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Chapter 12 • Sequences

Solutions for Selected Problems Exercise 12.1

3. p10  2000
Beginning Exercise
p11  2000 (1.05)  2000  p10 (1.05)  2000
6. If a sequence is both arithmetic and geometric it can p12  (p10 (1.05)  2000) 1.05  2000
be represented by a, a  d, a  2d, … and a, ar, ar2,  p10 (1.05)2  p10 (1.05)  2000
… where a  d  ar.
Then d  a (r  1). p18  p10 (1.05)8  p10 (1.05)7  …  2000
Also a  2d  ar2,
so a  2d (r  1)  ar2  2000  
(1.05)9  1
1.05  1 
2ar  a  ar2
r  2r  1  0 since a ≠ 0
2  $22 053.13
r  1.
The only sequence possible has r  1 and d  0. This 4. An arithmetic sequence with first term a, common
is the sequence a, a, a, a, … . difference d, and having 20 terms is given by a, a  d,
a  2d, … , a  17d, a  18d, a  19d.
Grouping the first and last terms, second and second
7. a. t1  3, t2  6, t3 = 10, t4  15, t5  21. It is not
last terms, and so on, and summing, gives
arithmetic. (a  a  19d)  (a  d  a  18d) 
(a  2d  a  17d)  …
b. In an  tn + 1  tn we obtain a1  3, a2  4, = 10 (2a  19d)
a3  5, a4  6.
In general, an  tn+1  tn 
2a  19d
= 20  .
2 
5. Let the arithmetic sequence be 1, 1  d, 1  2d, … ,
=  n3
n1 

n2
n  and the geometric sequence be 1, r, r2, … .
Then 1  d  r because the second terms are equal.
(n  3)(n  2) (n  2)(n  1) Since the third terms are also equal
=   
2 2 1  2d  r2
n2  (1  d)2.
= . Then d  0, so r  1.
2
Then each sequence is 1, 1, 1, 1, … .
This is a linear function so the sequence is
arithmetic.
6. a. If the new sequence is the square of the given then
gn  (3.2n – 1)2
8. a1  log g1  log a
 9.4n – 1.
a2  log g2  log a  log r
This is a geometric sequence with a  9 and r  4.
a3  log g3  log a  2 log r
..
. b. T1  3, T2  t3  3.22  3.4
an  log gn  log a  (n  1) log r T3  t5  3.24  3.42
an + 1  log gn + 1  log a  n log r and Tn  t2n – 1  3.22n – 2  3.4n – 1.
Then an + 1  an  log r, which is a constant. This is a geometric sequence with a  3 and r  4.
Then {an} is an arithmetic sequence with first term
log a and common difference log r.

Chapter 12: Sequences 175


c. h1  3, h2  t2  t1  9  2  18, 12. a. The first four points in the sequence are (1,0),
(2,2), (3,4), and (4,6).
h3  t3  t2  (3.22)(3.2)  72
hn – 1  tn – 1  tn – 2  (3.2n – 2)(3.2n – 3) b. Since Pn + 1  Pn  (1,2), the slope of the line
segment connecting two adjacent points is a
 9.22n – 5 constant 2. Hence the sequence defines points on
hn  tn  tn – 1  (3.2n – 1)(3.2n – 2) a straight line with slope 2 and passing through
 9.22n – 3. point (1,0).

Then hn  4hn – 1. 13. a. f(x)  2x (1  x)


This sequence is not geometric since h2 ≠ 4h1. f (0.5)  0.5 for all n  2.

7. This is the sequence from question 6 c. Since g2  18 b. x1  0.3


9
and gn  4gn – 1, g1  . x2  f(x1)  0.6(0.7)  0.42
2 x3  f(x2)  0.84(0.58)  0.4872
9. a. At the end of the first month the amount owning is x4  f(x3)  0.9744(0.5128)  0.499 672 32
$5000 (1.0075)  100  $4937.50. x5  0.499 999 785 3.
c. Setting a spreadsheet as indicated, As n increases xn → 0.5.

A c. For any x such that 0 < x1 < 1, xn → 0.5.

1 = 5000 (1.0075)  100 d. For x1  0.5, x6  0.730 959 919 5,


2 = A1 (1.0075)  100 x7  0.589 972 546 8,
x8  0.725 714 822 4,
entry 62 has an amount $89.55. Paying off the debt
x9  0.597 158 456 9
requires 63 months.
x10  0.721 680 702 7,
10. The first seven rows are shown. Numbers satisfying x11  0.602 572 998 2.
an  3n  1 are circled.
It appears that values oscillate from 0.72 to 0.60.
k  1: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 r1  3
k  2: 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 r2  3 14. a. s1  2, s2  4, s3  7, s4  11.
k  3: 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 r3  3
c. Since sn  sn – 1  n, n  2, we can write
k  4: 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 r4  4
k  5: 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 r5  3 sn  sn – 1  n.
k  6: 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 r6  3 Then s1  2
k  7: 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 r7  4 s2  s1  2
s3  s2  3
We conclude that r1  3, r3k  3, r3k – 1  3, r3k+1  4,
for k  1. s4  s3  4
..
.
11. Since a1  a and a1  a2  5, then
sn  sn – 1  n.
a2  5  a. Adding sn  2  2  3  4 …  n
Since a2  a3  5,  (1  2  3  4  …  n)  1
a3  5  a2  a.
n(n  1)
Then the sequence is a, (5  a), a, (5  a), … .    1
2
The general term an is an  a if n  2k
 n n2
. 2
 , n  2.
5  a if n  2k  1 2

176 Chapter 12: Sequences


15. a. fn (x)  g[fn – 1(x)] c. If terms are constant, then fn (x0)  fn + 2 (x0) for

x n  1, 2, 3, … .
f1 (x)  
1x x0 x0
Then   
 
x 1  nx0 1  (n  1)x0
f2 (x)  g[f1(x)]  g 
1x

x 1  nx0  1  (n  1)x0
1x
  x x0  0.
1  
1x
For x0  0 we have the sequence 0, 0, 0, … .
x
 
1  2x d. If terms alternate in value, then f1 (x1)  f3 (x1) and
x
f3 (x)   f2 (x1)  f4 (x1).
1  3x
x
It appears that fn (x)  . x x
1  nx Then   
x 1x 1  3x
To show that it is, we show that if fn (x)  
1  nx and x  0.
x But for x  0 all terms are 0 and there is no
then fn + 1 (x)  
1  (n  1)x alternating of values.
x

1  nx 16. a. a1  1, a2  3, a3  9, a4  27.
fn + 1 (x)   x
1  
1  nx b. For each triangle removed, three new triangles are
x formed from each triangle at the previous stage.

