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APPERCEPTION (Latin apperceptio from adpercipereto become aware, to perceive)an epistemological category that designates a certain form of consciousness

that is not organized in act, which does not possess an objective correlate of its own. The term apperception first appeared in philosophy at the end of the seventeenth century in the writings of G. W. Leibniz and was a key philosophical category in his critique of Descartes philosophical principles. The theory of apperception was developed in the psychological works of C. Wolff and many works of Wolffians (especially C. Crusius) and anti-Wolffians. In an altered form it was developed in Kants later critical works. In his works the conception of so-called transcendental apperception came to the foreground. At present we are dealing with a certain variety both in the interpretation of different functions and cognitive status of apperception, and in the way apperception is characterized in terms of its moments and structure. In the twentieth century apperception became an object of special interest in different schools of phenomenology (Husserl, Ingarden, Merleau-Ponty). APPERCEPTION IN THE THOUGHT OF G. W. LEIBNIZ. We may find the classical presentation of apperception in the framework of the so-called Leibnizian-Wolffian philosophy. Leibniz is the philosopher who made the term apperception a permanent part of the lexicon of philosophy. It appeared in the context of Leibniz polemics with Descartes theory of knowledge and his polemics with Lockes empiricism. Descartes seemed to make no distinction between perception and thought (cogitatio). As a result his disciples, according to Leibniz, disregarded perception of which they are not aware (Monadology, par. 14). On the basis of a distinction between perception and apperception Leibniz argued for the thesis that every soul perceives and also refuted the radical Cartesian dualism of soul and body. Leibniz introduced the category of apperception into his theory of knowledge (based on monadological metaphysics). He provided the epistemological conditions that allowed him to hold that the soul (every soul) perceives, and that it perceives constantly both when awake and asleep. By introducing this category he could also apply the principle of continuity to the theory of perception. As a result he formulated the thesis that perceptions are continuous: from the least perfect perceptions of whose occurrence we are not conscious, then perceptions that are accompanied by apperception, to the most perfect perceptions that are endowed, apart from apperception, with reflective power (facultas reflectendi) and acts of reflection.

Genetic aspect of apperception. The concept of apperception is strictly connected with the Leibnizian conception of perception by which he understands the internal state of a monad representing external things or a transitional state that contains and represents plurality in unity (Monadologia, par. 14). Apperception according to him is consciousness, or a reflective knowledge of this internal state (Principles of Nature and Grace based on Reason, par. 4). According to Leibniz at every moment we perform an infinite number of perceptions but are unaware of this fact for they are not accompanied by even a vague awareness, that is, apperception, or an explicit form of awareness in the form of reflection. Apperception is genetically and temporally subsequent or secondary to simple perception, since as Leibniz holds apperception appears only after a certain interruption, even the most brief (Nowy rozwaania dotyczce rozumu ludzkiego [New meditations concerning human reason], Wwa 1995, I, 14). The phenomenon of apperception in the process of cognition allows us to distinguish in succession certain perceptions and perceptual data from among others. On the other hand, although we perceive a whole multitude of data in the form of things, phenomena, and processes, but we only notice some of them. We notice precisely those to which we pay attention (Latin attentio). Therefore, states Leibniz, the apperception that accompanies certain perceptions depends upon attention. It appears with the perceptual data that have been differentiated by concentrated attention (ibid., I 68, 107). Structural aspect of apperception. Apperception occupies a place between direct perception and organized reflection in act (reflexio in actu signato). A subject whose knowledge is limited to perception alone is not able to notice any data that distinguish themselves in the horizon of perception. This subject, as Leibniz describes it, remains in a state of torpor or a swoon. Only apperception, which is a form of consciousness not in act of the occurrence of an act of perception, recalling the scholastic reflexio in actu exercito or conscientia concomitans, makes it possible to differentiate particular data from the whole of the field of perception. There is a continuing discussion on the essence of apperception, in particular concerning its structural characteristics. Leibniz statements in this regard are not completely clear or consistent. Sometimes apperception is synonymous with consciousness (Monadologia, par. 30), and sometimes it is synonymous with reflection. He occasionally identifies apperception with both (Principles of nature and grace based on reason, par. 4) while at the same time emphasizing the difference between consciousness and reflection

