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# Chapter 12 • Sequences

## Solutions for Selected Problems Exercise 12.1

3. p10  2000
Beginning Exercise
p11  2000 (1.05)  2000  p10 (1.05)  2000
6. If a sequence is both arithmetic and geometric it can p12  (p10 (1.05)  2000) 1.05  2000
be represented by a, a  d, a  2d, … and a, ar, ar2,  p10 (1.05)2  p10 (1.05)  2000
… where a  d  ar.
Then d  a (r  1). p18  p10 (1.05)8  p10 (1.05)7  …  2000
Also a  2d  ar2,
so a  2d (r  1)  ar2  2000  
(1.05)9  1
1.05  1 
2ar  a  ar2
r  2r  1  0 since a ≠ 0
2  \$22 053.13
r  1.
The only sequence possible has r  1 and d  0. This 4. An arithmetic sequence with first term a, common
is the sequence a, a, a, a, … . difference d, and having 20 terms is given by a, a  d,
a  2d, … , a  17d, a  18d, a  19d.
Grouping the first and last terms, second and second
7. a. t1  3, t2  6, t3 = 10, t4  15, t5  21. It is not
last terms, and so on, and summing, gives
arithmetic. (a  a  19d)  (a  d  a  18d) 
(a  2d  a  17d)  …
b. In an  tn + 1  tn we obtain a1  3, a2  4, = 10 (2a  19d)
a3  5, a4  6.
In general, an  tn+1  tn 
2a  19d
= 20  .
2 
5. Let the arithmetic sequence be 1, 1  d, 1  2d, … ,
=  n3
n1 

n2
n  and the geometric sequence be 1, r, r2, … .
Then 1  d  r because the second terms are equal.
(n  3)(n  2) (n  2)(n  1) Since the third terms are also equal
=   
2 2 1  2d  r2
n2  (1  d)2.
= . Then d  0, so r  1.
2
Then each sequence is 1, 1, 1, 1, … .
This is a linear function so the sequence is
arithmetic.
6. a. If the new sequence is the square of the given then
gn  (3.2n – 1)2
8. a1  log g1  log a
 9.4n – 1.
a2  log g2  log a  log r
This is a geometric sequence with a  9 and r  4.
a3  log g3  log a  2 log r
..
. b. T1  3, T2  t3  3.22  3.4
an  log gn  log a  (n  1) log r T3  t5  3.24  3.42
an + 1  log gn + 1  log a  n log r and Tn  t2n – 1  3.22n – 2  3.4n – 1.
Then an + 1  an  log r, which is a constant. This is a geometric sequence with a  3 and r  4.
Then {an} is an arithmetic sequence with first term
log a and common difference log r.

## Chapter 12: Sequences 175

c. h1  3, h2  t2  t1  9  2  18, 12. a. The first four points in the sequence are (1,0),
(2,2), (3,4), and (4,6).
h3  t3  t2  (3.22)(3.2)  72
hn – 1  tn – 1  tn – 2  (3.2n – 2)(3.2n – 3) b. Since Pn + 1  Pn  (1,2), the slope of the line
segment connecting two adjacent points is a
 9.22n – 5 constant 2. Hence the sequence defines points on
hn  tn  tn – 1  (3.2n – 1)(3.2n – 2) a straight line with slope 2 and passing through
 9.22n – 3. point (1,0).

## Then hn  4hn – 1. 13. a. f(x)  2x (1  x)

This sequence is not geometric since h2 ≠ 4h1. f (0.5)  0.5 for all n  2.

## 7. This is the sequence from question 6 c. Since g2  18 b. x1  0.3

9
and gn  4gn – 1, g1  . x2  f(x1)  0.6(0.7)  0.42
2 x3  f(x2)  0.84(0.58)  0.4872
9. a. At the end of the first month the amount owning is x4  f(x3)  0.9744(0.5128)  0.499 672 32
\$5000 (1.0075)  100  \$4937.50. x5  0.499 999 785 3.
c. Setting a spreadsheet as indicated, As n increases xn → 0.5.

## 1 = 5000 (1.0075)  100 d. For x1  0.5, x6  0.730 959 919 5,

2 = A1 (1.0075)  100 x7  0.589 972 546 8,
x8  0.725 714 822 4,
entry 62 has an amount \$89.55. Paying off the debt
x9  0.597 158 456 9
requires 63 months.
x10  0.721 680 702 7,
10. The first seven rows are shown. Numbers satisfying x11  0.602 572 998 2.
an  3n  1 are circled.
It appears that values oscillate from 0.72 to 0.60.
k  1: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 r1  3
k  2: 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 r2  3 14. a. s1  2, s2  4, s3  7, s4  11.
k  3: 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 r3  3
c. Since sn  sn – 1  n, n  2, we can write
k  4: 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 r4  4
k  5: 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 r5  3 sn  sn – 1  n.
k  6: 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 r6  3 Then s1  2
k  7: 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 r7  4 s2  s1  2
s3  s2  3
We conclude that r1  3, r3k  3, r3k – 1  3, r3k+1  4,
for k  1. s4  s3  4
..
.
11. Since a1  a and a1  a2  5, then
sn  sn – 1  n.
a2  5  a. Adding sn  2  2  3  4 …  n
Since a2  a3  5,  (1  2  3  4  …  n)  1
a3  5  a2  a.
n(n  1)
Then the sequence is a, (5  a), a, (5  a), … .    1
2
The general term an is an  a if n  2k
 n n2
. 2
 , n  2.
5  a if n  2k  1 2

## 176 Chapter 12: Sequences

15. a. fn (x)  g[fn – 1(x)] c. If terms are constant, then fn (x0)  fn + 2 (x0) for

x n  1, 2, 3, … .
f1 (x)  
1x x0 x0
Then   
 
x 1  nx0 1  (n  1)x0
f2 (x)  g[f1(x)]  g 
1x

x 1  nx0  1  (n  1)x0
1x
  x x0  0.
1  
1x
For x0  0 we have the sequence 0, 0, 0, … .
x
 
1  2x d. If terms alternate in value, then f1 (x1)  f3 (x1) and
x
f3 (x)   f2 (x1)  f4 (x1).
1  3x
x
It appears that fn (x)  . x x
1  nx Then   
x 1x 1  3x
To show that it is, we show that if fn (x)  
1  nx and x  0.
x But for x  0 all terms are 0 and there is no
then fn + 1 (x)  
1  (n  1)x alternating of values.
x

1  nx 16. a. a1  1, a2  3, a3  9, a4  27.
fn + 1 (x)   x
1  
1  nx b. For each triangle removed, three new triangles are
x formed from each triangle at the previous stage.

