Anda di halaman 1dari 14

Limpasan, erosi dan sedimentasi: prediksi dan pengukuran

LIMPASAN Limpasan bentuk Ada dua situasi ketika limpasan akan terjadi. Jika intensitas curah hujan melebihi laju infiltrasi di permukaan tanah, penggenangan akan menyebabkan aliran permukaan. Atau, ketika permukaan tanah jenuh akan ada aliran permukaan ketika intensitas curah hujan melebihi perkolasi melalui profil tanah keseluruhan, kombinasi gerakan ke bawah ke air tanah dan gerakan lateral mengalir rembesan. Tingkat limpasan diperlukan untuk desain saluran air, kanal dan saluran lainnya, dan untuk prediksi tingkat air di sungai dan sungai. Jumlah limpasan diperlukan saat penyimpanan yang terlibat untuk irigasi, pembangkit listrik, transportasi dll Perkiraan sungai kuantitas harus mencakup variasi tahunan atau jangka panjang, yield minimum dan kehandalan. Kualitas limpasan semakin menjadi keprihatinan, polusi kimia, dari aspek kesehatan dan lingkungan, sedimentasi, karena gangguan dengan generasi drainase, penggunaan lahan, irigasi dan listrik. Para KRIM Model prediksi (Kimia Limpasan dan Erosi dari Sistem Manajemen Pertanian), saat ini banyak digunakan di Amerika Serikat, termasuk perkiraan polusi kimia dan sedimen dari sumber pertanian. Limpasan pengukuran Pengukuran limpasan, di lapangan, umumnya dilakukan dengan menggunakan meter saat ini dan bagian saluran dikalibrasi atau dinilai lintas, flumes atau bendungan standar, bersama dengan pembacaan permukaan air, sering oleh perekam otomatis, untuk memberikan rekor tinggi terus menerus yang dapat dikorelasikan mengalir. EROSI Parameter kehilangan tanah Konsep lama mengukur kerugian tanah dalam hal ton / ha memberikan cara untuk penilaian yang lebih realistis dari hilangnya produktivitas. Sayangnya hubungan antara hilangnya tanah dan pengurangan hasil hanya kurang diteliti dan didokumentasikan, meskipun beberapa proyek sekarang berusaha untuk memperbaiki kekurangan ini (seperti program AGLS). N. Hudson, Silsoe Associates, Bedford, Inggris FAO Tanah Bulletin 68, membentuk 'Field Pengukuran Tanah dan Limpasan', sumber kertas ringkasan disajikan pada Workshop, dan tersedia dari FAO.

Pendekatan kehilangan tanah berbeda untuk agronomi dan hydrologists. Agronomi terutama prihatin dengan di tempat efek penurunan tanah pada pertanian, yaitu di mana tanah itu berasal. Hydrologists dan insinyur air lebih tertarik dalam off-site efek erosi tanah di mana pergi ke, dan berpengaruh pada pasokan air dan transportasi sedimen. Ada perbedaan kuantitatif antara keduanya. Semua tanah yang meninggalkan lapangan hilang dengan produktivitas, dan hanya sebagian menit mungkin memiliki payback dalam hal manfaat dari tanah disimpan di tempat lain. Tapi tidak semua tanah yang hilang dari ladang menjadi sedimen di sungai dan sungai, karena beberapa diselenggarakan dalam karya konservasi dan sebagian oleh vegetasi, atau di kolam dan cekungan. Proporsi erosi kotor dari tanah yang masuk ke dalam sistem aliran disebut rasio pengiriman. Pengukuran kehilangan tanah Pendekatan untuk pengukuran tanah rugi termasuk metode pengintai , yang murah dan sederhana, dan bergantung pada pengukuran perubahan tingkat permukaan tanah, dan metode volumetrik yang melibatkan tiga-dimensi pengamatan panjang dan penampang dari anak sungai, gulleys, dll lain Pendekatan volumetrik adalah untuk memperkirakan jumlah disimpan sebagai fans outwash atau catchpits atau waduk. Foto udara adalah alat yang berguna di sini. Plot limpasan mahal, dan biasanya tidak efektif dan, karena curah hujan alami bervariasi dari badai badai dan tahun ke tahun, ini menambah kesulitan menilai hasil dari plot ini. Buatan curah hujan simulator dapat menghilangkan variasi dan mempercepat pengumpulan data. Biaya konstruksi dan operasi meningkat dengan ukuran plot limpasan, karena pengambilan sampel yang lebih canggih dan peralatan perekaman yang diperlukan. Studi tangkapan yang diinginkan untuk mempelajari efek dari perubahan besar dalam penggunaan lahan, tapi sementara pengukuran tingkat besar limpasan cukup mudah, lebih sulit untuk mendapatkan perkiraan yang dapat diandalkan dan akurat dari gerakan sedimen. Memprediksi hilangnya tanah Memperkirakan kehilangan tanah sangat sulit, karena ada begitu banyak variabel, beberapa terjadi secara alami, seperti tanah dan curah hujan, dan juga banyak pilihan untuk praktik manajemen. Akibatnya, model, baik empiris atau proses-based, yang selalu kompleks jika mereka ingin mencakup dampak dari semua variabel. Untuk beberapa tujuan, perkiraan bermakna dan berguna dapat diperoleh dari model, dan contoh terbaik adalah estimasi jangka panjang penurunan tanah rata-rata tahunan dari tanah yang subur, dengan menggunakan Loss Equation Tanah Universal (USLE). Di sisi lain, perkiraan kehilangan tanah regional atau nasional signifikansi sedikit atau nilai. USLE ini akan segera digantikan oleh Persamaan Tanah Loss Revisi Universal (RUSLE), yang memiliki struktur yang sama (yang merupakan kotak hitam model faktor empiris), tetapi dengan input yang lebih canggih dan dirancang untuk operasi pada komputer pribadi. Setelah beberapa tahun pembangunan, rancangan akhir saat ini menjalani in-service pengujian dan evaluasi untuk publikasi dalam waktu dekat.

Dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, telah terjadi proliferasi model simulasi matematika, berdasarkan pada proses fisik yang terlibat dalam pelepasan tanah, transportasi dan deposisi. Kebanyakan judul realistis dibangun untuk memberikan akronim unpronounceable. Kompleksitas dari proses erosi, dan kebutuhan untuk bank data besar untuk mengkompilasi banyak algoritma yang termasuk dalam model, berarti bahwa sebagian besar dari jenis model ini memerlukan komputer mainframe yang kuat. SEDIMEN Angkutan sedimen Pergerakan sedimen di sungai dan sungai mengambil dua bentuk. Sedimen tersuspensi adalah partikel halus yang diadakan di suspensi oleh arus eddy di sungai yang mengalir, dan yang mengendap hanya ketika kecepatan aliran menurun, seperti ketika gradien sungai rata atau pembuangan sungai ke dalam kolam atau danau. Partikel yang lebih besar digulung sepanjang dasar sungai, dan membentuk bedload tersebut. Jumlah relatif bergerak dalam suspensi dan bedload sangat bervariasi. Pada satu ekstrim, di mana sedimen yang berasal dari tanah halus seperti angin-disimpan loess, atau tanah liat aluvial, endapan mungkin hampir seluruhnya dalam suspensi. Di sisi lain, sungai gunung yang mengalir deras yang jelas mungkin memiliki jumlah diabaikan padatan tersuspensi dan hampir semua gerakan dengan menggulung kerikil, kerikil dan batu di dasar sungai. Estimasi beban ditangguhkan dengan sampling relatif sederhana, tetapi mengambil sampel yang representatif dari bedload sulit. Ada beberapa sumber kesalahan yang terkait dengan mencoba untuk mengkorelasikan jumlah sedimen diukur dalam sungai dengan tingkat erosi di DAS tersebut. Mengukur sedimen Metode pengukuran meliputi penggunaan samplers ambil (di mana turbulensi campuran sedimen secara menyeluruh), samplers mengintegrasikan mendalam, titik mengintegrasikan samplers dan memompa samplers, yang semuanya menyediakan serangkaian pengamatan dalam profil vertikal. Terus menerus sampling diperlukan bila diperlukan untuk mempelajari pola naik dan turun tingkat aliran dan variasi konsentrasi sedimen pada tingkat aliran yang berbeda. Mengukur jumlah total sedimen disimpan dalam kolam atau reservoir menghindari masalah rasio pengiriman sedimen, tetapi jika reservoir cukup besar untuk menampung seluruh limpasan, beberapa sedimen akan dilakukan selama spillway tersebut. Memprediksi pergerakan sedimen Sulitnya memperoleh pengukuran bedload telah menyebabkan upaya untuk menghitung dari parameter lebih mudah diukur, tetapi metode ini tidak banyak digunakan. Sebuah metode sederhana berdasarkan mengetahui konsentrasi sedimen tersuspensi dan tekstur dari kedua bahan