(Monadologia, par. 30). With reference to scholastic terminology we may say that apperception is a form of reflection, but a form of reflection lacking an objective correlate. In a word, it is reflection in the course (in the act) of occurrence, that is, reflecio in actu exercito. Leibniz in describing apperception speaks of concomitant reflection (conscience ou la rflexion, qui accompagneNew Meditations [] , I 229). Apperception thus conceived has characteristics that coincide with what Aquinas described as conscientia concomitans. In this connection the range of occurrence of the phenomenon of apperception is extended: besides cognitive acts, Leibniz states, apperception occurs also in the case of volitive acts. The functional aspect of apperception. In Leibnizs monadological system of metaphysics, apperception performs various functions including the following: (1) Apperception conditions and reveals the moral identity (identit morale) and directly reveals the ontological identity (identit rele) of the subject. With regard to real identity, it is guaranteed by the completion by the qualities or determinations that create the individual (omne individuum sua tota entitate individuitur (De principio individui, I). This kind of identity is absolute and does not admit of degrees. The situation is different in the case of moral identity based on the plain of consciousness and reflection. Here a particular function of apperception is manifested. On the basis of an essential component apperception cocreates the identical person conceived as a thinking and understanding being, capable of reasoning and reflection, able to regard himself as identical, as one and the same thing who thinks at different times and different places (New Meditations [] , I 295). The persons mode of being is described as our appearance to ourselves (apparance nous mmes). Identity of this type is identity for us and possesses a rather complex structure. It presupposes real identity and so it is in relation to real identity, that is, to the purely ontological sphere, a full conscious superaddition. It also presupposes a stable bond of self-knowledge that joins the particular states into one series as a result of which we obtain the effect of the consciousness of persistence. Moral identity is something in itself in view of its proper position in the ontological sphere an real identity, and it is identity for us, something that undergoes development and admits of degrees, which appears to us (apparante nous mmes). (2) Apperception is a special thread that joins the empirical and sensual sphere with the rational and intellectual sphere. The epistemological bond between them which is apparent in

the phenomenon of apperception and which was broken in the work of Locke, and especially in Descartes, as a result of which the cognitive powers ordered to these spheres were regarded as completely separate substances, in Leibniz becomes the foundation of the psycho-physical unity of the substance-monad. In his theory of apperception Leibniz developed Lockes thought that the senses and reflection are the source of knowledge (J. Locke Essay Concerning Human Understanding, I 119130). He discovered a link between the senses and reflection that joined them, a link necessary for the whole process of knowledge, and this link was in the form of apperception. Apperception stands between simple perception, conceived as sense perception, and reflection. Apperception begins in simple perception and constantly manifests the widening field of what is given and what is conscious. To this point it is not subject to active objectifying reflection (New Meditations [] , I 18). Apperception, as a certain form of consciousness, is not so much a consciousness of something and possessing an intentional-objective correlate as a non-active consciousness, that. Because of the absence of any limit in the form of an object to which, for example, active reflection aims, apperception is marked by potentiality unique to itself, a lack of definition, and an openness to what has not yet been grasped in knowledge and expressed in language. It takes the form of a horizon that is open because it is infinite. This horizon is the mark of a contingent mode of being. APPERCEPTION IN THE THOUGHT OF C. WOLFF. The question of apperception was developed in the writings of Wolff, principally in his work Psychologia empirica in which we read that apperception belongs to the mind, insofar as the mind is conscious of its perception (ibid. par 25). In Wolffs thought, apperception co-constitutes the act of thought (cogitatio) which is described as an act of the soul by which the soul is conscious of itself and of things beyond itself (ibid. par. 23) Therefore in the thought of the founder of the first system of modern ontology every thought joins perception and apperception (ibid., par. 26). Like Leibniz, Wolff stated that it is in our power to direct apperception: we can make ourselves distinguish certain data more clearly (magis appercipimus) than the rest (ibid. par. 234). Apperception makes possible an increase in the degree of the clarity (claritas) of acts of perception, while the faculty (facultas) by which we obtain this effect Wolff calls attention (attentio) (ibid., par. 237). In the work Psychologia rationalis, however, we find much more extensive meditations on apperception. He states therein, among othe things, that the immediate source of apperception is the clarity (claritas) of a perception (par. 20) and that by apperception acts of comparison (actus comparationis) are realized in which the soul