1  nx
 
1  (n  1)x
c. a1  30  1
 a2  31  3.
1  nx
x We assume that an – 1  3n – 2 and use the statement
.
1  (n  1)x from part b to see that an  3an – 1  3n – 1.
x
We can now be sure that fn (x)  .
1  nx d. If a side of the original triangle is 1, the length of a
1
b. y side of the first set of smaller triangles is .
2
Then b1  1
x
1
y= b2   b1
2
4
1
3 and in general bn   bn – 1.
2 2
y=1
 12 
n–1
1 e. Operating repeatedly, we obtain bn   .
x
–4 –3 –2 –1 1 2 3 4
–1 f. Let the original area A1 be A.
–2
Then A1  A
–3
–4 3
A2  A
4
x = –1
3 3 2
A2   A2   A
4 4 
and An  
4 
3 n–1
A.

As n becomes large, An → 0.

## Chapter 12: Sequences 177

17. Let the area of D1 be A(D1). Exercise 12.2
At stage 2 three new triangles are formed,
1 100
each  A(D1) in area. 1
9 5. a. A  
100  ai.
 
1 1 i1
Hence A(D2)  A(D1)   A(D1)  A(D1) 1   .
3 3 100 100
At stage 3 12 new triangles are formed, each with c.  bn n
n1 1
(an  A)
1 1
area  A(D2)   A(D1). 100
9 81   an  100A
1 4
Then A(D3)  A(D1) 1     .
3 27   0.
n1

Then by extension, 10

 1 4 42 4n – 2
A(Dn)  A(D1) 1      5  …  n  6. a. 
n1
gn  30  3 –1  3 –2  …  3 –9
3 27 3 3.9 – 2 1 1 1
 1    2  …  9
3 3 3
  
1 4 4 2
 1  1     … .
 
1 10
3 9 9
1 1  
3

 
1  
 1
3 1  
As n → ∞, A(Dn)  A(D1) 1   3
4
1  
9
   .
3 1 10
  1  
5 2 3
  A(D1).
3
 gj  2 1  3n.
n
Let the perimeter of D1 be P(D1)  3. 3 1
b.
j1
At stage 2 we eliminate the equivalent of one side but
add the equivalent of two sides. 8
1 1
Then P(D2)  P(D1)   P(D1)  P(D1) 1     c.  g2j – 1  g1  g3  g5  g7  g9  g11 
j1
3 3 g13  g15
4

 3  .
3  30  3 –2  3 –4  …  3 –14
1 1 1
At stage 3 we eliminate 12 pieces and add  1  2  4  …  14

3 3 3
1
24 pieces, each  units in length.
9
  
1 8
1 1  2
3
4
3
16
Then P(D3)  4       3.
3 
4 2
3


 
1
1  2
3
1
At stage 4 there are 48 lines each  unit in length
9
1
from which we delete  of their length and replace by
3
9
8    .
1
  1  
3
16

1
96 lines each  unit in length.
27

4 2
Then P(D4)   3  
3
48
27

4 3
  3.
3


4
By extension, P(Dn)   n – 1 3.
3
As n → ∞, P(Dn) → ∞ and the perimeter is infinitely
large.

## 178 Chapter 12: Sequences

60 n
7. 
i1
gi  a  ar  ar2  …  ar59 10. 
i1
(1)i ti  t1  t2  t3  t4  t5  t6  …

##  a (1  r  r2  …  r59).  a  (a  2d)  (a  2d)  (a  3d)

120  (a  4d)  (a  6d)  … .

i  61
gi  ar60  ar61  ar62  …  ar119 n
For n even this gives d  d  d  …  d   d.
2
 ar60 (1  r  r2  …  r59).
For n odd this gives  a  d  d  d  …  d
60
(n  1)
 gi
i1
  a   d.
2
 1
Then 120
 . n
 gi r60
i  61
  (1)iSi   S1  S2  S3  S4  S5  S6  …
i1

  a  ar  ar2 + ar3  …
(Note: Do not use sum formula when it is unnecessary.)
(a)[1 (r)n]
8. Sn  9  99  999  …  .
1r
 (10  1)  (100  1)  (1000  1)  …
 (10  102  103  …  10n)  11. a. For the arithmetic sequence an  1  3(n  1)
(1  1  1  …  1)  3n  2.
10 10
10 (10n  1)
   n
10  1
Then 
i1
ai   (3i  2)
i1

10
10 (10n  1)  9n
 .
9
3
i1
 i  20

## Every term in 1, 11, 111, … is the corresponding term 10 · 11

in 9, 99, 999, … , divided by 9. Hence  3   20
2
10(10n  1)  9n  145.
sum is .
81 For the geometric sequence
10 (10n  1)  9n 10 10
For k, kk, kkk, we obtain  k.
81  gi
i1
  2i
i1

## 9. Since nk is the number of binary sequences of  2  22  23  …  210

2 (210  1)
length n with exactly k 1s, then    2046.
1
   
n
n n n n

k0

0

1

2
…
n
represents the
b. We have t1  a2, t2  a4, t3  a8, and
number of strings of length n with 0, 1, 2, … , n 1s. tk  a2k  3.2k  2.
This is all possible strings. But since every element 10 10
can be either 0 or 1 there are 2n possible strings. Then  ti   (3.2i  2)


n i1 i1
n
Then   2k.
k0 k 10
3 
i1
2i  20

 6118.

