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# Chapter 5 • Algebraic Vectors and Applications

Solutions for Selected Problems 15. If two unit vectors are the sides of an equilateral
triangle then their sum as well as their difference
could be a unit vector.
Exercise 5.1

## 13. c.   (9, 12)

OG → →
c b
2  (9)2  (12)2
OG
 81  144
 225 60º

OG   5 →
a
12
tan   .
9 If a  
b  c where a  
b  1 and the angle
Since G is in the second quadrant
between a and b is 120 then c  1. Also c  
  b  a
 ≅ 180  53
 ≅ 127. where as above a  
b  c  1.

## 16. a. a  (2, 3, 2)

5 ,  5 
 2 6
e. OJ
a2  4  9  4
2  4  6
OJ a  17
.
5 5
2 b.
a  
1 a  2, 3,  2
17 17
 17
 
  2
OJ
     
2 2 3 2 2 2
Now 1
17
 17
 17

6
tan    . 1
2 therefore  a is a unit vector.
a

Since J is in the fourth quadrant,
 ≅ 360  51 17. a. v  2î 3ĵ 6k̂
 ≅ 309.  (2, 3, 6)
v2  4  9  36
14. a. If a  (12, 4, 6)  49
then a2  144  16  36 therefore v  7.
 196
a  14. b. A unit vector in the direction of v is
1
14 22 7 v   v
c.

If c  , , 
27 27 27  v 
2 3 6
196  484  49 v  î  ĵ  k̂
then c  
2 7 7 7
729
1
c  1.
 2 3 6
v  , ,  .
7 7 7 
18. 
v  (3, 4, 12)
v2  9  16  144
 169
v  13.
A unit vector in a direction opposite to

 
3 4 12
v is , ,  .
13 13 13

## Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications 53

19. Let a be a vector in two dimensions making an angle 23.
C c
 with the x-axis. Now a in component form is
,b,c)
 
a  a cos , a sin  . A unit vector in the P (a

1
direction of a is  a  (cos , sin ) therefore any O
a
 b
unit vector in two dimensions can be written as a
(cos , sin ). A B

21. a. u  (a, b, c) In ∆OAB, ∠OAB  90 therefore OB2  OA2  AB2.
In ∆OBP, ∠OBP  90 therefore OP2  OB2  BP2.
z
Hence OP2  OA2  OB2  BP2 but OA  a,
OB  b, BP  OC  c.
  a
Therefore OP 2
 b 2
 c 2.

## 24. A vector in R4, u  (4, 2, 5, 2) might have a

magnitude of u2  42  22  (5)2  22
y

u u2  16  4  25  4
α
u  
49, u  7.
a It is very tempting to think that a geometric
interpretation can be given. Mathematically we wish
x to consider vectors with n elements, n any integer, and
a geometric interpretation is not possible for n ≥ 4.
a
cos α  , since α is acute, a is positive.
u
Exercise 5.2
b. u  (a, b, c)

## z 8. a. Given the points P(15, 10), Q(6, 4), R(12, 8)

  (9, 6), PR
PQ   (27, 18)
 3( 9, 6).
  3PQ
Since PR , P, Q, and R are

u ß collinear.
b
y
b. D(33, 5, 20), E(6, 4, 16), F(9, 3, 12)
  (27, 9, 36), EF
DE   (e, 1, 4)
x
 9(3, 1, 4)
.
 9EF
  9EF
Since DE , D, E, and F are collinear.
b
cos β   since β is obtuse, b is negative.
u

22. Since the direction angles α, β, and γ are all equal, say
 then cos2   cos2   cos2   1
1
cos2   
3

11 1
cos    or cos   
3 3
 ≅ 55  ≅ 125
The direction angles are 55 or 125.

## 54 Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications

9. b. A(0, 1, 0), B(4, 0, 1), C(5, 1, 2), D(2, 3, 5) Let P2 (a2, b2) be a vertex of parallelogram AP2CB.
  (4, 1, 1), CD
AB   (3, 2, 3)   BC
Now AP  and (a  5, b 3)  (2, 10)
2 2 2
  k  CD
Since AB , k  R, AB is not parallel
therefore a2  3, b2  7.
to CD.
P3(a3, b3) is a vertex of parallelogram ABP3C.
  
AB 16  1
1   AC
Now BP  and (a 5, b 2)  (12, 11)
3 3 3
 18  therefore a3  17, b3  9.
 32
The possible coordinates of the fourth vertex are
  
CD 94
9 P1(7, 9), P2(3, 7) and P3(17, 9).
 22
 12. P Q
 CD
AB .
C(4, 0, –1)
S
10. PQRS is a parallelogram. The coordinates are in cyclic R
B(3, 6, 1)
  SR
order therefore PQ . If R has coordinates (a, b)
  (10, 1) and SR
PQ   (a  3, b  4). O(0, 0, 0) A(2, 4, –2)
  SR
Since PQ , a  3  10, a  13
b  4  1, b  5 Opposite faces of a parallelepiped are congruent
The coordinates of S are (13, 5). parallelograms.
Now OP  OC
  OB 
y
 (4, 0, 1)  (3, 6, 1)

