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FINAL EXAM: 2ND SEMESTER

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. What is a tumor?
a. a mass of cancer cells
b. the rapidly dividing cells found at the site of a wound
c. a defective p53 gene
d. an accumulation of cyclins
2. Early hunters and gatherers in North America may have been responsible for
a. natural plant and animal populations.
b. producing new varieties of crops.
c. inventing technology such as manufactured tools.
d. a major extinction event of large animals.
3. You will NOT find a cell wall in which of these kinds of organisms?
a. fungi c. animals
b. plants d. all of the above
4. Carbon cycles through the biosphere in all of the following processes EXCEPT
a. transpiration. c. burning of fossil fuels.
b. decomposition of plants and animals. d. photosynthesis.
5. What are the three parts of an ATP molecule?
a. stroma, grana, chlorophyll c. adenine, ribose, phosphate groups
b. adenine, thylakoids, stroma d. NADH, NADPH, and FADH2
6. Cellular respiration releases energy by breaking down
a. ATP. c. water.
b. carbon dioxide. d. food molecules.
7. An organism’s niche is
a. the range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in
which it uses those conditions.
b. the range of temperatures that the organism needs to survive.
c. all the physical and biological factors in the organism’s environment.
d. a full description of the place an organism lives.
8. Unlike mitosis, meiosis results in the formation of
a. body cells. c. haploid cells.
b. diploid cells. d. 2N daughter cells.
9. The average year-after-year conditions of temperature and precipitation in a particular region are referred to
as the region’s
a. latitude. c. climate.
b. weather. d. ecosystem.
10. Which means of particle transport requires input of energy from the cell?
a. active transport c. diffusion
b. osmosis d. facilitated diffusion
11. Which of the following contain a nucleus?
a. eukaryotes c. bacteria
b. organelles d. prokaryotes
12. A snake that eats a frog that has eaten an insect that fed on a plant is a
a. first-level consumer. c. first-level producer.
b. second-level producer. d. third-level consumer.
13. On the Celsius temperature scale, what is the boiling point of water?
a. 212° c. 1000°
b. 68° d. 100°
14. When you flip a coin, what is the probability that it will come up tails?
a. 1/8 c. 1/2
b. 1/4 d. 1
15. The number of chromosomes in a gamete is represented by the symbol
a. X. c. Z.
b. Y. d. N.
16. A tall plant is crossed with a short plant. If the tall F1 pea plants are allowed to self-pollinate,
a. all of the offspring will be tall.
b. all of the offspring will be short.
c. the offspring will be of medium height.
d. some of the offspring will be tall, and some will be short.
17. What is the original source of almost all the energy in most ecosystems?
a. carbohydrates c. sunlight
b. water d. carbon
18. Ice floats on water because
a. water shrinks when it freezes. c. water expands when it freezes.
b. of cohesion. d. ice has a higher density than water.
19. Which biome is characterized by very low temperatures, little precipitation, and permafrost?
a. tropical dry forest c. temperate forest
b. desert d. tundra
20. Crossing-over rarely occurs in mitosis, unlike meiosis. Which of the following is the likely reason?
a. A cell undergoing mitosis does not have homologous chromosomes.
b. Chromatids are not involved in mitosis.
c. There is no prophase during mitosis.
d. Tetrads rarely form during mitosis.
21. When Gregor Mendel crossed a tall plant with a short plant, the F1 plants inherited
a. an allele from only the tall parent.
b. an allele for tallness from the tall parent and an allele for shortness from the short parent.
c. an allele for shortness from each parent.
d. an allele for tallness from each parent.
22. Science differs from other disciplines, such as history and the arts, because science relies on
a. facts. c. theories.
b. testing explanations. d. observations.
23. Which of the following tells you population density?
a. the number of deaths per year
b. the number of bacteria per square millimeter
c. the number of frogs in a pond
d. the number of births per year
24. Several species of warblers can live in the same spruce tree ONLY because they
a. have different habitats within the tree.
b. occupy different niches within the tree.
c. can find different temperatures within the tree.
d. eat different foods within the tree.
25. The most abundant compound in most living things is
a. sugar. c. sodium chloride.
b. carbon dioxide. d. water.
26. During normal mitotic cell division, a parent cell having four chromosomes will produce two daughter cells,
each containing
a. two chromosomes. c. eight chromosomes.
b. four chromosomes. d. sixteen chromosomes.
27. Which of the following is NOT a stage of cellular respiration?
a. fermentation c. glycolysis
b. Krebs cycle d. electron transport
28. In the overall equation for photosynthesis, six molecules of carbon dioxide result in six molecules of
a. glucose. c. ATP.
b. oxygen. d. water.
29. The stroma is the region outside the
a. plant cells. c. chloroplasts.
b. thylakoids. d. all of the above
30. The branch of biology dealing with interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environ-
ment is called
a. economy. c. ecology.
b. recycling. d. modeling.
31. Lactic acid fermentation occurs in
a. muscle cells. c. mitochondria.
b. any environment containing oxygen. d. bread dough.
32. A heterozygous tall pea plant is crossed with a short plant. The probability that an F1 plant will be tall is
a. 25%. c. 75%.
b. 100%. d. 50%.
33. The work of scientists usually begins with
a. drawing conclusions. c. careful observations.
b. testing a hypothesis. d. creating experiments.
34. A monosaccharide is a
a. carbohydrate. c. nucleic acid.
b. protein. d. lipid.
35. Which has become the most important source of environmental change on Earth?
a. conservation biology c. human activity
b. climate d. energy
36. If a pea plant that is heterozygous for round, yellow peas (RrYy) is crossed with a pea plant that is homozyg-
ous for round peas but heterozygous for yellow peas (RRYy), how many different phenotypes are their off-
spring expected to show?
a. 2 c. 16
b. 8 d. 4
37. A predator can increase the numbers of certain species in its habitat by
a. crowding out the species it does not eat.
b. killing and eating the competitors of other species.
c. living symbiotically with other species.
d. avoiding certain prey species.
38. Which of the following is released during cellular respiration?
a. energy c. air
b. oxygen d. lactic acid
39. The greenhouse effect is
a. the result of the differences in the angle of the sun’s rays.
b. a natural phenomenon that maintains Earth’s temperature range.
c. the result of an excess of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
d. an unnatural phenomenon that causes heat energy to be radiated back into the atmosphere.
40. Biology is the study of
a. animals and plants only. c. the environment.
b. the living world. d. the land, water, and air on Earth.
41. The chemical factors that determine traits are called
a. characters. c. traits.
b. alleles. d. genes.
42. The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane is called
a. facilitated diffusion. c. osmosis.
b. active transport. d. osmotic pressure.
43. Organisms that have two identical alleles for a particular trait are said to be
a. heterozygous. c. hybrid.
b. homozygous. d. dominant.

