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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 INTRODUCTION TO BITS-PILANI, DUBAI BITS, Pilani - Dubai (BPD) is the branch campus of the internationally reputed BITS, Pilani - India. It was set-up in September 2000 in Dubai in association with the ETA Ascon Star Group, in response to the growing needs for quality Engineering education among the residents of the Middle East. BITS, Pilani commenced the Dubai Campus with the formal approval of Ministry of HRD and University Grants Commission (UGC), Govt. of India. BITS Pilani Dubai Campus, affiliated to the main branch of Bits Pilani Rajasthan is headed by Dr. R.K. Mittal who is the director of the collage. Bits Pilani has a 4 year course in electronics and communication engineering, electrical and electronic engineering, computer science engineering, electronic and Instrumentation engineering, biotechnology, and chemical engineering. The Institution has made great progress in the last 10 years achieving phenomenal growth and innumerable accolades. BPD's student strength has grown to more than 1700, with students seeking admission not only from UAE and other Middle East Countries but also from India and other parts of the world. The Practice School I Programme (PS I) is a 2 month course while the Practice School II Programme (PS II) is a 5 & half month course which involve evaluations like quiz,
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group discussion, seminar, viva, project reports& observation. The PS I Programme gives students more exposure to the organizations ongoing projects. It also gives the students the opportunity to work independently on their projects and find out solutions which are in favour of the organization. The PS Programme prepares the students for their future and gives them a broad idea about a working environment.

1.2 INTRODUCTION TO THE ORGANIZATION Emerson Electric Company is a major multinational corporation headquartered in Ferguson, Missouri, United States. This Fortune 500 Company manufactures products and provides engineering services for a wide range of industrial, commercial, and consumer markets. Emerson is one of the largest conglomerate companies in the USA. As of 2010, it has a workforce of approximately 127,700 employees worldwide, with a global presence spanning 150 countries

Business Segments: Emerson products, solutions and services go to market under eight business platforms: Emerson Process Management- product technology as well as engineering and project management services for precision control, monitoring and asset optimization of plants that produce power or that process such items as oil, natural gas and petrochemicals, food and beverage, pulp and paper, pharmaceuticals and municipal water and wastewater systems. Emerson Network Power- provides power backup systems, embedded power, precision cooling, and connectivity technologies for data centers, telecommunications networks, and other applications. Emerson Climate Technologies- global manufacturer of heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration solutions for residential, industrial and commercial applications, including Copeland Scroll compressors and White-Rodgers thermostats. Emerson Industrial Automation- global manufacturer of alternators, electric motors and drives, electrical distribution devices, mechanical power transmission, fluid automation and ultrasonic joining solutions. Emerson Appliance Solutions- manufacturer of food waste disposers (InSinkErator brand) and technology solutions used in washers and dryers. Emerson Storage Solutions- manufacturer of residential, healthcare, foodservice and commercial storage systems, including ClosetMaid and Metro brands.
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Emerson Professional Tools- power and hand tools, wet/dry vacs, and tool storage equipment for contractors and do-it-yourselfers, including RIDGID brand. Emerson Motor Technologies - Emerson products include general and special purpose motors that range from 1/200 through 5,000 horsepower to custom designs developed at Emersons world-class technology centers. Emerson offers a comprehensive line of motors designed and manufactured according to the latest NEMA Premium efficiency standards, giving customers the quality, reliability, and energy-efficiency they need in their specific applications.

1.2.1 INTRODUCTION TO EMERSON PROCESS MANAGEMENT.

Emerson Process Management is a leading supplier of process management solutions that help automate, control and manage complex plant processes used in the chemical, pulp and paper, power, food and beverage, refining, oil and gas, pharmaceutical, and other industries. The company combines superior products and technology solutions with industry-specific engineering, consulting, project management, and maintenance services. Its integrated solutions help reduce capital project costs, integrate information for decision-making, manage plant processes, and maintain reliable equipment for highest plant performance and availability. Emerson process management is a business division of the Emerson Electric Company, one of the largest conglomerate companies and as of 2008, with a workforce of 140,000 employees worldwide, a global presence spanning 150 countries. The main divisions of Emerson Process Management are: Process Systems and Solutions: It provides innovative solutions for plant automation and control, based on the proven PlantWeb plant architecture. Their main products include the DeltaV DCS, AMS Suite, DeltaV SIS, PlantWeb etc.

Rosemount Measurement: It offers a complete line of pressure, temperature, flow, level and safety measurement instrumentation, like pressure transmitters, temperature transmitters etc. Rosemount Analytical: This division offers a comprehensive line of Gas Chromatographs Combustion & Process Gas and Liquid analyzers, sensors and systems for efficiency, quality, and environmental analysis solutions. Mobrey Measurement: An leading provider instruments for the reliable measurement and control of liquids, gases and dry products, for optimization of plants and processes through monitoring and control of level and flow Fisher Valves: Provides world class products such as Fisher control valves, regulators, and instrumentation and performance services to the process control industry. Valve Automation: is a division that consolidates the company's vast array of valve automation products and services. The division brings together well-known industry leaders Bettis, El-O-Matic, FieldQ, Hytork, Shafer etc. Regulatory Technologies: Provides pressure regulator and relief valve solutions, part of process control solutions. Power And Water Solutions : Provides solutions to the power generation and water/wastewater treatment industries by delivering the widest array of advanced instrumentation, control, and automation technologies Rosemount Tank Gauging: Provides products in tank management, based on the non-contact, reliable and maintenance-free radar level gauges.

