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Chapter 10 • Introduction to Counting


Solutions for Selected Problems d. Counting the number of integers ending in 9 we
have from each of 10 rows, 10 such integers:
9, 19, 29, … , 99 → 10
Exercise 10.1 109, 119, 129, … , 199 → 10
209 → 10
.. ..
11. a. The result of the draw will form three-digit . .
numbers of the form 100a  10b  c, 909, 919, … , 999 → 10
a, b, c  {1, 2, 3, … , 9} and a ≠ b ≠ c. therefore n(H)  100 and
n(H)  n(U)  n(H)
b. Since the ball labelled 4 is selected first, the second
 1000  100
ball can be any of the remaining eight, and for each
n(H)  900.
of these, the third ball can be any of the remaining
seven, giving 8  7  56 subsets. Therefore n(A)
14. Letters A, B, and C are placed in envelopes a, b, and c.
 56. A similar argument applies when the second
Let the ordered triple (x, y, z) mean letter A is in
and third balls drawn are 4s, hence n(B)  3  56
envelope x, B in y, and C in z. The universal set will
 168.
be U  {(a, b, c), (a, c, b), (b, a, c), (b, c, a), (c, a, b),
(c, b, a)}.
12. a. The three-digit number will be of the form
No letters to the correct person will be the subset
100a  10b  c,
{(b, c, a,), (c, a, b)}.
a, b, c  {1, 2, 3, … , 9}.
b. With the first ball labelled 4, the second ball can be 15. y
any of the balls labelled 1 through 9, and for each
of these, the third ball can be any of the balls 1 (1, 1)
labelled one through nine, hence n(A)  9  9 
81. The number of elements in U is n(U1) 
9 · 9 · 9  729. (We get this from the argument that V
the first ball can be any of the nine. Since it is now
replaced, the second can be any of nine as will the
third after replacement of the second.) V
Now the number of elements in U, where no 4 is
drawn, will be 8 · 8 · 8  512. (Each of the first, x
second, and third draws can be any of the balls 1
numbered 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9). The number of
three-digit numbers when 4 is selected will be
n(B)  93  83  217.
n(U1) > n(U) since U is a subset of U1. Exercise 10.2
13. U  {1, 2, 3, … , 1000}. 5. If A and B are disjoint, then n(A  B)  n(A)  n(B).
a. The integers divisible by 7 in factored form are If A and B have common elements, n(A  B) ≠ 0,
7(1), 7(2), 7(3), … , 7(142). then n(A  B) < n(A)  n(B).
7  142  994, which is the lowest multiple of 7 Therefore n(A  B)  n(A)  n(B).
less than 1000. n(E)  142.
8. With A and B disjoint, there are no elements common
b. The perfect squares are 12, 22, 32, … , 312. to both A and B. The number of elements in the union
312  961 and n(F)  31. of these two sets is the sum of the number of elements
c. The integers divisible by 3 are in both sets.
3(1), 3(2), 3(3), … , 3(333)
therefore n(G)  n(u)  n(G )
 1000  333
n(G)  667.

Chapter 10: Introduction to Counting 149


11. Let the committee with two girls be P, one boy and 6. U: two-digit integers.
one girl Q, and two boys R. V: contain at least one 5.
P  {AB, AC, BC} W: contain at least one 6.
Q  {AD, AE, AF, BD, BE, BF, CD, CE, CF} The complement of V  W, V 
W  is the set of two-
R  {DE, DF, EF} digit integers that do not contain the digits 5 or 6.
u  P  Q  R. n(u)  9  10  90.

n(V W)  7  8  56 (the first digit is any one of
13. j
1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, and for each of these the second
4 5 6 7 8
digit can be any one of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9).
3 4 5 6 7 Therefore n(V  W)  n(U)  n(V 
V
W
)
2 3 4 5 6  90  56
V  W)  34.
n(V
1 2 3 4 5
i 7. Let A be the number of integers divisible by 3.
1 2 3 4
A  {3(1), 3(2), 3(3), … , 3(10)}
The labelling of a point represents i  j  c. therefore n(A)  10
)  n(U)  n(A)
therefore n(A
c. All of the subsets in b are disjoint.
 30  10
d. The union of the subsets in b includes all of the )  20.
n(A
elements in P.
8. Of 90 students, 42 are girls, therefore 48 are boys. Also
15. Consider n(A  B) ≠ 0. 37 take Business 101, of which 42  19  23 are
girls, hence 14 are boys. 14 boys take Business 101.

A B A B 10. Since the Ei, i  0, 1, 2, 3, are disjoint sets and


U  E0  E1  E2  E3
AB AB
then n(U)  n(E0)  n(E1)  n(E2)  n(E3).