## Chapter 12: Sequences 179

1 1 1
13. Note that     . 16. For gj  ar j – 1, we have
i(i  1) i i1
n
n
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Then              
S 
j1
jgj  g1  2g2  3g3  …  ngn
i1 i(i  1) 1 2 2 3 3 4
1 1 1 1 S  a  2ar  3ar2  4ar3  …
 …        
n1 n n n1  narn – 1.
1 Now rS  ar  2ar2  3ar3  …
= 1  
n1  (n  1)arn – 1  narn.
n
= . Then (1  r)S  a  ar  ar2  ar3  …
n1  arn – 1  narn
n n n
a (rn  1)
14.  (2i  3)2  4
i1

i1
i2  12  i  9n
i1
=   narn
r1
narn a (rn  1)
n(n  1)(2n  1) n(n  1) Then S    .
 4   12   9n r1 (r  1)2
6 2
n (4n2 12n  11)
  . 17. For the sequence defined by tn  n4, define a new
3
sequence with general term dn  tn + 1  tn.
n

##  jtj  t1  2t2  3t3  4t4  …  ntn.

n
15.
j1
Then  dj  tn + 1  t1  (n  1)4  1
j1
n
 n4  4n3  6n2  4n.
Now S1   ti  t1
i1
+ t2 + t3  …  tn

n Also dj  (j  1)4  j 4
S2  
i2
ti  t2  t3  …  tn
 4j 3  6j 2  4j  1.
n n n n n
S3   ti 
i3
t3  …  tn Thus 4  j 3  6 j
j1 1
j2  4  j   1
j1 j1
..
.  n4  4n3  6n2  4n
n

 ti 
n
Sn 
in
tn. or 4  j 3  n4  4n3  6n2  4n
j1
n n n n

j1 1
j  1
j1
j1

## The equality holds.  n4  4n3  6n2  4n

n(n1)(2n1) n(n1)
 6    4   n
6 2
 n2 (n  1)2.
n

 j 3  2 .
n(n1) 2
Then
j1

## 180 Chapter 12: Sequences

n
Exercise 12.3
18. f (x)  
i1
(ai  bi x)2

n n n
(n1)

2. c. Assume that Sn–1   2a  (n2)d . 
  b x   a b x   a
2
= i
2
2 i i i
2
i1 i1 i1
Then Sn  Sn–1  tn
 0 since f (x) is the sum of squares.

## This is a quadratic inequality and hence D  0.

n1
 
=  2a  (n2)d  a  (n1)d.
2
n n n

  ab
2
Then 4
i1
i i
4
i1
 ai2 
i1
bi2  0 n1
= (n1)a   (n2)d  a  (n1)d
2
n n n

 
2 n1
or
i1
aibi  
i1
ai2  bi2.
i1
= na   [(n2)d  2d]
2

## For equality, expand using n  2 and n  3 to see

n

=  2a  (n1)d .
2 
that the result is (a1 b2  a2 b1)2  0 for n  2 and Hence if the formula is correct for n  k1, then it
(a1 b2  a2 b1)  (a1 b3  a3 b1)  (a2 b3  a3 b2)
2 2 2
is also correct for n  k.
 0 for n  3.
n(3n1)
In general, one obtains 4. b. If n  1,   1. The statement is true for
2
n  1.
n n Assume that the statement is true for n  k  1.

i, j  1
ai aj bi bj  
i, j  1
ai2 bj2 , Then 1  4  7  …  [3(k1) 2]
i≠j i≠j
(k1)(3k4)
  is true.
n 2
which gives  (ai bj  aj bi )2  0.
i, j  1
Then 1  4  7  …  [3(k1) 2]  (3k2)
i≠j
(k1)(3k4)
   (3k2)
From this ai  kbi for all i. That is, if we consider 2
vectors A  (a1, a2, … , an) and B  (b1, b2, … , bn), 3k2  7k  4  6 k  4
A  kB. = 
2
For n  3, we have, on the left side,
k (3k1)
3
= .
  a b   a   A · B ,
2 2 2
i i 1
b1  a2 b2  a3 b3 2
i1
This is the given statement. Hence if the statement
which is the square of the dot product of the vectors. is true for n  k1 it is also true for n  k.
Since the statement is true for n  1 and when true
On the right side, for n  k1 it is also true for n  k, then it is true
3 3
for all values of n  1.
 ai2 i  bi2  (a12  a22 a32)(b12  b22  b32)
i1 1 d. If n  1, the left side is 2 and the right side is
 A2 B2. 1(2)(3)
  2.
3
We conclude that A · B  A B.
The statement is true for n  1.
Assume that the statement is true for n  k.
Then (1)(2)  (2)(3)  …  (k)(k1)
k(k1)(k2)
 .
3

## Chapter 12: Sequences 181

n(n – 1)(2n – 1)
Then (1)(2)  (2)(3)  …  (k)(k1)  (k1)(k2) Assume that the statement an  
6
k(k1)(k2) is true for n  k  1, so that
   (k1)(k2)
3
(k1)(k2)(2k3)
(k1)(k2)(k3) ak – 1   is true.
 . 6
3
For n  k  1 the given statement has right side By the recursion, ak  ak – 1  (k – 1)2

## (k1)(k2)(k3) (k1)(k2)(2k3) 6(k1)2

. =   
3 6 6
Hence if the statement is true for n  k it is also (k1)(2k2  7k  6  6k 6)
= 
true for n  k  1. 6
Since the statement is true for n  1 and if true
(k1) k(2k1)
for n  k it is also true for n  k  1, then the = .
statement is true for all values of n  1 by 6
mathematical induction. Then if the statement is true for n  k  1 it is also
true for n  k.
132 Since the statement is true for n  1, and if true for
5. If n  1 we have t1    1, which is
6 n  k  1 it is also true for n  k, then by
an integer.
mathematical induction it is true for all values of
k3  3k2  2k n  1.
Assume that tk   is an integer.
6
(k1)3  3(k1)2  2(k1) 7. a. For n  1, en  0, so the statement is true for
Consider tk + 1  tk  
6 n  1.
k  3k  2k
3 2
Assume that en is an even integer for n  k; that is,
 
