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www.elsevier.com/locate/jcsr

Remaining capacity assessment of corrosion damaged beams

using minimum curves

R. Rahgozar

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Kerman, Kerman, P.O. Box: 76169-133, Iran

Received 29 September 2007; accepted 10 February 2008

Abstract

The number of exposed steelwork structures used in various industries is steadily increasing as a result of building new structures and extending

the life of older structures. Most of these structures are subjected to corrosion due to environmental exposure which can reduce their carrying

capacity. Corrosion damage is a serious problem for these structures. Current assessment methods of corrosion damaged steelwork involve visual

inspection which tends to be used very conservatively. There is a need for more accurate assessment method which can be used to make reliable

decisions affecting the cost and safety. In this paper, various forms of corrosion are reviewed along with how uniform corrosion affects steel

structures. Corrosion decay models are developed based on the information on the locations where corrosion occurs. The effects of corrosion on

steel beams are analyzed by evaluating the remaining capacity with regard to bending stresses, shear failure, lateral torsional buckling, and bearing

failure. Four samples of corrosion damaged beams, which were removed from a chemical works, were measured for their thickness loss and then

subjected to load test for their ultimate capacities. The failure loads of the beams are compared with the calculated capacities of various corrosion

damage models. In order to estimate the percentage remaining capacity of corrosion damaged I-beams, minimum curves for different types of

universal beams which are developed can be used in conjunction with the information on the thickness loss.

c 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd

Keywords: Corrosion; Damaged beam; Minimum curves; Remaining capacity

1. Introduction

Corrosion of steel structures is a serious problem

throughout the world. Many of these structures are undergoing

deterioration due to corrosion. The deterioration of steel

structures has become a very important issue. In the USA,

40% of the bridges are built of steel. Many of these bridges

are deteriorating due to corrosion caused by aggressive

environments and inadequate maintenance Kayser [1]. In

the UK the petrol-chemical industry has been using steel

extensively as the primary structural material for structures

such as pipe bridges, frame support for vessels and process

equipment. Many of these structures have reached nearly

50 years of service life are in a severely deteriorated condition

due to aggressive environments combined with their age [2].

As a consequence, inspection, maintenance and repair are

becoming increasingly complex and costly because of the

E-mail address: rahgozar@mail.uk.ac.ir.

need to keep important manufacturing processes in continuous

operation. The cost of closing down plants and consequent loss

of production of a continuous process may be very high. This

cost should, if possible, be compared with costs arising from

structural failure. The latter may also be very high depending

on the nature of the materials being processed, whether they are

toxic, explosive, inammable, or alternatively, relatively less

hazardous.

Currently deteriorated structures are visually inspected and

categorized into four condition categories according to the

level of deterioration [3]. The categories with most severe

condition are then subjected to design checks using section

properties based on the measured section sizes. Although these

practices appear to be reasonably safe, on the one hand they

may be conservative while on the other hand there may be

critical details which receive insufcient attention. Therefore,

a more precise method of evaluation of remaining capacity of

deteriorated structures will be an advantage in terms of cost and

safety.

0143-974X/$ - see front matter c 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd

doi:10.1016/j.jcsr.2008.02.004

300 R. Rahgozar / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 65 (2009) 299307

(a) Uniform thickness loss (Model 1).

(b) Varying thickness loss (Model 2).

Fig. 1. Corrosion decay models simulated by reducing the thickness of element (uniform and varying thickness loss).

2. Corrosion of steel structures

2.1. Forms of corrosion

Steel has been used extensively throughout the world for

the construction of buildings, bridges, factories, etc. In order to

produce steel, iron ores must be processed. During the process

of metal extraction, it consumes a large amount of energy to

separate the metal from ore. In the natural environment, it has

a tendency to oxidize to a form similar to its natural state

under the inuence of air and water. This deterioration process

is known as corrosion. Corrosion may appear in many forms.

These forms are classied according to how the corrosion

attacks the metal. The types of metal corrosion which occur

in different types of steel structures are uniform corrosion,

pitting corrosion, crevice corrosion, stress corrosion, galvanic

corrosion and corrosion fatigue.