12. There are 365 days in a non-leap year. 365 


A
A B A B B
7(52)  1, which gives 52  2  104 days that fall
on a weekend. The extra day can fall on any day of
A B the week. If it falls on a Saturday or Sunday there
will be 104  1  105 days falling on a weekend,
16. U  (A  B)  (A  
B)  (A
  B)  (A

B). which is the maximum number possible.

13. a. The numbers divisible by 5, set A, are


Exercise 10.3 A  {5(1), 5(2), 5(3), … , 5(200)}
therefore n(A)  200.
5. The ten numbers that start with 7 are 70, 71, 72, … , b. The numbers divisible by 7, set B, are
77, 78, 79, and those that end in 7 are 17, 27, 37, … , B  {7(1), 7(2), 7(3), … , 7(142)}
77, 87, 97. The 77 is in both sets was counted twice. therefore n(B)  142.
c. Numbers divisible by both 7 and 5 are divisible by
35, set C, C  {35(1), 35(2), 35(3), … , 35(28)}
n(C)  28  n(A  B).

150 Chapter 10: Introduction to Counting


d. n(A  B)  n(A)  n(B)  n(A  B) Exercise 10.4
 200  142  28
 314. 4. The number of letters available for postal codes is
The number of numbers divisible by neither 5 nor 7, n(X)  26  7  19. The number of digits is

n(A B
)  1000  314, is 686. n(x)  10. There are 19 choices for the first X and for
each of these there are 10 choices for the first x,
e. Of the 200 numbers divisible by 5, 28 are also divisible 19 for the second X, 10 for the second x, 19 for the
by 7. third X and 10 for the third x. Then the number of
Therefore there are 200  28  172 numbers divisible postal codes is 10 · 19 · 10 · 19 · 10 · 19  193  103
by 5 but not divisible by 7.  6 859 000.

14. The number of integers divisible by 7, the set A, is 5. 3 10 10  10 10 10 10. The first digit can be any one
n(A)  142 (from 13(c)). The integers divisible by 13, of 3, 5, or 6, 3 choices. For each of these, the second
set B, digit can be any of the 10 digits. Similarly, the
B  {13(1), 13(2), 13(3), … , 13(76)} remaining digits can be any of 10. Hence from the
therefore n(B)  76. product rule there will be 3  106 seven-digit
Now A  B  {91(1), 91(2), 91(3), … , 91(10)} telephone numbers starting with a 3, 5, or 6.
and n(A  B)  10
n(A  B)  n(A)  n(B)  n(A  B) 6. 2 4 3 2 1 1
 142  76  10 The first person on the left can be either of the
 208. two tabled people, 2 choices, and the position of the
The number of integers divisible by 7 or 13 is 208. extreme left then is filled with the other of the two
tallest people. The second can be filled with any
17. Let A be the set of integers divisible by 2, n(A)  500. of the four remaining people, the third with 3,
B is the set of integers divisible by 3, therefore n(B)  333. fourth with 2 and fifth in 1. Hence there are
C is the set of integers divisible by 5, therefore n(C)  200. 2 · 4 · 3 · 2 · 1 · 1  48 possible arrangements.
Now A  B  {6(1), 6(2), 6(3), … , 6(166)}
and n(A  B)  166. 7.
A  C  {10(1), 20, 30, … , 10(100)} i e
and n(A  C)  100.
B  C  {15(1), 15(2), 15(3), … , 15(66)} There are 6 choices in which the first box can be
and n(B  C)  66. filled, for each of these the second box can be filled
A  B  C  {30(1), 30(2), 30(3), … , 30(33)} in 5 ways, the fourth in 4 ways, fifth in 3 ways, sixth
and n(A  B  C)  33. in 2 ways, and the seventh in 1 way. Therefore the
Now n(A  B  C) number of anagrams is 6 · 5 · 4 · 3 · 2 · 1  720.
= n(A)  n(B)  n(C)  n(A  B)  n(A  C) 
n(B  C)  n(A  B  C) 8. a. b. Since there are only three letters, C, A, and T,
= 500  333  200  166  100  66  33 once the first letter is chosen, there are only two
= 734. choices for the second letter and then one for the
734 integers are divisible by 2, 3, or 5. third letter. From the product rule, the number of
different “words” is 3 · 2 · 1  6.
18. Define n(E1) so that
n(Ei)  n(E1)  n(E2)  n(E3)  …  n(En) 9. The product rule implies order. Choosing a pizza with
mushrooms, sausage, and onions is the same had we
n(EiEj) be the sum of all possible intersecting pairs chosen sausage, mushrooms, and onions. Repetition is
Ei  Ej, 1  i, j  n, i < j. included in the 504 pizzas. Each selection of 3 items
n(EiEjEk) be the sum of all possible intersecting triples gives rise to 6 arrangements, hence there would be
504  6  84 different pizzas possible.
Ei  Ej  Ek, i  1, k  n, i < j < k, and so on.
Then n(Ei  Ej  Ek  …  En) 10. a. A possible answer sheet is T T F F F T F T T T.
= n(Ei)  n(EiEj)  n(EiEjEk)  n(EiEjEkEl)  …  (1) n
b. Since each question can be either True or False,
–1
n(EiEjEk … En). there will be 210  1024 different answer sheets.