OP  (7, 6, 0).
P(4, 2)    AR
OQ  OA   
RQ
Q(–6, 1)
  OB
 OA   OC

x
 (2, 4, 2)  (3, 6, 1)  (4, 0, 1)
 (9, 10, 2).
R(a, b)  
OR  OA  OB 
S(–3, –4)
 (2, 4, 2)  (3, 6, 1)

OR  (5, 10, 1)
11. Let the three vertices be A(5, 3), B(5, 2), C(7, 8).
  OA
OS   OC

There will be 3 possible positions for the fourth
vertex. Let one position be P1(a1, b1) for  (2, 4, 2)  (4, 0, 1)
parallelogram ACBP1. 
OS  (6, 4, 3)
  BP
CA  and (12, 11)  (a  5, b 2). The other 4 coordinates are (7, 6, 0), (9, 10, 2),
1 1 1
Therefore a1  7, b1  9. (5, 10, 1), and (6, 4, 3).

A(–5, 3)
B(5, 2)
x

C(7, –8)

## Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications 55

1
13. Let the midpoint in each case be M and the position b. 2(x, 1, 4) 3(4, y, 6) (4, 2, z)  (0, 0, 0)
.
vector OM 2
Expanding and equating components
a. A(5, 2), B(13, 4) 2x  12 2  0
x  5,
  OB
OA 
  
OM  2 3y  1  0
2
1
(5, 2)  (13, 4) y  ,
  3
2
1
  (4, 3). 8 18 z  0
OM 2
z  20.
b. C(3, 0), D(0, 7)

  OD
OC  15. Given points X(7, 4, 2) and Y(1, 2, 1)
  
OM 
2   (6, 2, 3).
XY
1  is XY
The magnitude of XY    36  4
9
 (3, 7)
2
 7.
OM 
2 2 
  3, 7 . A unit vector in a direction opposite to XY has

## c. E(6, 4, 2), F(2, 8, 2)

6 2 3
components , , and , or YX
7 7 7 
ˆ  6, 2, 3 .
7 7 7 
  OF
OE 
  
OM  16. a. A point on the y-axis has coordinates P(0, a, 0).
2
Since it is equidistant from A(2, 1, 1) and
1
 (4, 12, 0) B(0, 1, 3)
2
  BP
AP  or AP
2  BP
2

OM  (2, 6, 0).
therefore 4  (a  1)2  1  (a  1)2  9
d. G(0, 16, 5), H(9, 7, 1) a2  2a  6  a2  2a  10
4a  4

OG  OH 
  
OM  a  1.
2 The point on the y-axis equidistant from A and B is
1
 (9, 9, 6) (0, 1, 0).
2


  9, 9, 3 .
OM
2 2  b. The midpoint of AB is the point Q(1, 0, 2) which is
not on the y-axis and is equidistant from A and B.
14. a. 3(x, 1) 2(2, y)  (2, 1)
17. a. A(2, –3, –4)
(3x, 3)  (4, 2y)  (2, 1) 2
(3x 4, 3 2y)  (2, 1)
Equating components
3x  4  2, 3  2y  1
x2 y  1. G

B(3, –4, 2)
C(1, 3, –7) M

## Since AM is a median of ∆ABC, M will be the

midpoint of BC. Therefore the coordinates of M

 1
2
5

are 2, ,  .
2

## 56 Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications

d. O(0, 0, 0), I(1, 0, 0), J(0, 1, 0), K(0, 0, 1)
Now AM 
  0, 2, 3
2    1 (1, 1, 1)
OG
4
 
and AM
4 9
 
4
5
 .
2
5
OG
4 4 4 
  1, 1, 1 .
The length of median AM is .
The centroid is , , .
2 1 1 1
b. Let G be the centroid of ∆ABC. 4 4 4
2 5 2(0, 0)  3(4, 1)  5(1, 7)  1(11, 9)
Since AG:GM  2:1 AG  AM  .   
19. a. OG
3 3 2351
5
The distance from A to the centroid is .
3 (12  5  11, 3  35  9)
 
11
18. In each case let the centroid be G with position
.
vector OG
a. A(1, 2), B(4, 1), C(2, 2)
OG
11 
  18, 
41
 .
11 
OG
  O
OA
  

3


B  OC 8 41
The centre of mass is ,  .
11 11  
1
 (1  4  2, 2  1  2) 1(1, 4, 1)  3(2, 0, 1)  7(1, 3, 10)
3   
b. OG
137
 
  1, 1 .
OG
3
1
  (1  6  7, 4  21, 1  3  70)
11
1

The centroid is 1,  . 
3
b. I(1, 0, 0), J(0, 1, 0), K(0, 0, 1)
OG
11 17 72
  2, ,  .
11 11 
OG
  O
OI
  

3


J  OK 2 17 72

The centre of mass is , ,  .
11 11 11 
OG 
3 3 3 
  1, 1, 1 . Exercise 5.3

## The centroid is , , .

1 1 1 7. b. c  (1, 2, 3), d  (4, 2, 1)
3 3 3
c · d  cd cos 
c. A1(3, 1), A2(1, 1), A3(7, 0), A4(4, 4)
  1 (OA
OG   OA
  OA
  OA
 ) c · d  4  4  3  3
4 1 2 3 4

1 c  14 9
  (3  1  7  4, 1  1  4)
4  14
.
d  16

15
 , 1 .
4    4
1
 21
.
15

The centroid is , 1 .
4  cos   
3
14 21

cos  ≅ 0.1750.

## Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications 57

8. c. î  (1, 0, 0); î   1 10. u  3ĵ  4k̂  (0, 3, 4)
v  2î  (2, 0, 0).
m  (1, 1, 1); m
  3
  (a, b, c).
  1
î · m Let w
 ⊥ u, w
Since w  · u  0, and 3b  4c  0
  î m
î · m  cos 
 ⊥ u, w
w  · v  0, and 2a  0.
1
cos    Solving these equations, we have a  0 and if
3 b  4, c  3.
 ≅ 55
 is 55. A possible vector w  is (0, 4, 3).
The angle between vectors î and m

d. 
p  (2, 4, 5);  
p  
4  16
 25  45
 11. Since a  (2, 3, 4) and b
  (10, y, z) are

 
q  (0, 2, 3); q   4
 9  13
 perpendicular a · b  0. Therefore 20  3y  4z  0
4 20

p · q  8  15  7 and y  z  .
3 3

p · q  
pq cos    (1, 5, 8), v  (1, 3, 2).
12. u
7
cos     · v
a. LS  u

45 13
  1  15  16
 ≅ 73
 2
The angle between vectors p and q is 73. RS  v · u
 1  15  16
9. a  (2, 3, 7); b
  (4, y, 14)  2
therefore u · v  v · u.
a. a and b
 are collinear if a  kb, k  R

## therefore (2, 3, 7)  k (4, y, 14)  · u

b. LS  u
 1  25  64
2  4k, 3  ky, 7  14k  90
RS  u2
1 1
k   k  
2 2
 1  25  64
1
Since k  , y  6, a and b will be collinear.  90
2
therefore u · u  u2.
 · b  0
b. If the vectors are perpendicular a
LS  v · v
8  3y  98  0 194
3y  106  14
RS  v2
106
y  . 194
3
 14
106
If y  , a and b will be perpendicular. therefore v · v  v2.
3
  v) · (u  v)
c. LS  (u
 (0, 8, 6) · (2, 2, 10)
 16  60
 76
RS  u2  v 2
 90  14
 76
therefore (u  v ) · (u  v )  u2 v 2.

## 58 Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications

d. LS  u  
v  · u  v  15. a. (3a  4b) · (5a  6b)

##  (0, 8, 6) · (0, 8, 6)  15a · a  38a · b  24b · b

 64  36  15a2  38a · b  24b2.
 100
RS  u2  2 u · v v  2 b. (2a  b) · (2a  b)

##  90  2 (2)  14  4a · a  b · b

 90  4  14  4a2  b2.
 100
therefore (u  v ) · (u  v )  u2  2 u · v v 2. 16. a  î  3ĵ  k̂, b  2î  4ĵ  5k̂
 (1, 3, 1)  (2, 4, 5)
e. (2u) · v  
3a  b  (3, 9, 3)  (2, 4, 5)
 (2, 10, 16) · (1, 3, 2)
 (1, 5, 2)
 2  30  32
 
2b  4a  (4, 8, 10)  (4, 12, 4)
 4
u · (2v)  (8, 20, 14)
 (1, 5, 8) · (2, 6, 4) (3a  b) · (2b  4a)  (1, 5, 2) · (8, 20, 14)
 
 2  30  32  8  100  28
 4    
(3a  b) · (2b  4a )  80.
z(u · v )
 2 (2) 17. Since 2a  b is perpendicular to a  3b,
 4 (2a  b) · (a  3b)  0
therefore (u) · v  u · (2v)  2(u · v ).
therefore 2a2  5a · b  3b2  0
13. u  (2, 2, 1),  v  (3, 1, 0), w   (1, 7, 8)
2a2  5ab cos   3b2  0.
LS  u · (u  w )
 (2, 2, 1) · (4, 6, 8) But a  2b.
 8  12  8 Substituting gives 8b2  10b2 cos   3b2  0
 12
10 cos   5
RS  u · v  u · w
1
 6  2  2  14  8 cos   
 12 2
  60.
therefore u · v  w   u · v  u · w
.
The angle between a and b is 60.
14. a. (4î  ĵ ) · ĵ  4î · ĵ  ĵ · ĵ
18. Since â and b̂ are unit vectors, â  b̂  1.
 0   ĵ  2
a. (6â  b̂) · (â  2b̂) 6â2  11âb̂ cos   2b̂2
 1.
 6  11 cos   2
b. k̂ · (ĵ  3k̂)  k̂ · ĵ  3k̂ · k̂  4  11 cos .
 0  3(1) But   60 therefore 4  11 cos   4  11 cos 60
 3. 11
 4  
2
c. (î  4k̂) · (î  4k̂)  î · î  8î · b̂  16k̂ · k̂ 3
 1  0  16  
2
 17.
3
(6â  b̂) · (â 2b̂)  .
2

## Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications 59

b. 20. a. B C

ˆb → →
b̂ â + b

b

b
a →+

180º – 

O → A
a
Let  be the angle between the unit vectors â and b.
From the cosine law
  A
OA , OB
  AC
  b, OC
  a  b.
â  b̂2  â2  b̂2  2âb̂ cos(180  ).
Since a is perpendicular to b ∠OAC  90.