1.2.2 INTRODUCTION TO ROSEMOUNT DMMC

The Rosemount Dubai Measurement and Manufacturing Centre (DMMC) was inaugurated on 12th July, 2010 with a vision to become the regional leader for excellence in innovative measurement solutions. Rosemount MEA is ISO 9001:2008 certified with advanced measurement capabilities. The manufacturing location is Factory Mutual (FM) and ATEx (Baseefa) approved. Our team of engineers are well supported by a highly skilled workforce and state of the art technology. The factory is equipped with unique in-house software which increases work efficiency and effectiveness. This allows us to fulfil large shipments on a daily basis and provide a flexible high quality services to customers.

The facility assembles Rosemount 3051S, Rosemount 3051 and Rosemount 2051 pressure transmitters and is currently in the process of adding the production of temperature and Differential Pressure (DP) level transmitters. However, all Rosemount products can be delivered from this facility.

1.2.3 ORGANIZATION CHART OF ROSEMOUNT DMMC

FIGURE 1 - ORGANISATION CHART OF ROSEMOUNT DMMC

1.2.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE REPORT Communication is the transmission of intelligence between two points (e.g., transmitter and controller) without alteration of sequence or structure of the information content. Communication technologies tie process control instruments together with host systems, network masters, and other nearby devices. The field of communication
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technology has evolved substantially over the last twenty years. The accuracy and utility of device communication continues to improve dramatically, especially over the last few years. Most recently, the trend in communication has been toward fieldbuses all-digital device networksin which individual devices are taking over network control responsibilities, directing their fellow devices, and managing entire loops in the field. This report gives an introduction to the range of device communication technologies commonly used in the process control industry. The report also contains a discussion about the various communication technologies that have appeared over the last twenty years from HART to FOUNDATION Fieldbus, along with their contemporary proprietary communication protocols and the benefits and limitations of each technology.

CHAPTER 2 OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT REPORT

2.1 ROLE OF COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN PROCESS CONTROL


Sensor equipment does not generally produce usable signals on its own. A sensor may emit a small voltage or current, or it may vary the resistance of a wire. The fundamental job of communication technology is to transform the raw signals from sensor equipment into intelligible values, and to transmit those values back to a control room. For the last several decades, communication technology has been continuously improving its ability to carry out this fundamental job. Transmitters are able to produce more accurate and repeatable process values every year. Recent digital communication systems are able to play (or assist with) a number of additional roles, including: Self-diagnosticsTransmitters can observe their own status and report problems back to a control room or maintenance shop. Control in the fieldTransmitters can handle network traffic in the absence of a control host. Furthermore, transmitters and other devices can be linked together in complex, decision-making networks. Remote device maintenanceTechnicians can interact with, test, and configure transmitters from remote locations using two-way digital communications. Process DiagnosticsInstruments and valves can observe abnormal process conditions and reports problems back to the control room or maintenance shop.

2.2 BASIC COMMUNICATION COMPONENTS

The basic communication components are:

Transducer Signal Processor Output Signal

FIGURE 2 - ILLUSTRATION OF HOW THE BASIC COMMUNICATION COMPONENTS INTEROPERATE

Transducer: The transducer interacts with the physical process and generates an electrical signal usable by a signal processor (i.e. transmitter). For example, a pressure transducer might convert pressure into millivolts. Signal Processor: Within a transmitter, a signal processor accepts the raw electrical signal from a transducer, performs calculations on the signal according to preset values (e.g., range, span), and sends out a new electrical signal suitable for transmitter output. Analog-to-Digital Converter: The signal processor may convert the incoming analog signal from the transducer to a digital signal before processing the signal. By converting the raw signal to a digital value, the processing electronics can perform more sophisticated calculations and produce a more accurate result than with a pure analog signal. An analog-to-digital (A/D) converter changes an analog signal into an equivalent digital signal.

Output Signal: The output signal component transmits the electrical impulse from the signal processor to a control system or to the field device network. The output signal conforms to the specification of a communication protocol. A communication protocol is a set of rules that two devices use to talk to each other. The rules enable the output signal sent by the transmitter to be received and correctly interpreted by the control system or other devices on the network. Most transmitters use communication protocols that are based on a small range of electrical signals. For example, a transmitter might use the signal 6 milliamps (mA) to mean steam is moving through the pipe at a rate of 50 cubic feet per minute. Digital-to-Analog Converter: Prior to sending the output signal, the transmitter may convert a digital value (used internally by the signal processor) to an analog value. Transmitters convert digital values to analog values because: Many process control devicesincluding control systemscan only interpret analog signals. Analog signals can convey process information much more rapidly than digital signals.

A digital-to-analog (D/A) converter changes a digital signal into an equivalent analog signal. 2.3 ANALOG COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS An analog signal is any continuous signal for which the time varying feature (variable) of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity, i.e., analogous to another time varying signal. It differs from a digital signal in terms of small fluctuations in the signal which are meaningful. Analog is usually thought of in an electrical context; however, mechanical, pneumatic, hydraulic, and other systems may also convey analog signals. An analog signal uses some property of the medium to convey the signal's information. For example, an aneroid barometer uses rotary position as the signal to convey pressure information. Electrically, the property most commonly used is voltage followed closely by frequency, current, and charge. Any information may be conveyed by an analog signal; often such a signal is a measured response to changes in physical phenomena, such as sound, light, temperature, position, or pressure, and is achieved using a transducer. An analog signal is one where at each point in time the value of the signal is significant, where as a digital signal is one where at each point in time, the value of the signal must be above or below some discrete threshold.
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The process control industry uses three main analog signals: 420 mA 15 V 315 psi