compares perceived things among themselves and with themselves (par. 22). At last, through the apperception of the particular components of particular perceptions the way leads to the apperception of all the components that appear consequently at the level of representation. As a result, states Wolff, the soul reflects the whole of perception (par. 23). Wolff defines reflection as the successive direction of attention to these [data] which are contained among the components of the perceived thing (Psychologia empirica, par. 257). Wolff mentions among the conditions for the occurrence of apperception, besides attention, also memory (Psychologia rationalis, par. 25). This last element especially, together with the the elements that possess a position distinguished by intellect, respectively reason and will (appetitus), indicates the Augustinian provenance and basis of the solutions made in the framework of this system which is one of the most radical rationalistic systems of philosophy. APPERCEPTION IN THE THOUGHT OF KANT. In the case of Kants exposition of the epistemological meaning of perception we are dealing in large measure with a continuation of the doctrine of perception developed in the school of Leibniz and Wolff. Apperception in Kants thought rises to the rank of the source and basis of knowledge. In the first edition of Critique of Pure Reason (A 115) we read: there are three objective sources of knowledge upon which is based the possibility of experience in general and of the knowledge of its objects: sense, imagination, and apperception. On the pages of the cited work (especially the second edition), we find many statements on apperception but nowhere in these statements does the term apperception take on a leading meaning, and instead we find a certain mosaic of meanings for this term. The description closest to a general definition of apperception is this: a representation, I think, must be able to accompany all my representations (ibid. B 132). Apperception as identified with a function that unites all the variety of representations is called pure or original apperception. It is pure because it has no reference to impressed data. Rather, its originality consists in this: that it accompanies all representations and cannot be derived from any other representation (ibid. B 132). This kind of self- consciousness is marked by two moments: a unity that Kant calls the transcendental unity of apperception, and stable identity. The latter contains a synthesis (connection) of data evident in each representation (ibid. B 133). Besides this type, Kant distinguishes the above mentioned empirical apperception by which he understands the consciousness of ourselves with regard to the

property of the state in which we find ourselves (ibid., A 107). A synonym for this is internal sense, and its meaning is most adequately rendered by the Cartesian ego cogito. He also distinguishes as a preceding condition that transcendental apperception which is the unity of consciousness which precedes all the data of evidence and in view of which alone all representation of objects is possible (ibid.). Kant thinks that this type of apperception has the nature of pure, original and unchanging consciousness which could be conceived as cogito me cogitare. Transcendental apperception as the deepest transcendental foundation of the unity of consciousness in a synthesis of the variety of all evident data and [] in a synthesis of the concepts of objects in general (ibid., A 106), in Kants thought takes on the meaning of the deepest principle of being and knowledge. The genesis of apperception is strictly subjective. It is not something given or found but it is characterized by its existence on its own. It is manifested only as a result of an awakening which has its source in sense impressions. Its function is synthetic and unifying, that is, it joins into a unity the entire variety of evident data and makes it possible to know them, and also constitutes the unity of self-knowledge. In this latter function, besides representations that remain in an inseparable bond of unity with evident data, the identity of the subject (the transcendental unity of apperception) has its place. In the opinion of some, Kantian apperception is concomitant reflection limited to its own primitively varied functions (W. Chudy). FURTHER HISTORY OF THE PROBLEMATIC OF APPERCEPTION. This history is a direct continuation of Kants conclusions. The influence of the author of the three Critiques is clearest in the writings of J. G. Fichte, especially in his Theory of Knowledge (Teoria wiedzy, Wwa 1996), where the Kantian doctrine of apperception was subjected to a sharp critique. Fichte there makes the accusation that Kant, while he showed apperception as the sourceprinciple of knowledge, did not show that the categories he provided were conditions of self-knowledge, but only said that they were (ibid. I 527). One new element is that Fichte seems to accept Kantian transcendental apperception and intellectual inspection (German, intellektuelle Anschauung) as analyzed by himself in that work as synonymous in meaning. G. F. W. Hegel in his system based on a dialectical vision of reality in the pages of his Phenomenology of the Spirit (1807) continues the critique of the Kantian, and indirectly the Leibnizian, doctrine of apperception. Referring to Kantian idealism and Kants conception of apperception, Hegel in a certain sense removes apperception conceived as the source of