Now â  b̂  3 and cos(180  )  cos 
2  OA
In ∆OAC, OC 2  AC
2
therefore 3  1  1  2âb̂ cos 
1  2â · b̂ i.e., a  b2  a2  b2.
1 The usual name of this result is the Pythagorean
â · b̂  .
2 Theorem.
Now (2â  5b̂) · (b̂  3â)  13â · b̂  6â2  5b̂2
b. B
13
   6  5 → →
c=a –b
→ →

2 b
11
(2â  5b̂ ) · (b̂  3â)  . 
2 O →
a A
19. a  3î  4ĵ  k̂  (3, 4, 1)
b  2î  3ĵ  6k̂  (2, 3, 6)   a, OB
From ∆OAB, OA   b
a · b  6  12  6    
BA  c  a  b and ∠BOA  .
 0. 2  OA
Now BA 2  OB
2  2OA
OB
 cos 
Since a · b  0, a ⊥ b and the parallelogram will be
c2  a2  b2  2 a b cos .
a rhombus.
The result here is called the Cosine Law.
Let u and v be the sides of the rhombus.
u  v  a  (3, 4, 1) 21.
a, b 3x – y = 5
u  v  b  (2, 3, 6) y

## Add: 2v  (5, 1, 7)

b
Subtract: 2u  (1, 7, 5)
The angle between u and v is the same as the angle x

## Therefore (2u) · (2v)  2u2v cos  c

5  7  35  (1  49  25) cos 
23
cos    In questions such as this a specific example can
75
 ≅ 108. illustrate the desired result. Suppose a  (3, 1)
The angles between the sides of the rhombus are 108 and b  (3, 4) then a · b  5
and 72. Now, for c  (p, q), if a · c  a · b
53 3p  q  5.
Now 2u   75  53, u   There is an infinite number of possibilities for c, one
2
of which is b.
53
the lengths of the sides of the rhombus are .
2

## 60 Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications

However, others such as (1, 2) have c ≠ b.   b) · (a
25. a. Since (a  b)  0, (a
  b) ⊥ (a  b).
In fact c is any vector having its end point on the line 
a  b and a  b represent the diagonals of a
3x  y  5. parallelogram having sides  a and b . Since
the diagonals are perpendicular to each other, the
22. Given vector a  4î  3ĵ  k̂ parallelogram is a rhombus with  a  b .
 (4, 3, 1)
A vector parallel to the xy-plane has the form b. Since u  v  u  v, u  v2  u  v2.
u  (p, q, 0).
But (u  v) · (u  v)  u  v2
Since a ⊥ u, a · u  0 and 4p  3q  0.
Choosing p  3 and q  4 gives vector u  (3, 4, 0) which and (u  v) · (u  v)  u  v2
is perpendicular to a. therefore (u  v) · (u  v)  (u  v) · (u  v)
Now u   9  16  5 therefore a unit vector in the u · u  2u · v  v · v  u · v  2u · v  v · v
3 4
xy-plane perpendicular to a is u  , , 0 .
5 5   4u · v  0
u · v  0.
23. Given that x  y  z  0 and x  2, y  3, z  4.
Therefore u ⊥ v.
Now (x  y  z) · (x  y  z)  o · o  0.
u and v represent the sides of a rectangle whereas
Therefore x · x  y · y  z · z  2x · y  2x · z  2y · z  0
a and b were the sides of a rhombus.
x2  y2  z2  2(x · y  x · z  y · z)  0
 · b  
26. Since a a b cos  and cos  ≤ 1
4  9  16  2(x · y  x · z  y · z)  0 a · b ≤ a b.
29
and x · y  x · z  y · z  . Equality holds when cos   1; i.e., 
a and b
2
are collinear.
24. z If a  a1, a2 and b  b1, b2  
C(0, 0, 1) Q(0, 1, 1)
then a1b1  a2b2 ≤ 
a12  
a22 
b12  
b22.

P(1, 1, 1) If a  a1, a2, a3 and b  b1, b2, b3

## then a1b1  a2b2  a3b3

O B(0, 1, 0)
y ≤  a12   a22  
a32 b12  b22  
b32.
For a general solution to the Cauchy-Schwarz
A(1, 0, 0) inequality refer to Exercise 12.2 question 18.
x

  (1, 1, 1) and
Two body diagonals of the cube are OP Exercise 5.4

AQ  (1, 1, 1).
7. î  (1, 0, 0), ĵ  (0, 1, 0), k̂  (0, 0, 1)
 · AQ
Now OP   OP
AQ
 cos  where  is an angle a. î ĵ  (0, 0, 1)  k̂.
between the body diagonals. b. k̂ ĵ  (1, 0, 0)  î.
 · AQ
OP   1  1  1  1
8. a. Let u  (u1, u2, u3)
  3,
OP   3.
AQ v  (v1, v2, v3)
1
Therefore cos    and  ≅ 71 v  (v1, v2, v3)
3
u v  (u2v3  v2u3, v1u3 u1v3, u1v2  v1u2)
The body diagonals of a cube make angles of 71 and 119
to each other.  v u  (v2u3  u2v3,  u1v3  v1u3,  v1u2
 u1v2)
 u v.

## Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications 61

b. If u and v are collinear, u
  kv. 12. →
→ b
Let v  (a, b, c) then u  (ka, kb, kc)
→ →
n=a b
u v  (kbc  bkc, akc  kac, kbc  bkc)
 (0, 0, 0) →
a
u v  0.

 · 
9. (a a)(b · b)  (a · b)2

 
a2 b2  (
ab cos )2 → → →
(a b) a
 
a2 b2 (1  cos2 )
a b is a vector that is perpendicular to both a and
 
a2 b2 sin2  b. Let n  a b. Now n a is a vector that is
therefore RS  
a2b2 
sin2  perpendicular to both n and a. Therefore n a, n and
a are perpendicular to each other; i.e., (a b) a,
 
absin .
a b and a are mutually perpendicular.
But 0 ≤  ≤ 180 therefore sin  ≥ 0

and RS  ab sin  13. Let u  (u1, u2, u3), v  (v1, v2, v3), and

 a b   (w , w , w ).
w 1 2 3

ab  
therefore  a)(
 · 
(a b · b)  · b)2.
(a Now v w
  (v w  w v , w v  v w ,
2 3 2 3 1 3 1 3

v1w2 w1v2)
10. 
a  (2, 1, 0), b  (1, 0, 3), c  (4, 1, 1) u · (v w
)  u v w  u w v  u w v  u v w
1 2 3 1 2 3 2 1 3 2 1 3
 b · c  (3, 6, 1) · (4, 1, 1)
a. a
 u3v1w2  u3w1v2.
 12  6  1
Also u v  (u2v3  v2u3, v1u3  u1v3, u1v2  v1u2)
 19.
and (u v) · w
  w u v  w v u  w v u
b. b c · 
a  (3, 13, 1) · (2, 1, 0) 1 2 3 1 2 3 2 1 3

##  19.  w2u1v3  w3u1v2  w3v1u2

c. c 
a · b  (1, 2, 6) · (1, 0, 3)  u · (v w
).
 19.
  (3, 1, 2), b  (1,
14. a. We show this by choosing a
 b) c  (3, 6, 1) (4, 1, 1)
d. (a 1, 1), and c  (p, q, r). Now a b  (3, 5, 2)
 (5, 1, 21). and a c  (r 2q, 2p  3r, 3q  p).
 c) 
e. (b a  (3, 13, 1) (2, 1, 0) If a b  a c then r  2q  3 ➀
 (1, 2, 23). 2p  3r  5 ➁
3q  p  2 ➂
f. (c 
a) b  (1, 2, 6) (1, 0, 3)
Choose q  k, from ➀ r  2k  3, from ➂
 (6, 3, 2).
p  3k  2. These values for r and k satisfy ➁.
11. Let u  v  (a, b, c) and w
  (p, q, r) This shows that there are an infinite number of
v w  (br  qc, pc  ar, aq  bp) possibilities for c. For one such value choose
u (v w )  [b(aq  bp)  c(pc  ar), k  2.
c(br  qc)  a(aq bp), a(pc  ar)  b(br  qc)] r  1, p  4, q  2, and
u v  (0, 0, 0); (u v) w   (0, 0, 0) c  (4, 2, 1)
hence u (v w ) ≠ (u v) w. a b  a c (3, 5, 2) and b ≠ c.


## 62 Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications

b. b Exercise 5.5

a b 5. a. z

c A(1, 1, 1)

a

O y
15. a. Given a  (1, 3, 1), b
  (2, 1, 5), v  (3, y, z),
and a v  b.
x B(1, 0, 0)
a v  (3z  y, 3  z, y  a)  (2, 1, 5)
Equating components gives y  4, z  2, and A body diagonal is OA  (1, 1, 1); an edge is OB
3z  y  6  4  2.  is
 î  (1, 0, 0). The projection of î onto OA
Therefore v  (3, 4, 2).
A O
A
b. Let v  (a, b, c). î · O (1, 0, 0) · (1, 1, 1) (1, 1, 1)
  ·    · 
  
OA  OA 3 3
Now a v  (3c  b, a  c, b  3a)
 (2, 1, 5). 1
 (1, 1, 1)
Equating components gives 3c  b  2 ➀ 3
a  c  1 ➁
b  3a  5. ➂ 1 1 1
 (, , ).
From ➀ and ➁ we have b  2  3c and 3 3 3
a  1  c. b. The projection of a body diagonal onto an edge is
b  3a  2  3c  3 (1  c)  5 which  onto î which is î  (1, 0, 0).
the projection of OA
satisfies ➂.
This shows that choosing any value for c in ➀, 6. a. a  (1, 2, 2)
substituting to find b and a from ➀ and ➁ will b  (1, 3, 0)
satisfy ➂ hence giving another vector v. Let The area of the parallelogram is
c 2, from ➀ b  8 and from ➁ a  1. a b.
Therefore v  (1, 8, 2) is another vector so that
a b  (6, 2, 5)
a v  b.
therefore a b  
36  4
 25  65

c. We see from part b that c is any real number, hence
there will be an infinite number of vectors v. b. c  (6, 4, 12)  2(3, 2, 6)
d  (9, 6, 18)  3(3, 2, 6).
2
Since c  d, c and d are collinear therefore no
3
parallelogram is formed, hence its “area” is zero.