1  nx
 
1  (n  1)x
c. a1  30  1
 a2  31  3.
1  nx
x We assume that an – 1  3n – 2 and use the statement
.
1  (n  1)x from part b to see that an  3an – 1  3n – 1.
x
We can now be sure that fn (x)  .
1  nx d. If a side of the original triangle is 1, the length of a
1
b. y side of the first set of smaller triangles is .
2
Then b1  1
x
1
y= b2   b1
2
4
1
3 and in general bn   bn – 1.
2 2
y=1
 12 
n–1
1 e. Operating repeatedly, we obtain bn   .
x
–4 –3 –2 –1 1 2 3 4
–1 f. Let the original area A1 be A.
–2
Then A1  A
–3
–4 3
A2  A
4
x = –1
3 3 2
A2   A2   A
4 4 
and An  
4 
3 n–1
A.

As n becomes large, An → 0.

Chapter 12: Sequences 177


17. Let the area of D1 be A(D1). Exercise 12.2
At stage 2 three new triangles are formed,
1 100
each  A(D1) in area. 1
9 5. a. A  
100  ai.
 
1 1 i1
Hence A(D2)  A(D1)   A(D1)  A(D1) 1   .
3 3 100 100
At stage 3 12 new triangles are formed, each with c.  bn n
n1 1
(an  A)
1 1
area  A(D2)   A(D1). 100
9 81   an  100A
1 4
Then A(D3)  A(D1) 1     .
3 27   0.
n1

Then by extension, 10

 1 4 42 4n – 2
A(Dn)  A(D1) 1      5  …  n  6. a. 
n1
gn  30  3 –1  3 –2  …  3 –9
3 27 3 3.9 – 2 1 1 1
 1    2  …  9
3 3 3
  
1 4 4 2
 1  1     … .
 
1 10
3 9 9
1 1  
3

 
1  
 1
3 1  
As n → ∞, A(Dn)  A(D1) 1   3
4
1  
9
   .
3 1 10
  1  
5 2 3
  A(D1).
3
 gj  2 1  3n.
n
Let the perimeter of D1 be P(D1)  3. 3 1
b.
j1
At stage 2 we eliminate the equivalent of one side but
add the equivalent of two sides. 8
1 1
Then P(D2)  P(D1)   P(D1)  P(D1) 1     c.  g2j – 1  g1  g3  g5  g7  g9  g11 
j1
3 3 g13  g15
4

 3  .
3  30  3 –2  3 –4  …  3 –14
1 1 1
At stage 3 we eliminate 12 pieces and add  1  2  4  …  14

3 3 3
1
24 pieces, each  units in length.
9
  
1 8
1 1  2
3
4
3
16
Then P(D3)  4       3.
3 
4 2
3


 
1
1  2
3
1
At stage 4 there are 48 lines each  unit in length
9
1
from which we delete  of their length and replace by
3
9
8    .
1
  1  
3
16

1
96 lines each  unit in length.
27

4 2
Then P(D4)   3  
3
48
27

4 3
  3.
3


4
By extension, P(Dn)   n – 1 3.
3
As n → ∞, P(Dn) → ∞ and the perimeter is infinitely
large.

178 Chapter 12: Sequences


60 n
7. 
i1
gi  a  ar  ar2  …  ar59 10. 
i1
(1)i ti  t1  t2  t3  t4  t5  t6  …

 a (1  r  r2  …  r59).  a  (a  2d)  (a  2d)  (a  3d)


120  (a  4d)  (a  6d)  … .

i  61
gi  ar60  ar61  ar62  …  ar119 n
For n even this gives d  d  d  …  d   d.
2
 ar60 (1  r  r2  …  r59).
For n odd this gives  a  d  d  d  …  d
60
(n  1)
 gi
i1
  a   d.
2
 1
Then 120
 . n
 gi r60
i  61
  (1)iSi   S1  S2  S3  S4  S5  S6  …
i1

  a  ar  ar2 + ar3  …
(Note: Do not use sum formula when it is unnecessary.)
(a)[1 (r)n]
8. Sn  9  99  999  …  .
1r
 (10  1)  (100  1)  (1000  1)  …
 (10  102  103  …  10n)  11. a. For the arithmetic sequence an  1  3(n  1)
(1  1  1  …  1)  3n  2.
10 10
10 (10n  1)
   n
10  1
Then 
i1
ai   (3i  2)
i1

10
10 (10n  1)  9n
 .
9
3
i1
 i  20

Every term in 1, 11, 111, … is the corresponding term 10 · 11


in 9, 99, 999, … , divided by 9. Hence  3   20
2
10(10n  1)  9n  145.
sum is .
81 For the geometric sequence
10 (10n  1)  9n 10 10
For k, kk, kkk, we obtain  k.
81  gi
i1
  2i
i1

9. Since nk is the number of binary sequences of  2  22  23  …  210

2 (210  1)
length n with exactly k 1s, then    2046.
1
   
n
n n n n

k0

0

1

2
…
n
represents the
b. We have t1  a2, t2  a4, t3  a8, and
number of strings of length n with 0, 1, 2, … , n 1s. tk  a2k  3.2k  2.
This is all possible strings. But since every element 10 10
can be either 0 or 1 there are 2n possible strings. Then  ti   (3.2i  2)


n i1 i1
n
Then   2k.
k0 k 10
3 
i1
2i  20

 6118.

