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Direct Speech vs.

Indirect Speech
1. Direct Speech Direct speech, also known as quoted speech, is used when you quote exactly what someone has said. What a person has said should appear within quotation marks and should be word for word. Example: Sally said, I want to go to bed. 2. Indirect Speech Indirect speech, also called reported speech, does not use quotation marks to enclose what someone said. It does not have to be word for word. Furthermore, the word that is optional in indirect speech. Example: Sally said (that) she wanted to go to bed. 3. Direct Speech vs. Indirect Speech Pronoun Change: In indirect speech, the pronoun often changes. Direct Speech Indirect Speech Sally said, I want to go to bed. Sally said that she wanted to go to bed. John said, I am going to the cinema. John said that he was going to the cinema. Tense Change: The verb tense needs to be changed when you report someones sayings.

Direct Speech
Present simple She said, Its a good day. Present continuous She said, I am playing the piano. Present perfect simple She said, I have lived in Macau since 2000. Present perfect continuous She said, I have been learning Spanish for six months. Past simple She said, I went Macau two days ago. Past continuous She said, I was dancing. Past perfect She said, I had finished my homework when he arrived. Past perfect continuous She said, I had been dancing for five

Indirect Speech
Past simple She said (that) it was a good day. Past continuous She said (that) she was playing the piano. Past perfect simple She said (that) she had lived in Macau since 2000. Past perfect continuous She said (that) she had been learning Spanish for six months. Past perfect She said (that) she had gone to Macau two days ago. Past perfect continuous She said (that) she had been dancing. Past perfect She said (that) she had finished her homework when he arrived. Past perfect continuous She said (that) she had been dancing for

Adapted from: English Grammar: Direct and Indirect Speech. Learn English Network. Jan 17, 2010, <http://www.learnenglish.de/>. Murphy, Raymond. English Grammar in Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2004. 2009, Fall 1

five minutes. minutes. Note: It is not always necessary to change the verb in reported speech as long as the situation hasnt changed. For instance: She said, My new job is boring. She said (that) her new job is boring. Modal Change: Modal verbs may also change.

Direct Speech
will She said, I will go to Macau. can She said, I can go to Macau. shall She said, I shall go to Macau. may She said, I may go to Macau. must She said, I must go to Macau.

Indirect Speech
would She said (that) she would go to Macau. could She said (that) she could go to Macau. should She said (that) she should go to Macau. might She said (that) she might go to Macau. had to She said (that) she had to go to Macau.

Adapted from: English Grammar: Direct and Indirect Speech. Learn English Network. Jan 17, 2010, <http://www.learnenglish.de/>. Murphy, Raymond. English Grammar in Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2004. 2009, Fall 2

Exercise One Choose the correct reported speech version of the following sentences: 1. Sally said, I will go to the cinema this weekend. a. Sally said that I would go to the cinema this weekend. b. Sally said that she would go to the cinema this weekend. c. Sally said that she would go to the cinema that weekend. 2. John said, I have stayed here for a long time. a. John said that he had stayed here for a long time. b. John said that he had stayed there for a long time. c. John said that he lived there for a long time. 3. John asked Sally, How long have you lived here? a. John asked Sally how long had she lived there. b John asked Sally how long she had lived there. c. John asked Sally how long she had lived here. 4. She said, I have worked here since I left my last job. a. She told me that she had worked there since she left her last job. b. She told me that she has worked there since she left her last job. c. She told me that she had worked there since she had left her last job. 5. Sally asked John, Why do you want to stay in Macau. a. Sally asked John why he wanted to stay in Macau. b. Sally asked John why does he want to stay in Macau. c. Sally asked John why did he want to stay in Macau. Exercise Two Read the following paragraph, find out the errors and correct them: My grandma gave me a call and told me that I had been sick for three days. She asked me whether could I pay her a visit. I promised her that I will go to her place as soon as possible. When I was on the way, my grandma called me again. I dont want to eat anything. Can you get me some cold medicine? She said. So I went to the drug store for some medicine. However, I was informed that all the medicine was sold out. I could do nothing but to go to another drug store. Still I was told that all cold medicine had been sold out. Did everyone catch a cold today? I asked myself. It took me three hours to get a bottle of cold medicine. When I got to my grandmas house, she was very worried and asked me why I took so long to get there.

Adapted from: English Grammar: Direct and Indirect Speech. Learn English Network. Jan 17, 2010, <http://www.learnenglish.de/>. Murphy, Raymond. English Grammar in Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2004. 2009, Fall 3