tersuspensi dan materi tidur dikenal sebagai Klasifikasi Maddock itu. Ada rumus lain, dan banyak perdebatan tentang akurasi dan reliabilitas. Model yang dirancang untuk memprediksi kehilangan tanah sering berhubungan terutama dengan hilangnya tanah dari lahan pertanian, tetapi beberapa dari mereka dapat diperpanjang untuk memperkirakan pergerakan sedimen di daerah resapan air. Contohnya adalah JAWABAN, (Areal Non-Point Source Watershed Lingkungan Simulasi Respon), di mana tangkapan dibagi menjadi elemen-elemen di mana parameter input dapat diasumsikan seragam, dan masingmasing elemen kecil (biasanya sekitar 4 ha) yang dianalisis secara terpisah dengan tiga model hidrologi , sedimen detasemen / transportasi, dan routing komponen yang menggambarkan pergerakan air di darat, fase aliran bawah permukaan dan saluran. Ada juga model lain yang dapat diperluas untuk penelitian tangkapan.

Runoff, erosion and sedimentation: prediction and measurement


RUNOFF Runoff forms There are two situations when runoff will occur. If the intensity of rainfall exceeds the infiltration rate at the ground surface, ponding will lead to surface flow. Alternatively, when the soil surface is saturated there will be surface flow when the rainfall intensity exceeds the percolation through the whole soil profile, a combination of downward movement to groundwater and lateral movement to seepage flow. The rate of runoff is required for the design of drains, canals and other channels, and for the prediction of water levels in streams and rivers. Quantity of runoff is required when storage is involved for irrigation, power generation, river transport etc. Estimates of quantity must include annual or longer term variations, minimum yield and reliability. Quality of runoff is increasingly a matter of concern; chemical pollution, from health and environmental aspects; sedimentation, because of interference with drainage, land use, irrigation and power generation. The prediction model CREAMS (Chemical Runoff and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems), currently widely used in the USA, includes estimates of chemical pollution and sediment from agricultural sources. Runoff measurements The measurement of runoff, in the field, is generally carried out using current meters and calibrated or rated channel cross sections, flumes or standardized weirs, together with water level readings, often by automatic recorders, to give a continuous height record which can be correlated to flow. EROSION

Parameters of soil loss The old concept of measuring soil loss in terms of tonnes/ha is giving way to more realistic assessments of loss of productivity. Unfortunately the links between loss of soil and the reduction of yields are only poorly researched and documented, although several projects are now seeking to remedy this deficiency (such as the AGLS programme). N. Hudson, SILSOE Associates, Bedford, UK FAO Soils Bulletin 68, 'Field Measurement of Soil and Runoff', forms the source of the summary paper presented at the Workshop, and is available from FAO. The approach to soil loss is different for agronomists and hydrologists. Agronomists are primarily concerned with on-site effects of soil loss on farming, i.e. where the soil is coming from. Hydrologists and water engineers are more interested in the off-site effects of erosion where the soil goes to, and the effect on water supplies and sediment transport. There is a quantitative difference between the two. All the soil that leaves the field is lost to productivity, and only a minute proportion may have a payback in terms of benefits from soil deposited elsewhere. But not all the soil lost from fields becomes sediment in streams and rivers, because some is held in conservation works and some by vegetation, or in pools and hollows. The proportion of gross erosion from the land which passes into the stream system is called the delivery ratio. Measurements of soil loss Approaches to soil loss measurement include reconnaissance methods, which are cheap and simple, and depend on the measurement of changes in soil surface levels, and volumetric methods which involve three-dimensional observations of the lengths and cross sections of rills, gulleys, etc. Another volumetric approach is to estimate the amounts deposited as outwash fans or in catchpits or reservoirs. Aerial photography is a useful tool here. Runoff plots are expensive, and usually ineffective and, because natural rainfall varies greatly from storm to storm and year to year, this adds to the difficulty of assessing results from these plots. Artificial rainfall simulators can eliminate these variations and speed up the collection of data. The cost of construction and of operation increases greatly with the size of runoff plots, because more sophisticated sampling and recording equipment is required. Catchment studies are desirable for studying the effects of major changes in land use, but while the measurement of large rates of runoff is fairly straightforward, it is more difficult to obtain reliable and accurate estimates of sediment movement. Predicting soil loss Estimating soil loss is particularly difficult, because there are so many variables, some occurring naturally, such as soil and rainfall, and also the many options for management practices. As a