knowledge, but he describes Kants system as a historic form of spirit. He notes that both Kants philosophy and Kants exposition of apperception leads, by its one -sided approach to truth, to empty idealism. The one-sidedness (inadequacy) of apperception in Kants version is that in its unity it does not encompass the cognitively inaccessible thing in itself (Ding an sich) which coincides with an external stimulus but only an object created from sense data and concepts that have their source in the intellect (Fenomenologia ducha, [Phenomenology of the Spirit], Wwa 1963, 276279). The basis of Hegels critique is his famous statement that truth is the whole which is the becoming of itself (ibid, 26, 28). Only the reason (Vernunft) together with its becoming, which is a process of the development of self-knowledge, is such a whole. Kants one-sided idealism is overcome by a dialectical movement of consciousness that leads to the abolition of the object as different from consciousness. Then it is the reason that proclaims its certainty that it is the entire reality itself and its object (ibid., 277). In the Science of Logic, however, Hegel pays little attention to the question of apperception. Hegel situates the position of the I on the background of the phenomenon of pure apperception of which Kant wrote earlier, and compares it to a crucible and fire in which the encompassed variety [of empirical data] is consumed and reduced to a form of unity (Smtliche Werke, St 1959, VIII 129). Hegel pays somewhat more attention to apperception in Lectures on the History of Philosophy where he refers to Kants views and remarks, among other things: Thought takes such a form that reduces what is varied to unity. The I, the apperception of selfconsciousness, is this unity (ibid.). Hegel refers to a certain known statement of Kant and embarks on a radical critique of his exposition of apperception. He states that the I so conceived should accompany [all my representations]; but this is a barbaric exposition. I am self-consciousness, the entire empty and abstract I, and then apperception; it is what we call description in general. Perception means feeling ( (Empfindung), representation; apperception is the operation by which something is brought to my consciousness (in mein Bewutsein gesetzt). I am the whole generality, something completely lacking in definition, that which is abstract; insofar as I transfer some empirical content to the I, I apperceive. Then it must be [reduced] to what it simple. For it to enter into this unity, into what is simple, it must first be simplified (wereinfacht), it must be infected with simplicity. The unity of plurality of which he speaks here is placed (gesetzt), Hegel says following Kant, in a spontaneous way. As such it is what is called thinking in general. For Hegel, as for Kant, thinking is identified with the synthesis of the manifold (das Synthesieren des