Chapter 10: Introduction to Counting 151


11. Since there are five possibilities for each question, b. The units digit is either 7 or 8, 2 choices. Hence
there are a possible 57  78 125 possible answer from the product rule we have 9 · 10 · 10 · 2 
sheets. Since there are 30 000 students, every answer 1800 integers ending in 7 or 8.
sheet could be different.
c. If there are no repeated digits, then the second digit
has 9 possibilities, the third 8, and the fourth 7,
12. Consider a, e, i, o, and u as the only vowels for this
giving 9 · 9 · 8 · 7  4536 integers.
exercise.
d. The number with repeated digits will be
a. U  {aab, pqr}
9000  4536  4464.
A  {eez, ibc}
B  {pqr, pss}
16. There will be 26  26  10  62 symbols available.
C  {xyz, mno}
a. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Each position can be any of the 62
b. From the product law we have:
symbols (with repetition) hence there will be 628
n(U)  26 · 26 · 26  17 576
possible passwords.
n(A)  5 · 26 · 26  3380
n(B)  5 · 5 · 5  125 b. 10 _ _ _ _ _ _ 10 The first and last position have 10
n(C)  26 · 25 · 24  15 600 choices. The remaining positions can be any of the
62 symbols, hence there are 626  102 passwords.
c. n(A  B)  0, since the acronym must start with
a vowel and the only letters that can be used are c. With no repeated digits, there will be 6261 · 60 ·
p, q, r, s, and t, none of which are vowels. 59 · 58 · 57 · 56 · 55 different passwords.
d. A  B represents the acronyms that start with d. The number of passwords with no 9 is 618.
a vowel or are made up using only the letters Therefore with at least one 9 there will be
p, q, r, s, and t. 628  618 passwords.
e. n(A  B)  n(A)  n(B)  n(A  B)
17. a. Represent each divisor as an ordered pair,
 3380  125  0
i.e., (a, b)  2a 3b.
 3505.
With 0  a  2 and 0  b  1
f. The number of acronyms in which all letters are (0, 0)  1, (1, 0)  2, (2, 0)  4
different is 26 · 25 · 24  15 600. The number of (0, 1)  3, (1, 1)  6, (2, 1)  12.
acronyms that use one letter at least twice is
b. There are six sequences that can be formed as
n(u)  15 600  1976.
shown in (a) as ordered pairs.
13. Letters a, b, c, d, e, f are rearranged in n(u)  c. 12 has 6 divisors.
6 · 5 · 4 · 3 · 2 · 1  720 ways. The number of words
d. 144  24 · 32
that being with a is determined by the product rule as
Integer divisors of 144 can be written in the
1 · 5 · 4 · 3 · 2 · 1  120. Therefore the number of
form 2a · 3b where 0  a  4, 0  b  2. There
words that do not begin with a is 720  120  600.
are 5 possible values of a, the first member of the
Or the first letter any of b, c, d, e, f and the product
sequence; and for each of these there are 3 possible
rule gives 5 · 5 · 4 · 3 · 2 · 1  600.
values for b, the second member of the sequence;
hence there will be 5  3  15 integer divisors
14. The first letter is any of the given 6, the second any
of 144.
of 5, the third any of 4, and the fourth any of the
remaining 3. From the product rule the number of e. For odd divisors, there can be no even factors,
four-letter words is 6 · 5 · 4 · 3  360. If the word hence the sequence has 0 as its first term, the
begins with a, then the second letter is any of the second term is either 0, 1, or 2; hence there are 3
remaining 5, the third any of 4, and the fourth any of odd divisors.
3, giving 1 · 5 · 4 · 3  60 words starting with a.
18. a. 64 800  25 · 34 · 52.
15 a. 9 · 10 · 10 · 10. The first digit can be any of 1, 2, 3, Here we form three-term sequences where there are
4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9, 9 choices. The second, third, and 6 choices for the first term (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5);