result, models, whether empirical or process-based, are necessarily complex if they are to include the effects of all variables. For some purposes, meaningful and useful estimates can be obtained from models, and the best example is the estimation of long-term average annual soil loss from arable land, using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). On the other hand, estimates of regional or national soil loss are of little significance or value. The USLE will shortly be replaced by the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), which has a similar structure (that is a black-box factor empirical model), but with more sophisticated inputs and designed for operation on personal computers. After several years of development, the final draft is presently undergoing in-service testing and evaluation for publication in the near future. In recent years, there has been a proliferation of mathematical simulation models, based on the various physical processes involved in soil detachment, transportation and deposition. Most have unrealistic titles constructed to provide an unpronounceable acronym. The complexity of the erosion process, and the need for huge data banks to compile the many algorithms which are included in the models, mean that most of this type of model require a powerful mainframe computer. SEDIMENT Sediment transport Sediment movement in streams and rivers takes two forms. Suspended sediment is the finer particles which are held in suspension by the eddy currents in the flowing stream, and which settle out only when the stream velocity decreases, such as when the stream gradient flattens or the stream discharges into a pond or lake. Larger particles are rolled along the streambed, and form the bedload. The relative quantities moved in suspension and in bedload vary greatly. At one extreme, where the sediment is coming from a fine-grained soil such as a wind-deposited loess, or an alluvial clay, the sediment may be almost entirely in suspension. On the other hand, a fast-flowing clear mountain stream may have negligible amounts of suspended matter and almost all of the movement by rolling gravel, pebbles and stones on the streambed. The estimation of suspended load by sampling is relatively simple, but taking a representative sample of bedload is difficult. There are several sources of error associated with trying to correlate the amount of sediment measured in streams with the extent of erosion in the catchment. Measuring sediment Methods of measurement include the use of grab samplers (where turbulence mixes the sediment thoroughly), depth integrating samplers, point integrating samplers and pumping samplers, all of which provide a series of observations in a vertical profile. Continuous sampling is necessary

when it is required to study the pattern of rising and falling rates of flow and the variations of sediment concentration at different flow rates. Measuring the total amount of sediment deposited in ponds or reservoirs avoids the issue of the sediment delivery ratio, but unless the reservoir is large enough to contain the whole of the runoff, some of the sediment will be carried out over the spillway. Predicting sediment movement The difficulty of obtaining measurements of bedload has led to attempts to calculate it from more easily measured parameters, but these methods are not widely used. A simple method based on knowing the suspended sediment concentration and the texture of both suspended material and bed material is known as Maddock's Classification. There are many other formulas, and much debate on their accuracy and reliability. Models designed for the prediction of soil loss are often concerned primarily with the loss of soil from agricultural land, but some of them may be extended to estimate sediment movement in catchments. An example is ANSWERS, (Areal Non-Point Source Watershed Environment Response Simulation), where the catchment is divided into elements where input parameters can be assumed uniform, and each small element (usually about 4 ha) is analysed separately with three models - hydrological, sediment detachment/transport, and routing components which describe the movement of water in overland, subsurface and channel flow phases. There are also other models which can be extended to catchment studies.

