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CPR and First Aid Module: Lesson: I.

Emergency Action Plans First Aid for Wounds, Shock, and Special Injuries Video Basic First Aid: How To Stop Mild Bleeding During First Aid Embed Code: <iframe width="640" height="360" src="http://www.youtube.com/embed/gy0j-hwghAI" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe> Source: II. Wound A type of injury wherein there is a break in the skin continuity. Common types: o o Open Skin is punctured and bleeding. Closed Skin remains intact but there is internal bleeding. Summary http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gy0j-hwghAI

First Aid: 1. Stop the bleeding. Apply gentle pressure with a clean cloth or bandage. Hold the pressure continuously for 20 to 30 minutes and if possible elevate the wound. 2. Clean the wound. Rinse out the wound with clear water. Soap can irritate the wound, so try to keep it out of the actual wound. 3. Apply an antibiotic. After you clean the wound, apply a thin layer of an antibiotic cream or ointment such as Neosporin to help keep the surface moist, they also discourage infection. 4. Cover the wound. Bandages can help keep the wound clean and keep harmful bacteria out. After the wound has healed enough to make infection unlikely, exposure to the air will speed wound healing. 5. Change the dressing at least daily. 6. Get stitches for deep wounds. 7. Watch for signs of infection: a. Redness b. Increasing pain c. Drainage d. Warmth

e. Swelling 8. Get a shot. Depending on the nature of the wound, you might need to take a shot. For puncture wounds caused by rusty nails or whatnot exposed to the ground, a tetatnus shot might be in order. For most animal bites, a rabies shot. Shock Condition wherein the bodys tissues do not get adequate oxygenated blood for minimal functioning and immediate emergency medical treatment is needed. o Types: Hypovolemic Caused by a marked drop in blood volume. Cardiogenic Caused by damage to the heart. Distributive Caused by severe dilation of peripheral blood vessels; normal blood volume. Types: o o o First Aid: 1. Call 911 or your local emergency number or any medical professional in the vicinity. 2. Have the person lie down on his or her back with feet about a foot higher than the head to promote the return of blood to the trunk. Keep the person still. 3. Check for signs of circulation, if absent, begin CPR. 4. Keep the person warm and comfortable and promote circulation by loosening belts or tight clothes. 5. Turn the person on his or her side to prevent choking if the person vomits or bleeds from the mouth. 6. Seek treatment for injuries, such as bleeding or broken bones. a. Warnings: i. DO NOT let the casualty move, eat, or drink. ii. DO NOT leave the casualty unattended. Septic caused by an infection Neurogenic caused by brain damage. Anaphylactic caused by an allergy.

Special Injuries Head What To Do:

1. Call 911 and keep the person still. Until medical help arrives, keep the injured person lying down and quiet. a. Reposition patient only when they are: i. Vomiting ii. Choking iii. In need of CPR

2. Stop any bleeding. Apply firm pressure to the wound with sterile gauze or a clean cloth. 3. Provide as much first aid as possible without moving the person's head or neck. a. If the person is wearing a helmet, don't remove it. b. If you absolutely must roll the person, you need at least one other person. 4. Watch for changes in breathing and alertness. If the person shows no signs of circulation, begin CPR.

Eye What To Do:

1. Chemical Exposure - Don't rub eyes. - Immediately wash out the eye with water for 15 20 mins. - Get medical help while you are doing this. - Don't bandage the eye. - See a doctor right away. 2. Blows Apply a cold compress.

3. Foreign Particle -

Take pain meds. See a doctor right away.

Don't rub the eye. Blink repeatedly. Rinse with eyewash. See a doctor.

III.

References Wound (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wounds) Cuts And Scrapes: First Aid (http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/first-aid-cuts/FA00042) First Aid For Wounds (http://beprepared.com/article.asp_Q_ai_E_77_A_c2a_E_mt_A_name_E_First%20Aid% 20For%20Wounds)

IV.

First Aid For Wounds (http://www.healthguidance.org/entry/8984/1/First-AidWounds.html) How To Treat Hypovolemic Shock (http://www.healthguidance.org/entry/12652/1/Howto-Treat-Hypovolemic-Shock.html) Head Trauma: First Aid (http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/first-aid-headtrauma/FA00008) First Aid for Neck Injuries (http://backandneck.about.com/od/conditions/a/neckfirstaid.htm) Spinal Injury: First Aid (http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/first-aid-spinal-injury/FA00010) Eye Injury And Treatment (http://firstaid.webmd.com/eye-injuries-treatment) Additional Readings And Viewings: First Aid For Wounds with Nick Rondinelli (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B68VFrisbkc) When Seconds Count Emergency First Aid Training (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OwV39oxGwZU&feature=plcp)

Shock First Aid and Emergency Treatment Guide (http://www.medindia.net/patients/Firstaid_Shock.htm) First Aid For Shock (http://www.vitaminuk.com/pages/articles/firstaidforshock.htm)

Shock: First Aid (http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/first-aid-shock/FA00056)

IV.