420 mA Signal: The 420 mA signals are by far the most prevalent analog signal in the process control industry. This signal varies the current of an electrical signal to convey information. The 420 mA range represents the normal 0100% range of the value being transmitted. Failure/alarm conditions are transmitted using mA values outside this normal range (i.e., signals between 03 mA and above 20 mA). Using 4 mA as the lowest value in the range is primarily beneficial for re-zeroing purposes. Users calibrate the transmitter to output 4 mA when the process condition is in a zero state (e.g., empty tank). Although less common, some devices use a range of 020 mA. In such systems, all failure conditions must be reported using signals greater than 20 mA; otherwise, users cannot not know for certain if the transmitter is correctly reporting the zero value. 15 V Signal: The 15 V signal varies the voltage of an electrical signal to carry information. As with the 420 mA protocol, the 15 V signal uses values outside of the normal range to indicate failure conditions. Pneumatic signals are often used with dedicated devices such as switches and valves. 315 psi Signal: The 315 psi signalsometimes called the pneumatic signaldoes not vary an electrical signal to convey data. Instead, the 315 psi protocol uses compressed air; the greater the air pressure, the higher the value communicated. Pneumatic signals are often used with dedicated devices such as switches and valves. 2.3.1 ADVANTAGES OF ANALOG COMMUNICATION
The main advantage is the fine definition of the analog signal which has the potential for an infinite amount of signal resolution. Compared to digital signals, analog signals are of higher density. Another advantage with analog signals is that their processing may be achieved more simply than with the digital equivalent. An analog signal may be processed directly by analog components, though some processes aren't available except in digital form.

2.3.2 DISADVANTAGES OF ANALOG COMMUNICATION


The primary disadvantage of analog signaling is that any system has noise i.e., random unwanted variation. As the signal is copied and re-copied, or transmitted over long distances, these apparently random variations become dominant. Electrically, these 10

losses can be diminished by shielding, good connections, and several cable types such as coaxial or twisted pair. The effects of noise create signal loss and distortion. This is impossible to recover, since amplifying the signal to recover attenuated parts of the signal amplifies the noise (distortion/interference) as well. Even if the resolution of an analog signal is higher than a comparable digital signal, the difference can be overshadowed by the noise in the signal. Most of the analog systems also suffer from generation loss.

2.4 DIGITAL COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY


Digital signals are signals that change only in discrete ways. A digital signal does not continuously change like an analog signal; digital signals jump directly from one value to the next. For example a digitally-tuned radio can be tuned to 94.7 FM or 94.8 FM but it cannot be tuned between those two steps. Because process values are inherently analog, transmitters must obtain a digital process value by sampling the analog process value many times per second, which causes the value to step to discrete values.

FIGURE 3 - DIGITAL PROCESS VALUES

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2.4.1 ADVANTAGES OF DIGITAL COMMUNICATION Digital communication technology offers significant advantages over simple analog technology. Some of the most important advantages of digital communication are: Decreased wiring costs Remote device communication Improved accuracy in data transmission More information from a single device.

Decreased Wiring Costs: Digital communication allows multiple transmitters to operate on the same set of communication wires, or on a fieldbus. Because each transmitter does not need to be individually wired to a control system, the wiring cost per transmitter is lower. Remote Device Communication: Two-way digital communication permits hosts (e.g., hand-held devices, control systems) to communicate with transmitters either locally or from a remote location. Thus, users can perform the following functions from a remote location: Diagnose the health of the field device. Determine a transmitters current status, which may include predictive maintenance information. Conduct a loop test. Commission a new device.

Improved Accuracy in Data Transmission: A digitally transmitted value is either accurately received by the control system or not received at all. Environmental influences (e.g., electrical interference) never alter the values of digitally transmitted data. Environmental influences do affect data transmitted with an analog protocol (e.g., 420 mA). More Information from a Single Device: An analog signal represents a single parameter. A digital signal may contain many different parameters, each uniquely identified within the digital message. 2.5 COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS AND COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS A communications protocol is a formal description of digital message formats and the rules for exchanging those messages in or between computing systems and in telecommunications. Protocols may include signaling, authentication and error detection and correction capabilities. A protocol defines the syntax, semantics, and synchronization of communication, and the specified behaviour is typically independent
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of how it is to be implemented. A protocol can therefore be implemented as hardware or software or both. The information exchanged between devices on a network or other communications medium is governed by rules or conventions that can be set out in a technical specification called a communication protocol standard. The nature of the communication, the actual data exchanged and any state-dependent behaviors are defined by the specification. Communicating systems have to communicate with each other using shared transmission media, because there is no common memory. Transmission is not necessarily reliable and can involve different hardware and operating systems on different systems. To implement a networking protocol, the protocol software modules are interfaced with a framework implemented on the machine's operating system. This framework implements the networking functionality of the operating system Systems typically do not use a single protocol to handle a transmission. Instead they use a set of cooperating protocols, sometimes called a protocol family or protocol suite. The protocols can be arranged based on functionality in groups, for instance there is a group of transport protocols. The functionalities are mapped onto the layers, each layer solving a distinct class of problems relating to, for instance: application-, transport-, internet- and network interface-functions. To transmit a message, a protocol has to be selected from each layer, so some sort of multiplexing/demultiplexing takes place. The selection of the next protocol is accomplished by extending the message with a protocol selector for each layer.

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CHAPTER 3

HART COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL


HART is an acronym for Highway Addressable Remote Transducer. The HART Protocol was developed in the mid-1980s by Rosemount Inc. for use with a range of smart measuring instruments. Originally proprietary, the protocol was soon published for free use by anyone, and in 1990 the HART User Group was formed. In 1993, the registered trademark and all rights in the protocol were transferred to the HART Communication Foundation (HCF). The protocol remains open and free for all to use without royalties. According to Emerson, due to the huge installed base of 4-20 mA systems throughout the world, the HART Protocol is one of the most popular industrial protocols today. 3.1 HART TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW Transmitters capable of using HART technology can overlay a digital signal on top of an analog signal. The HART signal conveys digital information (a series of 0s and 1s) by using frequency shift keying. Frequency-shift keying (FSK) is a frequency modulation scheme in which digital information is transmitted through discrete frequency changes of a carrier wave. The simplest FSK is binary FSK (BFSK). BFSK uses a pair of discrete frequencies to transmit binary (0s and 1s) information. A frequency of 1100 Hz equals a 1 and a frequency of 2200 Hz equals a 0. Because the average modulating current value is zero, the digital HART signal has no effect on the regular analog signal.