Uniform corrosion is the formation of oxide, distributed

uniformly over an exposed surface. This is the most common

form of the corrosion, which will lead to the gradual thinning of

members, accordingly for the greatest destruction of metal [4].

Also it has been pointed out by Kayser [1] that this type

of corrosion is the most serious form of corrosion observed

on steel bridge. The rate of uniform corrosion loss is highly

variable, depending on conditions such as temperature, time of

wetness, and chemistry.

If the corrosion is concentrated in small area it may form a

pit at the metal surface. This form of corrosion can be serious

in high-stress region because it can penetrate into the metal

showing little evidence of its existence [5]. Pits will form

imperfections on the metal surface and these imperfections will

act as stress concentrations, reducing the fatigue capacity of

the metal and increasing the metals sensitivity to cracking [6].

Pitting is random in nature and occurs quickly. Pitting may be

initiated by external factors, e.g. where external deposits such

as debris and de-icing salts have settled on the metal surface.

Pitting corrosion is prone to occur in certain environments,

particularly in the presence of salt. For more details about all

types of corrosion refer to Fontana [4].

2.2. Corrosion pattern

The main critical factor corrosion of steel is the local

environment. Another important aspect is the occurrence of

various forms of corrosion. The most common form is the

general surface corrosion which causes the gradual thinning of

members. Corrosion of steel occurs on the surface where water

and contaminants can accumulate. Detailed measurements

of corrosion penetration lead to the following conclusions

concerning the corrosion pattern of an I-beam [1]; as shown

in Fig. 1:

1. The top surface of the bottom ange and the bottom part of

the web (0.25h

w

) are the places where the severest corrosion

takes place.

2. Corrosion takes place on the surface of the top ange but not

to the extent of bottom ange.

3. Corrosion also takes place in the top part of the web (0.75h

w

)

but the loss is very much less compared to that bottom part

of the web.

R. Rahgozar / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 65 (2009) 299307 301

Table 1

Average measured thickness of samples of corrosion damaged beams

Element As-new Beam 1 Beam 2 Beam 3 Beam 4

Top ange (T

T

) 10.20 7.45 7.81 7.23 7.83

Bottom ange (T

B

) 10.20 5.62 5.85 4.84 7.61

Average ange thickness (T) 10.20 6.54 6.83 6.04 7.72

Average thickness loss of (T) 0.00 3.66 3.37 4.16 2.48

%Average thickness loss of (T) 0.00 35.9 33.0 40.8 24.3

Upper part of web, 0.75h

w

, (t

U

) 6.10 5.63 5.74 5.45 5.84

Lower part of web, 0.25h

w

, (t

L

) 6.10 3.16 4.32 3.18 4.74

Average web thickness (t ) 6.10 5.01 5.39 4.88 5.57

Average thickness loss of (t ) 0.00 1.09 0.71 1.22 0.53

%Average thickness loss of (t ) 0.00 17.8 11.7 20.0 8.77

Average stiffener thickness (t

S

) 9.53 8.55 8.66 8.63 8.71

Average thickness loss of (t

S

) 0.00 0.98 0.87 0.90 0.82

%Average thickness loss of (t

S

) 0.00 10.3 9.13 9.44 8.60

All measurements are in millimeters

4. In the initial stages of corrosion, corrosion penetration may

be taken uniform everywhere.

The top surface of the top ange can also accumulate

contaminants due to spillage from tanks especially in chemical

industries. This would cause the corrosion of the top surface

of the top ange as well, but may not be to the extent of the

bottom ange. Loss of material in the web near the supports

may also occur because of the leakage from the top. Visual

examination and measurement of the thickness of four corroded

I-beam obtained from a chemical industry also indicated that

the corrosion pattern is similar to what is described above.

2.3. The effects of corrosion damage

The main effects of corrosion on steel structures can be loss

of material fromthe surface which leads to thinner sections, loss

of material strength and accumulation of corrosion products

(rust) on the surface. The section properties of a member, such

as second moment of area, area, radius of gyration, etc., would

be reduced due to loss of material, thus causing a reduction

in the carrying capacity of the structure. There is a danger of

crevice corrosion in bolted joints which will lead to loss of area

of the bolts.