Review Quiz

1. Which of the following is not a sign of infection? A. Warmth B. Redness C. Drainage D. Itching Answer: D. Itching the three other choices are actual signs of infection whilst itching occurs as an effect of the movement of fibrin and fibrinogen (among others) to the wound site for healing. 2. Which of the following is not a type of distributive shock? A. Septic B. Anaphylactic C. Hypovolemic D. Neurogenic Answer: C. Hypovolemic Septic, Anaphylactic, and Neurogenic shock are types of distributive shock wherein there is an adequate amout of blood whilst there is a marked decrease in hypovolemic shock. 3. A type of shock caused by damage to the heart. A. Cardiogenic B. Septic C. Hypovolemic D. Anaphylactic Answer: A. Cardiogenic Septic shock is caused by an infection; hypovolemic, by blood loss; and Anaphyalctic, by severe allergic reactions. 4. Situation: A motorist encounters a Motovehicular Accident and is thrown off. You saw that he lands on his back at least 5 meters from the site of collision. You rush to him as you dial 911. You see that he is bleeding through his nose and mouth and you notice that he acts as if to cough and he exhibits the universal sign of choking. Question: What action is most appropriate? A. Assist the casualty to lie as still as possible. B. Reposition him to promote drainage of blood from the mouth. C. Ask him if he has insurance.

D. Help him to stand up and get him to the sidewalk. Answer: B. Reposition him to promote drainage of blood from the mouth While choices A and D are also logically sound, they are not what the situation calls for. If the casualty shows signs of choking, the rescuer/s can reposition him even if primary SOP states that he must be immobilized. 5. Why should the legs be raised in most cases of shock? A. To promote blood return. B. To promote patient comfort. C. To assist the doctor in his procedures. D. To prevent the production of venous thrombi. Answer: A. To promote blood return While choices B, C, and D are correct as well, the best reason for doing this action is choice A. 6. Situation: You see Ms. Henderson get struck at the neck and fall on her knees. You rush to her aid. You know that the first step to take in a head/neck/spine injury is? A. Immobillize the patient. B. Stay with the patient until professional medical help arrives. C. Call 911. D. Instruct the patient to stand up and guide her away as the attacker is still at large. Answer: C. Call 911 Before rushing to the aid of a casualty, it is best to call for professional help and to ensure that they are on their way before you get preoccupied and loose an opportunity to contact others. 7. Situation: Your knees get scraped when you fall off of your skate shoes. You immediately get home to wash your abrasions. Question: Which of the following is best? A. Use soap and water on the wound. B. Use Betadine solution to cleanse the wound. C. Use alcohol to make sure that the wound is cleaned properly. D. Apply the soap only around the edges of the wound and not the wound itself, rinse with water. Answer: D. Apply the soap only around the edges of the wound and not the wound itself, rinse with water choice A specifies that the soap will be applied on the wound itself soap can irritate the wounds raw edges as well as betadine while alcohol can denature proteins that may actually help in the healing process. 8. Situation: You and a colleague rushed to help an MVA casualty. You have finished with your Initial first aid procedures. Your colleague leaves you to call for help since

your ambulance broke down. You notice that the man stopped breathing and so you checked for pulse. You took a full minute measure and got 62 bpm. Question: What is the most appropriate action to take? A. Call your partner. B. Assess casualty for possible airway obstruction. C. Give rescue breaths. D. Do CPR. Answer: B. Assess casualty for possible airway obstruction assessment always comes first. If you do not know whats wrong then the actions you take will inevitably have the capacity to worsen the situation; if you find a clot or whatnot lodged in the patients airway, you may not need to perform rescue breaths. 9. Condition wherein the bodys vital organs do not get enough oxygenated blood required for the normal functioning of the body. Immediate medical intervention is necessary. A. Bleeding B. Shock C. Diabetes D. AIDS Answer: B. Shock Choice A. Bleeds do not necessarily connote a deficit in the blood supply of the bodys vital organs; Diabetes and AIDS follow a different pathophysiology. 10. You see a patient arrive at the ER with blood oozing down from his upper torso. What kind of wound does he have? A. Open B. Closed Answer: A. Open An open wound is easily recognizeable ince it is characterized by a bleed whilst a closed wound is usually spoted when enough blood have leaked into the skin layers to form a hematoma or peticchae.