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FIGURE 4 - FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING

A minimum of 250 must be present in the loop for HART communication to work. The resistance is required so that the digital HART signal will create enough voltage to be recognized by a host system or a HART communicator.

3.1.1 DIGITAL PROCESS VALUES

HART-capable transmitters use digital process values. Therefore, the transmitter must convert the analog value from the transducer to a digital value (A/D conversion). And because HART-capable transmitters send a digital and an analog output signal, the transmitter must also convert the output signal from a digital value back to an analog value (D/A conversion). The figure below illustrates how the components of a HARTcapable transmitter work together.

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FIGURE 5 - COMPONENTS OF A COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

3.1.2 HOW A/D CONVERTERS WORK

HART-capable transmitters change analog transducer information into digital information by passing the analog signal through an A/D converter. A/D converters work by sampling an analog signal many times per second. Each time the analog signal is sampled, the A/D converter records a digital value that is as close as possible to the analog value. Two factors affect the quality of digitally sampled values: Sampling rateThe number of times per second that the analog signal is sampled Sampling precision The smallest change in the analog value that will cause the digital value to change. The figure below illustrates the sampling rate and sampling precision of an A/D conversion. The higher the sampling rate and sampling precision, the closer the digital signal will be to the original analog signal.
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FIGURE 6 - SAMPLING RATE AND PRECISION

3.1.3 HOW D/A CONVERTERS WORK

To produce analog output, HART-capable transmitters use a D/A converter to convert digital process information into an analog signal. A D/A converter produces an analog wave based on the digital samples taken during the A/D conversion. The following figure shows an analog signal produced by a D/A converter. The signal comprises many individual steps that represent the individual digital values recorded during the A/D conversion.

FIGURE 7 - ANALOG OUTPUT OF A D/A CONVERTER

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3.2 HART CONNECTIONS AND MODES

The HART technology enables two-way field communication to take place and makes it possible for additional information beyond just the normal process variable to be communicated to/from a smart field instrument. The HART Protocol communicates at 1200 bps without interrupting the 4-20mA signal and allows a host application (master) to get two or more digital updates per second from a smart field device. As the digital FSK signal is phase continuous, there is no interference with the 4-20mA signal. HART technology is a master/slave protocol, which means that a smart field (slave) device only speaks when spoken to by a master. The HART Protocol can be used in various modes such as point-to-point or multidrop for communicating information to/from smart field instruments and central control or monitoring systems. HART Communication occurs between two HART-enabled devices, typically a smart field device and a control or monitoring system. Communication occurs using standard instrumentation grade wire and using standard wiring and termination practices. The HART Protocol provides two simultaneous communication channels: the 4-20mA analog signal and a digital signal. The 4-20mA signal communicates the primary measured value (in the case of a field instrument) using the 4-20mA current loop - the fastest and most reliable industry standard. Additional device information is communicated using a digital signal that is superimposed on the analog signal. The digital signal contains information from the device including device status, diagnostics, additional measured or calculated values, etc. Together, the two communication channels provide a low-cost and very robust complete field communication solution that is easy to use and configure.

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FIGURE 8 - TW O COMMUNICATION CHANNELS

The HART Protocol provides for up to two masters (primary and secondary). This allows secondary masters such as handheld communicators to be used without interfering with communications to/from the primary master, i.e. control/monitoring system.

FIGURE 9 - PRIMARY AND SECONDARY MASTERS

The HART Protocol permits all digital communication with field devices in either pointto-point or multidrop network configurations:

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FIGURE 10 - POINT TO POINT CONFIGURATION

There is also an optional "burst" communication mode where a single slave device can continuously broadcast a standard HART reply message. Higher update rates are possible with this optional burst communication mode and use is normally restricted to point-to-point configuration.

FIGURE 11 - MULTIDROP CONFIGURATION

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3.3 ADVANTAGES OF HART TECHNOLOGY HART communication technology offers significant benefits over analog-only communication. Some of the most important benefits are: Compatible with existing analog equipment: A key advantage of HART technology is that it can be used with existing equipment that uses the 420 mA signaling standard, because HART devices can transmit data both as an analog signal and as a digital signal at the same time. Therefore, HART technology can be used with over 90% of the equipment installed today, including control systems, calibration equipment, and other maintenance tools. Multiple Process Variables: HART-capable transmitters send two output signals simultaneously: a regular analog output signal and a digital HART signal overlayed on the analog signal. Therefore, HART-capable transmitters can send two (or more) process variables at the same time. The HART digital signal alone is capable of sending up to four variables simultaneously to support multivariable transmitters and more complex devices (e.g., analyzers, valve positioners). Remote Device Communication: To configure or test an analog-only transmitter, a technician must physically go to the transmitter and use set screws or a local display. HART-capable transmitters can engage in two-way digital communication, which means a technician can make adjustments to a transmitter from anywhere in the loop. The most common device for remote HART communication is a HART communicator such as the Rosemount Model 275 Communicator. Transmitter Self Diagnostics: The digital electronics in a HART-capable transmitter allow the transmitter to periodically run its own self-test suite. If the transmitter locates a problem, it can communicate the error condition in its digital HART information. Transmitter self-diagnostics can significantly aid technicians with device maintenance by proactively reporting problems to a control system. Multidrop Networking: Analog-only transmitters must be individually wired to a control system. By contrast, up to 15 HART-capable transmitters can share a single analog loop in a networking configuration called multidrop. When on a multidrop network, transmitters can only communicate using digital HART signals; the analog signal for each device is fixed at 4 mA. Each transmitter on a multidrop network identifies itself with a unique polling address from 1 to 15 or from its unique TAG ID. The output of each transmitter is
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accompanied by its network address, which allows the control system to differentiate the output of one transmitter from another. The network address also allows a technician to engage in two-way communication directly with a particular transmitter on the network. Multidrop networking has a number of key advantages, including dramatically reduced wiring costs, the ability to communicate easily with many devices, and the improved reliability of a digital-only network.