Figure 11–3

44. What is shown in Figure 11–3?


a. crossing-over c. independent assortment
b. replication d. anaphase I of meiosis
45. Which organism is NOT likely to carry out cellular respiration?
a. tree c. mushroom
b. anaerobic bacterium d. tiger
46. Which term refers to cells having different jobs in an organism?
a. cell specialization c. multicellular
b. levels of organization d. unicellular
47. What is the correct equation for cellular respiration?
a. 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy → 6O2 + C6H12O6
b. 6CO2 + 6H2O → 6O2 + C6H12O6 + Energy
c. 6O2 + C6H12O6 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy
d. 6O2 + C6H12O6 + Energy → 6CO2 + 6H2O
48. Which organelle converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the
cell to use?
a. mitochondrion c. Golgi apparatus
b. chloroplast d. endoplasmic reticulum
49. Which of the following is NOT a monomer?
a. a protein c. a nucleotide
b. a glucose molecule d. an amino acid
50. Which of the following is NOT an example of a heterotroph?
a. mushroom c. grass
b. human d. leopard
51. Most plants appear green because chlorophyll
a. absorbs green light. c. reflects violet light.
b. does not absorb green light. d. none of the above
52. Which organelle would you expect to find in plant cells but not animal cells?
a. mitochondrion c. smooth endoplasmic reticulum
b. chloroplast d. ribosome
53. When salt is dissolved in water, water is the
a. solute. c. solvent.
b. solution. d. reactant.
54. There are 150 Saguaro cactus plants per square kilometer in a certain area of Arizona desert. To which popu-
lation characteristic does this information refer?
a. growth rate c. geographic distribution
b. population density d. age structure
55. The three particles that make up atoms are
a. protons, neutrons, and isotopes. c. positives, negatives, and electrons.
b. neutrons, isotopes, and electrons. d. protons, neutrons, and electrons.
56. Identify the reactant(s) in the chemical reaction, CO2 + H2O → H2CO3.
a. CO2 c. CO2, H2O, and H2CO3
b. H2CO3 d. CO2 and H2O
57. Information gathered from observing a plant grow 3 cm over a two-week period results in
a. data. c. inferences.
b. variables. d. hypotheses.
58. Which of the following affects the rate of photosynthesis?
a. light intensity c. temperature
b. water d. all of the above
59. How many different allele combinations would be found in the gametes produced by a pea plant whose geno-
type was RrYY?
a. 2 c. 8
b. 4 d. 16
60. Which of the following makes up a molecule of water?
a. one atom of hydrogen and two atoms of oxygen
b. one atom of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen
c. one atom of sodium and one atom of chlorine
d. two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen
61. The two main types of fermentation are called
a. alcoholic and lactic acid. c. aerobic and anaerobic.
b. lactic acid and anaerobic. d. alcoholic and aerobic.
62. The symbiotic relationship between a flower and the insect that feeds on its nectar is an example of
a. mutualism because the flower provides the insect with food and the insect pollinates the
flower.
b. predation because the insect feeds on the flower.
c. parasitism because the insect lives off the nectar from the flower.
d. commensalism because the insect does not harm the flower and the flower does not benefit
from the relationship.
63. If a chlorine atom had 17 protons and 19 neutrons, it would be called
a. chlorine-18. c. chlorine-36.
b. chlorine-17. d. chlorine-1.
64. If an organism’s diploid number is 12, its haploid number is
a. 6. c. 24.
b. 12. d. 3.
