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Solid State Devices Speed Control

MTE 320

Spring 2006

E.F. EL-Saadany

Solid State Devices Speed Control of DC Motors

1. Basics of DC Motors Speed Control

Since

E

a

= V

t

I

a

R

a

and

E

a

=

K φ ω

a

m

, Therefore,

ω

m

=

V

t

I

a

R

a

K

φ

a

.

Practically, speed control of DC motors can be fulfilled using on of two methods:

Field Control: by varying the field current. This can be achieved by varying the field voltage.

Voltage Control: by varying the armature terminal voltage.

Up to the rated (base) speed (the speed corresponding to rated operation condition, rated armature voltage, rated armature current, and rated field current), the armature and the field currents are kept constant to maintain the torque at its rated value. The speed control within this range is carried out by varying the armature voltage. Beyond the base speed, the speed control the achieved by varying the field current. Within this range, the motor power is maintained constant and the torque is reduced with the increase in the rotational speed as shown in Fig. 1. For series motor, the speed control beyond the base speed is carried out using the armature current variation (since the armature and the field current are the same in series motors) as shown in Fig. 2.

current are the same in series motors) as shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 1 Speed control

Fig. 1 Speed control characteristic of separately excited DC motors [1]

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Solid State Devices Speed Control

MTE 320

Spring 2006

E.F. EL-Saadany

Devices Speed Control MTE 320 Spring 2006 E.F. EL-Saadany Fig. 2 Speed control characteristic of series

Fig. 2 Speed control characteristic of series DC motors [1]

2. Speed Control using Power Semiconductor Switches

As discussed in previous lectures, there are several power semiconductor switches configuration that can be used to provide variable output DC voltage. Single and three-phase AC-to-DC converters (rectifiers) can be used to vary the input armature voltage and / or the field voltage of DC machines to control it speed of rotation as shown in Fig. 3-a. Moreover, DC-to-DC converters can also be used for speed control as shown in Fig. 3-b. the following subsections will briefly discuss some example of the used power semiconductor converters in the speed control of DC motors.

converters in the speed contro l of DC motors. Fig. 3 Power seimconductor converters for DC

Fig. 3 Power seimconductor converters for DC motors speed control[1]

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Solid State Devices Speed Control

MTE 320

Spring 2006

E.F. EL-Saadany

2.1 Single-Phase Rectifiers In these configurations, the armature and / or the field winding voltage can be varied using single- phase full bridge AC-to-DC converters as shown in Fig. 4-a. This is a two quadrant converter, as shown in Fig. 4-b, where the load current is always positive while the load voltage may be positive or negative. The generated waveforms are shown in Fig. 4-c. Single-phase AC-to-DC semi-converters can be also used for DC motors speed control as shown in Fig. 5-a. However, this is a first-quadrant converter, as shown in Fig. 5-b, where the load current and voltage are always positive. The generated waveforms are shown in Fig. 5-c. Usually the same AC supply is used as an input for the two converters. The average value of the armature and / or field voltage (and hence the rotational speed) can be varied and controlled by varying the firing angle of the thyristors used. The equation relating the armature and the field voltage with the supply voltage and the firing angle can be expressed as follows,

voltage and the firing angle can be expressed as follows, Fig. 4 DC motor speed control

Fig. 4 DC motor speed control using single-phase full converters [1]

For single-phase full converters connected to the armature terminals:

The average value (DC) of the armature voltage is,

V

a

=

2 V

m

π

cos

(

α

a

)

for 0 ≤ α a ≤π

where V a is the average value of the armature voltage, V m is the maximum value of the supply voltage, and α a is the armature converter’s thyristor firing (delay) angle.

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Solid State Devices Speed Control

MTE 320

Spring 2006

E.F. EL-Saadany

For single-phase full converters connected to the field terminals:

The average value (DC) of the field voltage is,

V

f

=

2 V

m

π

cos

(

α

f

)

for 0 ≤ α f ≤π

where V f is the average value of the field voltage, and α f is the field converter’s thyristor firing (delay) angle.

is the field converter’s thyristor firing (delay) angle. Fig. 5 DC motor speed control us ing

Fig. 5 DC motor speed control using single-phase semi-converters [1]

For single-phase semi-converters connected to the armature terminals:

The average value (DC) of the armature voltage is,

V

a

=

V

m

π

(

1 + cos

(

α

a

))

for 0 ≤ α a ≤π

For single-phase semi-converters connected to the field terminals:

The average value (DC) of the field voltage is,

V

f

=

V

m

π

(

1 + cos

(

α

f

))

for 0 ≤ α f ≤π

2.2 DC Choppers

In these configurations, the armature and / or the field winding voltage can be varied using DC-to-DC

converters as shown in Fig. 6-a. The input DC voltage can be generated using uncontrolled rectifier

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Solid State Devices Speed Control

MTE 320

Spring 2006

E.F. EL-Saadany

circuits. This is a first-quadrant converter as shown in Fig. 6-b. The associated waveforms are given in Fig. 6-c. The average value of the armature and / or field voltage (and hence the rotational speed) can be varied and controlled by varying the duty cycle of power semi-conductor device used. The equation relating the armature and the field voltage with the supply voltage and the firing angle can be expressed as follows,

voltage and the firing angle can be expressed as follows, Fig. 6 DC motor speed control

Fig. 6 DC motor speed control using first quadrant DC-to-DC converters [1]

The average value for the armature voltage is,

V

a

= k V

s

where V a is the average value of the armature voltage, V s is the DC supply voltage (the average value of the output voltage of a AC-to-DC converter), and k is the chopper’s duty cycle.