Mannigfaltigen). In the Lectures cited above Hegel accuses Kant of failing to make an adequate distinction between the two different moments present in the theory of apperception, namely: the fact of being a unity as an essential attribute of the I (Ich das Eine bin) and the moment of establishing this unity by the I ([Ich bing] als denkend ttig, Einheit setzend). In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century there was the phenomenon of a renewed consideration of the problem of apperception. This consideration was inclusive. It took into account the thought of Leibniz and Kant. It should be connected with the domination of Kantianism and the discovery of an enormous body of unpublished work by Leibniz. The most original analyses of apperception were in twentieth century phenomenology. The chief representative and the founder of modern phenomenology, E. Husserl, in his phenomenological analyses drew on the problematic of apperception, among other things, to describe the knowledge of another I and to reify consciousness. In the latter question he wanted by apperception to connect consciousness with the corporeal (Husserl called this connection the apperceptual braid) while losing nothing of its essence. In the thought of the author of Ideas of pure phenomenology and phenomenological philosophy, as in the case of Kants transcendental apperception, apperception should accompany all the experiences of consciousness. Apperception in the function of reifying consciousness by connecting it with the physical world (the body) was banished, as it were, (as in Hegel) as a result of the application of the so-called phenomenological reduction, which was intended to put in brackets all transcendents that go beyond the sphere of consciousness. J. Locke, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Lo 1689 (Rozwaania dotyczce rozumu ludzkiego [Meditations concerning human reason], Wwa 1955); G. W. Leibniz, Nouveaux essais sur lentendement humain [no place of publication] 1704 (Nowe rozwaania dotyczce rozumu ludzkiego [New meditations concerning the human reason], Wwa 1955); C. Wolff, Psychologia empiraca, methodo scientifica pretractata [] , F 1738; I. Kant, Kritik der reinen Vernunft, Riga 1781 (Krytyka czystego rozumu [Critique of the pure reason], Wwa 1957); G. W. F. Hegel, Die Phnomenologie des Geistes, B 1807 (Fenomonologia ducha [Phenomenology of the spirit], Wwa 1963, I 276279); G. W. Leibniz, De principio individui, in: God. Guil. Leibniti opera philosophica [] (ed. J. E. Erdmann), B 180, 14; E. Husserl, Ideen zu einer reinen Phnomenologie und phnomenologischen Philosophie, Hl 1913 (Idee czystej fenomenologii i fenomenologicznej filozofii. Kziga pierwsza [Ideas of

pure phenomonology and phenomenological philosophy. First book], Wwa 1968); G. W. F. Hegel, Smtliche Werke. Jubilumsausgabe (ed. H. Glockner), II, VII, XIX, St 19271939; R. Eisler, Kant-Lexikon. Nachschalgwerk zu Kant Smtlich Schriften, Briefen und handschriftlichen Nachlass, Hi 1961; W. Chudy, Refleksja a poznanie bytu. Refleksja in actu exercito i jej funkcja w poznaniu metafizykalnym [Reflection and cognition of being. Reflection in actu exercito and its function in metaphysical cognition], Lb 1984; M. Kulstadt, Leibniz on Apperception, Consciousness and Reflection, Mn 1991; W. Chudy, Rozww filozofowania a puapka refleksji. Filozofia refleksji i prby jej przezwycienia [Development of philosophical thought and the trap of reflection. Philosophy of reflection and attempts to overcome it], Lb 1993, 1995; G. W. Leibniz, Gwne pisma metafizyczne [Major metaphysical writings], To 1995, 99134; J. G. Fichte, Teoria wiedzy, Wwa 1996, I 52428.

Definition of Motivation
Motivation is defined as the process that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. Motivation is what causes us to act, whether it is getting a glass of water to reduce thirst or reading a book to gain knowledge. It involves the biological, emotional, social and cognitive forces that activate behavior. In everyday usage, the term motivation is frequently used to describe why a person does something. For example, you might say that a student is so motivated to get into a clinical psychology program that she spends every night studying. Psychologists have proposed a number of different theories of motivation, including drive theory, instinct theory and humanistic theory.
Components of Motivation

There are three major components to motivation: activation, persistence and intensity. Activation involves the decision to initiate a behavior, such as enrolling in a psychology class. Persistence is the continued effort toward a goal even though obstacles may exist, such as taking more psychology courses in order to earn a degree although it requires a significant investment of time, energy and resources. Finally, intensity can be seen in the concentration and vigor that goes into pursuing a goal. For example, one student might coast by without

much effort, while another student will study regularly, participate in discussions and take advantage of research opportunities outside of class.
Extrinsic Vs. Intrinsic Motivation

Different types of motivation are frequently described as being either extrinsic or intrinsic. Extrinsic motivations are those that arise from outside of the individual and often involve rewards such as trophies, money, social recognition or praise. Intrinsic motivations are those that arise from within the individual, such as doing a complicated cross-word puzzle purely for the personal gratification of solving a problem.