fourth places can be any of the 10 digits, hence and for each of these, 5 choices for the second term
there are 9 · 10 · 10 · 10  9000 such integers. and 3 for the third. Hence there are 6 · 5 · 3  90
integer divisors of 64 800.
b. For even divisors, the first term of our sequence
must be one of 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5; 5 choices, hence
there are 5 · 5 · 3  75 even divisors of 64 800.
152 Chapter 10: Introduction to Counting
19. a. n  2a3b5c a  1, b  1, c  1. 365 · 364 · 363 · … · (365  n) 1
b. Now 1  > .
The first term of the three-term sequence has (a  1) n
365 2
choices; for each of these, the second term has
(b  1), and the third term has (c  1). 365 · 364 · 363 · … · (365  n) 1
Therefore <
Hence there are (a  1)(b  1)(c  1) integer 365n 2
divisors of n.
for n  22, the fraction is 0.5243.
b. For an even divisor, a two must be included.
Therefore the first term of the sequence has a
choices and there will be a(b  1)(c  1) even Exercise 10.5
divisors of n.
The fraction of even divisors is 2. Sequence of length 6 using the 10 digits and 26
letters.
a(b  1)(c  1) a
 . If the letter is in the final position, there will be
(a  1)(b  1)(c  1) a1
26 · 10 · 9 · 8 · 7 · 6 passwords. The number of
passwords will be the same if the letter is in the
20. a. The first term of the sequence can be filled in m second, third, fourth, fifth, or sixth position. Therefore
ways; and for each of these, the second in (m  1) the number of passwords is 26 · 10 · 9 · 8 · 7 · 6  6
ways, and for each of these the third in (m  2)  4 717 440.
ways. From the product rule there will be
m(m  1)(m  2) sequences of length three. 3. The number of binary sequences of length n is 2n. The
b. Since the symbols can be repeated, the number of number of binary sequences with length of at most 5
sequences will be m · m · m  m . 3 will be the sum of the sequences having length 1, 2, 3,
4, and 5, i.e., 21  22  23  24  25
21. In a sequence of length r and the product rule there = 2  4  8  16  32
will be r factors in the product, the last one being = 62.
[m  (r  1)]  (m  r  1). Hence the number of
sequences will be m(m  1)(m  2) … (m  r  1). 4. 0 22222
With repetition allowed there will be mr sequences The number of binary sequences of length 6 that
of length r. begins with a zero is 25. Similarly, the number of
sequences of length 7 and 8 beginning with zero will
22. a. Since the five people can have birthdays on the be 26 and 27.
same day, the number of sequences will be 3655. Therefore the sum is 25  26  27
= 25 (1  2  4)
b. If the birthdays are distinct, the number of
= 25  7
sequences will be 365 · 364 · 363 · 362 · 361.
= 224.
Percent having distinct birthdays will be
365 · 364 · 363 · 362 · 361 5. a. The number of one-letter words is 4; two-letter
 0.972864
3655 words, 4  3  12; three-letter words, 4 · 3 · 2  24;
 97.29%. and four-letter words, 4 · 3 · 2 · 1  24.
The total number of words is 64.
c. With two or more birthdays on the same day, we
have 100%  97.29%  2.71%. b. Number of words ending in a:
one-letter words  1; two-letter words, 3 · 1  3;
23. a. The number of sequences that are possible is 365n. three-letter words, 3 · 2 · 1  6; and four-letter
With different birth dates, the number of sequences words, 3 · 2 · 1 · 1  6.
will be 365 · 364 · 363 · … · (365  n  1). The number of words ending in a is 16.
With two or more birthdays on the same day, the 1
Or of the words end in each of
fraction is 4 1
a, b, c, or d. Therefore of 64  16
365 · 364 · 363 · … · (366  n) 4
1  . words end in a.
365n