6 assume that ek  k2  k is even.
3(k1)(k2)
 . Then ek + 1  (k  1)2  (k  1)
6  k2  k
Since (k1) and (k2) are consecutive integers,  (k2  k)  2k.
3(k1)(k2) is a multiple of 6, then tk + 1  tk is an Now k2  k is even by the assumption and 2k is
integer and since tk is an integer, tk + 1 is an integer. even for all values of k. Hence ek + 1 is even.
Since the statement is true for n  1 and if true for Since en is even if n  1, and if it is even for n  k
n  k it is also true for n  k1, then the statement is then it is even for n  k  1, by the principal of
true for all values of n  1. mathematical induction it is always even.
(Can students prove that tn is an integer by examining
b. en  n(n  1).
the expression?)
Then n and n  1 are consecutive integers so one
or the other is even, and the product is even.
6. For n  1 the expression gives a1  0, so it is true for
n  1. (It is sometimes useful to use a second value
as a confidence check. Here a2  0  12  1 by the

2(1)(3)
recursion and a2    1 by the expression.)
6

## 182 Chapter 12: Sequences

9. The sum of the cubes of three consecutive integers can The statement is true for n  k if true for n  k1.
be represented by Sn  n3  (n  1)3  (n  2)3 for Since the statement is true for n  2 and if true for
n  k1 then it is true for n  k, then it is true for all
n  1.
values of n  2.
For n  1, S1  1  23  33  36, which is divisible
by 9. 12. The proof is in Section 12.4.
Assume that for n  k  1, Sk – 1  (k1)  k 3 3

## 13. We give step 2 only.

 (k  1)3 is divisible by 9.
Assume that for n  k the statement
Then Sk  k 3  (k  1)3  (k  2)3
vk  5.2k–1 2  k is true. By the recursion,
 Sk – 1  (k  2)3  (k  1)3
vk + 1  2vk  k  1
 Sk – 1  9(k2  k  1).
= 5.2k  4  2k  k  1
Now Sk – 1 is divisible by 9 and so is 9(k2  k  1).
= 5.2k  2  (k  1).
Then Sk is divisible by 9 if Sk – 1 is divisible by 9.
If the statement is true for n  k then it is true for
Since Sk is divisible by 9 if n  1 and if it is divisible
n  k  1.
by 9 for n  k  1 then it is also for n  k, Sn is
divisible by 9 for all values of n  1.
16. a. Clearly M1  1 since one move suffices.
10. a. We have t1  2 but if tn  n! then t1  1. Hence For two pegs, move the smaller disk to peg 2, then
step 1 fails. the larger disk to peg 3, and then the smaller disk
However, assuming that if n  k, tk  k! is true,
on top of it. M2  3.
then by the recursion,
tk + 1  (k  1) tk b. Assume that if n  k  1 then it requires
 (k  1) k! Mk – 1  2k – 1  1 moves to move the disks
 (k  1)! from peg 1 to peg 2 in the correct order. Then
Hence if the statement is true for n  k it is also for Mk we have the following:
true for n  k  1.
Since step 1 does not hold, we see the importance With Mk – 1 moves we move the top k1 disks from
of both steps in the induction process. peg 1 to peg 2. It requires one move to put the last
disk on peg 3 and then Mk – 1 moves to put the first
11. Using matrix multiplication (k  1) disks on top of it on peg 3.

   
ab
cd
pq
rs
 
ap  br aq  bs
cp  dr cq  ds
, Hence Mk  2(2k – 1  1)  1
 2k  1.
then A       
2a 1
2 10 10 1 0
. If the statement is true for n  k  1 then it is also
a1 a1 true for n  k.
Since the statement is true for n  1 and if true for
The statement is true if n  2. n  k  1 it is true for n  k, then the statement is
Assume that the statement is true for n  k  1. true for all values of n  1 by mathematical
induction.
That is, assume Ak – 1 (k1)a
1
1
0
.
17. This problem was considered in Chapter 1 on
Then A  A
k k–1
A examining what it means to prove a statement. It
illustrates how ideas connect. Here,
 (k1)a
1
1a 1
0 10
t40  41  40  402
 41  40(41)
  
1 0
ka 1
. Clearly 41t40, so it is not prime.

## 18. This problem was posed in section 12.1. Notice how

nicely mathematical induction cleans up the approach
taken there.

## Chapter 12: Sequences 183

19. For proof 1, the use of mathematical induction gives But there are k such groupings, so the sum
a straightforward approach. Notice also that 1 1 1 1 1 k
        …  k > .
tn  2n  3n  n  n(2n  3n  1)
3 2 2 1 2 3 4 2 2
n
 n(n  1)(2n  1). 1
21. For g(n)  
n2 we have t(n)   g(i)
i1
Now n and n  1 are consecutive integers, so one is
1 1 1 1
divisible by 2. Also note that n can always be written    2  2  …  2
1 2 3 n
as 3k, 3k  1, or 3k  2, where k  0. If n  3k it is
divisible by 3, so tn is divisible by 6. If n  3k  1 For n  1, t(1)  1 and for n  2,

## then 2n  1  6k  3, so tn is divisible by 6. Lastly, 1 1

t(2)  1   < 2  .
if n  3k  2 then n  1  3k  3, so tn is divisible 4 2
by 6. Then tn is always divisible by 6. The statement is true for n  1 and for n  2.
Suppose that the statement is true for n  k  1;
20. a. We have 2k – 1  2k – 1  0 and
1
2k  1  2k – 1  (2k – 1  1). that is, assume that t(k  1) < 2  .
n1
There are 2k – 1  1  1  2k – 1 terms in the 1
Now t(k)  t(k  1)  2
sequence. k
1 1
 2    2
2
k–1
1 1 1 k1 k
b.  f(i)  k 
2 –1  
2 k – 1  
 1 2 k – 1
2
k–1 k2  k  1
i2 2 
k2 (k  1)
1
… 
2k  1 k2  k
2 
k (k  1)
2

