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GRAMMAR REVIEW

ARRANGED BY LAILA ROCHMAWATI, SS

I.

TENSES

TO BE IS USED IF THERE IS NO VERB IN A SENTENCE


PRESENT IS AM

SUBJECT + TO BE + COMPLEMENT

ADJECTIVE NOUN PLACE TIME

PAST TENSE WERE WAS Complement adalah kata atau kata-kata yang melengkapi maksud kata kerja (verb) dalam suatu kalimat. Examples : Ann is sick today. Alex is nervous abaout the exam. Tom is tall and handsome. I was happy yesterday. They were happy. Yesterday.

(+) SUBJECT + VERB I + S/ES SHE PRESENT TENSE SUBJECT + VERB I (+) SUBJECT + VERB I THEY WE I HE

VERB

PAST TENSE SUBJECT + VERB II EXAMPLES : Ali always goes to scholl every day. We usually study at night. They come to my house on Sunday. He often plays chess at noon. I met her two days ago. Mary played tennis last week. Last year it rained frequently in this area.

I bought this car in Jakarta.

PRESENT CONTINOUS TENSE 3


EXAMPLES : It is raining now. Budi is listening to the radio at present. She is leaving for Surabaya tomorrow. He is studying English at this moment. SUBJECT + TO BE (IS, AM, ARE) +VERB I + ING

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE RESULT 4


SUBJECT + HAS/HAVE +VERB III (TELAH/SUDAH) SHE HE IT HAS

THEY WE I YOU

HAVE

EXAMPLES : They have written a letter. I havent seen you since Monday. I have lived in Yogyakarta since 1980. We have worked in the company for two years. Umar has almost finished the work.

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINOUS TENSE CONTINUITY 5


SUBJECT + HAS/HAVE + BEEN + VERB ING (TELAH/SUDAH) SHE HE IT HAS

THEY WE I YOU

HAVE

EXAMPLES : We have been listening to teh radio for two hours. How long have you been waiting for the bus. The professor has been lecturing for over an hour.

MODAL AUXILARY (M) 6


SUBJECT + MODAL +VERB I

CAN, WILL, SHALL,SHOULD, MUST,MAY Perhatian : a. Dalam sebuah kalimat tidak boleh ada dua buah modal auxiliary. b. Verb sesuadh auxiliary selalu dalam bentuk asal (V I). EXAMPLES : She can sing beautifully.

I shall go to London tomorrow. You are ill, you should go to the doctor soon. I should visit to your house before you came to my house. I will go to Jakarta next week. You must not smoke in the class. I must do my homework soon. May I borrow your car? She may be late.

AUXILARY VERB (AV) 7


a. TO BE ( IS, AM, ARE, WAS, WERE) b. DO / DOES, DID, HAS/HAVE,HAD c. MODAL AUXILIARY (M) : CAN,MUST, MAY, WILL, SHOULD

AUXILARY VERB + NOT ........................... AUXILARY VERB + SUBJECT ...................? (APAKAH..................) WHAT WHY WHERE WHICH HOW WHEN WHAT TIME HOW LONG EXERCISES : I am a student. I am sorry for being late. + AUXILIARY VERB + SUBJECT.............................?

She was here yesterday. She did her homework yesterday. I do my homework every day. She has bought a new book. She has been working here for 2 years. Why do you come here? What time did you go to the party last night?

II.
ACTIVE PASSIVE : SUBJECT : SUBJECT + +

PASSIVE VOICE
PREDICATE + OBJECT + VERB III + BY OBJECT

..............................

1. SIMPLE PRESENT

ACTIVE PASSIVE

: SUBJECT : SUBJECT

+ +

VERB I

OBJECT VERB III + BY OBJECT

TO BE ( IS, AM, ARE) +

EXAMPLES

Ali writes three letters. Three letters are written by Ali. Ahmad doesnt write a letter. A letter isnt written by Ahmad. Does Ahmad write a letter? Is a letter written by Ahmad?

Who writes a letter ? Who is a letter written by?

2. SIMPLE PAST

ACTIVE PASSIVE EXAMPLES :

: SUBJECT : SUBJECT

+ +

VERB II

OBJECT VERB III + BY OBJECT

TO BE ( WAS, WERE) +

Ahmad wrote a letter. A letter was written by Ahmad. Did Ahmad write a letter? Was a letter written by Ahmad? Who was Ali beating? Who was being beaten by Ali?

3. PRESENT CONTINOUS TENSE ACTIVE PASSIVE : SUBJECT : SUBJECT + TO BE (IS, AM, ARE) + + TO BE ( IS, AM, ARE) VERB ING + OBJECT

+ BEING + VERB III + BY OBJECT

EXAMPLES

Ahmad is writing a letter. A letter is being written by Ahmad. Is Ahmad writing a letter? Is a letter being written by Ahmad? What is Ahmad writing? What is being written by Ahmad?

4. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE ACTIVE PASSIVE : SUBJECT : SUBJECT + HAVE/HAS + + HAS/HAVE + VERB III + OBJECT

VERB III + BY OBJECT

EXAMPLES

Ahmad has written a letter? A letter has been written by Ahmad. Ahmad hasnt written a letter. A letter hasnt been written by Ahmad. What has written by Ahmad? What has been written by Ahmad?

5. PASSIVE MODAL AUXILIARY ( CAN, COULD, WILL, WOULD, MAY, MIGHT, MUST) ACTIVE PASSIVE : SUBJECT : SUBJECT + MODAL + VERB I + MODAL OBJECT

+ BE + VERB III + BY OBJECT

EXAMPLES

We can solve this problem. This problem can be solve by us. Who can solve this problem? Who can this problem be solved by? What can we do? What can be done by us?

III.

VERB + INFINITIVE

A. VERB
AGREE REFUSE PROMISE THREATEN OFFER ATTEMPT MANAGE FAIL DECIDE PLAN ARRAGE HOPE APPEAR SEEM PRETEND AFFORD FORGET LEARN DARE

TO

INFINITIVE ( VERB I )

NOTE: THESE EXAMPLES WITH THE NEGATIVE NOT TO VERB + NOT + TO + INFINITIVE

EXAMPLES : I hope to see you again soon. He promised to be here on time. She refused to admit her guilt. They decide to continue their study.

B. VERB

HOW WHERE WHAT ETC.

TO

INFINITIVE (VERB I)

EXAMPLES: I dont know what to do. Please tell me how to get to the bus station. Bakri told us where to find it. She doesnt know how to operate the computer.

IV.

GERUND

GERUND is a VERB + ING which is functioned as a noun (suatu kata kerja + ing yang difungsikan sebagai kata benda). I. GERUND AS A SUBJECT (GERUND SEBAGAI SUBJECT) EXAMPLES :

1. Bakso will make Adam fat. S P O

Eating will make Adam fat. S P O

2. Rice makes Adam healthy S P O

Running makes Adam healthy

II.

GERUND AS AN OBJECT (GERUND SEBAGAI OBJECT) Examples : I love Anita S P O

I love dancing S P O

III.

SOME VERBS ARE ALWAYS FOLLOWED BY GERUND BUT NOT TO INFINITIVE


Mind Admit Avoid Finish Stop Enjoy Deny Continue Consider Imagine Postpone Practice Quit Appreciate

+ VERB (GERUND)

EXAMPLES: You have admited stealing my money. You considered working here last month. I must avoid meeting Mr. John.

IV.

SOME VERB CAN BE FOLLOWED BY GERUND OR TO INFINITIVE


Start Begin Like Love Neglect Hate Cease Prefer

Gerund + verb To + Verb I (infinitive)

Examples: I love dancing. I love to dance.

V.

GERUND AFTER PREPOSITION

Examples : I am interested in working here. You are very good at speaking English.

VI.

We get a lot of difficulty in speaking English. He is thingking of working here Before working you must make a preparation first. GERUND IS USED AFTER POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE (MY, YOUR, OUR, ITS, THEIR, HIS, HER) Examples : You can understand her feeling angry. Your speaking is very polite. Thank you very much for your coming. VERB (GERUND) for prohibition (larangan)

VII.

NO +

Examples : No smoking ! No parking !

VIII.

GERUND IS OFTEN USED AFTER THE EXPRESSIONS AS FOLLOW


It is no use It is no worth It is no good

+ verb ( gerund)

Examples : It is no worth regreting everything you have done.


Be accustomed to Be used to

+ verb ( gerund) (terbiasa/biasa)

Examples : You are accustomed to speaking English fast.

You are used to speaking English fast.


3 Look forward to Cant stand Object to

+ verb (gerund)

Examples : I look forward to hearing your reply soon. I must object to working here.

ADJECTIVE AND ADVERB OF MANNERS

1. ADJECTIVE MODIFY NAOUNS

ADJECTIVE + NOUN

Examples : A large tree A beautiful girl. Nancy is a beautiful girl. We have an expensive car. They are discussing a serious problem.

2. ADVERB OF MANNERS MODIFY VERBS. THEY TELL HOW WE DO SOMETHING.

ADJECTIVE + LY

Examples :

John is a slow man. He always speaks English slowly.

a.

ADJECTIVE Slow Rapid Careful Beautiful Easy

ADVERB OF MANNERS Slowly Rapidly Carefully Beautifully Easily

EXCEPTION ADJECTIVE Fast Hard Late ADVERB OF MANNERS Fast Hard Late

Examples :

John is a hard worker. John always works hard.

3. GOOD/ WELL a. Good is an adjective and must modify a noun b. Well is usually used an an adverb of manner. c. Well is occasionally used as an adjective it is used as an adjective only when it means to be in good health.