Chapter 12: Sequences 179


1 1 1
13. Note that     . 16. For gj  ar j – 1, we have
i(i  1) i i1
n
n
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Then              
S 
j1
jgj  g1  2g2  3g3  …  ngn
i1 i(i  1) 1 2 2 3 3 4
1 1 1 1 S  a  2ar  3ar2  4ar3  …
 …        
n1 n n n1  narn – 1.
1 Now rS  ar  2ar2  3ar3  …
= 1  
n1  (n  1)arn – 1  narn.
n
= . Then (1  r)S  a  ar  ar2  ar3  …
n1  arn – 1  narn
n n n
a (rn  1)
14.  (2i  3)2  4
i1

i1
i2  12  i  9n
i1
=   narn
r1
narn a (rn  1)
n(n  1)(2n  1) n(n  1) Then S    .
 4   12   9n r1 (r  1)2
6 2
n (4n2 12n  11)
  . 17. For the sequence defined by tn  n4, define a new
3
sequence with general term dn  tn + 1  tn.
n

 jtj  t1  2t2  3t3  4t4  …  ntn.


n
15.
j1
Then  dj  tn + 1  t1  (n  1)4  1
j1
n
 n4  4n3  6n2  4n.
Now S1   ti  t1
i1
+ t2 + t3  …  tn

n Also dj  (j  1)4  j 4
S2  
i2
ti  t2  t3  …  tn
 4j 3  6j 2  4j  1.
n n n n n
S3   ti 
i3
t3  …  tn Thus 4  j 3  6 j
j1 1
j2  4  j   1
j1 j1
..
.  n4  4n3  6n2  4n
n

 ti 
n
Sn 
in
tn. or 4  j 3  n4  4n3  6n2  4n
j1
n n n n

Then  Sj  t1  2t2  3t3  …  ntn. 6  j 2  4 j


j1 1
j  1
j1
j1

The equality holds.  n4  4n3  6n2  4n


n(n1)(2n1) n(n1)
 6    4   n
6 2
 n2 (n  1)2.
n

 j 3  2 .
n(n1) 2
Then
j1

180 Chapter 12: Sequences


n
Exercise 12.3
18. f (x)  
i1
(ai  bi x)2

n n n
(n1)

2. c. Assume that Sn–1   2a  (n2)d . 
  b x   a b x   a
2
= i
2
2 i i i
2
i1 i1 i1
Then Sn  Sn–1  tn
 0 since f (x) is the sum of squares.

This is a quadratic inequality and hence D  0.


n1
 
=  2a  (n2)d  a  (n1)d.
2
n n n

  ab
2
Then 4
i1
i i
4
i1
 ai2 
i1
bi2  0 n1
= (n1)a   (n2)d  a  (n1)d
2
n n n

 
2 n1
or
i1
aibi  
i1
ai2  bi2.
i1
= na   [(n2)d  2d]
2

For equality, expand using n  2 and n  3 to see


n

=  2a  (n1)d .
2 
that the result is (a1 b2  a2 b1)2  0 for n  2 and Hence if the formula is correct for n  k1, then it
(a1 b2  a2 b1)  (a1 b3  a3 b1)  (a2 b3  a3 b2)
2 2 2
is also correct for n  k.
 0 for n  3.
n(3n1)
In general, one obtains 4. b. If n  1,   1. The statement is true for
2
n  1.
n n Assume that the statement is true for n  k  1.

i, j  1
ai aj bi bj  
i, j  1
ai2 bj2 , Then 1  4  7  …  [3(k1) 2]
i≠j i≠j
(k1)(3k4)
  is true.
n 2
which gives  (ai bj  aj bi )2  0.
i, j  1
Then 1  4  7  …  [3(k1) 2]  (3k2)
i≠j
(k1)(3k4)
   (3k2)
From this ai  kbi for all i. That is, if we consider 2
vectors A  (a1, a2, … , an) and B  (b1, b2, … , bn), 3k2  7k  4  6 k  4
A  kB. = 
2
For n  3, we have, on the left side,
k (3k1)
3
= .
  a b   a   A · B ,
2 2 2
i i 1
b1  a2 b2  a3 b3 2
i1
This is the given statement. Hence if the statement
which is the square of the dot product of the vectors. is true for n  k1 it is also true for n  k.
Since the statement is true for n  1 and when true
On the right side, for n  k1 it is also true for n  k, then it is true
3 3
for all values of n  1.
 ai2 i  bi2  (a12  a22 a32)(b12  b22  b32)
i1 1 d. If n  1, the left side is 2 and the right side is
 A2 B2. 1(2)(3)
  2.
3
We conclude that A · B  A B.
The statement is true for n  1.
Assume that the statement is true for n  k.
Then (1)(2)  (2)(3)  …  (k)(k1)
k(k1)(k2)
 .
3

Chapter 12: Sequences 181


n(n – 1)(2n – 1)
Then (1)(2)  (2)(3)  …  (k)(k1)  (k1)(k2) Assume that the statement an  
6
k(k1)(k2) is true for n  k  1, so that
   (k1)(k2)
3
(k1)(k2)(2k3)
(k1)(k2)(k3) ak – 1   is true.
 . 6
3
For n  k  1 the given statement has right side By the recursion, ak  ak – 1  (k – 1)2

(k1)(k2)(k3) (k1)(k2)(2k3) 6(k1)2


. =   
3 6 6
Hence if the statement is true for n  k it is also (k1)(2k2  7k  6  6k 6)
= 
true for n  k  1. 6
Since the statement is true for n  1 and if true
(k1) k(2k1)
for n  k it is also true for n  k  1, then the = .
statement is true for all values of n  1 by 6
mathematical induction. Then if the statement is true for n  k  1 it is also
true for n  k.
132 Since the statement is true for n  1, and if true for
5. If n  1 we have t1    1, which is
6 n  k  1 it is also true for n  k, then by
an integer.
mathematical induction it is true for all values of
k3  3k2  2k n  1.
Assume that tk   is an integer.
6
(k1)3  3(k1)2  2(k1) 7. a. For n  1, en  0, so the statement is true for
Consider tk + 1  tk  
6 n  1.
k  3k  2k
3 2
Assume that en is an even integer for n  k; that is,
 