The class of a section (plastic, compact, semi-compact, or

slender) may be changed from one to another due to the loss

of thickness of compression ange and web due to corrosion.

For example, a section that is plastic or compact at its as new

condition may become semi-compact due to loss of thickness

and local buckling may prevent the development of full plastic

moment [7] in such cases.

3. Development of minimum curves

3.1. Analysis of corrosion damaged beams

A steel member subjected to bending can fail in different

ways depending on the governing factor. The main mode of

failures can be:

(1) The webs, which carry shear forces, can fail in shear.

(2) Excessive yielding of steel under direct stresses.

(3) Lateral torsional buckling.

(4) Bearing failure can occur in the web near the support or at

the loads.

In order to estimate the percentage remaining capacity of

corroded I-beams with regard to all the above mentioned failure

modes, an analysis was carried out on a corrosion damaged

model which is simulated by reducing the thickness of anges

and webs. Four identical universal beams (305165 UB 40 kg)

were recovered from the site of a chemical plant undergoing

demolition. The beams formed corner supports for a steel

tank, all in severely corroded condition (nearly 30 years old).

The thicknesses of these beams were measured. The measured

thicknesses of the elements are given in Table 1. As many

readings as possible (up to 200 readings for each element) were

taken in order to increase the accuracy of the measurements. It

will be noted in Table 1 that the loss of thickness on average

was more signicant in the ange than the web. The loss of

thickness of ange and web in this model were in similar

proportion to the thickness loss of the corrode beams obtained

from ICI Ltd as shown in the Fig. 1.

The beams obtained from ICI Ltd have a cut-out at one end

of the top ange. These beams are called coped beams and the

lateral end restraint is considerably reduced because rotation

of the ange in plan is not resisted at the coped end. Lateral

torsional buckling is the most important failure mechanism for

these coped beams. The method of assessment proposed by

Cheng et al. [8] was used in this case. BS 5950 was used for the

assessment of the moment capacity, which is mainly dependent

on the yield strength of the steel and the ange area [7].

Failure of the web due to shear was the next most signicant

failure mechanism. The effect of varying web thickness and

the effect of uniform thickness loss were calculated based on

BS 5950 [4]. The buckling capacity of web was estimated by

using the method proposed for the local buckling of plates by

Johnston [9] and Timoshenko et al. [10]. The edge conditions

for the web were considered as simply supported. The web

bearing capacity and stiffener buckling capacity were estimated

using BS 5950 [7]. The results obtained from the theoretical

302 R. Rahgozar / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 65 (2009) 299307

(a) Geometry of a web panel. (b) Buckled shape.

Fig. 2. Web buckling due to pure shear.

Table 2

Results obtained from the theoretical analysis of samples of corrosion damaged

beams

Beam no. Thickness

loss/mm

Ultimate load/kN

Moment Shear Bearing Lateral

torsional

buckling

As-new 0.00 672.2 667.1 857.1 523.9

Beam1 3.94 404.7 233.4 667.7 212.1

Beam2 3.65 424.7 348.9 716.7 240.5

Beam3 4.51 377.9 212.7 655.7 170.5

Beam4 2.63 471.7 462.6 742.8 340.4

analysis of samples of corrosion damaged beams are given in

Table 2.

3.2. Shear capacity

The shear capacity of corroded beams can be evaluated using

BS 5950: Part 1: 1985 [7]. The shear capacity of a section is

dependent on the slenderness of the web which in turn depends

on the depth to thickness ratio, d/t . The code recommends that

when d/t exceeds 63 it should be checked for shear buckling

in accordance with BS 5950. This shows that can be an

important factor on the shear capacity. The equation for

which is given by =

_

_

275/P

y

_

, shows that the design

strength, p

y

, can be an important factor on the shear capacity.

The code recommendations for the shear capacity without using

tension eld action were based on the theory of buckling of

plates [9,10].