FIGURE 12 - HART MULTIDROP NETWORK

Open Protocol: HART technology is an open protocolit is openly published and is not controlled by a single vendor. Therefore, users of HART technology can be assured that the technology will remain stable and well supported by their suppliers long term.

3.4 HART COMMUNICATORS

The most common tool used to configure and test HART-capable transmitters is a HART communicator, such as the Rosemount Model 275. HART communicators can engage in two-way communication with any HART-capable transmitter on a loop.

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Connecting a HART Communicator to a loop

A HART communicator can be connected anywhere in the loop across a minimum loop resistance of 250 . Even if there is 250 resistance in the loop, if the connection is not parallel to this load, communication cannot be established.

FIGURE 13 - CONNECTING A HART COMMUNICATOR TO A LOOP

Electronic Device Descriptions: HART communicators recognize HART-capable transmitters by using device descriptions. Device descriptions (DDs) are electronic files that list a particular transmitters capabilities and modes of operation. DDs allow HART communicators to know about and configure all of a transmitters features. A HART communicator can be updated with new DDs at any time. New DDs let a communicator recognize new transmitters or keep up-to-date with changes in the way transmitters work.

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CHAPTER 4

FOUNDATION FIELDBUS PROTOCOL

FIGURE 14 - FIELDBUS FOUNDATION LOGO

FOUNDATION Fieldbus (FF) is a two-way, digital-only communication protocol. FF provides an open, configurable system for connecting many different process control devices on a single network. It is an open architecture, developed and administered by the Fieldbus Foundation. It's targeted for applications using basic and advanced regulatory control, and for much of the discrete control associated with those functions. Foundation fieldbus technology is mostly used in process industries, but nowadays it is being implemented in power plants also. FOUNDATION fieldbus was originally intended as a replacement for the 4-20 mA standard, and today it coexists alongside other technologies such as Modbus, Profibus, and Industrial Ethernet. FOUNDATION fieldbus today enjoys a growing installed base in many heavy process applications such as refining, petrochemicals, power generation, and even food and beverage, pharmaceuticals, and nuclear applications. FOUNDATION fieldbus was developed over a period of many
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years by the Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society, or ISA, as SP50. In 1996 the first H1 (31.25 kbit/s) specifications were released. In 1999 the first HSE (High Speed Ethernet) specifications were released. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard on field bus, including Foundation Fieldbus, is IEC 61804

4. 1 FOUNDATION FIELDBUS TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW

4.1.1. FOUNDATION FIELDBUS LAYERS: FF communication is logically divided into three layers: Physical layer: The physical layer handles the physical connections necessary to enable FF communication. The wiring connections for power and data exchange are part of the physical layer. The physical layer converts signals between the FF network and the communications stack. The physical layer of an FF network segment can be either H1, which operates at 31.25 Kbits/second, or FF HSE (high-speed ethernet), which operates at 100 Mbits/second or faster. H1 and HSE were specifically designed as complementary networks. H1 is optimized for traditional process control applications using two-wire, bus-powered devices. HSE is designed for use with field-powered devices that have large amounts of data to transmit. HSE can also provide interconnectivity for highdata/high performance control applications and plant information integration. Communications stack: The communications stack handles the FF network communication. The communications stack holds a queue of outgoing network messages, schedules time on the network for broadcasting those messages, and negotiates sending unscheduled network messages User layer: The user layer controls the transmitter-human interface elements such as transmitter configuration and alarms. The user layer is represented as function blocks. Function blocks are programming segments that can be logically linked together to produce transmitter functions. For example, two input blocks that hold the data from two temperature sensors can be linked into a mathematical block that averages the two temperatures.

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FIGURE 15 - FOUNDATION FIELDBUS LAYERS

4.1.2 FOUNDATION FIELDBUS BLOCKS: The three main types of block contained in an FF device are: Resource Block: The resource block describes the resources that a device can provide to an FF network. For example, the resource block might list the function blocks available in a transmitter. The resource block provides the control system with information needed to recognize a devices capabilities. The key function of the resource block is to provide information about a devices status to control systems and to other applications that require the information. Transducer Block: The transducer block is the interface between a sensor and the function blocks in the transmitterfunction blocks can only interact with sensor data through the transducer block. A transmitter usually has one transducer block for every sensor to which the transmitter connects. However, some devices allow a single transducer block to handle multiple sensor values. Transducer blocks are used to define the sensor type, perform sensor calibrations, configure LCD displays, support diagnostic functions, and perform other tasks. Function Blocks: Function blocks provide the mechanism for transmitting information from one device on the network to another. The Fieldbus Foundation defines a very large number of function blocks. Functions ranging from simple
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output scaling to complex switching algorithms are all available through the use of one or more function blocks. The most common function blocks are: o Analog input block o Analog output block o Proportional/integral/derivative block

Analog Input Block: The analog input (AI) block obtains sensor data from the transducer block, optionally performs simple scaling algorithms, and sends out a digital process value. The AI block also reports a status of Good, Bad, or Uncertain based on its confidence in the process value. The AI block is used with devices that measure a continuously varying process. Devices may comprise more than one AI block to handle multiple sensors. Analog Output Block: The analog output (AO) block accepts a digital process value as its input, optionally performs simple scaling algorithms, and sends out an analog process value (e.g., 420 mA). Proportional/integral/derivative block: The proportional/integral/derivative (PID) block operates like a thermostat: the PID block reads a digital process value, compares the value against a predefined setpoint, and sends out a correctional value based on a complex algorithm. The PID block is useful for feedback loops. For example, in a process that mixes two liquids, a flowmeter could use a PID block to open or close a valve to keep the process density at 30 g/cc. In the past, the PID block was executed in the control system. FF lets the user decide where the PID block is executed.