6 assume that ek  k2  k is even.
3(k1)(k2)
 . Then ek + 1  (k  1)2  (k  1)
6  k2  k
Since (k1) and (k2) are consecutive integers,  (k2  k)  2k.
3(k1)(k2) is a multiple of 6, then tk + 1  tk is an Now k2  k is even by the assumption and 2k is
integer and since tk is an integer, tk + 1 is an integer. even for all values of k. Hence ek + 1 is even.
Since the statement is true for n  1 and if true for Since en is even if n  1, and if it is even for n  k
n  k it is also true for n  k1, then the statement is then it is even for n  k  1, by the principal of
true for all values of n  1. mathematical induction it is always even.
(Can students prove that tn is an integer by examining
b. en  n(n  1).
the expression?)
Then n and n  1 are consecutive integers so one
or the other is even, and the product is even.
6. For n  1 the expression gives a1  0, so it is true for
n  1. (It is sometimes useful to use a second value
as a confidence check. Here a2  0  12  1 by the

2(1)(3)
recursion and a2    1 by the expression.)
6

182 Chapter 12: Sequences


9. The sum of the cubes of three consecutive integers can The statement is true for n  k if true for n  k1.
be represented by Sn  n3  (n  1)3  (n  2)3 for Since the statement is true for n  2 and if true for
n  k1 then it is true for n  k, then it is true for all
n  1.
values of n  2.
For n  1, S1  1  23  33  36, which is divisible
by 9. 12. The proof is in Section 12.4.
Assume that for n  k  1, Sk – 1  (k1)  k 3 3

13. We give step 2 only.


 (k  1)3 is divisible by 9.
Assume that for n  k the statement
Then Sk  k 3  (k  1)3  (k  2)3
vk  5.2k–1 2  k is true. By the recursion,
 Sk – 1  (k  2)3  (k  1)3
vk + 1  2vk  k  1
 Sk – 1  9(k2  k  1).
= 5.2k  4  2k  k  1
Now Sk – 1 is divisible by 9 and so is 9(k2  k  1).
= 5.2k  2  (k  1).
Then Sk is divisible by 9 if Sk – 1 is divisible by 9.
If the statement is true for n  k then it is true for
Since Sk is divisible by 9 if n  1 and if it is divisible
n  k  1.
by 9 for n  k  1 then it is also for n  k, Sn is
divisible by 9 for all values of n  1.
16. a. Clearly M1  1 since one move suffices.
10. a. We have t1  2 but if tn  n! then t1  1. Hence For two pegs, move the smaller disk to peg 2, then
step 1 fails. the larger disk to peg 3, and then the smaller disk
However, assuming that if n  k, tk  k! is true,
on top of it. M2  3.
then by the recursion,
tk + 1  (k  1) tk b. Assume that if n  k  1 then it requires
 (k  1) k! Mk – 1  2k – 1  1 moves to move the disks
 (k  1)! from peg 1 to peg 2 in the correct order. Then
Hence if the statement is true for n  k it is also for Mk we have the following:
true for n  k  1.
Since step 1 does not hold, we see the importance With Mk – 1 moves we move the top k1 disks from
of both steps in the induction process. peg 1 to peg 2. It requires one move to put the last
disk on peg 3 and then Mk – 1 moves to put the first
11. Using matrix multiplication (k  1) disks on top of it on peg 3.

   
ab
cd
pq
rs
 
ap  br aq  bs
cp  dr cq  ds
, Hence Mk  2(2k – 1  1)  1
 2k  1.
then A       
2a 1
2 10 10 1 0
. If the statement is true for n  k  1 then it is also
a1 a1 true for n  k.
Since the statement is true for n  1 and if true for
The statement is true if n  2. n  k  1 it is true for n  k, then the statement is
Assume that the statement is true for n  k  1. true for all values of n  1 by mathematical
induction.
That is, assume Ak – 1 (k1)a
1
1
0
.
17. This problem was considered in Chapter 1 on
Then A  A
k k–1
A examining what it means to prove a statement. It
illustrates how ideas connect. Here,
 (k1)a
1
1a 1
0 10
t40  41  40  402
 41  40(41)
  
1 0
ka 1
. Clearly 41t40, so it is not prime.

18. This problem was posed in section 12.1. Notice how


nicely mathematical induction cleans up the approach
taken there.

Chapter 12: Sequences 183


19. For proof 1, the use of mathematical induction gives But there are k such groupings, so the sum
a straightforward approach. Notice also that 1 1 1 1 1 k
        …  k > .
tn  2n  3n  n  n(2n  3n  1)
3 2 2 1 2 3 4 2 2
n
 n(n  1)(2n  1). 1
21. For g(n)  
n2 we have t(n)   g(i)
i1
Now n and n  1 are consecutive integers, so one is
1 1 1 1
divisible by 2. Also note that n can always be written    2  2  …  2
1 2 3 n
as 3k, 3k  1, or 3k  2, where k  0. If n  3k it is
divisible by 3, so tn is divisible by 6. If n  3k  1 For n  1, t(1)  1 and for n  2,

then 2n  1  6k  3, so tn is divisible by 6. Lastly, 1 1


t(2)  1   < 2  .
if n  3k  2 then n  1  3k  3, so tn is divisible 4 2
by 6. Then tn is always divisible by 6. The statement is true for n  1 and for n  2.
Suppose that the statement is true for n  k  1;
20. a. We have 2k – 1  2k – 1  0 and
1
2k  1  2k – 1  (2k – 1  1). that is, assume that t(k  1) < 2  .
n1
There are 2k – 1  1  1  2k – 1 terms in the 1
Now t(k)  t(k  1)  2
sequence. k
1 1
 2    2
2
k–1
1 1 1 k1 k
b.  f(i)  k 
2 –1  
2 k – 1  
 1 2 k – 1
2
k–1 k2  k  1
i2 2 
k2 (k  1)
1
… 
2k  1 k2  k
2 
k (k  1)
2