1 1 1
>     1
2k  1 2k  1 2k  1  2  .
k
1
… 
2k  1 If the statement is true for n  k1 then it is also true
for n  k.
2k1 Since the statement is true for n  1 and if true for
 
2k  1 n  k1 then it is true for n  k, then by
mathematical induction it is true for all n  1.
1
 
>  since 2 2k – 1  2k > 2k  1.
2
Exercise 12.4
c. The sum in part b gives an expression for 2k – 1
1 7. The expansion is true for all values of x. Hence it is
terms starting with the term k  in the sum. true specifically for x  1, and since (1  1)(2)n  0,
2 –1
1 1 1 the sum of the coefficients is 0.
Hence we block off the sum S(2k)      
1 2 3

 13 
2 6
1 1 8. The expression is the expansion of     1.
   …  k and note that, from part b, the first
4 2 3
1 1 1 1
term is 1 > , the sum of    > , the sum
2 2 3 2
1 1 1 1 1
       > , and so on.
4 5 6 7 2

## 184 Chapter 12: Sequences

13. a. The kth term is 24k (a – 1 24 – k
) (3a2)k 
16. (1  x2)(1  x)2n  (1  x2) 1  2nx  2n2 x  …
2

or 24k  3 a
k 3k – 24
.  1  2nx  2n2   1 x2
….

## Then for a –15 we require 3k  24  15 and Then 2n2   1  189

k  3. The fourth term contains a –15.
34 2n2  n – 190  0
b. For a10 we require 3k  24  10 and k  .
3
19
Since this is not an integer, there is no term n  10 or n  .
2
containing a10.
Since n > 0 and is an integer n  10.
14. The general term is tk  nk(1) x . k k

## 19. Let (1  ax)n  1  nax  n2 a x2 2

…
For k  2,
n
2 
 15.
 1  21x  189x2  … .
n (n  1)  30
n  6 or 5 n(n  1)
Then na  21 and  a2  189.
Then n  6. 2
Then (na)2  na(a)  378
a 3
 
10
10
15. a. (z2  2z5)10  
k0 k
(1)k zk z20 + 3k. n  7.
The function is (1  3x)7.

## The general term is (1)k 2k 10k  z 20 + 3k

. 20. (1  x)3 (1  x)n  (1  3x  3x2  x3) 

## b. The middle term is t6 with k  5. …  r n 3x  r n 2x  r n 1x  nrx  …

r–3 r–2 r–1 r

t6  25 105 z 35
 …     3 
n
r r  1
n
3
r  2 r  3
n

n
x … r

##  8064 z35. The coefficient of xr is as given.

c. For z41, 20  3k  41
k  7.
Now, in (1  x)n + 3 the coefficient of xr is  n r 3 .
The coefficient is (1)7 27 107  15 360. These must be equal, and the equality follows.

## 21. S(x) is a geometric series with a  1, r  (1  x), and n terms. Use

d. For z36, 20  3k  36 this and the sum of the series.
3k  16.
There is no integer value for k, so z36 does
not appear.
e. No.

## Chapter 12: Sequences 185

22. Since r and s are the roots of x2  2x1  0, we obtain Setting x  1 in this expression, we obtain
r  1  2 and s  12 .
    
2 1
12
2

12
4  
…
12
12
 212

   1  2  .
n n
Then r  s  1  2
n n
from which       …     2
12 2 12 11
 1.
2 4 12
Determining tk + 1 in each expansion gives tk + 1 in the expression.
30. The sum of all entries in the kth row is (1  1)k – 1.
  2    
n k n k
tk + 1  (1)n – k  (1)n – k  2 Then the sum of all entries to and including the nth
k k
row is
nk 2  1  (1) .
k
 (1)n – k k S  20  21  22  …  2n – 1
 2n  1.
 2 is an integer and t is an integer.
k
If k is even, k+1

  (2x)n – k (x) – k.
n

## If k is odd,  2 is not an integer but 1  (1)  0,

k
k  1
31. 2x   
x  k0 k
n

so tk + 1  0. For x3 we have n  2k  3
Then rn  sn is the sum of a number of integers and is itself
an integer.
and nk 2n–k
 672  25  21.

## n(n  1)2n – k – 1  25  21.

25. 
n
k

n
k1
n!
    
(n  k)! k! (n  k 
n!
1)! (k  1)!
Now n and n  1 are consecutive integers. Given the
right side, there are only two possible values for n,
n  7, in which case n(n1)  7  6 and 26 – k  24
 nk1
 n!   
(n  k  1)(n  k)! k!
k
(n  k  1)! (k  1)! k  so k  2; or n  8, in which case n(n  1)  8  7
and 27 – k  22  3 and there is no possible value
for k.
 n!  n1
(n  k  1)! k!  Then n  7.

##  n k 1. 32. a. In (1  x)m + n the coefficient of xk is m k n.

In (1  x)m (1  x)n we write the expansion as
26. Set x  1 in (1  x)10.

## 27. Setting x  1, (1  x)12  (1  x)12  212. m0   m1 x  m2 x  …   k m– 1 x

2 k–1

  x  …   x 
Also (1  x)12  (1  x)12 m k m m
k m
1      
12
x
12 2
x 
12 3
 
x …
12 12
x
 n0    n1 x   n2 x  …   k –n 1 x
1 2 3 12 2 k–1

 1   x   x   x  …   x
12 12 12 12 2 3 12

  x  …   x .
1 2 3 12 n k n n
k n
 2 1   x   x  …   x .
12 12 12 2 4 12
2 4 12 In this the coefficient of k, where 0  k  m,
0  k  n, is

        
m n m n m n
 k – 1  k – 2 …
0 k 1 2

   .
m n
k 0
The equality follows.

## 186 Chapter 12: Sequences

b. If we choose i blue objects from m, where 36. By division, the first five terms in each case are
0  i  k, and k  i red objects from n, we obtain (1  x) –1  1  x  x2  x3  x4  …
(1  x) –1  1  x  x2  x3  x4  …
    
k
m n mn
the expression 
i0 i k–i

k
for the
(1  x) –2  1  2x  3x2  4x3  5x4  …
number of possible subsets. (1  x) –2  1  2x  3x2  4x3  5x4  … .