The shear stress at which the web buckles can be predicted

from plate buckling theory [10]. It is assumed that all four edges

of the web are simply supported. As shown in Fig. 2, the elastic

critical web buckling stress,

cr

, is given by:

cr

= k

_

2

E

12

_

1

2

_

(d/t )

2

_

(1)

where k is given by [9]:

k = 4.00 +

5.34

2

for 1 (2a)

k = 5.34 +

4

2

for > 1 (2b)

where = a/d as shown in Fig. 2. If the numerical values for

= 0.3, E = 205 KN/mm

2

and each of the Eqs. (2a) and (2b)

substituted into Eq. (1) separately, then:

cr

=

_

0.75 +

1

(a/d)

2

__

1000

(d/t )

_

2

for 1 (3a)

cr

=

_

1 +

0.75

(a/d)

2

__

1000

(d/t )

_

2

for > 1. (3b)

The code uses the notation, q

e

, instead of

cr

for the elastic

critical shear stress. The code identies three modes of behavior

of webs. The rst is where the web strength is governed by

its ultimate web capacity, i.e. 0.6p

yw

, the third is where the

capacity is solely governed by the elastic critical shear stress,

q

e

, and the intermediate stage is where an interaction occurs

between the rst and third behaviors. The divisions between

the three modes are quantied by equivalent web slenderness

factor.

w

, which is given by:

w

=

_

0.6P

yw

q

e

_

1/2

. (4)

The code gives the critical shear strength, q

cr

, of a web panel

as follows:

q

cr

= 0.6p

yw

for

w

0.8 (5a)

q

cr

= 0.6p

yw

[1 0.8 (

w

0.8)] for 0.8 <

w

< 1.25 (5b)

q

cr

= q

e

for

w

1.25. (5c)

3.3. Effect of corrosion on shear capacity

The corrosion in the web and anges results in the reduction

in shear capacity. In addition, the class of a section may be

changed from one to another due to the loss of thickness of web.

For example, an element that is plastic or compact at its as new

condition may become semi-compact due to loss of thickness.

The code recommends that when d/t exceeds 63 it should be

checked for shear buckling. The web thickness of a corroded

beam can be uniform at the initial stages of corrosion. If webs

of corrosion damaged beams vary in thickness signicantly,

the shear capacity should be calculated from rst principles

assuming elastic behavior. In sections where the variation in the

web thickness due to corrosion is small, average web thickness

may be used for evaluating the shear capacity.

The aim of this study is to obtain minimum curves for

the percentage remaining shear capacity that can be caused to

predict the shear capacity of corroded beams. This minimum

curve can be obtained by identifying the worst possible case.

The Eq. (3b) shows that a minimum q

e

can be obtained when

= a/d is large or innitive, i.e. when no stiffener is provided.

R. Rahgozar / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 65 (2009) 299307 303

Using Eqs. (3b) and (4) and a/d = , it can be shown that,

d

t

= 62.3 for

w

= 0.8 (6a)

d

t

= 97.3 for

w

= 1.25. (6b)

Therefore, using the above information and taking into account

the fact that corrosion may change the class of an element, two

main categories of sections in terms of d/t are considered for

the development of minimum curves for the shear capacity. The

two categories are given below:

Category 1 sections with d/t 63

Category 2 sections with d/t > 63.

3.4. Minimum curves for shear capacity

The category 1 (C1) sections are considered rst to analyze

and possibly identify minimum curves that can be used to

estimate the remaining shear capacity of corroded beams.

Although the corrosion reduces the thickness of a web, some

sections which have lowest value of d/t at their as new

condition may remain as C1 throughout or part of their service

life. For C1 beams, the shear capacity, P

N

, is given by:

P

N

= 0.6p

y

D t for as new section. (7)

Shear capacity of a rolled I-beam,

P

C

= 0.6p

y

A

C

for corroded section (8)

where A

and t d for welded I-sections. For corroded I-beams of the same

section size, the depth, D and d can be taken as constant

throughout its service life. The percentage remaining shear

capacity (%RSC) of a corroded beam is the ratio of the capacity

of the corroded beam (P

C

) to the capacity of the beam at its as

new condition (P

N

).