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FIGURE 16 - FOUNDATION FIELDBUS BLOCKS

4.2 ADVANTAGES OF FOUNDATION FIELDBUS

FF offers substantial advantages over other communication protocols. Some of the most important advantages of FF technology are: Protocol design Device interoperability Reduced wiring costs Network flexibility Control in the field

Protocol Design: FF is the only all-digital device communication protocol specifically designed for the process control industry. As such, it offers better process control tools (i.e., function blocks) and more useful communication, network, and safety options than other protocols. Furthermore, FF is an open protocolit is openly published and not controlled by a single vendor. Therefore, users of FF technology can be assured that the technology will remain stable and well supported by their suppliers.
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Device interoperability: All FF devices are interoperable by design. Any FF device can be plugged into any FF network and be automatically recognized. When connected to an FF network, new FF devices will communicate their available functionality to each other and to the networked hosts. Reduced wiring costs: FF devices require far less wiring overhead than their analog counterparts. FF devices need less wiring because they can be powered by the same wires they use to communicate (i.e., bus-powered devices). They share network segments with other FF devices and they require fewer control system components. FF wiring, as a consequence, costs only a fraction of the cost of wiring an equivalent number of analog instruments. Control in the field: FF is the only communication technology that allows technicians to build control systems that operate entirely in the field. Control in the field means that control is distributed among measurement devices instead of within dedicated controllers. A single control loop can be implemented on the FF segment, which means the control function can be local to the process. Local control increases the response speed of the control loop. FF does not stipulate that control functionality must be located in the fieldinstead; users determine where control will be distributed based on their specific application needs. Some of the benefits of distributed control include: Redundancythe failure of a control system does not cripple the network. Reduced control costsbecause the devices themselves are controllers, there are no need for additional controller resources in the control system. Greater control adaptabilitynew devices can be added online to implement new control strategies without affecting the operation of the other devices and control strategies on the segment. Increased reliabilityField devices are a more reliable platform from which to implement standard control, because the device mean time between failures (MTBF).

4.3 FOUNDATION FIELDBUS NETWORKS

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4.3.1 SEGMENTS, TRUNKS AND SPURS

An FF network (or segment) consists of one trunk and one or more spurs. FF segments have the following characteristics: Every FF segment must have two terminators mounted as close to each end of the segment as possible. Each segment requires a power conditioner to prevent the power supply from absorbing the communication signal while trying to maintain a constant voltage level on the communication wires.

The maximum length of all FF segments in a network cannot exceed 1900 m (6234 ft), although this distance can be extended with the use of FF repeaters. An FF segment can support a practical limit of 16 bus-powered devices (or 32 individually-powered devices).

FIGURE 17 - FOUNDATION FIELDBUS SEGMENT

Spur length is limited by how many devices are on the spur. The table below lists maximum spur length.

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TABLE 1 - MAXIMUM SPUR LENGTH

4.3.2 NETWORK TOPOLOGIES

The network topology is the shape of the network. The four most common network topologies are: Point-to-point Daisy chain Tree Branch

FIGURE 18 - FOUR COMMON NETW ORK TOPOLOGIES

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Different network topologies can be combined to form complex types of networks. For example, one segment of a branch network could be the base of a tree network.

4.3.3 DEVICE COMMUNICATION ON THE NETWORK

To keep all of the FF devices on the network from sending data at the same time, communication is precisely scheduled by a device called the link active scheduler (LAS). The LAS is not a special instrument; any FF device (or a control system) can be the LAS, but only one LAS can exist on each FF segment. When each devices turn comes up on the schedule, the LAS allows that device to send data for a limited amount of time. If the primary LAS fails, a back-up LAS can take over and prevent an interruption in network communication.

4.3.4 INTRINSIC SAFETY

FF network segments can be rendered intrinsically safe by introducing safety barriers between the segment and the rest of the network. All of the devices on the intrinsically safe (I.S.) segment must be bus-powered. The number of devices allowed on an I.S. segment is less than for non-I.S. segmentsthe exact number is dependent upon several device characteristics (e.g., the I.S. classification, cable type, power consumption).

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CHAPTER 5

PROFIBUS PROTOCOL

PROFIBUS (Process Field Bus) is a standard for field bus communication in automation technology and was first promoted in 1989 by BMBF (German Department of education and research).

5.1 PROFIBUS TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW

5.5.1 PROFIBUS VARIANTS Profibus, like FF, is a fieldbusa sophisticated, two-way, digital-only communication protocol. Profibus is fundamentally designed to meet high-speed factory automation needs; one of the protocols variants has been adapted to meet proce ss control needs. Profibus is made up of three different variants, each with a different purpose. The three protocols are: Profibus-FMS: Profibus-FMS (Fieldbus Message Specification) is a high-level protocol that is designed for communication between network master devices (devices that control communication on network segments). Profibus-FMS is a multimaster protocolany or all of the devices on the network can be masters. Profibus-FMS communicates using high-speed signals like FF HSE. Profibus-DP: Profibus-DP (Decentralized Periphery) is a distributed I/O protocol that is best suited for high-speed, discrete device automation. In a Profibus-DP network, master devices continuously poll slave devices. Like Profibus-FMS, Profibus-DP is a multimaster system. However, Profibus-DP does not facilitate master-to-master communication.
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Profibus-PA is the Profibus variant that directly competes with Foundation Fieldbus. Profibus-PA (Process Automation) is the only Profibus variant designed for process control. Profibus-PA attempts to address the same applications and market as FF H1. Unlike Profibus-FMS and Profibus-DP, the Profibus-PA variant does not use high-speed communication signals and cannot coexist with the other two variants on the same network. Communication between a Profibus-PA segment and a Profibus-DP segment requires a network gateway known as a linking device or coupler.