1 1 1
>     1
2k  1 2k  1 2k  1  2  .
k
1
… 
2k  1 If the statement is true for n  k1 then it is also true
for n  k.
2k1 Since the statement is true for n  1 and if true for
 
2k  1 n  k1 then it is true for n  k, then by
mathematical induction it is true for all n  1.
1
 
>  since 2 2k – 1  2k > 2k  1.
2
Exercise 12.4
c. The sum in part b gives an expression for 2k – 1
1 7. The expansion is true for all values of x. Hence it is
terms starting with the term k  in the sum. true specifically for x  1, and since (1  1)(2)n  0,
2 –1
1 1 1 the sum of the coefficients is 0.
Hence we block off the sum S(2k)      
1 2 3

 13 
2 6
1 1 8. The expression is the expansion of     1.
   …  k and note that, from part b, the first
4 2 3
1 1 1 1
term is 1 > , the sum of    > , the sum
2 2 3 2
1 1 1 1 1
       > , and so on.
4 5 6 7 2

184 Chapter 12: Sequences


13. a. The kth term is 24k (a – 1 24 – k
) (3a2)k 
16. (1  x2)(1  x)2n  (1  x2) 1  2nx  2n2 x  …
2

or 24k  3 a
k 3k – 24
.  1  2nx  2n2   1 x2
….

Then for a –15 we require 3k  24  15 and Then 2n2   1  189


k  3. The fourth term contains a –15.
34 2n2  n – 190  0
b. For a10 we require 3k  24  10 and k  .
3
19
Since this is not an integer, there is no term n  10 or n  .
2
containing a10.
Since n > 0 and is an integer n  10.
14. The general term is tk  nk(1) x . k k

19. Let (1  ax)n  1  nax  n2 a x2 2


…
For k  2,
n
2 
 15.
 1  21x  189x2  … .
n (n  1)  30
n  6 or 5 n(n  1)
Then na  21 and  a2  189.
Then n  6. 2
Then (na)2  na(a)  378
a 3
 
10
10
15. a. (z2  2z5)10  
k0 k
(1)k zk z20 + 3k. n  7.
The function is (1  3x)7.

The general term is (1)k 2k 10k  z 20 + 3k


. 20. (1  x)3 (1  x)n  (1  3x  3x2  x3) 

b. The middle term is t6 with k  5. …  r n 3x  r n 2x  r n 1x  nrx  …


r–3 r–2 r–1 r

t6  25 105 z 35
 …     3 
n
r r  1
n
3
r  2 r  3
n

n
x … r

 8064 z35. The coefficient of xr is as given.

c. For z41, 20  3k  41
k  7.
Now, in (1  x)n + 3 the coefficient of xr is  n r 3 .
The coefficient is (1)7 27 107  15 360. These must be equal, and the equality follows.

21. S(x) is a geometric series with a  1, r  (1  x), and n terms. Use


d. For z36, 20  3k  36 this and the sum of the series.
3k  16.
There is no integer value for k, so z36 does
not appear.
e. No.

Chapter 12: Sequences 185


22. Since r and s are the roots of x2  2x1  0, we obtain Setting x  1 in this expression, we obtain
r  1  2 and s  12 .
    
2 1
12
2

12
4  
…
12
12
 212

   1  2  .
n n
Then r  s  1  2
n n
from which       …     2
12 2 12 11
 1.
2 4 12
Determining tk + 1 in each expansion gives tk + 1 in the expression.
30. The sum of all entries in the kth row is (1  1)k – 1.
  2    
n k n k
tk + 1  (1)n – k  (1)n – k  2 Then the sum of all entries to and including the nth
k k
row is
nk 2  1  (1) .
k
 (1)n – k k S  20  21  22  …  2n – 1
 2n  1.
 2 is an integer and t is an integer.
k
If k is even, k+1

  (2x)n – k (x) – k.
n

If k is odd,  2 is not an integer but 1  (1)  0,


k
k  1
31. 2x   
x  k0 k
n

so tk + 1  0. For x3 we have n  2k  3
Then rn  sn is the sum of a number of integers and is itself
an integer.
and nk 2n–k
 672  25  21.

n(n  1)2n – k – 1  25  21.


25. 
n
k

n
k1
n!
    
(n  k)! k! (n  k 
n!
1)! (k  1)!
Now n and n  1 are consecutive integers. Given the
right side, there are only two possible values for n,
n  7, in which case n(n1)  7  6 and 26 – k  24
 nk1
 n!   
(n  k  1)(n  k)! k!
k
(n  k  1)! (k  1)! k  so k  2; or n  8, in which case n(n  1)  8  7
and 27 – k  22  3 and there is no possible value
for k.
 n!  n1
(n  k  1)! k!  Then n  7.

 n k 1. 32. a. In (1  x)m + n the coefficient of xk is m k n.


In (1  x)m (1  x)n we write the expansion as
26. Set x  1 in (1  x)10.

27. Setting x  1, (1  x)12  (1  x)12  212. m0   m1 x  m2 x  …   k m– 1 x


2 k–1

  x  …   x 
Also (1  x)12  (1  x)12 m k m m
k m
1      
12
x
12 2
x 
12 3
 
x …
12 12
x
 n0    n1 x   n2 x  …   k –n 1 x
1 2 3 12 2 k–1

 1   x   x   x  …   x
12 12 12 12 2 3 12

  x  …   x .
1 2 3 12 n k n n
k n
 2 1   x   x  …   x .
12 12 12 2 4 12
2 4 12 In this the coefficient of k, where 0  k  m,
0  k  n, is

        
m n m n m n
 k – 1  k – 2 …
0 k 1 2

   .
m n
k 0
The equality follows.

186 Chapter 12: Sequences


b. If we choose i blue objects from m, where 36. By division, the first five terms in each case are
0  i  k, and k  i red objects from n, we obtain (1  x) –1  1  x  x2  x3  x4  …
(1  x) –1  1  x  x2  x3  x4  …
    
k
m n mn
the expression 
i0 i k–i

k
for the
(1  x) –2  1  2x  3x2  4x3  5x4  …
number of possible subsets. (1  x) –2  1  2x  3x2  4x3  5x4  … .