Chapter 10: Introduction to Counting 153


c. Number of words that do not contain an a: 9. To determine the number of 5s, we look at the number
one-letter words  3; two-letter words, 3 · 2  6; of terms that are divisible by 5x, x  1.
three-letter words, 3 · 2 · 1  6; and four-letter x  1, 5, 5(2), 5(3), … , 5(200): when x  1,
words  0. there are 200 5s.
The number that do not contain an a is 15. x  2, 25, 25(2), 25(3), … , 25(40): when x  2,
Therefore the number of words that do contain there are an additional 40 5s.
an a is 64  15  49. x  3, 125, 125(2), 125(3), 125(4), … , 125(8): when
x  3, there are an additional 8 5s.
6. a. If repetition of letters is allowed, x  4, 625: when x  4, there is 1 additional 5.
one-letter word  4; two-letter word, 42  16; Therefore the total number of 5s in the set is
three-letter word 43  64; and four-letter word, 200  40  8  1  249.
44  256.
The number of words that can be created will be 10. Let P be the set of sequences starting with A.
340. Therefore P  {ABCDEF, ABCDFE, …}
n(P)  1  5 · 4 · 3 · 2 · 1  120
b. Number of words that end in a:
Q is the set ending with F.
one-letter: a 1;
Therefore Q  {ABCDEF, BACDEF, …}
two-letter: _ a, 4  1  4;
n(Q)  5 · 4 · 3 · 2 · 1 · 1  120
three-letter: _ _ a, 4  4  1  16; and
P  Q  {ABCDEF, ACBDEF, …}
four-letter: _ _ _ a, 43  1  64.
n(P  Q)  1 · 4 · 3 · 2 · 1 · 1  24
The number of words ending in a is 85.
Therefore the number of sequences that start with A or
c. Number of words that do not contain a: end with F is
one-letter: _ 3; n(P  Q)  n(P)  n(Q)  n(P  Q))
two-letter: _ _ 3  3  9;  120  120  24
three-letter: _ _ _ 33  27; and  216.
four-letter: _ _ _ _ 34  81.
The number of words with no a is 120. 11. Represent the set of integers with n distinct digits by
Therefore the number of words containing an a An, 1  n  3.
will be 340  120  220. Now n(A1)  9
n(A2)  9 · 9  81. (The first digit can be any of
7. The rectangular arrays that are possible are 1 by 10, 2 {1, 2, 3, … , 9}: 9 choices, and for each of these there
by 5, 5 by 2, and 10 by 1. In each array the numbers are 9 choices for the second digit: one of the 8 not
1 to 10 can be arranged in 10 · 9 · 8 · 7 · 6 · 5 · 4 · 3 · chosen for the first digit plus 0).
2 · 1  3 628 800 ways. n(A3)  9 · 9 · 8  648.
There will be 3 628 800  4  14 515 200 ways of The four-digit integers must start with 1 (since we are
storing the numbers. looking for integers between 1 and 2000), the second,
third, and fourth digits are chosen from the remaining
8. The number of three-letter words possible is 263. 9, 8, and 7 digits.
The number of three-letter words that do not contain
Therefore we have 1 · 9 · 8 · 7  504 allowable four-
either a, e, i, o, u, or y is 203.
digit integers.
Therefore the number of three-letter words that contain
Therefore there are 9  81  648  504  1242
at least one of a, e, i, o, u, or y is 263  203  9576.
positive integers between 1 and 2000 inclusive having
Similarly, the number of four-letter words would be
distinct digits.
264  204  296 976 and five-letter words would be
265  205  8 681 376. The number of three-, four-, Let On represent the set of integers with n distinct
or five-letter words will be 9576  296 976  digits that will be odd. 1  n  3
8 681 376  8 987 928. O1  {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}, therefore n(O1)  5
n(O2)  8 · 5  40. (The last digit is odd, the first can
be chosen by the remaining 8 digits. The first digit
cannot be zero.)
n(O3)  8 · 8 · 5  320.
1 8  7  4. The first digit must be 1, the units
digit can be any one of {3, 5, 7, 9}, 4 choices, the
second digit and the third digit can be any one of the
remaining 8 and 7 digits.

