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Frederick taylor

In 1909, Taylor published "The Principles of Scientific Management." In this, he proposed that by optimizing and simplifying jobs, productivity would increase. He also advanced the idea that workers and managers needed to cooperate with one another. This was very different from the way work was typically done in businesses beforehand. A factory manager at that time had very little contact with the workers, and he left them on their own to produce the necessary product. There was no standardization, and a worker's main motivation was often continued employment, so there was no incentive to work as quickly or as efficiently as possible. In one, he experimented with shovel design until he had a design that would allow workers to shovel for several hours straight. With bricklayers, he experimented with the various motions required and developed an efficient way to lay bricks. And he applied the scientific method to study the optimal way to do any type of workplace task. As such, he found that by calculating the time needed for the various elements of a task, he could develop the "best" way to complete that task. These "time and motion" studies also led Taylor to conclude that certain people could work more efficiently than others. These were the people whom managers should seek to hire where possible. Therefore, selecting the right people for the job was another important part of workplace efficiency. Taking what he learned from these workplace experiments, Taylor developed four principles of scientific management. These principles are also known simply as "Taylorism".

Four Principles of Scientific Management;

Taylor's four principles are as follows: 1. Replace working by "rule of thumb," or simple habit and common sense, and instead use the scientific method to study work and determine the most efficient way to perform specific tasks. 2. 3. 4. Rather than simply assign workers to just any job, match workers to their jobs based on capability and motivation, and train them to work at maximum efficiency. Monitor worker performance, and provide instructions and supervision to ensure that they're using the most efficient ways of working. Allocate the work between managers and workers so that the managers spend their time planning and training, allowing the workers to perform their tasks efficiently.

The main elements of the Scientific Management are [1] : "Time studies Functional or specialized supervision Standardization of tools and implements Standardization of work methods Separate Planning function Management by exception principle The use of "slide-rules and similar time-saving devices" Instruction cards for workmen Task allocation and large bonus for successful performance The use of the 'differential rate' Mnemonic systems for classifying products and implements A routing system A modern costing system etc. etc. " Taylor called these elements "merely the elements or details of the mechanisms of management" He saw them as extensions of the four principles of management.[2] 1. The development of a true science 2. The scientific selection of the workman 3. The scientific education and development of the workman 4. Intimate and friendly cooperation between the management and the men. Taylor created planning departments, staffed them with engineers, and gave them the responsibility to: 1. Develop scientific methods for doing work. 2. Establish goals for productivity. 3. Establish systems of rewards for meeting the goals. 4. Train the personnel in how to use the methods and thereby meet the goals. Henri Fayol was born in Istanbul in 1841. When he was 19, he began working as an engineer at a large mining
company in France. He eventually became the director, at a time when the mining company employed more than 1,000 people. Through the years, Fayol began to develop what he considered to be the 14 most important principles of management. Essentially, these explained how managers should organize and interact with staff.

In 1916, two years before he stepped down as director, he published his "14 Principles of Management" in the book "Administration Industrielle et Generale." Fayol also created a list of the six primary functions of management, which go hand in hand with the Principles. Fayol's "14 Principles" was one of the earliest theories of management to be created, and remains one of the most comprehensive. He's considered to be among the most influential contributors to the modern concept of management, even though people don't refer to "The 14 Principles" often today. The theory falls under the Administrative Management school of thought (as opposed to the Scientific Management school, led by Fredrick Taylor).

Fayol's 14 Principles of Management

Fayol's principles are listed below: 1. Division of Work When employees are specialized, output can increase because they become increasingly skilled and efficient. 2. Authority Managers must have the authority to give orders, but they must also keep in mind that with authority comes responsibility. 3. Discipline Discipline must be upheld in organizations, but methods for doing so can vary. 4. Unity of Command Employees should have only one direct supervisor. 5. Unity of Direction Teams with the same objective should be working under the direction of one manager, using one plan. This will ensure that action is properly coordinated. 6. Subordination of Individual Interests to the General Interest The interests of one employee should not be allowed to become more important than those of the group. This includes managers. 7. Remuneration Employee satisfaction depends on fair remuneration for everyone. This includes financial and nonfinancial compensation. 8. Centralization This principle refers to how close employees are to the decision-making process. It is important to aim for an appropriate balance. 9. Scalar Chain Employees should be aware of where they stand in the organization's hierarchy, or chain of command. 10. Order The workplace facilities must be clean, tidy and safe for employees. Everything should have its place. 11. Equity Managers should be fair to staff at all times, both maintaining discipline as necessary and acting with kindness where appropriate. 12. Stability of Tenure of Personnel Managers should strive to minimize employee turnover. Personnel planning should be a priority. 13. Initiative Employees should be given the necessary level of freedom to create and carry out plans. 14. Esprit de Corps Organizations should strive to promote team spirit and unity.

Fayol's Six Functions of Management

Fayol's six primary functions of management, which go hand in hand with the Principles, are as follows: 1. Forecasting. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Planning. Organizing. Commanding. Coordinating. Controlling.