameless fear Framton swung round in his seat and looked in the same direction. In the deepening twilight three figures were walking across the lawn towards the window; they all carried guns under their arms, and one of was additionally burdened
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with a white coat hung over his shoulders. A tired brown spaniel kept close at their heels. Noiselessly they neared the house, and then a hoarse young voice chanted out of the dusk: I said, Bertie, why do you bound? Framton grabbed wildly at his stick and hat; the hall-door, the gravel drive, and the front gate were dimly-noted stages in his headlong retreat. A cyclist coming along the road had to run into the hedge to avoid imminent collision. Here we are, my dear, said the bearer of the white mackintosh, coming in through the window; fairly muddy, but most of its dry. Who was that who bolted out as we came up? A most extraordinary man, a Mr. Nuttel, said Mrs. Sappleton; could only talk about his illnesses, and dashed off without a word of good-bye or apology when you arrived. One would think he had seen a ghost. I expect it was the spaniel. Said the niece calmly; he told me he had a horror of dogs. He was once hunted into a cemetery somewhere on the banks of the Ganges by a pack of pariah dogs, and had to spend the night in a newly dug grave with the creatures snarling and grinning and foaming just above him. Enough to make anyone lose their nerve. Romance at shot notice was her speciality.

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