%RSC = 100

_

P

vC

P

vN

_

. (9)

Using Eq. (8),

P

N

= 0.6p

yw

Dt

N

(10)

P

C

= 0.6p

yw

Dt

C

, (11)

where t

N

and t

C

are web thicknesses at its as new condition and

corroded state respectively. By substituting Eqs. (10) and (11)

into Eq. (9), the percentage remaining shear capacity (%RSC)

is given by:

%RSC = 100

_

t

C

t

N

_

. (12)

Eq. (12) can be given in another form in terms of the percentage

loss of web thickness (%LWT) as follows:

%RSC 100

_

1

t

N

t

C

t

N

_

(13)

%RSC 100 %LWT. (14)

Therefore, the percentage remaining shear capacity curve of

sections that are C1 at their as new condition and remain the

same throughout their service life will be a straight line with

a slope of approximately 1. In this case, the Eq. (14) can be

used as the minimum curve for the remaining shear capacity of

sections that are C1 ate their as new condition and remain the

same throughout or part of their service life, as the percentage

remaining shear capacity is a function of percentage loss of web

thickness alone.

Minimum curves may also be obtained using another

approach. If the percentage remaining capacity of a beam with

regard to a particular failure mode against the loss of thickness

is plotted, we will get a curve which gives the relationship

between them. If this is repeated for all of the available

I-section, we will get a number of curves from which we should

be able to identify the curve that gives the lowest value of

remaining capacity. This curve can be taken as the minimum

curve for that particular failure mode and can be used to

estimate the percentage remaining capacity with regard to that

particular failure mode. The estimates will be conservatives

for some sections since we considered the worst case as the

minimum curve.

Based on the above approach a family of sections was

analyzed to study the behavior of the percentage remaining

shear capacity of corroded beams. The design strength was

chosen such that all the sections remain as C1. The results are

shown in Fig. 3.

It can be seen from Fig. 3 that the percentage remaining

shear capacity curves of beams that are C1 at their as new

condition and remain the same throughout their service life

are straight lines with slopes of approximately 1 as predicted

earlier. The section with the lowest value of d/t gives the

minimum curve for the family when they remain as C1 beams.

Based on the above observation, sections with the least value

of d/t from each of the families were analyzed to obtain a

minimum curve for the sections that are C1 at their as new

condition and remain the same throughout or part of their

service life. The results for ve sections are shown in Fig. 4.

The Fig. 4 shows that the section with the lowest value of

d/t gives the minimum curves for the whole range of beams

that are C1 at their as new condition and remain the same

throughout or part of their service life. As predicted earlier, the

minimum curve is a straight line with a slope of approximately

1. The variation in the percentage remaining shear capacity

of beams with the maximum and minimum of d/t is very

negligible (<1%).

In order to verify the effect of design strength on the

percentage remaining shear capacity of corroded beams, a

universal beam, UB 16, was analyses. Four cases were

considered by varying the design strength from 245 to

450 N/mm

2

and using the same section size. The results from

the analysis are shown in Fig. 5. It can be seen from Fig. 5

that the effect of design strength on the percentage remaining

shear capacity is quite considerable. When the design strength

increases the percentage remaining shear capacity of the section

is decreases. The highest value of the design strength gives the

minimum curve for the section.

304 R. Rahgozar / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 65 (2009) 299307

Fig. 3. Behavior of a family that remains as C1.

Fig. 4. Sections with the least value of d/t from ve families.

Fig. 5. Effect of design strength on percentage remaining shear capacity.

These analyses show that it is possible to obtain minimum

curves that can be used to estimate the percentage remaining

shear capacity of corrosion damaged beams with considerable

accuracy. By repeating the above analysis, taking into account

the effect of design strength on the percentage remaining shear

capacity and the effect of corrosion on the class of section,

R. Rahgozar / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 65 (2009) 299307 305

Fig. 6. Minimum curves to estimate the remaining shear capacity of corroded

beams with uniform loss of web thickness.