65. How many meters are in 2.4 km?
a. 24,000 c. 240
b. 2,400 d. 240,000
66. Which of the following statements is true about catalysts?
a. Catalysts are used up during a chemical reaction.
b. Catalysts slow down the rate of chemical reactions.
c. All catalysts are enzymes.
d. Catalysts lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction.

Tt
T t

T TT Tt
TT

T TT Tt

T = Tall
t = Short

Figure 11–1

67. In the Punnett square shown in Figure 11–1, which of the following is true about the offspring resulting from
the cross?
a. All are expected to be tall. c. About half are expected to be short.
b. About half are expected to be tall. d. All are expected to be short.
68. If you want to control your weight, how long should you exercise aerobically each time that you exercise?
a. more than 20 minutes c. at least 90 seconds
b. less than 15 minutes d. 15 to 20 minutes
69. Unlike mitosis, meiosis results in the formation of
a. two genetically identical cells. c. four genetically different cells.
b. four genetically identical cells. d. two genetically different cells.
70. Which region of the visible spectrum is not absorbed well by chlorophyll?
a. violet c. blue
b. green d. red
71. In the metric system, the basic unit of length is the
a. gram. c. liter.
b. yard. d. meter.
72. A controlled experiment allows the scientist to isolate and test
a. a conclusion. c. several variables.
b. a single variable. d. a mass of information.
73. Plants are
a. herbivores. c. omnivores.
b. consumers. d. producers.
74. A wolf pack hunts, kills, and feeds on a moose. In this interaction, the wolves are
a. predators. c. hosts.
b. prey. d. mutualists.
75. A granum is a
a. stack of chloroplasts. c. membrane enclosing a thylakoid.
b. stack of thylakoids. d. photosynthetic pigment molecule.

Figure 10–2

76. The structures labeled B in Figure 10–2 are called


a. spindles. c. centrioles.
b. sister chromatids. d. centromeres.
77. The structure labeled A in Figure 10–2 is called the
a. centromere. c. spindle.
b. centriole. d. sister chromatid.
78. Which of the following is NOT a principle of the cell theory?
a. All cells are produced by existing cells.
b. Very few cells reproduce.
c. Cells are the basic units of life.
d. All living things are made of cells.
79. Photosynthesis is to chloroplasts as cellular respiration is to
a. chloroplasts. c. cytoplasm.
b. nuclei. d. mitochondria.
80. Unlike photosynthesis, cellular respiration occurs in
a. plant cells only. c. all but plant cells.
b. animal cells only. d. all eukaryotic cells.
81. If a pea plant has a recessive allele for green peas, it will produce
a. green peas if it also has a dominant allele for yellow peas.
b. yellow peas if it does not also have a dominant allele for green peas.
c. green peas if it does not also have a dominant allele for yellow peas.
d. both green peas and yellow peas if it also has a dominant allele for yellow peas.
82. Sea otters are important to the populations of
a. kelp. c. sea urchins.
b. killer whales. d. all of the above
83. The main function of the cell wall is to
a. store DNA. c. help the cell move.
b. support and protect the cell. d. direct the activities of the cell.
84. Gametes have
a. two sets of chromosomes.
b. twice the number of chromosomes found in body cells.
c. homologous chromosomes.
d. one allele for each gene.
85. Cellular respiration is called an aerobic process because it requires
a. exercise. c. glucose.
b. light. d. oxygen.
86. All of the following factors contribute to Earth’s climate EXCEPT
a. transport of heat. c. shape and elevation of landmasses.
b. latitude. d. longitude.