154 Chapter 10: Introduction to Counting


Therefore there will be 224 allowable odd four-digit n(A7)  n(A6)  4  604 800
integers. Total number of odd integers is
n(A8)  n(A7)  3  1 814 400
5  40  320  224  589.
589 n(A9)  n(A8)  2  3 628 800
Fraction that is odd is .
1242 n(A10)  n(A9)  1  3 628 800.
12. a. Choosing Cat there are 3 · 2 · 1  6 sequences, Therefore n(A) is the sum of the above.
Mouse there are 5 · 4 · 3  60 sequences, and in n(A2)  9 864 100.
Goldfish there are 8 · 7 · 6  336 sequences.
There will be 6  60  336  402 sequences of c. Let En represent the set of sequences of length n
length three. that contain no zeros. Therefore
b. Ending in S, choosing Cat there are O, Mouse there E1  {1, 2, 3, … , 9} and n(E1)  9
are 4 · 3 · 1  12, and choosing Goldfish there are
n(E2)  9  9  81,
7 · 6 · 1  42. There are 0  12  42  54
sequences of length three ending in S. n(E3)  93,
c. Start with a vowel: from Cat there are n(E4)  94,
1 · 2  1  2, Mouse there are 3 · 4 · 3  36, and n(E5)  95, … ,
Goldfish there are 2 · 7 · 6  84. n(E10)  910
In all, 122 sequences of length three start with
a vowel. n(E) is the sum of the above.
d. The number of sequences of length three that Therefore n(E)  9  92  93  …  910
do not contain O will be: from Cat, 6; Mouse, 9(910  1)
4 · 3 · 2  24; and from Goldfish, 7 · 6 · 5  210; 
8
and in total 240. The number of sequences
n(E)  3 922 632 450
containing O will be 402  240  162.
n(B)  n(U)  n(E)
n(B)  7 188 478 660.
13. a. Let Cn represent the set of sequences of length n.
n  1. Therefore
14. a. The number of sequences of length 3 will be
C1  {0, 1, 2, … , 9} and n(C1)  10
r · r · r  r3.
C2  {10, 11, 12, … , 99} and n(C2)  102
The number of sequences of length 3 that do not
C3  {100, 101, … , 999} and n(C3)  103
contain an A will be (r  1)3. Therefore the
and so on to n(C10)  1010.
number of sequences containing at least one A is
n(U)  10  102  103  …  1010. r3  (r  1)3
There is a geometric sequence with
 r3 – (r3  3r2  3r – 1)
a(rn  1)
n(U)  , a  10, r  10, n  10  r3 – r3  3r2 – 3r  1
r1
 3r2  3r  1.
10(1010  1)
therefore n(U) 
9 b. If no repetition of symbols is allowed, the number
n(U)  11111111110. of sequences of length 3 will be r(r  1)(r  2).
Excluding A, there will be (r  1)(r  2)(r  3)
b. Let An represent the set of sequences of length n sequences of length 3.
having unique digits. n  1. Therefore the number of sequences containing at
A1  {0, 1, 2, … , 9}, n(A1)  9 least one A is
n(A2)  10  9  90 (first digit any of the 10 r (r  1)(r  2)  (r  1)(r  2)(r  3)
available digits, for each of these we can choose = (r  1)(r  2)[r  (r  3)]
any of the remaining 9 digits). Similarly = 3(r  1)(r  2)
n(A3)  10 · 9 · 8  720 = 3r2  9r  6.
n(A4)  n(A3)  7  5040
n(A5)  n(A4)  6  30 240
n(A6)  n(A5)  5  151 200

Chapter 10: Introduction to Counting 155


15. Represent the set of arithmetic sequences (x, y, z), (The first, third, and fifth positions can be any of
x < y < z, of length 3 with common difference n by An. the 19 letters, and for each of these the second,
fourth, and sixth positions can be any of the 9
Therefore A1  {(1, 2, 3), (2, 3, 4), (3, 4, 5), … , digits. From the product rule we have (9  19)3
(7, 8, 9)} possible postal codes)
therefore n(A1)  7 n(A)  1 · 9 · 19 · 9 · 19 · 9  192 · 93
 263 169.
A2  {(1, 3, 5), (2, 4, 6), (3, 5, 7), … , (The first letter must be N, one choice, the others
(5, 7, 9)} follow as for n(U).)
therefore n(A2)  5 n(B)  19 · 9 · 19 · 9 · 19 · 9  263 169.
(The last position must be 8, one choice.)
A3  {(1, 4, 7), (2, 5, 8), (3, 6, 9)} n(C) codes using the letter A.
therefore n(A3)  3 Let X be the set not using the letter A, therefore
A4  {(1, 5, 9)}, n(A4)  1. n(X)  18 · 9 · 18 · 9 · 18 · 9
 183 · 93.
Now n(A1)  n(A2)  n(A3)  n(A4)  16. Therefore n(C)  n(U)  n(X)
But each sequence in An can be reversed, therefore the  193 · 93 183 · 93
number of sequences of length 3 that forms an  93(193  183
n(C)  748 683.
arithmetic progression is 16  2  32. The letter N can be in the first position. There will
be 18 letters that can then be placed in the third
16. Let An represent the set of binary sequences of and fifth positions, giving 1 · 9 · 18 · 9 · 18 · 9
length n. postal codes starting with N.
If N is in the third position there will be
Therefore n(A1)  2
18 · 9 · 1 · 9 · 18 · 9 postal codes, and if N is fifth,
n(A2)  22 there are 18 · 9 · 18 · 9 · 1 · 9 postal codes, therefore
n(A3)  23 and so on, to n(Ak – 1)  2k – 1 n(D)  182 · 93  3
 708588.
and n(Ak)  2k.
Now the number of binary sequences of length less c. The number of postal codes starting with N or
ending with 8 is n(A  B).
than k is n(A1)  n(A2)  n(A3)  …  n(Ak – 1) Now n(A  B)  n(A)  n(B)  n(A  B)
 2  22  23  …  2k – 1 n(A  B)  1 · 9 · 19 · 9 · 19 · 1.
(The first and last positions have one choice each.
This is a geometric series with The second and fourth can be any of the
a  2, r  2, n  k  1 9 allowable digits and the third and fifth can be
therefore n(A1)  n(A2)  n(A3)  …  n(Ak – 1) any of the allowable 19 letters.)
Therefore n(A  B)  192 · 93  193 · 92  192 · 92
 2(2k – 1  1) n(A  B)  789 507.
 2k  2
4. a. U  {012, 509, …}
 n(Ak)  2. A  {035, 246, …}
B  {048, 572, …}
C  {037, 146, …}
Review Exercise
b. n(U)  10 · 9 · 8  720.
3. a. U  {A3A2K1, N5C2P2, …} (Choice of 10 digits in the first position, and for
A  {N2R3N1, N4L2N7, …} each of these, 9 digits for the second position and
B  {A3K5B8, N8H8T8, …} 8 for the final position.)
C  {X1Y3A7, P3A4K2, …} n(A)  5 · 9 · 8  360.
D  {N5C2R2, A4B5N3, …} (The first digit is even, so can be any of the 5; the
second digit can be any of the remaining 9; and
b. There are 26  7  19 letters and 9 digits that can
the third has 8 choices.)
be used with repetitions, therefore n(B)  9 · 8 · 5  360.
n(U)  19 · 9 · 19 · 9 · 19 · 9  193 · 93
 5 000 211.