FIGURE 19 - PROFIBUS NETW ORK TOPOLOGY

5.5.2 PROFIBUS LAYERS At sensor/actuator level signals of binary sensors and actuators are transmitted via a sensor/actuator bus. At this level a particularly simple, low-cost installation, through which data and 24-volt power supply can be transmitted using a common medium, is an important requirement. At field level the distributed peripherals, such as I/O modules, measurement transducers, drive units, valves and operator terminals communicate with the automation systems via an efficient, real-time communication system. The
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transmission of process data is implemented cyclically, while alarms, parameters and diagnostic data also have to be transmitted acyclically if necessary. At cell level the programmable controllers such as PLC and IPC communicate with each other. The information flow requires large data packets and a large number of powerful communication functions. Smooth integration into companywide communication systems, such as Intranet and Internet via TCP/IP and Ethernet are important requirements. 5.5.3 SIMILARITIES TO FOUNDATION FIELDBUS:

Profibus-PA is similar to FF in two main ways: Physical layerProfibus-PA uses a physical layer that is identical to the physical layer used by FF H1 (IEC 61158-2). Bus-powered, I.S. devicesbecause Profibus is electrically identical to FF, the I.S. options are identical as well.

5.5.4 DIFFERENCES FROM FOUNDATION FIELDBUS:

Aside from counterpart buses, Profibus-PA differs from FF in several important ways, including: Protocol designProfibus was not originally designed for process control (Profibus-PA is a variant of Profibus that has been engineered to meet process control needs). FF is specifically designed to meet the needs of the process control industry. Network structureProfibus-PA is stricter and more hierarchical in its network requirements. Profibus-PA, like traditional analog communication technology, puts all of the control into network masters and central control systems. FF networks are flexible and more independent of control systems. Only FF allows the control system to be distributed anywhere in the network. Network managementTechnicians must manually control Profibus-PA device addresses and host configurations; address conflicts can disrupt a Profibus-PA network. FF networks automatically assign device addresses, and technicians can easily update hosts with new DDs.
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Network communicationProfibus PA synchronizes communication only between a device and the host; FF synchronizes communication among all field devices and the host. In addition, FF provides a timestamp, while Profibus PA does not. Network modificationsProfibus networks must be taken offline for modifications. FF allows online modifications for both control and monitoring purposes. Function blocksProfibus PA does not support function blocks in field devices. TAG searchProfibus only provides identification by device; FF allows software functionality to be identified through unique tags. TrendingFF devices can maintain a local trend file that can be accessed by the host; Profibus PA devices cannot maintain a trend file. Data integrationProfibus PA communications must pass through several layers of networks between the field and the end user/application, which increases the risk of information getting sent to the wrong destination.

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CHAPTER 6

PROPRIETARY COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS


Device manufacturers have developed a large number of proprietary (i.e., closed, vendor-owned) digital communication protocols. Four of the most common other protocols are: Modicon Modbus Honeywell DE Foxboro FoxCom Yokogawa BRAIN

6.1 MODICON MODBUS

FIGURE 20 - MODICON LOGO

Modbus is a digital, low-level, master-slave device communication protocol. A Modbus master queries slave devices with commands, such as a command to read a process variable. Modbus is primarily used to communicate control and monitoring data. Modbus operates independently of a devices physical layer. A device can communicate through its physical layer (e.g., FOUNDATION Fieldbus) and also through Modbus. Some device manufacturers use Modbus as a complementary common language among their instruments. Although the Modbus protocol is owned by Modicon, the protocol is available to users and manufacturers under royalty-free license. Modbus is a serial communications protocol published by Modicon in 1979 for use with its programmable logic controllers (PLCs). Simple and robust, it has since become one of the de facto standard communications protocols in the industry, and it is now amongst the most commonly available means of connecting

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industrial electronic devices. The main reasons for the extensive use of Modbus in the industrial environment are:

It has been developed with industrial applications in mind It is openly published and royalty-free It is easy to deploy and maintain It moves raw bits or words without placing many restrictions on vendors

6.2 HONEYWELL DE

FIGURE 21 -HONEYW ELL LOGO

Honeywells DE (Digitally Enhanced) protocol is a digital replacement for standard analog communication protocols (e.g., 420 mA). DE communicates digital information by modulating the current on the loop: a 4 mA signal equals a 1, and a 20 mA signal equals a 0. Because the current itself is modulated, a regular 420 mA analog signal cannot coexist with the DE signal. The DE protocol is proprietaryit is owned by Honeywell and is not openly available.

6.3 FOXBORO FOXCOM

FIGURE 22 - FOXBORO LOGO

The FoxCom protocol operates either as a digital replacement of a standard analog signal (like Honeywell DE) or as a digital signal overlayed on top of an analog signal
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(like the HART protocol). In both cases, the digital signal can accomplish the same twoway communication tasks that DE and HART technology can accomplish (e.g., remote transmitter configuration). The all-digital signal conveys information at a relatively speedy 4800 baud. The HART-like signal runs much slower, at 600 baud. (By comparison, the HART protocol operates at 1200 baud.) When operating in the HARTlike mode, FoxCom uses the Bell 202 frequency shift keying method. The communication methods between FoxCom and HART technology are similar enough that most FoxCom-capable devices can communicate using both FoxCom and HART technology. Technicians can even configure many FoxCom-capable devices using a HART communicator. FoxCom is a proprietary protocolit is owned by Foxboro and is not openly available.