Figure 3–1

87. The algae at the beginning of the food chain in Figure 3–1 are
a. producers. c. decomposers.
b. heterotrophs. d. consumers.
88. Diffusion is the movement of molecules from
a. an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
b. an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration.
c. an area of equilibrium to an area of high concentration.
d. all of the above
89. Isotopes are atoms of the same element with the same number of protons and
a. a different number of molecules. c. a different number of neutrons.
b. the same number of neutrons. d. a different number of electrons.
90. Which of the following has a direct role in the nitrogen cycle?
a. decomposers c. legumes
b. bacteria d. all of the above
91. If carbon dioxide is completely removed from a plant’s environment, what would you expect to happen to the
plant’s production of high-energy sugars?
a. Carbon dioxide does not affect the production of high-energy sugars in plants.
b. No sugars will be produced.
c. More sugars will be produced.
d. The same number of sugars will be produced but without carbon dioxide.
92. Photosynthesis uses sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into
a. oxygen.
b. high-energy sugars and starches.
c. ATP and oxygen.
d. oxygen and high-energy sugars and starches.
93. How are cellular respiration and photosynthesis almost opposite processes?
a. Photosynthesis releases energy, and cellular respiration stores energy.
b. Photosynthesis removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and cellular respiration puts
it back.
c. Photosynthesis removes oxygen from the atmosphere, and cellular respiration puts it back.
d. all of the above
94. What are the reactants in the equation for cellular respiration?
a. carbon dioxide and water c. water and glucose
b. glucose and oxygen d. oxygen and lactic acid
95. A student is collecting the gas given off from a plant in bright sunlight at a temperature of 27°C. The gas be-
ing collected is probably
a. oxygen. c. vaporized water.
b. carbon dioxide. d. ATP.
96. If an atom contains 4 protons, 4 neutrons, and 3 electrons, its mass number would be
a. 3. c. 8.
b. 11. d. 4.
97. Which structure makes proteins using coded instructions that come from the nucleus?
a. mitochondrion c. vacuole
b. Golgi apparatus d. ribosome
98. Which organelle breaks down food into molecules the cell can use?
a. Golgi apparatus c. mitochondrion
b. lysosome d. endoplasmic reticulum
99. What animals eat both producers and consumers?
a. chemotrophs c. omnivores
b. autotrophs d. herbivores
100. Gametes are produced by the process of
a. meiosis. c. replication.
b. crossing-over. d. mitosis.
FINAL EXAM: 2ND SEMESTER
Answer Section

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. REF: p. 252 STA: 3.2.9-11.E.b