156 Chapter 10: Introduction to Counting


(The last digit must be even, therefore there are 5 7. Let A represent the set of integers that contain the
choices for the last position. The first position has digit 7 and An the set of integers of length n that
9 possibilities and the second has a choice of 8.) contain the digit 7.
The number of sequences containing only odd Therefore A1  {7} and n(A1)  1
digits is 5 · 4 · 3  60. Therefore the number A2  {17, 27, 37, … , 67, 70, 71, … , 79, 87, 97}
of sequences containing an even digit is n(A2)  6  10  2  18.
n(C)  n(u)  60 The number of three-digit integers is 9 · 10 · 10  900.
n(C)  660. The number of three-digit integers that do not contain
a 7 is 8 · 9 · 9  648.
c. A  B  {064, 274, …}
Therefore n(A3)  900  648  252.
n(A  B)  5 · 8 · 4  160.
Therefore n(A)  1  18  252
(The first and last digits must be even, hence there
n(A)  271.
are 5 and 4 choices for these positions. There will
be 8 possible digits for the middle position.)
8. a. The number of three-digit PIN numbers is 103;
the number of four-digit PIN numbers is 104;
5. The number of binary sequences of length 6 that start
therefore the number of PIN numbers available is
with 1 and end in zero is 24 (1 _ _ _ _ 0).
103  104  11 000.
Similarly, the number starting with zero and ending
in 1 is 24 (0 _ _ _ _ 1), and the number of sequences b. The number of three-digit PIN numbers starting
starting and ending with 1 is 24 (1 _ _ _ _ 1). with 2 is 1 · 10 · 10  100 and four-digit PIN
Therefore the number of sequences starting or ending numbers starting with 2 is 1 · 10 · 10 · 10  1000.
with one is 24  24  24  3  24. Therefore the number of PIN numbers starting with
The number of binary sequences of length 6 is 26. 2 is 100  1000  1100.
3  24 3 c. The number of PIN numbers of length 3 that do not
Therefore the required fraction is  .
26 4 have a 2 is 9 · 9 · 9  93 and of length 4 is 94,
1 therefore the number of PIN numbers that do not
(The student’s argument that of the sequences start
2 have a two is 93  94  93 (1  9)
with 1 includes sequences of the form 1 _ _ _ _ 0 and  10 · 93.
1 The number of PIN numbers having at least one
1 _ _ _ _ 1, and that of the sequences end in 1
2 two will be 11000  10 · 93
includes the sequences of the form 0 _ _ _ _ 1 and  10(1100  729)
1 _ _ _ _ 1. The form 1 _ _ _ _ 1 is included twice,  10(371)
1  3710.
which occurs in of the sequences. Hence he must
4
1
subtract from his sum of 1, giving the correct
4 Chapter 10 Test
3
fraction of .)
4
1. U  {1, 2, 3, … , 999}
6. Local telephone numbers consist of 7 digits, the first
selected from the digits 2 to 9, 8 choices. The a. A is a subset of U whose elements are not a
remaining 6 digits can be any of the 10 numbers from multiple of 5.
the set {0, 1, 2, … , 9}, therefore the number of b. A  {5, 5(2), 5(3), … , 5(199)}
usable telephone numbers is 8  106. therefore n(A)  199.
The number of telephone numbers ending in 99 will )  n(U)  n(A)
n(A
be 8  104 (8 · 10 · 10 · 10 · 10 · 1 · 1; first digit  999  199
selected from 8 available, last two digits must be 9, )  800.
n(A
1 choice for each, the other 4 digits can be selected
from the 10 available with repetitions allowed). 2. The Product Rule: If the first of two tasks can be done
Fraction of numbers ending in 99 is in p ways, and for each of these ways, the second task
8 104 1 can be done in q ways, then together the two tasks can
6  .
8  10 100 be done in p · q ways.