33. a. If the sequence ends in k 1s they must be preceded 37. S1(x)  1  x  x2  x3  x4  …  xn – 1


by a 0. Then there are n 0s and r – k 1s to arrange
 xn  …
before this 0. This can be done in n r –r k– k xS1(x)  x  x2  x3  x4  …  xn – 1  xn

ways, and this is the number of possible sequences,  xn + 1  …


where 0  k  r. (1  x)S1(x)  1
b. Every one of the above sequences is distinct since S1(x)  (1  x) –1.
the number of 1s at the end changes as k changes.
Hence the total number of sequences is 38. S2(x)  1  2x  3x2  4x3  …  nxn – 1

  
r
nr–k  (n  1)xn  …
.
k0 r–k
xS2(x)  x  2x2  3x3  …  (n  1)xn – 1
But the number of sequences possible for n  1 0s  nxn  …

n  rr  1.
and r 1s is (1  x) S2(x)  1  x  x2  x3  …  xn – 1
 xn  …
Then  
r – k  0  1 
r
nr–k n n1 = (1  x) –1
 
k0
Then S2(x) (1  x) – 2.
…
r   .
nr nr1

r
39. For n  2,

 –21 (x)   –22 (x)


34. This is a generalization of question 22.
(1x) –2  1  2

35. This problem illustrates that, while the symbol nk


counts the number of subsets possible in a situation,
  –23 (x)3
…
the symbol, in a broader sense, generates a number.
Hence it is reasonable to assume that negative values
of n can be used. Using the definition given,
 1  (1) 21(x)  (1) 32(x)
2 2

nk  
n(n1)(n2)(n3) … [n  (k1]
k!
 (1)3 43(x) 3
 (1)4 54(x) 5
…

 1  2x  3x2  4x3  5x4  … .


n(n  1)(n  2)(n  3) … (n  k  1)
= (1) 
k
k!

40. c. (1x) – 3   (1)k 3  kk  1(x) k

= (1)k 
nk1
k
.  k0

  
2k k
 x
k0 k

1 31x  42x  53x


2 3
…

 1  3x  6x2  10x3  …
(k  2)(k  1)
  xk  … .
2

Chapter 12: Sequences 187


∞ ∞

 (1)k     
4k1 nk1 k
d. (1  x) –4  (x)k 41. The assumption that (1  x) –n  x
k0 k k0 k
∞ is true for n  1, as demonstrated in question 37.
 (1)k  
3k k
 x Now assume that the assumption is true for n  t;
k0 k

  
t
tk1 k
1
4
1
x
5 2
2  
x 
6 3
3
x …  that is, (1  x) –t 
k0 k
x.

Now (1  x) –(t + 1)
 1  4x  10x  20x  … 2 3
 (1  x) –t (1  x) –1
 (1)k  3 k k x  … .k

   


k0 k 
t  k  1 xk
1  x  x2  x3  …  xk  …

e. (1  2x) – 4   (1)k 4  kk  1( –2x) k

  
t k
ti1
k0  
k0 i0 i
xk.

  
3k k k
 2 x
 t  ii  1 
k k


k0
Now

412x  522
i0
1 2
x2

(t  1)i  i
k
 

6 3 3
3 
2 x …
i0

 1  8x  40x  160x  … 2 3
  t 0 1   (t  1)1  1  (t  1)2  2  …
  k3 k k

2 x ….
 (t  1)k  k
k

f. (1  3x) –5
 

(1) k
 5k1
(3x)k 
 (t  1) k k  1  from question 33.
k0 k

 

(1)k  4k k k
3 x 
  t k k .
k0 k

  
tk k
Then (1  x) –(t + 1) 
 
5 6 2 2 x.
1 3x  3 x k0 k
1 2
This is precisely what the statement leads us to expect.

7 3 3
3 
3 x …
Hence if the statement is true for n  t, it is is also true
for n  t  1.
Since the statement is true for n  1 and if true for
 1  15x  135x2  945x3  … . n  t it is also true for n  t  1, then it is true for all
n  1 by the induction hypothesis.

188 Chapter 12: Sequences


Review Exercise 6. a. un  (1  0.012  0.008  0.005)un – 1
 100 000
4. a. If {ak}  a, a  d, a  2d, … , a  (n  1)d, then = 0.999 un – 1  100 000, n  1 and
n [2a  (n  1)d] d u0  30 000 000.
An     a  (n  1) .
2 n 2
b. Since 0.001 u0  30 000, which is less than the
This is an arithmetic sequence with difference half number of immigrants, the population will grow.
that of the given sequence. Also
c. If there are 30 000 immigrants the population
Gn  
a(a 
d)(a 
2d) …
(a  (
n
n  1)d). is stable.

Then 7. Since the moves involve the vector (2, 1), after
k moves the point is at the point (2k, k). We require



Gn n a(a  d)(a  2d) … [a  (n  1)d] that 4k2  k2  400, k an integer.
  
Gn – 1 a(a  d)(a  2d) … [a  (n  2)d] k > 8.944.
The point escapes the circle on the 9th move.
 
a  (n
n
 1)d.
8. a. If hn is the height of Dn, then h1  1.
Since this is dependent on n, Gn is neither an 1 1
Now h2  1    h1  
arithmetic nor geometric sequence. 3 3

 
1 1 2 1 2
b. If {ak}  a, ar, ar2, … , arn – 1, then h3 = 1      h2   .
3 3 3
a  ar  ar2  …  arn – 1
An  
n
1 n–1
By extension, hn  hn – 1  
3
. 
a(rn  1) If An is the area of Dn, then A1  1.
 .
n(r  1)
   A  13
1 2 2
Now A2  1   1
This gives neither an arithmetic nor a geometric 3
sequence.
   13  A  13 .
1 2 4 4
A3  1   2
3
Gn  
a  ar
 ar2
…
 arn
n –1
 