## 7. a. A triangle with vertices A(7, 3, 4), B(1, 0, 6) and

C(4, 5, 2).
  (6, 3, 2)
Two sides are defined by AB
  (3, 2, 6)
and AC
 AC
AB   (14, 42, 21)
 7(2, 6, 3)
 AC
AB   7
4  36
9
 49
1  
the area of ∆ABC  AB AC 
2
49
 .
2
Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications 63
b. A triangle with vertices P(1, 0, 0), Q(0, 1, 0),   110 N, d  300 m,   6, W  110
12. Since F
R(0, 0, 1). 300 cos 6
Now two sides are PQ  (1, 1, 0) ≅ 32819.
  (1, 0, 1)
and PR The work done is 32819 J.
 PR
PQ   (1, 1, 1), PQ
 PR  3
. →
13. |d| = 3
3
The area of ∆PQR is .
2 78.4 cos 70º
70º
8. Given a parallelepiped defined by a  (2, 5, 1) 20º
b  (4, 0, 1)
8 kg ≅ 78.4 N
c  (3, 1, 1).
Now b c  (1, 7, 4). W  78.4 3 cos 70
The volume of the parallelepiped is a · (b c) ≅ 80.
The work done against gravity is approximately 80 J.
 (2, 5, 1) · (1, 7, 4)
 2  35  4 14. F F
 29. 20º
20º
 · d  F
d cos  12º
9. Work W  F

## a. W  220 15 cos 49

Consider the “same” force as a force acting at 20 to
≅ 2165 J.
the direction of motion. The work done dragging
b. W  4.3 2.6 cos 85 the trunk up the ramp is 90(10) cos 20. The work
done dragging the trunk horizontally is 90(15) cos 20.
≅ 1.0 J.
Total work done is 900 cos 20  1350 cos 20
c. W  14 6 cos 110 ≅ 2114 J.
≅ 29 J.   2î
15. a. F d  5î  6ĵ
d. F  4000 kN  (2, 0)  (5, 6)
WF  · d
 4 106 N
W  10.
d  5 km   4î  ĵ
b. F d  3î  10ĵ
 5 103 m  (4, 1)  (3, 10)
d cos 90
W  F  · d
WF
 0 J.  12  12
W  22.
 must have
10. To overcome friction, the applied force F
  (800, 600)
c. F d  (20, 50)
magnitude greater than 150 N.   0, cos   1.
WF  · d
d cos 
Therefore W > F
 16000  30000
W > 150 1.5 1 W  46000.
W > 225.
  12î  5ĵ  6k̂
d. F d  2î  8ĵ  4k̂
The work done is greater than 225 J.
 (12, 5, 6)  (2, 8, 4)
  30 9.8  294 N.
11. F WF  · d
d cos 
W  F  24  40  24
W  88.
 294 40 cos 52°
≅ 7240.
The work done is 7240 J.

## 64 Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications

16. A 10 N force acts in the direction of a vector (1, 1). F  50 N r  20 cm  0.2 m

## 2 , 2  therefore   30

 is 1 1
A unit vector along F
T  r F
2 , 2   (52, 52)
  10 1 1
F
T  r F
the displacement vector is d  PQ
  (7, 5).
 rF
 sin 
 
W  F · d  352  252
 0.2 50 sin 30
 602.
The work done is 602 N. T  5
The torque on the bolt is 5 N.
17.

  rF
b. Since T  sin , maximum torque can be
a
achieved when sin  is a maximum. This maximum
is 1 when   90. Therefore T  rF
  10
A(2, 1, 5) B(3, –1, 2) and the maximum torque that can be achieved is
10 J.
The 30 N force acts along a  (2, 1, 5)
 onto v)  Proj(v onto u) is a true statement
a  
41
 25  30
 19. a. Proj(u
when
2
â  

, 1, 5 .
30 30
 30  i) u  v or
  30â
The force vector F ii) u ⊥ v, in which case the projection vector is O
.

##  onto v)  Proj(v onto u) is a true

b. Proj(u
  (230
F , 30
, 530
)
statement when
The displacement d  AB
  (1, 2 3)
i) u ⊥ v in which case the projection has
 · d
Therefore W  F magnitude 0.
 230
 230
  1530
 ii) when u  v and the angle between u and v
is 45 or 135
 1930
.
iii) when u  v or u  v.
The work done in moving the object from A to B is
1930
 J.
18. a.

F

30º

Bolt r→

## Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications 65

Review Exercise 10. u has direction angles α1, β1, γ1. A unit vector along u
is û  (cos α1, cos β1, cos γ1). Similarly a unit vector
7. Given a  6î  3ĵ  2k̂,
along v is v̂  (cos α2, cos β2, cos γ2). Since u ⊥ v,
a  (6, 3, 2) û ⊥ v̂ and u · v  0 therefore cos α1 cos α2  cos β1
b  2î  pĵ  4k̂, cos β2  cos γ1 γ2  0.
b  (2, p, 4)
11. x  y2  (x  y) · (x  y)
4
and cos   ,  is the angle between a and b.
21  x · y  2 x · y  y · y