Appersepsi
Apersepsi berasal dari kata apperception, yang berarti menafsirkan buah pikiran, jadi menyatukan dan mengasimilasi suatu pengamatan berdasarkan pengalaman yang telah dimiliki dan dengan demikian memahami dan dapat menafsirkanya. 1. Leibnitz, membedakan persepsi dan apersepsi. dengan persepsi yang dimaksud adanya perangsang diterima seseorang, adanya pengamatan. apersepsi dimaksud bahwa ia tahu bahwa ia melakukan pengamatan. 2. Herbart, apersepsi adalah menerima tanggapan-tanggapan baru dengan bantuan tanggapan yang telah ada. 3. Wundt, bahwa apersepsi bukan hanya asosiasi belaka melainkan memasukan tanggapan-tanggapan baru dalam suatu hubungan kategorial atau hubungan yang lebih umum.

4. menurut para ahli psikologi modern, apersepsi dimaksud pengamatan dengan penuh perhatian sambil memahami serta mengolah tanggapan-tanggapan baru itu dan memasukanya ke dalam hubungan yang kategorial.

Apersepsi dan Asosiasi menurut Hebart antara tanggapan baru dan lama terjadi asosiasi menurut hukum-hukum asosiasi. Wundt, menolak pendapat tersebut, mengatakan bahwa apersepsi itu didorong oleh kemauan dengan tujuan tertentu, Kaitanya dengan pendidikan pada bahan apersepsi diperlukan untuk mentafsirkan tanggapan-tanggapan baru, nah itu sebabnya peserta didik harus memiliki sejumlah pengetahuan sebelum bersekolah, karena belum tersusun baik tugas para pengajar untuk menyusunya menurut kategori-kategori tertentu dan memperluas serta memperdalamnya dalam segala mata pelajaran. pengalaman yang lampau sering kurang lengkap dan senantiasia dapat disempurnakan, jadi terus direorganisasi. Apersepsi Menurut Herbart mengemukakan bahwa yang diketahui digunakan untuk memahami sesuatu yang belum di ketahui. Apersepsi membangkitkan minat dan perhatian untuk sesuatu. dari pedoman itu Hebart mengajurkan dalam dunia pendidikan seperti berikut : 1. Kejelasan : sesuatu diperlihatkan untuk memperdalam pengertian 2. Asosiasi : peserta didik di beri kesempatan untuk menghubungkan pengertian baru dengan pengalaman-pengalaman lama. 3. Sistem: disini bahan baru itu ditempatkan dalam hubunganya dengan hal-hal lain. 4. Metode: peserta didik mendapat tugas untuk dikerjakan. Pengajar memperbaiki dan memberi petunjuk dimana perlu. pengikut Herbart yakni Ziller merubahnya dan menggantikanya dengan 5 langkah berikut : 1. Analisis: apersepsi anak dibangkitkan dan ditujukan kepada bahan baru. 2. Sintesis: bendanya diperlihatkan dan dijelaskan untuk memperdalam pengertian 3. Asosiasi: bahan baru dihubungkan dengan bahan yang bertalian itu. 4. Sistem:bahan baru dimaksukan ke dalam sistem pengetahuan.