1 2n – 2
By extension A  A
n
.
n–1
3



n (n– 1)n
 an r
 13   …  13
2 1 2 n–1
b. hn  1    
3
n–1
  1   
 3 1 n
 ar 2
2 3
3
( )
 a r
n–1
As n → ∞, hn  
2

  13 
This defines a geometric sequence with common 1 2 4 1 2n – 2
An  1     …  
ratio r . 3 3
9
   .
  1  
8
1 n
3
9
As n → ∞, An  .
8

Chapter 12: Sequences 189


9. a. di  ti  ti – 1 Note that while induction provides a proof, it is easier
to note that breaking each term into partial fractions
 (i  1)i  (i)(i  1)
allows a short, direct proof.
 2i.
1 a b
      
b. d2  t2  t1 (2k  1)(2k  1) 2n  1 2n  1
d3  t3  t2 1 1
 
2 2
d4  t4  t3    .
2n  1 2n  1
..
.
1 1 1
dn  tn  tn – 1 Then     …  
13 35 (2n  1)(2n  1)
n
1 1 1 1 1 1
 di  tn  t1.
i2

2

2
…

2

2

2

2
1 3 3 5 5 7
n
c.  di  2[2  3  4  …  n]  (n  1)n  2.1.
i2
1

2
1

2
1

2
1

2

Then 2 (1  2  3  …  n)  n(n  1) 2n  3 2n  1 2n  1 2n  1
n
n(n  1)
and  i  2. 1

2
1

2
i1 
1 2n  1
1 1
10. For n = 1 we have   , which is true.
13 21  n.
2n  1
Hence the statement is true for n  1.
Assume that the statement is true for n  k; that is, 11. We give the main step only.

assume that a. Assume that 3 does not divide xn – 1; that is, xn – 1 is


1 1 1 k not a multiple of 3.
      …     
13 35 (2k  1)(2k  1) 2k  1 Now xn  3xn – 1  1.
is true. For any value of xn – 1, 3xn – 1 is divisible by 3.

Now, if n  k, we have Hence 3xn – 1 is never divisible by 3.

1 1 1 If the statement is true for xn – 1, then it is true for xn.


      …  
13 35 (2k  1)(2k  1) b. x2  4, so the statement is true for k  1.
1 Assume that x2(k – 1) is divisible by 4.
 
(2k  1)(2k  3)
Then x2k  3x2k – 1  1
k 1  3(3x2k – 2  1)  1
    
2k  1 (2k  1)(2k  3)
 9x2(k – 1)  4.
2k2  3k  1 Since x2(k – 1) is divisible by 4, then x2k is also.
 
(2k  1)(2k  3)

k1
 
2k  3

k1
 .
2(k  1)  1
Hence the statement, if true for n  k, is true for
n  k  1.
Since the statement is true for n  1 and if true for
n  k is also true for n  k  1, then by mathematical
induction the statement is true for all n  1.

190 Chapter 12: Sequences


12. We give the main step only. We now give the main step only.
Assume that f(k  1)  2 k–1
 (k  1)k is positive Assume that for n  k,
for k > 5.
k(k  1)
 
2
Then f(k)  2k  k(k  1) 13  23  …  k3  
2
= 2.2k – 1  (k  1)k  2k is true. Then
= 2k – 1  (k  1)k  2k – 1  2k
k(k  1)
 
2
= f(k  1)  2k – 1  2k. 13  23  …  k3  (k  1)3    (k  1)3
2
Since f(k  1) > 0, then clearly f(k) is also.
k  4k  4
 
2
If the statement is true for n  k  1 then it is also  (k  1)2 
for n  k. 22

13. For n  1, the statement is f1  f3  1. Since f1  1 


(k  1)(k  2) 2
  .
2 
and f3  2, the statement is true. If the statement is true for n  k, then it is also true for
For n  2, the statement is f1  f2  f4 – 1. Since n  k  1.
f1 = f2  1 and f4  3, the statement is true.
15. Here is the main step.
Assume the statement is true for n  k; that is, Assume that for n  k the statement is true; that is,
assume that f1  f2  …  fk  fk + 2  1. pk  1  (p  1)f(p) where f(p) is a polynomial of degree
We wish to show that for n  k  1 the statement k  1.
Then if n  k  1 we have
f1  f2  …  fk  fk + 1 = fk + 3  1 is true.
pk + 1  1  pk + 1  pk  pk  1
Using the assumption,
 pk(p  1)  (p  1) f(p)
f1  f2  …  fk  fk + 1  (f1  f2  …  fk) 
fk  1
 (p  1) pk  f(p) [ ]
Now p  f(p) is a polynomial of degree k, since f(p) is a
k
 fk + 2  1  fk + 1 polynomial of degree k  1 and we now have pk added.
 (fk + 1  fk + 2)  1 Hence if the statement is true for n  k then it is also true
for n  k  1.
 fk + 3  1.
If the statement is true for n  k then it is also true
for n  k  1.
19. 1  612  622 2
… 6626
 (1  2)6.

Since the statement is true for n  1 and 2, and if true


for n  k it is also true for n  k  1, by the method 20. (1  x)2n  (1  x)2n
of mathematical induction it is true for all n  1.
 x   (1)k  xk
2n 2n
2n 2n
 
k0 k k0 k
14. Here we are given no formula, so we must determine
one that can be proven true by mathematical
 
n
2n
induction. 2 
k0 2k
x2k, since terms with k odd disappear.
n(n  1)
 
2
(1  2  3  4  …  n)2  
2 Setting x  1 we obtain
12
 
2
for n  1, 13   is true.
  
n
2n
2 22n  0  2
k  0 2k

or 2n0   2n2   2n4   …  2n2n  2 2n – 1


.