## 33. a. If the sequence ends in k 1s they must be preceded 37. S1(x)  1  x  x2  x3  x4  …  xn – 1

by a 0. Then there are n 0s and r – k 1s to arrange
 xn  …
before this 0. This can be done in n r –r k– k xS1(x)  x  x2  x3  x4  …  xn – 1  xn

## ways, and this is the number of possible sequences,  xn + 1  …

where 0  k  r. (1  x)S1(x)  1
b. Every one of the above sequences is distinct since S1(x)  (1  x) –1.
the number of 1s at the end changes as k changes.
Hence the total number of sequences is 38. S2(x)  1  2x  3x2  4x3  …  nxn – 1

  
r
nr–k  (n  1)xn  …
.
k0 r–k
xS2(x)  x  2x2  3x3  …  (n  1)xn – 1
But the number of sequences possible for n  1 0s  nxn  …

n  rr  1.
and r 1s is (1  x) S2(x)  1  x  x2  x3  …  xn – 1
 xn  …
Then  
r – k  0  1 
r
nr–k n n1 = (1  x) –1
 
k0
Then S2(x) (1  x) – 2.
…
r   .
nr nr1

r
39. For n  2,

##  –21 (x)   –22 (x)

34. This is a generalization of question 22.
(1x) –2  1  2

## 35. This problem illustrates that, while the symbol nk

counts the number of subsets possible in a situation,
  –23 (x)3
…
the symbol, in a broader sense, generates a number.
Hence it is reasonable to assume that negative values
of n can be used. Using the definition given,
 1  (1) 21(x)  (1) 32(x)
2 2

nk  
n(n1)(n2)(n3) … [n  (k1]
k!
 (1)3 43(x) 3
 (1)4 54(x) 5
…

##  1  2x  3x2  4x3  5x4  … .

n(n  1)(n  2)(n  3) … (n  k  1)
= (1) 
k
k!

40. c. (1x) – 3   (1)k 3  kk  1(x) k

= (1)k 
nk1
k
.  k0

  
2k k
 x
k0 k

## 1 31x  42x  53x

2 3
…

 1  3x  6x2  10x3  …
(k  2)(k  1)
  xk  … .
2

## Chapter 12: Sequences 187

∞ ∞

 (1)k     
4k1 nk1 k
d. (1  x) –4  (x)k 41. The assumption that (1  x) –n  x
k0 k k0 k
∞ is true for n  1, as demonstrated in question 37.
 (1)k  
3k k
 x Now assume that the assumption is true for n  t;
k0 k

  
t
tk1 k
1
4
1
x
5 2
2  
x 
6 3
3
x …  that is, (1  x) –t 
k0 k
x.

Now (1  x) –(t + 1)
 1  4x  10x  20x  … 2 3
 (1  x) –t (1  x) –1
 (1)k  3 k k x  … .k

   


k0 k 
t  k  1 xk
1  x  x2  x3  …  xk  …

e. (1  2x) – 4   (1)k 4  kk  1( –2x) k

  
t k
ti1
k0  
k0 i0 i
xk.

  
3k k k
 2 x
 t  ii  1 
k k


k0
Now

412x  522
i0
1 2
x2

(t  1)i  i
k
 

6 3 3
3 
2 x …
i0

 1  8x  40x  160x  … 2 3
  t 0 1   (t  1)1  1  (t  1)2  2  …
  k3 k k

2 x ….
 (t  1)k  k
k

f. (1  3x) –5
 

(1) k
 5k1
(3x)k 
 (t  1) k k  1  from question 33.
k0 k

 

(1)k  4k k k
3 x 
  t k k .
k0 k

  
tk k
Then (1  x) –(t + 1) 
 
5 6 2 2 x.
1 3x  3 x k0 k
1 2
This is precisely what the statement leads us to expect.

7 3 3
3 
3 x …
Hence if the statement is true for n  t, it is is also true
for n  t  1.
Since the statement is true for n  1 and if true for
 1  15x  135x2  945x3  … . n  t it is also true for n  t  1, then it is true for all
n  1 by the induction hypothesis.

## 188 Chapter 12: Sequences

Review Exercise 6. a. un  (1  0.012  0.008  0.005)un – 1
 100 000
4. a. If {ak}  a, a  d, a  2d, … , a  (n  1)d, then = 0.999 un – 1  100 000, n  1 and
n [2a  (n  1)d] d u0  30 000 000.
An     a  (n  1) .
2 n 2
b. Since 0.001 u0  30 000, which is less than the
This is an arithmetic sequence with difference half number of immigrants, the population will grow.
that of the given sequence. Also
c. If there are 30 000 immigrants the population
Gn  
a(a 
d)(a 
2d) …
(a  (
n
n  1)d). is stable.

Then 7. Since the moves involve the vector (2, 1), after
k moves the point is at the point (2k, k). We require

Gn n a(a  d)(a  2d) … [a  (n  1)d] that 4k2  k2  400, k an integer.
  