The power supplied to the motor is,

P

i

= V

a

I

a

= k V

s

I

a

where P i is the supplied (input) power to the DC motor, I a is the average value of the armature current.

Assuming losseless power converter, the input power to the DC motor is the source output power,

P

s

= P

i

where P s is the source output power.

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Solid State Devices Speed Control

MTE 320

Spring 2006

The average value for the input current is,

I

s

= k I

a

where I s is the average value of the input current.

E.F. EL-Saadany

The equivalent input resistance of the DC chopper as seen by the supply is given by,

R

eq

=

V

s

V

s

=

I

s

k I

a

where I s is the average value of the input current.

3. Numerical Examples

Example 1: A separately excited DC motor is controlled using single-phase AC-to-DC semi- converters connected to its armature and field terminals as shown in Fig 7. The AC supply connected to the armature and field semi-converters is a single-phase, 208 V, 60 Hz, AC source. The armature and field resistances are 0.25 and 147 , respectively. The motor voltage constant is 0.7032 V/A rad/s. The field current is set to its maximum possible value. The armature and the field currents are assumed continuous and ripple free. If the load torque is 45 N.m. at 1000 rpm, calculate

1. The field current,

and

3. The delay angle for the thyristors in the armature converter.

2. The armature current,

Given:

V s = 208 V, f = 60 Hz, I f = max, R a = 0.25 , R f = 147 , k v = 0.7032 V/A rad/s,

Solution:

T L = 45 N.m., and n = 1000 rpm. For separately excited DC motor is controlled using single-phase AC-to-DC semi- converters shown in Fig. 7.

1. The average value for the field voltage is,

V

f

=

V

m

π

(

1 + cos

(

α

f

))

The average value for the field current is

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Solid State Devices Speed Control

I

MTE 320

V

f

V

f

(

1 + cos

(

α

f

))

f

=

R

f

R

f

=

Spring 2006

E.F. EL-Saadany

( α f )) f = R f R f = Spring 2006 E.F. EL-Saadany Fig.

Fig. 7 DC motor speed control using single-phase semi-converters [1]

Therefore, the field current will maintain its maximum possible value if α f = 0.

V

f , max

=

208 2
208
2

π

(

1

+

cos

())

0

=

187.27

V

,

and

The maximum possible value for the field current is,

I

f

, max

=

V

f

, max

187.27

=

R

f

147

=

1.274

A

2. The developed (load) torque is given by,

T

d

= K

a

φ I

a

= K

v

I

f

I

a

Therefore, the armature current is,

I

a

=

T

d

45

=

K

v

I

f

0.7032

x

1.274

= 50.23

A

3. The armature back emf is

E

a

=

Q E

a

K

φω

a

m

= V

a

I

=

K

a

R

a

v

I

f

7

ω

m

= 0.7032

x

1.274

x

2

π

60

x

1000

=

93.82

V

Solid State Devices Speed Control

V

a

MTE 320

=

E

a

+

I

a

R

a

Spring 2006

= 93.82 + 50.23

x

0.25 = 106.38

V

E.F. EL-Saadany

However, the average value of the armature voltage is related to the delay angle of

the armature’s converter by,

V m V = ( 1 + cos ( α )) a a π π
V
m
V
=
( 1 + cos
(
α
))
a
a
π
π V
π
x 106.38
a
∴ cos
(
α
)
=
−1 =
a
V
208
2
m
α
a = 82.18°

− =

1

0.136

Example 2: A separately excited DC motor is controlled using a DC-to-DC converter as shown

in Fig 8. The DC supply used is a 600 V source. The armature resistance is 0.05 .

The constant for the back emf is 1.527 V/A rad/s. The armature current is set to

250 A and is continuous and ripple free. The field current is set to 2.5 A. If the

operating duty cycle of the DC-to-Dc converter is 60 %. Calculate

1. The input power from the DC supply,

2. The motor speed,

3. The developed torque,

4. The input equivalent resistance as seen by the DC supply.

and

Given:

V s = 600 V, I a = 250 A, R a = 0.05 , I f = 2.5 A, k v = 1.527 V/A rad/s and k = 60 %.

Solution:

For separately excited DC motor is controlled using a DC-to-DC converter shown in

Fig. 8.

1. The input power from the DC supply is,

x

P

i

=

V

a

I

a

=

k V

s

I

a

= 0.6

600

x

250 = 90,000

W

= 90

kW

2. The average value for the armature voltage is,

V

=

k V

= 0.6

x

600 = 360

V

a

s

The armature back emf is

 

E

g

=

V

a

I

a

R

a

= 360 250

x

0.05 = 347.5

V

8

Solid State Devices Speed Control

MTE 320

Spring 2006

E.F. EL-Saadany

Devices Speed Control MTE 320 Spring 2006 E.F. EL-Saadany Fig. 8 DC motor speed control using

Fig. 8 DC motor speed control using first quadrant DC-to-DC converters [1]

The motor rotational speed can be determined using the following relation,

E

g

= K φω = K I ω

a

m

v

f

m

ω =

m

E

g 347.5

=

K

v

I

f

1.527

x

2.5

=

91.028

rad

/

s

3. The developed torque is given by,

T

d

=

K

a

φ

I

a

=

K

v

I

f

I

a

=

1.527 x 2.5 x 250

=

954.375

N.m.

4. The input equivalent resistance as seen by the DC supply is given by,

R eq

=

V

s

=

V

s

600

=

I

s

k I

a

0.6

x

250

= 4

References

[1] Muhammad H. Rashid, “Power Electronics,” Third Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, NJ, USA, 2004.

[2] Theodore Wildi, "Electrical Machines Drives, and Power Systems," Prentice Hall, Ohio, 2006.

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