Chapter 12: Sequences 191


Chapter 12 Test 5. This can be done by mathematical induction. We give
an alternate proof.
1. Every integer from 1 to 99 inclusive is to be squared. We know that 12  22  32  …  n2
These squares are each to be multiplied by 3, creating
99 new integers, which are to be summed. n(n  1)(2n  1)
 .
6
2. Since gi  ari – 1, gi2  a2r2(i – 1).
Then 12  22  32  …  (2n)2
n
Then 
i1
gi2  a2  a2r2  a2r4  a2r6  …  a2r2n 2n (2n  1)(4n  1)
  .
6
 a2  a2r2  a2(r2)2  a2(r2)3  …  a2(r2)n Now 22  42  62  …  (2n)2
 4(12  22  33  …  n2)
a [(r )  1]
2 2 n
 
r2  1 n(n  1)(2n  1)
 4 .
6
a2 (r2n  1)
 .
r2  1 Then 12  32  52  …  (2n  1)2

4. a. t0  4000  [12  22  32  42  …  (2n)2]


t1  4000 (1.01)  200  3840.  [22  42  62  …  (2n)2]

b. For any given month n  1, we have tn – 1 as the 2n(2n  1)(4n  1) 4n(n  1)(2n  1)
   
amount owing. 6 6
Then tn  1.01 tn – 1  200, t1  4000. 2n(2n  1) [4n  1  2n  2]
 
6
4. For n  1, x1  1, and 21  1  1. The statement
n(2n  1)(2n  1)
is true for n  1.  
3
Assume that the statement is true for n  k  1;
4n  n
3

that is, assume that xk – 1  2k – 1  (k  1) is true.  .


3
We wish to prove that xk  2k  k is also true by
x  1x  k 
12 12 k
12 1
using the recursion. We have 6.  x12 – k 
k0 x
xk  2xk – 1  k  2 12

 2 [2k – 1  (k  1)]  k  2
 
k0
x12 – 2k.

 2k  2k  2  k  2 a. For x4 we require 12  2k  4
k  4.
 2  k.
 
k
12
The coefficient of x4 is  495.
If the statement is true for n  k  1 then it is also 4
true for n  k. b. For x0 we require k  6
Since the statement is true for n  1, and if true for
n  k  1 is also true for n  k, then by the principle
of mathematical induction it is true for all n  1.
The coefficient of x0 is 126  924.
n1  4n2  …  2 nn   nk2
n
7. 1  2 n k
k0

 (1  2)n
 3n.

192 Chapter 12: Sequences


8. Let the sequence be a, a  d, a  2d, … , a  (n  1)d. Cumulative Review Chapters 10–12
Then a1  a3  …  a17 10
10
 a  (a  2d)  (a + 4d) + …  (a  32d)
6. If  ai  20, then 2 (2a  9d)  20
i1

or 2a  9d  4.
9
  (2a  16d) 20
2 20
If  ai  60, then 2 (2a  19d)  60
i1
 9a  72d.
or 2a  19d  6.
Also a2  a4  a6  …  a18
 (a  d)  (a  3d)  (a  5d)  …  (a  17d) 1 11
Solving, d   and a  .
5 10
 9a  81d.
60
11 13
Now 9a  72d  27 Then 
i1
ai      …
10 10
9a  81d  9
so 9d  18 
60 11 1
    59 
2 5 5  
d  2.
 420.
Then 9a  171, so a  19.
9. a. We have x1  4, xn  3xn – 1  2
36
36
Then  ai  2 [2(19)  35(2)]
i1 x2  3(4)  2  10
 576. x3  3(10)  2  28
Note that by comparing the two given statements one can x4  3(28)  2  82.
obtain 9d  18 immediately.
b. In each case a number greater by 1 than a multiple
9. Solution 1.
of 3 is multiplied by 3 and the result is lessened

n
k
is the number of subsets of size k chosen from by 2. Hence it appears that xn  3n  1, n  1.
n distinct elements. Proof by induction.
Identify one element as a key. Then the subset either For n  1, x1  4. The statement is true for n  1.
includes this element or it doesn’t. Assume that the statement is true for n  k; that is,
If it does, we choose k  1 elements from the remaining
n  1 elements, which can be done in assume that xk  3k  1. We wish to prove that
xk + 1  3k + 1  1.
n1
k1 ways.
Using the recursion,
If the key element is not included, then the subset of k xk + 1  3xk  2
elements must be chosen from n  1 elements, which
 3(3k  1)  2
can be done in
k
n1
ways.   3k + 1  1.
If the statement is true for n  k, then it is true for
Then nk  nk  11  n k 1. n  k  1.
Since the statement is true for n  1, and if true
for n  k is also true for n  k  1, then by
mathematical induction it is true for all n  1.

Chapter 12: Sequences 193


10. a. This argument is incorrect because it includes some 12. If 1  r  4 the number of sequences is 0. For r  5,
committees more than once. Suppose, for example,
that A and B are Grade 11 students and x is a Grade the number of sequences is 5! 5r, since from the
12 student. In selecting one Grade 11 student we
can choose A; in now selecting two students from r elements we select five and then permute them.
the remaining 10, we can choose B and X. However, Hence the number of sequences is 0 for 1  r  4
in selecting one Grade 11 student we could choose
B, then choose A and X from the remaining 10.
and 5! 
r
5
for 5  r  n.
This selection also includes all committees of three
Grade 11 students three times.
b. Each committee consists of three Grade 11 students,
two Grade 11 students, and one Grade 12 student, or
one Grade 11 student and two Grade 12 students.
The number of committees is

63  6251  6152  155.


Another approach is to calculate the number of
committees with no restriction and subtract the
number of committees made up only of Grade 12

students. This gives 113  53  155.


11. The only repeated letter, other than s, is e. Consider
sequences of length 7 in two cases; two es are both
included or they are not.
If two es are included, we choose three of the

remaining five letters in 53 ways. There are six


positionings of the ss combination with the first one in
position 1, 2, 3, … , or 6. The remaining five positions
5!
are filled by five letters, of which two are es, in 
2!
ways.

The number of sequences is 6 53 52.!!


If there is no repeat of es, then choose five letters from

six available, and the number of sequences is 6 655!


For eight-letter sequences, if there are two es, the

number of sequences is 7 54 62.!!


If there is only one e included, the number of
sequences is 7.6!.
The total number of sequences is

653 52!!  665 5!  754 62!!  7(6!)


 6  10  60  6  6  120  7  5  360
 7  720
 25 560.

194 Chapter 12: Sequences