Gn – 1 a(a  d)(a  2d) … [a  (n  2)d] k > 8.944.
The point escapes the circle on the 9th move.
 
a  (n
n
 1)d.
8. a. If hn is the height of Dn, then h1  1.
Since this is dependent on n, Gn is neither an 1 1
Now h2  1    h1  
arithmetic nor geometric sequence. 3 3

 
1 1 2 1 2
b. If {ak}  a, ar, ar2, … , arn – 1, then h3 = 1      h2   .
3 3 3
a  ar  ar2  …  arn – 1
An  
n
1 n–1
By extension, hn  hn – 1  
3
. 
a(rn  1) If An is the area of Dn, then A1  1.
 .
n(r  1)
   A  13
1 2 2
Now A2  1   1
This gives neither an arithmetic nor a geometric 3
sequence.
   13  A  13 .
1 2 4 4
A3  1   2
3
Gn  
a  ar
 ar2
…
 arn
n –1
 
1 2n – 2
By extension A  A
n
.
n–1
3

n (n– 1)n
 an r
 13   …  13
2 1 2 n–1
b. hn  1    
3
n–1
  1   
 3 1 n
 ar 2
2 3
3
( )
 a r
n–1
As n → ∞, hn  
2

  13 
This defines a geometric sequence with common 1 2 4 1 2n – 2
An  1     …  
ratio r . 3 3
9
   .
  1  
8
1 n
3
9
As n → ∞, An  .
8

## Chapter 12: Sequences 189

9. a. di  ti  ti – 1 Note that while induction provides a proof, it is easier
to note that breaking each term into partial fractions
 (i  1)i  (i)(i  1)
allows a short, direct proof.
 2i.
1 a b
      
b. d2  t2  t1 (2k  1)(2k  1) 2n  1 2n  1
d3  t3  t2 1 1
 
2 2
d4  t4  t3    .
2n  1 2n  1
..
.
1 1 1
dn  tn  tn – 1 Then     …  
13 35 (2n  1)(2n  1)
n
1 1 1 1 1 1
 di  tn  t1.
i2

2

2
…

2

2

2

2
1 3 3 5 5 7
n
c.  di  2[2  3  4  …  n]  (n  1)n  2.1.
i2
1

2
1

2
1

2
1

2

Then 2 (1  2  3  …  n)  n(n  1) 2n  3 2n  1 2n  1 2n  1
n
n(n  1)
and  i  2. 1

2
1

2
i1 
1 2n  1
1 1
10. For n = 1 we have   , which is true.
13 21  n.
2n  1
Hence the statement is true for n  1.
Assume that the statement is true for n  k; that is, 11. We give the main step only.

## assume that a. Assume that 3 does not divide xn – 1; that is, xn – 1 is

1 1 1 k not a multiple of 3.
      …     
13 35 (2k  1)(2k  1) 2k  1 Now xn  3xn – 1  1.
is true. For any value of xn – 1, 3xn – 1 is divisible by 3.

## 1 1 1 If the statement is true for xn – 1, then it is true for xn.

      …  
13 35 (2k  1)(2k  1) b. x2  4, so the statement is true for k  1.
1 Assume that x2(k – 1) is divisible by 4.
 
(2k  1)(2k  3)
Then x2k  3x2k – 1  1
k 1  3(3x2k – 2  1)  1
    
2k  1 (2k  1)(2k  3)
 9x2(k – 1)  4.
2k2  3k  1 Since x2(k – 1) is divisible by 4, then x2k is also.
 
(2k  1)(2k  3)

k1
 
2k  3

k1
 .
2(k  1)  1
Hence the statement, if true for n  k, is true for
n  k  1.
Since the statement is true for n  1 and if true for
n  k is also true for n  k  1, then by mathematical
induction the statement is true for all n  1.

## 190 Chapter 12: Sequences

12. We give the main step only. We now give the main step only.
Assume that f(k  1)  2 k–1
 (k  1)k is positive Assume that for n  k,
for k > 5.
k(k  1)
 
2
Then f(k)  2k  k(k  1) 13  23  …  k3  
2
= 2.2k – 1  (k  1)k  2k is true. Then
= 2k – 1  (k  1)k  2k – 1  2k
k(k  1)
 
2
= f(k  1)  2k – 1  2k. 13  23  …  k3  (k  1)3    (k  1)3
2
Since f(k  1) > 0, then clearly f(k) is also.
k  4k  4
 
2
If the statement is true for n  k  1 then it is also  (k  1)2 
for n  k. 22

## 13. For n  1, the statement is f1  f3  1. Since f1  1 

(k  1)(k  2) 2
  .
2 
and f3  2, the statement is true. If the statement is true for n  k, then it is also true for
For n  2, the statement is f1  f2  f4 – 1. Since n  k  1.
f1 = f2  1 and f4  3, the statement is true.
15. Here is the main step.
Assume the statement is true for n  k; that is, Assume that for n  k the statement is true; that is,
assume that f1  f2  …  fk  fk + 2  1. pk  1  (p  1)f(p) where f(p) is a polynomial of degree
We wish to show that for n  k  1 the statement k  1.
Then if n  k  1 we have
f1  f2  …  fk  fk + 1 = fk + 3  1 is true.
pk + 1  1  pk + 1  pk  pk  1
Using the assumption,
 pk(p  1)  (p  1) f(p)
f1  f2  …  fk  fk + 1  (f1  f2  …  fk) 
fk  1
 (p  1) pk  f(p) [ ]
Now p  f(p) is a polynomial of degree k, since f(p) is a
k
 fk + 2  1  fk + 1 polynomial of degree k  1 and we now have pk added.
 (fk + 1  fk + 2)  1 Hence if the statement is true for n  k then it is also true
for n  k  1.
 fk + 3  1.
If the statement is true for n  k then it is also true
for n  k  1.
19. 1  612  622 2
… 6626
 (1  2)6.

## Since the statement is true for n  1 and 2, and if true

for n  k it is also true for n  k  1, by the method 20. (1  x)2n  (1  x)2n
of mathematical induction it is true for all n  1.
 x   (1)k  xk
2n 2n
2n 2n
 
k0 k k0 k
14. Here we are given no formula, so we must determine
one that can be proven true by mathematical
 
n
2n
induction. 2 
k0 2k
x2k, since terms with k odd disappear.
n(n  1)
 
2
(1  2  3  4  …  n)2  
2 Setting x  1 we obtain
12
 
2
for n  1, 13   is true.
  
n
2n
2 22n  0  2
k  0 2k

.