Fig. 7. Minimum curves to estimate the remaining shear capacity of corroded

beams with varying loss of web thickness.

minimum curves were obtained for the cases described below

and are given in Figs. 6 and 7. Alternatively these results can be

formulated as below:

I. Uniform or average web thickness

A. Sections that are C1 at their as new condition and

remains the same throughout or part of their service life

(C1),

B. Sections that are C1 at their as new condition and

become C2 due to corrosion and P

y

= 245 (C1 and C2;

P

y

= 245),

C. Sections that are C1 at their as new condition and

become C2 due to corrosion and 245 P

y

275 (C1

and C2; P

y

= 275),

D. Sections that are C1 at their as new condition and

become C2 due to corrosion and 275 P

y

355 (C1

and C2; P

y

= 355),

E. Sections that are C2 at their as new condition and 355

P

y

450 (C2; P

y

= 450).

II. Varying web thickness

Fig. 8. Minimum curves to estimate the remaining moment capacity of

corrosion damaged beams.

A. Sections that are C1 at their as new condition and remain

the same throughout their service life or become C2

due to corrosion and P

y

< 275 (C1 or C1 and C2;

P

y

< 275),

B. Sections that are C1 at their as new condition and

become C2 due to corrosion and P

y

> 275 or section

that are C2 at their as new condition (C1 and C2 or C2;

P

y

> 275).

Using the similar approaches, minimum curves can be

developed to estimate the remaining capacity of corroded

beams with regard to other failure modes.

3.5. Minimum curves for remaining moment capacity

The corrosion in the anges and web results the reduction in

the moment capacity. In addition, the class of a section (plastic,

compact, semi-compact, or slender) may be changed from one

to another due to the loss of thickness of compression ange.

For example, a section that is plastic or compact at its as new

condition may become semi-compact due to loss of thickness

and local buckling may prevent the development of full plastic

moment [7] in such cases. In order to estimate the remaining

moment capacity, taking into account the above facts, four

minimum curves, shown in Fig. 8, were developed for the cases

given below:

1. Plastic, Compact or Semi-Compact Sections with LowShear

Load, LSL (C1, 2 or 3), Although the corrosion reduces the

thickness of compression ange of a section, some sections

that are plastic, compact or semi-compact at their as new

condition may remain as the same during their part of or

whole service life.

2. Plastic or Compact to Semi-Compact with Low Shear Load,

LSL (C1, 2 to 3),

Sections that are plastic or compact at their as new

condition may become semi-compact due to corrosion

during their service life.

306 R. Rahgozar / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 65 (2009) 299307

Fig. 9. Minimum curves to estimate the remaining lateral torsional buckling

capacity of corrosion damaged beams.

Fig. 10. Minimum curves to estimate the remaining web buckling and bearing

capacities of corrosion damaged sections.

3. Semi-Compact to Slender with Low Shear Load, LSL (C3 to

4),

Sections that are semi-compact at their as new condition

may become slender due to corrosion during their service

life.

4. Any compact sections with High Shear Load, HSL (AC).

For sections that change from plastic or compact to semi-

compact during their service life, the minimumcurve LSL (C1,

2 or 3) when the section is plastic or compact and the minimum

curve LSL (C1, 2 to 3) when the section is semi-compact can

be used. For sections that change from semi-compact to slender,

the part of the minimum curve LSL (C3 to 4) with increased

slope can be used when section is slender.

3.6. Minimum curves for lateral torsional buckling capacity

The lateral torsional buckling capacity of beams depends

on several geometric parameters such as the beam length, end

support condition, plastic modulus, lateral stiffness, torsional

properties and the warping resistance of the section. After

analyzing the importance of these factors on the lateral

torsional buckling capacity, four cases were identied for the

development of minimum curves to assess the percentage

remaining of lateral torsional buckling capacity of corroded

beams. The restraint condition was taken as simply supported

at the ends which is the worst possible case.

For uncoupled beams, two groups namely short beams with

L

E(Cri t )

and long beams with L

E

/D = 30 or = 200 span

length beams were used to obtain minimum curves. For coped

beams, two minimum curves were obtained for the case of short

beams coped at one end and both ends. For long coped beams

it was found that the minimum curves for the uncoupled long

span beam can be used. The minimum curves for these cases

are given in Fig. 9. The minimum curves for the short and long

span length beams may be used to estimate the remaining lateral

torsional buckling capacity of intermediate span length beams

by using interpolation.