6.4 YOKOGAWA BRAIN

FIGURE 23 - YOKOGAWA LOGO

Yokogawas BRAIN protocol is based on frequency shift keying, like HART technology. A digital signal is overlayed on top of a standard analog signal (e.g., 4 20 mA). However, the BRAIN protocol uses non-standard frequency settings to produce digital 1s and 0s. Yokogawa manufactures a BRAIN communicator that is somewhat like the HART communicator. The BRAIN communicator (like the HART communicator) requires 250 W resistance and can be connected anywhere in the loop across a 250 W load. The BRAIN protocol is proprietaryit is owned by Yokogawa and is not openly available.

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CHAPTER 7

ADVANTAGES OF HART AND FOUNDATION FIELDBUS


The HART and FF communication technologies maintain significant advantages over the four other protocols described in the previous chapter. A brief comparison can quickly highlight some of the most important advantages.

7.1 COMPARING HART W ITH FOXCOM AND BRAIN HART, FoxCom, and BRAIN use essentially the same frequency shift keying method of overlaying digital information onto an analog signal. All three protocols can be used via a communicator connected anywhere in the control loop. HART technology has two important benefits that FoxCom and BRAIN do not have. HART technology is: An open protocol Widely adopted in the industry

Open Protocol: Both FoxCom and BRAIN are controlled by single vendors, which threatens to lock customers into devices manufactured by that vendor. HART technology is an open protocol that is not owned by a single vendor, which frees customers to choose devices from any manufacturer that supports the protocol. HART is supported by over 140 companies, including Emerson, Foxboro and YEW. Widely Adopted in the Industry: HART technology is the most widely adopted digital protocol in the process control industry, accounting for the vast majority of all digital device communication. The HART Communication Foundation estimates that over 12 million HART devices are in use today worldwide. Each year, as more plants convert from simple analog communication to a digital strategy, the majority of those plants will choose HART technology as a logical first step so that they can maintain their investment in analog technology. Because HART technology is so widely adopted, most device manufacturers build HART-capable instruments, which results in even wider industry adoption. Wide adoption assures customers that their HART devices will interoperate with an enormous number of other devices from many manufacturers.

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The HART protocol is the most widely adopted digital protocol in the process control industry. All proprietary protocols combined are expected to amount to only a tiny fraction of total device sales in the coming years.

7.2 COMPARING HART W ITH HONEYWELL DE HART technology and DE commonly compete for customers. However, HART technology and DE are not equal competitors. HART technology has significant advantages over DE, including: Maintained analog signals Simultaneous variable transmission Broad industry support

Maintained Analog Signals: HART technology overlays its digital signal on top of a standard analog signal. The analog signal is perfectly preserved. DE, on the other hand, replaces the analog signal with a digital signal. Because DE cannot coexist with an analog signal, customers who adopt DE must throw away their investment in analog technology. Customers who adopt HART technology, however, are free to continue using their analog systems. Simultaneous Variable Transmission: HART instruments can update up to four process variables with each transmission. DE can only update one variable per transmission. DE sends a secondary variable on the second transmission, a tertiary variable on the third transmission, and so on. This strategy delays transmission of the primary variable by two or three cycles. Broad Industry Support: HART technology enjoys broad industry support. Over 100 device manufacturers build HART-capable instruments. DE is restricted to Honeywell instruments and a few licensed products from other vendors. 7.3 ADDED ADVANTAGES OF FOUNDATION FIELDBUS FF is the only communication technology to offer substantial process control advantages such as: Device interoperabilityDevices from the same and/or different manufacturers can typically coexist in the same network, but only FF devices communicate with each other by design.
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Network flexibilityOnly FF offers true plug-and-play device networks. Control in the fieldOnly FF is able to offer remote, intelligent devices for which control is located right at the device.

7.4 COMMUNICATION PROTOCOLS INCORPORATED BY ROSEMOUNT Emerson Process Management has extensively incorporated all the three protocols mentioned above into its range of Rosemount pressure transmitters.

FIGURE 24 - PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS OF 3051 PRESSURE TRANSMITTER

Emerson Process Management has expanded its PROFIBUS offering to include the Rosemount 2051 pressure transmitter. The current portfolio of the Rosemount 3051 and 2051 pressure transmitters is available with PROFIBUS PA profile V3.02.

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CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSION
8.1 CONCLUSION In this report, I have stressed upon the significance of communication technologies in the process control industry. Communication technologies form an integral part of sensor equipment as they assist in remote device maintenance, control in the field and process diagnostics. I have also dealt with the analog communication systems commonly employed by the process control industry and discussed the benefits and limitations of the same. The evolution of communication technologies has seen the rise of digital communication systems. Keeping in mind the current trends in the process control industry, I have researched the various components of digital communication systems and the advantages of switching from analog to digital communication systems and discussed the same in my project report. Next, I have dealt with the commonly used open digital communication protocolsHART, FOUNDATION fieldbus and Profibus. I have provided an overview of the technology employed in each of the above mentioned protocols, as well as a comparison of each with the other. The later sections of the report deal with proprietary communication protocols developed by Emersons contemporaries; such as Yokogawas BRAIN, Honeywells DE, Modcons Modbus and Foxboros Foxcon. These protocols are owned by their respective vendors and are not openly available in the process control industry. Finally, I have discussed the advantages of HART and FOUNDATION Fieldbus over the proprietary communication protocols. HART and FF are used in the pressure transmitters 3051S, 2051 and 3051 manufactured by Rosemount DMMC. In my time here, I have also gained knowledge about the methodology of work done in this division of Emerson Process Management. I have also worked extensively on the assembly line of Rosemount 3051S and Rosemount 3051 range of pressure transmitters, in particular the functionality and calibration tests that are performed on the transmitters and this has been an eye opener to the world of electronic communications and instrumentation.

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References: Plantweb White Papers Rosemount DMMC Process Control Module on Communication Technologies
http://www.emerson.com/en-US/Pages/Default.aspx http://www.hartcomm.org/ http://www.fieldbus.org/

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