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INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION AND NETWORKING SECTION

== INTRODUCTION ==

1. AUTOMATED SYSTEM DESIGN

An automated system replaces the manual operations required to control a machine or

process. These systems consist of:

 Hardwired equipment (using relays)

 Programmable equipment (using programmable controllers)

 Data Acquisition

The sensors on the machine interpret all kinds of physical values (movements or actions)

and transform them into standard electrical signals that are transmitted to the control

system.

 Data Processing

Information concerning the actions and control sequences, for controlling the power

components and communicating via the human-machine interface, is provided either by:

 Relays; which process the data received according to the wiring, or

 Programmable controller, which processes the data received according to a

written program.

Handout – PLC_1 AT5-243 – Programmable Logic Controller

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INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION AND NETWORKING SECTION

 Human Machine Interface

By means of indicator lights, push buttons, etc…, the operator can monitor the data

received from the machine (pumps, flow sensor, turbidity sensor), or starts a pump or

motor.

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Block Diagram of a Basic Control System

Handout – PLC_1 AT5-243 – Programmable Logic Controller

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INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION AND NETWORKING SECTION

2. ADVANTAGES of PROGRAMMABLE CONTROLLERS

PLC based control system

Relay based control system

Handout – PLC_1 AT5-243 – Programmable Logic Controller

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INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION AND NETWORKING SECTION

By substituting for relays to insure the operation of an installation, the programmable

controller offers the following advantages:

Fewer parts

The programmable controller may replace a large number of relays. It offers a

considerable reduction in physical space.

The absence of mechanical movement increases the reliability of the control system.

Less wiring

Wiring is reduced simply to that which is necessary between sensors and inputs and

between intermediate power devices and outputs.

Easier to implement

The program which is substituted for the wiring, is a list of instructions which can be

written and easily modified with the programming and adjustment terminal. This program

may also duplicated to control identical machines.

More information

Implementation, operation and maintenance are facilitated:

By lamps indicating the presence of electrical signals at the input or output terminals.

By means of the information which is read from and written to the programming and

adjustment terminal.

Handout – PLC_1 AT5-243 – Programmable Logic Controller

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INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION AND NETWORKING SECTION

3. PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES of a PLC

International standards for PLC – IEC 1131-3.

IEC 1131-3 standard consist of:

Part 1 – General over view

Part 2 – Hardware

Part 3 – Programming languages

Part 4 – User guide lines

Part 5 – Communication

Five programming languages internationally recognised:

 Sequential Function Chart (SFC)

 Instruction/Statement List (IL)

 Structured Text (ST)

 Ladder Diagram (LD)

 Function Block Diagram (FBD)

Handout – PLC_1 AT5-243 – Programmable Logic Controller

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INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION AND NETWORKING SECTION

 Sequential Function Chart (SFC)

It is a graphic language.

Derived from Petri Nets and IEC 848 Grafcet

Invented in Europe (France)

Step 1 START MOTOR

Transition 1

Step 2 STOP MOTOR

Transition 2

Step 3

Handout – PLC_1 AT5-243 – Programmable Logic Controller

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INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION AND NETWORKING SECTION

Handout – PLC_1 AT5-243 – Programmable Logic Controller

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INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION AND NETWORKING SECTION

 Ladder Diagram (LD)

It is a graphic language.

Based on the graphical presentation of relay ladder logic.

Invented in the U.S.

A B C

Handout – PLC_1 AT5-243 – Programmable Logic Controller

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 Function Block Diagram (FBD)

It is a graphic language.

It is common to the process industry.

AND
A C

Handout – PLC_1 AT5-243 – Programmable Logic Controller

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 Instruction/Statement List (IL)

It is a textual language.

It is invented in Europe.

LD A

ANDN B

ST C

Handout – PLC_1 AT5-243 – Programmable Logic Controller

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INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION AND NETWORKING SECTION

 Structured Text (ST)

It is a textual language.

It is a powerful language with its root in ADA, Pascal and C.

C = A and not B

Handout – PLC_1 AT5-243 – Programmable Logic Controller

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INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION AND NETWORKING SECTION

The choice of programming language is dependent on:

 The programmers’ background

 The problem at hand

 The level of describing the problem

 The structure of the control system

Handout – PLC_1 AT5-243 – Programmable Logic Controller

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