2. REF: p. 140 STA: 4.1.9-11.C.a | 4.1.9-11.C
3. REF: p. 183 STA: 3.1.9-11.C.b | 3.2.9-11.A.b | 3.2.9-11.F.a
4. REF: p. 76 | p. 77 STA: 4.2.9-11.B.a | 4.2.9-11.B.b | 4.2.9-11.B
5. REF: p. 202 STA: 3.2.9-11.D.a
6. REF: p. 222 STA: 3.2.9-11.B.a | 3.2.9-11.B.b | 3.2.9-11.D.a
7. REF: p. 91 STA: 4.1.9-11.A.a | 4.1.9-11.A.b | 4.1.9-11.A.c
8. REF: p. 278 STA: 3.3.9-11.C.a | 3.3.9-11.C.b
9. REF: p. 87
10. REF: p. 188 STA: 3.2.9-11.F.a | 3.2.9-11.F.b | 3.2.9-11.F.c
11. REF: p. 173 STA: 3.1.9-11.C.a
12. REF: p. 70 | p. 71 | p. 72 STA: 4.2.9-11.A.a | 4.2.9-11.A.b | 4.2.9-11.A.c
13. REF: p. 24 STA: 7.1.9-11.B.b | 7.1.9-11.B.c
14. REF: p. 267 STA: 3.3.9-11.E.b
15. REF: p. 275 STA: 3.3.9-11.C.a
16. REF: p. 265 STA: 3.3.9-11.E.a
17. REF: p. 67 STA: 3.2.9-11.B.b | 3.2.9-11.D.a
18. REF: p. 40
19. REF: p. 104 STA: 4.1.9-11.D
20. REF: p. 276 STA: 3.3.9-11.C.a | 3.3.9-11.C.b
21. REF: p. 265 STA: 3.3.9-11.E.a
22. REF: p. 5 | p. 6 STA: 7.1.9-11.D
23. REF: p. 119 STA: 4.1.9-11.A | 4.1.9-11.B
24. REF: p. 92 STA: 4.1.9-11.A.a | 4.1.9-11.A.b | 4.1.9-11.A.c
25. REF: p. 40
26. REF: p. 248 STA: 3.2.9-11.E.b
27. REF: p. 222 STA: 3.2.9-11.B.a | 3.2.9-11.B.b | 3.2.9-11.D.a
28. REF: p. 206 STA: 3.2.9-11.B.a | 3.2.9-11.B.b | 3.2.9-11.D.a
29. REF: p. 208 STA: 3.1.9-11.C.b | 3.2.9-11.A.a | 3.2.9-11.B.c
30. REF: p. 63 STA: 4.1.9-11.A
31. REF: p. 225 STA: 3.2.9-11.B.a | 3.2.9-11.B.c | 3.2.9-11.D.a
32. REF: p. 269 STA: 3.3.9-11.E.b
33. REF: p. 4 STA: 7.1.9-11.D
34. REF: p. 46 STA: 3.2.9-11.D.b | 3.2.9-11.D.c
35. REF: p. 140 STA: 4.1.9-11.C.a | 4.1.9-11.C
36. REF: p. 271 STA: 3.3.9-11.E.a | 3.3.9-11.E.b
37. REF: p. 92 | p. 93 STA: 4.1.9-11.A.a | 4.1.9-11.A.b | 4.1.9-11.A.c
38. REF: p. 222 STA: 3.2.9-11.B.a | 3.2.9-11.B.b | 3.2.9-11.D.a
39. REF: p. 87
40. REF: p. 16 STA: 3.1.9-11.B.b | 3.1.9-11.C.a | 3.3.9-11.A
41. REF: p. 265 STA: 3.3.9-11.E.a
42. REF: p. 185 STA: 3.2.9-11.F.a | 3.2.9-11.F.b | 3.2.9-11.F.c
43. REF: p. 268 STA: 3.3.9-11.E.b
44. REF: p. 276 | p. 277 STA: 3.3.9-11.C.a | 3.3.9-11.C.b
45. REF: p. 224 | p. 226 STA: 3.2.9-11.B.a | 3.2.9-11.B.b | 3.2.9-11.D.a
46. REF: p. 190 STA: 3.1.9-11.B.a | 3.1.9-11.B.b
47. REF: p. 222 STA: 3.2.9-11.B.a | 3.2.9-11.B.b | 3.2.9-11.D.a
48. REF: p. 179 STA: 3.1.9-11.C.b | 3.2.9-11.A.a | 3.2.9-11.A.c
49. REF: p. 45 STA: 3.2.9-11.D.b | 3.2.9-11.D.c
50. REF: p. 201 STA: 3.2.9-11.B.a | 3.2.9-11.B.b | 3.2.9-11.D.a
51. REF: p. 207 STA: 3.2.9-11.B.a | 3.2.9-11.B.b | 3.2.9-11.B.c