3.7. Minimum curves for web buckling and bearing capacity

The buckling resistance of unstiffened webs can be evaluated

using BS 5950: Part 1 [7]. The code suggests that if compressive

forces applied through a ange by loads or reactions exceed the

buckling resistance, P

w

, of unstiffened webs, load carrying web

stiffeners should be provided. The web bearing capacity can be

evaluated using BS 5950: Part 1 [7]. The code suggests that if

the forces applied through a ange by loads or reactions exceed

the local capacity of the web at its connection to the ange,

then bearing stiffeners should be provided. It was found that

only one minimum curve is adequate to assess the remaining

web buckling and bearing capacities of unstiffened web. The

minimum curves are given in Fig. 10.

4. Comparison of experimental failure loads

An attempt was made to compare the suggested minimum

curve for the short beams coped at one end with the failure

loads of four corroded damaged I-beams under uniform

corrosion, obtained from ICI Ltd. These four beams were tested

individually for their ultimate failure loads in the laboratory.

The comparison of the experimental results and the suggested

minimum curve is given in Fig. 11. This gure suggests

that it may be possible to estimate the remaining capacity of

corroded beams using the minimum curve. The estimates will

be conservative since the minimum curves were obtained for

the worst possible sections.

It should be noted that in order to calculate the percentage

remaining capacities of these beams, the capacity of the new

beam is required. Since such a beam was not tested in the

laboratory, an estimate of its failure load had to be made based

on the theory of lateral torsional buckling capacity of a new

beam with the same size and the pattern in which the theoretical

capacities of corroded beams differed from their experimental

capacities.

R. Rahgozar / Journal of Constructional Steel Research 65 (2009) 299307 307

Fig. 11. Comparison of experimental results with the minimum curve for short

beams coped at one end.

5. Conclusions

The analysis of corrosion effects on the carrying capacity of

corrosion damaged beams showed that while loss of thickness

of a section due to corrosion generally reduces the capacity of

a loaded beam, it can also change the mode of failure from

one mechanism to another depending on the relative thickness

loss in the various parts. In addition to these, loss of thickness,

may also change the class of an element from one to another

(e.g. plastic to semi-compact).

It is possible to obtain minimum curves for reliable

estimation of the percentage remaining capacity of corrosion

damaged beams with regard to any failure mode. In relation

to corrosion pattern, it may be possible to nd this solution to

two cases namely uniform thickness loss and varying thickness

loss due to uniform corrosion, where loss of thickness in the

bottom ange is greater than that of top ange. For all practical

purposes, the purposed minimum curves can be used along

with the information on the material loss (percentage loss of

thickness) to estimate the percentage remaining capacities of

corrosion damaged beams.

References

[1] Kayser JR. The effects of corrosion on the reliability of steel girder

bridges. Ph.D thesis. Department of Civil Engineering, University of

Michigan; 1988.

[2] Gallon MJ. ICI Engineering. Managing structural corrosion in chemical

plants. New Steel Construction; Feb. 1993.

[3] ICI Engineering, Procedure for: Condition categories for inspection of

plant structures and pipe bridges. Standards & Technical Information

Services, ICI Engineering, Cheshire, England; June 1990.

[4] Fontana MG. Corrosion engineering. New York: McGraw Hill; 1987.

[5] Rahgozar R, Smith JW. Fatigue endurance of steel structures subjected to

pitting corrosion. In: Fourth international conference on civil engineering,

Sharif University of Technology. May 1997. p. 23746.

[6] Rahgozar R, Khalaghi AR, Javanmardi R. Fatigue notch factor in steel

bridges due to corrosion. In: Seventh international congress on civil

engineering, Tarbiat Modares University. May 2006. p. 4653.

[7] BS 5950, Structural use of steel work in building: Part 1. Code of practice

for design in simple and continuous construction, Hot rolled sections.

British Standards Institution, London; 1985.

[8] Cheng JR, Yura JA, Johnson CP. Lateral buckling of coped steel beams.

Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE 1988;114(1):115.

[9] Johnston BG. Guide to stability design criteria for metal structures. 3rd ed.

New York: John Wiley & Sons; 1976.

[10] Timoshenko SP, Gere JM. Theory of elastic stability. 2nd ed. New York:

McGraw-Hill; 1961.

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