## Therefore 2x · y  x  y2  x2  y2

12  3p  8 
4
1

therefore x · y   x  x2  x2  y2 .
2


36  9
 4 
4  p2
 16 
21 12. Given ∆ABC with vertices A(1, 3, 4), B(3, 1, 1),
4 and C(5, 1, 1).
3p  4   · 7 
p2  20
21   (4, 4, 3), AC
  (6, 2, 3), and
a. AB
  (2, 2, 0).
9p  12  4 
p2  20 ➀ BC
 · BC
Since AB   0, AB
 ⊥ BC, and ∠ABC  90
Squaring both sides:
therefore ∆ABC is a right-angled triangle.
81p2  216p  144  16p2  320
65p2  216p  176  0 b. Since ∆ABC has a right angle at B, the area of
(p  4)(65p  44)  0 1  
∆ABC   AB BC .
44 2
p  4 or p   .
65
  
Now AB 16  1
69
44
We see that p    does not satisfy ➀ and 41

65
p  4 does; therefore the only value for p is 4.   
BC 44
 22
8. Let a  î  ĵ  k̂  (1, 1, 1)
1
b  λ2î  2λĵ  k̂  (λ2, 2λ, 1) ∆ABC   41
 22
2
Since a ⊥ b, a · b  0
  82
therefore λ2  2λ  1  0
the area of ∆ABC is 82
.
(λ  1)2  0
λ1  
c. AC 
36  4
9
If a ⊥ b then λ  1. 7
The perimeter of ∆ABC is AB  AC  BC 
9. If x  3, y  4 and the angle between x and y is 41  7  22 ≅ 16.2.
60 then
d. Let the fourth vertex to complete the rectangle be
(4x  y) · (2x  3y)  8x2  10 x · y  3 y2 D(a, b, c)
  BA and (a  5, b  1, c  1)  (4, 4, 3)
 72  10xy cos 60  48 CD
equating components, a  1, b  5, c  4, and the
 24  10(3)(4)  
1
2 coordinates of the fourth vertex are (1, 5, 4).
(4x  y) · (2x  3y)  84.

## 66 Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications

  (17, 3, 8).
13. Given the vector u D will be the foot of the perpendicular from the
fourth vertex E to D. Let the coordinates of E be
a. The projection of u onto each of the coordinate

area will be 17î, 3ĵ and 8k̂.
63 , 12, a.
b. The projection of u  (17, 3, 8) onto the xy
plane is (17, 3, 0), onto the xz plane is (17, 0, 8),   1
Now OE
and onto the yz plane is (0, 3, 8). 3 1
and     a 2  1
36 4
14. Since the vertices lie in the xy plane, the coordinates
24 2
in R3 will be A(7, 3, 0), B(3, 1, 0), and C(2, 6, 0). a2    
36 3
Now AB  (10, 2, 0)
  (9, 9, 0) 2
AC a 

3
 AC
  (0, 0, 72).  
and AB
1  
the fourth vertex has coordinates 63 , 12, 36 
Area of ∆ABC   AB AC   
2
1
  72
or 63 , 12, 36 .
2
The coordinates of the fourth vertices are
 36.

The area of ∆ABC is 36. O(0, 0, 0), A(0, 1, 0), B 63 12, 0 and
 
15. a. Consider the base of the tetrahedron as a triangle in
the xy-plane with O(0, 0, 0), A(0, 1, 0).
E 63 , 12, 36 .
O(0, 0, 0) A(0, 1, 0) b. The x-component of the centroid will be
y
3 3 3
D
1
4 
 0  0      
2 6 6

1 1
2 
1
2
1
the y-component is  1      
4 2 
C B( 32 , 12 ,0) 6 6
1

the z-component is    .
4 3 12

x The coordinates of the centroid are
 
Now ∆OBC is a 30, 60, 90 triangle with OB  1 G 63 , 12, 126 .
3 1
therefore OC   and CB  
2 2
c. The distance from each vertex to the centroid will
3 1

hence the coordinates of B are ,, 0 .
6 2  .
be the same, say OG


63 ,12, 0.
 
OG

3  1  6
36 4 144



12
1
1    1
4 24



3

8

## Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications 67

6  AC
 is a vector perpendicular to the plane of
 . Since AB
4
∆ABC, the height of the tetrahedron will be the magnitude
6  on (AB
of the projection of AD  AC
)
The centroid is  units from each vertex.
4
 · (A C )
B A
therefore h   .
16. a. a b
 is a vector that is perpendicular to all AB AC

vectors in the plane of a and b. Let n  a b.
 · (A C )
B A
Now The volume V    AB AC   
3 2   
AB AC 
n c is a vector perpendicular to both n and c.
Since n c is perpendicular to n, as are a and b, 1   
V   AD · (AB AC ).
6
n c  (a b) c, a and b will be coplanar;
Now AB AC
  (19, 26, 42), AD   (2, 4, 6)
i.e., (a b) c lies in the plane of a and b.
where D is the fourth vertex, D (1, 5, 8)
b. Let a  (a1, a2, a3), b
  (b , b , b ), and
1 2 3
 · (AB
AD  AC)  38  104  252
c  (c1, c2, c3).  394
Now 1
V   294
6
a b  (a2b3  a3b2, b1a3  a1b3, a1b2  a2 b1)
and LS  (a b) c 197
 
3
 (c3b1a3  c3a1b3  c2a1b2  c2a2b1, 197
The volume of the tetrahedron is .
c1a1b2  c1b1a2  c3a2b3  c3b2a3, 3

## c2a2b3  c2a3b2  c1b1a3  c1a1b3)

Chapter 5 Test
a · c  a1c1  a2c2  a3c3
(a · c)b  [(a1c1  a2c2  a3c3)b1, 1. a. If u · v  0 then u is perpendicular to v.