52. REF: p. 180 STA: 3.1.9-11.C.b | 3.2.9-11.A.a | 3.2.9-11.A.c
53. REF: p. 42
54. REF: p. 119 STA: 4.1.9-11.A | 4.1.9-11.B
55. REF: p. 35
56. REF: p. 49 STA: 3.2.9-11.D.d | 3.2.9-11.D.e
57. REF: p. 4 STA: 7.1.9-11.D
58. REF: p. 213 | p. 214 STA: 3.2.9-11.B.a | 3.2.9-11.B.b | 3.2.9-11.B.c
59. REF: p. 271 STA: 3.3.9-11.E.a | 3.3.9-11.E.b
60. REF: p. 37
61. REF: p. 224 STA: 3.2.9-11.B.a | 3.2.9-11.B.c | 3.2.9-11.D.a
62. REF: p. 93 STA: 4.1.9-11.A.a | 4.1.9-11.A.b | 4.1.9-11.A.c
63. REF: p. 36
64. REF: p. 275 STA: 3.3.9-11.C.a
65. REF: p. 24 STA: 7.1.9-11.B.b | 7.1.9-11.B.c
66. REF: p. 51 STA: 3.2.9-11.D.d
67. REF: p. 268 STA: 3.3.9-11.E.b
68. REF: p. 231 STA: 3.2.9-11.B.a | 3.2.9-11.B.c | 3.2.9-11.D.a
69. REF: p. 278 STA: 3.3.9-11.C.a | 3.3.9-11.C.b
70. REF: p. 207 STA: 3.2.9-11.B.a | 3.2.9-11.B.b | 3.2.9-11.B.c
71. REF: p. 24 STA: 7.1.9-11.B.b | 7.1.9-11.B.c
72. REF: p. 9 STA: 7.1.9-11.A.a | 7.1.9-11.A.b | 8.3.9-1.C.b
73. REF: p. 67 STA: 3.2.9-11.B.b | 3.2.9-11.D.a
74. REF: p. 93 STA: 4.1.9-11.A.a | 4.1.9-11.A.b | 4.1.9-11.A.c
75. REF: p. 208 STA: 3.1.9-11.C.b | 3.2.9-11.A.a | 3.2.9-11.B.c
76. REF: p. 244 STA: 3.2.9-11.E.b
77. REF: p. 244 STA: 3.2.9-11.E.b
78. REF: p. 170 STA: 3.1.9-11.C.a
79. REF: p. 232 STA: 3.2.9-11.B.a | 3.2.9-11.B.b | 3.2.9-11.B.c
80. REF: p. 232 STA: 3.2.9-11.B.a | 3.2.9-11.B.b | 3.2.9-11.B.c
81. REF: p. 265 STA: 3.3.9-11.E.a
82. REF: p. 119 STA: 4.1.9-11.A | 4.1.9-11.B
83. REF: p. 183 STA: 3.1.9-11.C.b | 3.2.9-11.A.b | 3.2.9-11.F.a
84. REF: p. 275 STA: 3.3.9-11.C.a
85. REF: p. 226 STA: 3.2.9-11.B.a | 3.2.9-11.B.b | 3.2.9-11.D.a
86. REF: p. 87
87. REF: p. 67 STA: 4.2.9-11.A.a | 4.2.9-11.A.b | 4.2.9-11.A.c
88. REF: p. 184 STA: 3.2.9-11.F.a | 3.2.9-11.F.b | 3.2.9-11.F.c
89. REF: p. 36
90. REF: p. 78 STA: 4.2.9-11.B.a | 4.2.9-11.B.b | 4.2.9-11.B
91. REF: p. 212 | p. 213 STA: 3.2.9-11.A.c | 3.2.9-11.B.c
92. REF: p. 204 | p. 206 STA: 3.2.9-11.B.a | 3.2.9-11.B.b | 3.2.9-11.D.a
93. REF: p. 232 STA: 3.2.9-11.B.a | 3.2.9-11.B.b | 3.2.9-11.B.c
94. REF: p. 222 STA: 3.2.9-11.B.a | 3.2.9-11.B.b | 3.2.9-11.D.a
95. REF: p. 204 STA: 3.2.9-11.B.a | 8.2.9-11.A.a | 8.2.9-11.B.a
96. REF: p. 35
97. REF: p. 177 STA: 3.1.9-11.C.b | 3.2.9-11.A.a | 3.2.9-11.A.c
98. REF: p. 179 STA: 3.1.9-11.C.b | 3.2.9-11.A.a | 3.2.9-11.A.c
99. REF: p. 69 STA: 4.2.9-11.A.a | 4.2.9-11.A.b | 4.2.9-11.A.c
100. REF: p. 276 STA: 3.3.9-11.C.a | 3.3.9-11.C.b