5. metode:bahan baru dilatih dan digunakan. Menurut Rein, pengikut dari Herbart juga mengemukakan : 1. Preparasi (persiapan): peserta didik dipersiapkan untuk menerima bahan baru dengan membangkitkan bahan apersepsi. 2. Presentasi(penyajian):pada fase ini pengajar menyodorkan bahan pelajaran baru. 3. Asosiasi: bahan baru dianalisis dan dibandingkan dengan hal-hal lain ynag berhubungan dengan bahan itu. 4. Generalisasi : pada fase ini diambil kesimpulan merupakan prinsip-prinsip dan pengertian-pengertian. 5. Aplikasi(penggunaan): Peserta didik diberi kesempatan untuk menggunakan dan melatih bahan yang dipelajari. Menurut Morrison-plan 1. Eksplorasi. dengan tes atau diskusi diselidiki pengetahuan yang telah dimiliki peserta didik tentang suatu masalah 2. Mengetahui, sampai manakah peserta didik mencapai tujuan pelajaran dan pendidikan 3. Menunjukan kekurangan dan kelemahan peserta didik, sehingga mereka dapat diberi bantuan yang khusus untuk mengatasi kekurangan tersebut. 4. Menunjukan kelemahan metode mengajar yang digunakan pengajar, kekurang murid sering bersumber dari metode dan cara mengajar yang kurang baik. 5. Memberi petunjuk yang lebih jelas tentang tujuan pelaharan yang hendak dicapai. 6. memberi dorongan kepada murid untuk belajar dengan giat.

Motivasi
Pengertian Motivasi. Motif seringkali diartikan dengan istilah dorongan. Dorongan atau tenaga tersebut merupakan gerak jiwa dan jasmani untuk berbuat. Jadi motif tersebut merupakan suatu driving force yang menggerakkan manusia untuk bertingkah-laku, dan di dalam perbuatannya itu mempunyai tujuan tertentu. Setiap tindakan yang dilakukan oleh

manusia selalu di mulai dengan motivasi (niat). Menurut Wexley & Yukl (dalam Asad, 1987) motivasi adalah pemberian atau penimbulan motif, dapat pula diartikan hal atau keadaan menjadi motif. Sedangkan menurut Mitchell (dalam Winardi, 2002) motivasi mewakili proses- proses psikologikal, yang menyebabkan timbulnya, diarahkanya, dan terjadinya persistensi kegiatan- kegiatan sukarela (volunter) yang diarahkan ke tujuan tertentu. Sedangkan menurut Gray (dalam Winardi, 2002) motivasi merupakan sejumlah proses, yang bersifat internal, atau eksternal bagi seorang individu, yang menyebabkan timbulnya sikap antusiasme dan persistensi, dalam hal melaksanakan kegiatan- kegiatan tertentu. Morgan (dalam Soemanto, 1987) mengemukakan bahwa motivasi bertalian dengan tiga hal yang sekaligus merupakan aspek- aspek dari motivasi. Ketiga hal tersebut adalah: keadaan yang mendorong tingkah laku (motivating states), tingkah laku yang di dorong oleh keadaan tersebut (motivated behavior), dan tujuan dari pada tingkah laku tersebut (goals or ends of such behavior). McDonald (dalam Soemanto, 1987) mendefinisikan motivasi sebagai perubahan tenaga di dalam diri seseorang yang ditandai oleh dorongan efektif dan reaksireaksi mencapai tujuan. Motivasi merupakan masalah kompleks dalam organisasi, karena kebutuhan dan keinginan setiap anggota organisasi berbeda satu dengan yang lainnya. Hal ini berbeda karena setiap anggota suatu organisasi adalah unik secara biologis maupun psikologis, dan berkembang atas dasar proses belajar yang berbeda pula (Suprihanto dkk, 2003). Soemanto (1987) secara umum mendefinisikan motivasi sebagai suatu perubahan tenaga yang ditandai oleh dorongan efektif dan reaksi-reaksi pencapaian tujuan. Karena kelakuan manusia itu selalu bertujuan, kita dapat menyimpulkan bahwa perubahan tenaga yang memberi kekuatan bagi tingkahlaku mencapai tujuan,telah terjadi di dalam diri seseorang. Dari uraian diatas dapat disimpulkan bahwa motivasi adalah energi aktif yang menyebabkan terjadinya suatu perubahan pada diri sesorang yang nampak pada gejala kejiwaan, perasaan, dan juga emosi, sehingga mendorong individu untuk bertindak atau melakukan sesuatu dikarenakan adanya tujuan, kebutuhan, atau keinginan yang harus terpuaskan.
Faktor-faktor yang Mempengaruhi Motivasi