## Chapter 12: Sequences 191

Chapter 12 Test 5. This can be done by mathematical induction. We give
an alternate proof.
1. Every integer from 1 to 99 inclusive is to be squared. We know that 12  22  32  …  n2
These squares are each to be multiplied by 3, creating
99 new integers, which are to be summed. n(n  1)(2n  1)
 .
6
2. Since gi  ari – 1, gi2  a2r2(i – 1).
Then 12  22  32  …  (2n)2
n
Then 
i1
gi2  a2  a2r2  a2r4  a2r6  …  a2r2n 2n (2n  1)(4n  1)
  .
6
 a2  a2r2  a2(r2)2  a2(r2)3  …  a2(r2)n Now 22  42  62  …  (2n)2
 4(12  22  33  …  n2)
a [(r )  1]
2 2 n
 
r2  1 n(n  1)(2n  1)
 4 .
6
a2 (r2n  1)
 .
r2  1 Then 12  32  52  …  (2n  1)2

## 4. a. t0  4000  [12  22  32  42  …  (2n)2]

t1  4000 (1.01)  200  3840.  [22  42  62  …  (2n)2]

b. For any given month n  1, we have tn – 1 as the 2n(2n  1)(4n  1) 4n(n  1)(2n  1)
   
amount owing. 6 6
Then tn  1.01 tn – 1  200, t1  4000. 2n(2n  1) [4n  1  2n  2]
 
6
4. For n  1, x1  1, and 21  1  1. The statement
n(2n  1)(2n  1)
is true for n  1.  
3
Assume that the statement is true for n  k  1;
4n  n
3

## that is, assume that xk – 1  2k – 1  (k  1) is true.  .

3
We wish to prove that xk  2k  k is also true by
x  1x  k 
12 12 k
12 1
using the recursion. We have 6.  x12 – k 
k0 x
xk  2xk – 1  k  2 12

 2 [2k – 1  (k  1)]  k  2
 
k0
x12 – 2k.

 2k  2k  2  k  2 a. For x4 we require 12  2k  4
k  4.
 2  k.
 
k
12
The coefficient of x4 is  495.
If the statement is true for n  k  1 then it is also 4
true for n  k. b. For x0 we require k  6
Since the statement is true for n  1, and if true for
n  k  1 is also true for n  k, then by the principle
of mathematical induction it is true for all n  1.
The coefficient of x0 is 126  924.
n1  4n2  …  2 nn   nk2
n
7. 1  2 n k
k0

 (1  2)n
 3n.

## 192 Chapter 12: Sequences

8. Let the sequence be a, a  d, a  2d, … , a  (n  1)d. Cumulative Review Chapters 10–12
Then a1  a3  …  a17 10
10
 a  (a  2d)  (a + 4d) + …  (a  32d)
6. If  ai  20, then 2 (2a  9d)  20
i1

or 2a  9d  4.
9
  (2a  16d) 20
2 20
If  ai  60, then 2 (2a  19d)  60
i1
 9a  72d.
or 2a  19d  6.
Also a2  a4  a6  …  a18
 (a  d)  (a  3d)  (a  5d)  …  (a  17d) 1 11
Solving, d   and a  .
5 10
 9a  81d.
60
11 13
Now 9a  72d  27 Then 
i1
ai      …
10 10
9a  81d  9
so 9d  18 
60 11 1
    59 
2 5 5  
d  2.
 420.
Then 9a  171, so a  19.
9. a. We have x1  4, xn  3xn – 1  2
36
36
Then  ai  2 [2(19)  35(2)]
i1 x2  3(4)  2  10
 576. x3  3(10)  2  28
Note that by comparing the two given statements one can x4  3(28)  2  82.
obtain 9d  18 immediately.
b. In each case a number greater by 1 than a multiple
9. Solution 1.
of 3 is multiplied by 3 and the result is lessened

n
k
is the number of subsets of size k chosen from by 2. Hence it appears that xn  3n  1, n  1.
n distinct elements. Proof by induction.
Identify one element as a key. Then the subset either For n  1, x1  4. The statement is true for n  1.
includes this element or it doesn’t. Assume that the statement is true for n  k; that is,
If it does, we choose k  1 elements from the remaining
n  1 elements, which can be done in assume that xk  3k  1. We wish to prove that
xk + 1  3k + 1  1.
n1
k1 ways.
Using the recursion,
If the key element is not included, then the subset of k xk + 1  3xk  2
elements must be chosen from n  1 elements, which
 3(3k  1)  2
can be done in
k
n1
ways.   3k + 1  1.
If the statement is true for n  k, then it is true for
Then nk  nk  11  n k 1. n  k  1.
Since the statement is true for n  1, and if true
for n  k is also true for n  k  1, then by
mathematical induction it is true for all n  1.

## Chapter 12: Sequences 193

10. a. This argument is incorrect because it includes some 12. If 1  r  4 the number of sequences is 0. For r  5,
committees more than once. Suppose, for example,
that A and B are Grade 11 students and x is a Grade the number of sequences is 5! 5r, since from the
12 student. In selecting one Grade 11 student we
can choose A; in now selecting two students from r elements we select five and then permute them.
the remaining 10, we can choose B and X. However, Hence the number of sequences is 0 for 1  r  4
in selecting one Grade 11 student we could choose
B, then choose A and X from the remaining 10.
and 5! 
r
5
for 5  r  n.
This selection also includes all committees of three
b. Each committee consists of three Grade 11 students,
The number of committees is

## 63  6251  6152  155.

Another approach is to calculate the number of
committees with no restriction and subtract the

## students. This gives 113  53  155.

11. The only repeated letter, other than s, is e. Consider
sequences of length 7 in two cases; two es are both
included or they are not.
If two es are included, we choose three of the

## remaining five letters in 53 ways. There are six

positionings of the ss combination with the first one in
position 1, 2, 3, … , or 6. The remaining five positions
5!
are filled by five letters, of which two are es, in 
2!
ways.

## The number of sequences is 6 53 52.!!

If there is no repeat of es, then choose five letters from

## six available, and the number of sequences is 6 655!

For eight-letter sequences, if there are two es, the

## number of sequences is 7 54 62.!!

If there is only one e included, the number of
sequences is 7.6!.
The total number of sequences is

## 653 52!!  665 5!  754 62!!  7(6!)

 6  10  60  6  6  120  7  5  360
 7  720
 25 560.