Chapter 10: Introduction to Counting 157


3. a. A  B is the set of six-letter words ending in -id b. If the letters are unique then the first position can
or -ic. be any one of 26 letters, and for each of these the
A  B is the set of six-letter words ending in -id second letter can be any one of the remaining 25
and -ic. (This is not possible, hence n(A  B)  0.) letters, and for each of these the third letter can be
any one of the remaining 24 letters, and the fourth
b. n(A  B)  n(A)  n(B) letter can be selected from the remaining 23 letters.
n(A)  4 · 3 · 2 · 1 · 1 · 1  24 Therefore the number of four-letter passwords is
n(B)  4 · 3 · 2 · 1 · 1 · 1  24 26 · 25 · 24 · 23  358 800.
therefore n(A  B)  48.
(For n(A), since the last two letters must be -id, c. The number of passwords with no a is 254.
there is only one choice for the last two positions. Therefore the number with at least one a is
The first letter can be any of the 4 remaining and 264  254  66 351.
for each of these the second, third, and fourth are
selected from the remaining 3, 2, and 1 letters, 8. The paths will be of 4 forms. There is one way of
hence n(A)  4 · 3 · 2 · 1 · 1 · 1 going directly from A to E.
 24. In A _ E, the second letter can be any one of 3 letters,
The argument for n(B) is similar.) therefore there are 3 paths of this form. In A _ _ E, the
second position can be any one of 3 letters and for
4. If A is first, the second letter can be any of the each of these the third position is any one of the 2
remaining 6 letters (B, C, D, E, F, G), and for each remaining letters.
of these selections the third letter is any of the Therefore there are 3  2  6 paths of the form
remaining 5. A _ _ E.
Therefore the number of words starting with A is A _ _ _ E will yield 3 · 2 · 1  6 different paths of this
1 · 6 · 5  30. form, therefore the number of different paths from
Similarly, if B is first there will be 30 words. A to E is 1  3  6  6  16.
Therefore the number of arrangements with A or B
first will be 60. 9. The final digit must be even. There are four
possibilities, 2, 4, 6, 8. If the final digit is 2 or 4, then
5. Binary sequences starting and ending with 1 will be of the first digit can be any of 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and there are
the form 1 _ _ _ 1, of which there are 23. Starting and 5 · 7 · 6 · 2 possible integers. If the final digit is 6 or
ending with 0 will be of the form 0 _ _ _ 0, of which 8, then there are only four possible choices for the
there are 23. first digit, and there are 4 · 7 · 6 · 2 possible integers.
Therefore the number of binary sequences of length 5 The total number of integers is 5 · 7 · 6 · 2  4 · 7 · 6 · 2
that start or end in the same number is 23  23  16.  756.

6. a. A  {2(1), 2(2), 2(3), 2(4), 2(5), … , 2(25)} 10. Let A represent the set of integers between 1 and 1000
B  {5(1), 5(2), 5(3), … , 5(10)} that do not contain a 7, and An represent the set of
Elements common to both sets is A  B  {10, 20, n digit numbers that do not contain a 7.
30, 40, 50}. Stating n(A  B)  25  10  35 has Now A1  {2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9}
included 5 integers that have been counted twice.
therefore n(A1)  7.
b. n(A  B)  n(A)  n(B)  n(A  B) n(A2)  8  9  72. (The first digit can be any of the
 25  10  5
n(A  B)  30. digits from the set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9}, and for each
of these the second digit can be any of the digits from
7. The password is a sequence of four letters from the the set {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9}.)
alphabet with repeated letters allowed.
Similarly n(A3)  8 · 9 · 9  648.
a. The number of passwords is
Therefore n(A)  n(A1)  n(A2)  n(A3)
26 · 26 · 26 · 26  264
 456 976.  7  72  648
(Each position can be any one of the 26 letters.) n(A)  727.

158 Chapter 10: Introduction to Counting