Motivasi

seseorang

sangat

dipengaruhi

oleh

dua

faktor,

yaitu

a. Faktor Internal; faktor yang berasal dari dalam diri individu, terdiri atas:
1. Persepsi individu mengenai diri sendiri; seseorang termotivasi atau tidak untuk melakukan sesuatu banyak tergantung pada proses kognitif berupa persepsi. Persepsi seseorang tentang dirinya sendiri akan mendorong dan mengarahkan perilaku seseorang untuk bertindak; 2. Harga diri dan prestasi; faktor ini mendorong atau mengarahkan inidvidu (memotivasi) untuk berusaha agar menjadi pribadi yang mandiri, kuat, dan memperoleh kebebasan serta mendapatkan status tertentu dalam lingkungan masyarakat; serta dapat mendorong individu untuk berprestasi; 3. Harapan; adanya harapan-harapan akan masa depan. Harapan ini merupakan informasi objektif dari lingkungan yang mempengaruhi sikap dan perasaan subjektif seseorang. Harapan merupakan tujuan dari perilaku. 4. Kebutuhan; manusia dimotivasi oleh kebutuhan untuk menjadikan dirinya sendiri yang berfungsi secara penuh, sehingga mampu meraih potensinya secara total. Kebutuhan akan mendorong dan mengarahkan seseorang untuk mencari atau menghindari, mengarahkan dan memberi respon terhadap tekanan yang dialaminya. 5. Kepuasan kerja; lebih merupakan suatu dorongan afektif yang muncul dalam diri individu untuk mencapai goal atau tujuan yang diinginkan dari suatu perilaku.

b. Faktor Eksternal; faktor yang berasal dari luar diri individu, terdiri atas:
1. Jenis dan sifat pekerjaan; dorongan untuk bekerja pada jenis dan sifat pekerjaan tertentu sesuai dengan objek pekerjaan yang tersedia akan mengarahkan individu untuk menentukan sikap atau pilihan pekerjaan yang akan ditekuni. Kondisi ini juga dapat dipengartuhi oleh sejauh mana nilai imbalan yang dimiliki oleh objek pekerjaan dimaksud; 2. Kelompok kerja dimana individu bergabung; kelompok kerja atau organisasi tempat dimana individu bergabung dapat mendorong atau mengarahkan perilaku individu dalam mencapai suatu tujuan perilaku tertentu; peranan kelompok atau organisasi ini dapat membantu individu mendapatkan kebutuhan akan nilai-nilai kebenaran, kejujuran, kebajikan serta dapat memberikan arti bagi individu sehubungan dengan kiprahnya dalam kehidupan sosial. 3. Situasi lingkungan pada umumnya; setiap individu terdorong untuk berhubungan dengan rasa mampunya dalam melakukan interaksi secara efektif dengan lingkungannya;

4. Sistem imbalan yang diterima; imbalan merupakan karakteristik atau kualitas dari objek pemuas yang dibutuhkan oleh seseorang yang dapat mempengaruhi motivasi atau dapat mengubah arah tingkah laku dari satu objek ke objek lain yang mempunyai nilai imbalan yang lebih besar. Sistem pemberian imbalan dapat mendorong individu untuk berperilaku dalam mencapai tujuan; perilaku dipandang sebagai tujuan, sehingga ketika tujuan tercapai maka akan timbul imbalan.