(a1c1  a2c2  a3c3)b2, b. If u · v  uv then cos   1,   0 and u and v
will have the same direction, i.e., u  kv, k > 0.
(a1c1  a2c2  a3c3)b3]
c. If u v  
0 then u and v are collinear,
and (b · c)a  [(b1c1  b2c2  b3c3)a1, i.e., u  kv, k > R.
(b1c1  b2c2  b3c3)a2, d. If u v  uv then sin   1,   90 and
(b1c1  b2c2  b3c3)a3] u ⊥ v.

RS  (a · c)b  (b · c)a e. If (u v) · u  0, no conclusion can be made about u
and v since u v is perpendicular to both u and v and
 (a2c2b1  a3c3b1  b2c2a1  b3c3a1, a1c1b2
the dot product of perpendicular vectors is zero.
 a3c3b2  b1c1a2  b3c3a2, a1c1b3  a2c2b3
 b1c1a3  b2c2a3). f. If (u v) u  
0 then u v and u are collinear. But
u v is perpendicular to both u and v. This
Since LS  RS, (a b) c  (a · c)b  (b · c)a.
is true only if u v  0 in which case u and v
17. The volume of a tetrahedron is given by the formula are collinear.
1 1
v  (area of the base)(height)   Ah.
3 3
Consider the base to be the triangle with vertices
A(1, 1, 2), B(3, 4, 6), C(7, 0, 1)
  (2, 5, 4) and AC
now AB   (8, 1, 3)

1  
the area of the base will be A   AB AC .
2

## 68 Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications

2. Given u  6î  3ĵ  2k̂  (6, 3, 2) 4. a. C
v  3î  4ĵ  k̂  (3, 4, 1)
B
a. 4u  3 v  (24, 12, 8)  (9, 12, 3)
 (33, 0, 5)
 33î  5k̂ .

## b. u · v  (6, 3, 2) · (3, 4, 1) D

 18  12  2
A
 4.
ABCD is a parallelogram with coordinates
c. u v  (5, 12, 33) A(1, 2, 1), B(2, 1, 3), C(p, q, r),
 5î  12ĵ  33k̂. D(3, 1, 3).
Now AB  DC
d. u v  
25  1 
44  1089
therefore (3, 3, 4)  (p  3, q  1, r  3) and
 1258
. p  0, q  2, r  1 and the coordinates of C are
A unit vector perpendicular to both u and v is (0, 2, 1).

## 5 12 b. To determine the angle at A we use the dot product



, 
1258 
, 33 .
1258 
AB   AB
 cos A

AB  (3, 3, 4)
3. a. z   
AB 99
 16
A
 34

P(3, –2, 5)
  (2, 1, 2)
  
4
y
O 3
B 3
AB   6  3  8
x  11
11
cos A  
334

A ≅ 129
 is the position vector of point P(3, 2, 5)
i) OP
The angle at A is approximately 129.
 onto the z-axis is
ii) the projection of OP
  (0, 0, 5)  AD
c. The area of parallelogram ABCD  AB 
OA
 onto the xy plane is
iii) the projection of OP  AD
AB   (10, 2, 9)
  (3, 2, 0).
AB   
100 
4  81
  5
b. OA
  185
  
OB 9  4  13
. The area of parallelogram ABCD is 185.


## Chapter 5: Algebraic Vectors and Applications 69

5. → c.
F →
F

30º
35º

d

r
A force F  acting at a direction of 35 to the horizontal
has magnitude F  75 N moves a box a distance 1
Since sin 30   a force applied at an angle of
2
d  16 m.
The work done is 30 will produce half the maximum torque

W  F d cos 
T  rF sin 30
 75 16 cos 35. 1
 0.18 50 
2

F T  4.5 J.

15º d 7. B C
20º

20º b 

## The same force acting at 35 to the horizontal has a A →

D
a
  75 N and acts at an angle of 15
magnitude of F
  a  b
to the line of motion where d  8 m. Diagonal AC
  a  b.
and BD
The work done is W  75 8 cos 15.
 and BD
Let the angle between AC  be .
Total work done is
Now AC BD
  AC
BD
 cos 
75 16 cos 35  75 8 cos 15
≅ 1562.5 J.  · BD
AC   (a  b) · (a  b)
 a2  b2

6. →
F T
  
AC a2  
b2

  
BD a2  
b2

r
therefore a2  b2

## a. The force should act at right angles to the wrench  

a2  
b2 
a2  b
2 cos 
to produce maximum torque.
  r F
 a2  b2  (a2  b2) cos 
b. T
T  r F  rF sin . a2  b2
If   90, maximum torque is and cos    2 
 .
a   b2
T  0.18 50  9 J.
The direction of T  is perpendicular to the plane a2  b2
of r and F so that r, F
, and r F
 form a right- For 0 <  < 90, cos     for a2 > b2.
a2  b2
handed system.