CREAMS
Creams is a field scale model for Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems. The objectives of the model were: 1. the model must be physically based and not require calibration for each specific application, 2. the model must be simple, easily understood with as few parameters as possible and still represent the physical system relatively accurately, 3. the model must estimate runoff, percolation, erosion, and dissolved and adsorbed plant nutrients and pesticides and, 4. the model must distinguish between management practices. Based on these objectives, since the management practices were usually on a field basis, the size of a field to represent the scale of the model was needed. A field is defined in the context of the CREAMS model as a management unit having 1) a single land use, 2) relatively homogeneous soils, 3) spatially uniform rainfall, and 4) single management practices, such as conservation tillage or terraces. The hydrologic component consists of two options. When only daily rainfall data are available to the user, the SCS curve number model is used to estimate surface runoff. If hourly or breakpoint rainfall data are available, an infiltration-based model is used to simulate runoff. The erosion component maintains elements of the USLE, but includes sediment transport capacity for overland flow. The plant nutrient submodel of CREAMS has a nitrogen component that considers mineralization, nitrification, and denitrification processes. Plant uptake is estimated, and nitrate leached by percolation out of the root zone is calculated. Furthermore, both the nitrogen and phosphorus parts of the nutrient component use enrichment ratios to estimate that portion of the two nutrients transported with sediment. The pesticide component considers foliar interception, degradation, and washoff, as well as adsorption, desorption, and degradation in the soil.

REFERENCES: Kinsel, Walter G.[eds.] (1985) CREAMS: A Field Scale Model for Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion From Agricultural Management Systems. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Conservation Report No. 26, 640 pp., illus.

KRIM
Krim adalah skala lapangan model untuk Kimia, Limpasan dan Erosi dari Sistem Manajemen Pertanian. Tujuan dari model adalah: 1. model harus didasarkan secara fisik dan tidak memerlukan kalibrasi untuk setiap aplikasi tertentu, 2. model harus sederhana, mudah dipahami dengan sebagai parameter sesedikit mungkin dan masih merupakan sistem fisik yang relatif akurat, 3. model harus memperkirakan limpasan, perkolasi, erosi, dan nutrisi tanaman terlarut dan terserap dan pestisida, dan, 4. model harus membedakan antara praktek manajemen. Berdasarkan tujuan, karena praktek-praktek manajemen yang biasanya setiap lapangan, ukuran lapangan untuk mewakili skala model itu diperlukan. Sebuah lapangan didefinisikan dalam konteks model KRIM sebagai unit manajemen yang memiliki 1) penggunaan lahan tunggal, 2) tanah yang relatif

homogen, 3) spasial curah hujan seragam, dan 4) praktek manajemen tunggal, seperti konservasi tanah atau teras. Komponen hidrologi terdiri dari dua pilihan. Bila hanya data curah hujan harian yang tersedia untuk pengguna, kurva SCS nomor model yang digunakan untuk memperkirakan limpasan permukaan. Jika jam atau breakpoint data curah hujan yang tersedia, model infiltrasi berbasis digunakan untuk mensimulasikan limpasan. Komponen erosi mempertahankan unsur USLE, tetapi mencakup sedimen kapasitas transportasi untuk aliran darat. The submodel nutrisi tanaman dari KRIM memiliki komponen nitrogen yang menganggap mineralisasi, nitrifikasi, dan proses denitrifikasi. Serapan tanaman diperkirakan, dan nitrat tercuci oleh perkolasi keluar dari zona akar dihitung. Selanjutnya, kedua bagian nitrogen dan fosfor dari rasio pengayaan komponen penggunaan gizi untuk memperkirakan bahwa sebagian dari dua nutrisi diangkut dengan sedimen. Komponen pestisida menganggap intersepsi daun, degradasi, dan washoff, serta adsorpsi, desorpsi, dan degradasi dalam tanah.

Main medium: terrestrial Main subject: hydrology, biogeochemistry Organization level: ecosystem Type of model: not specified Main application: Keywords: soil erosion, runoff, water quality, pollutant transport, field scale, watershed, management, continuous-time, capacity cascade soil water model, Curve-Number-runoff

Contact:

Dr. R. Wayne Skaggs Professor Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department Box 7625 Raleigh North Carolina 27695 phone: +1 919 515-6739 fax: +1 919 515-7760 email: skaggs@eos.ncsu.edu
Author(s):

Foster, G. R., L. J. Lane, J. D. Nowlin, J. M. Laflen and R. A. Young, Smith, S. J., D. E. Kissel and J. R. Williams 1980 United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) in conjunction with the Science and Education Administration-AgricultureResearch (SEA-AR)

Abstract:

CREAMS is a field scale model for predicting runoff, erosion, and chemical transport from agricultural management systems. It is applicable to field-sized areas. CREAMS can operate on individual storms but can also predict long term averages (2-50 years). The objectives of the model were:

1)the model must be phyysically based and not require calibration for each specific application, 2)the model must be simple, easily understood with as few parameters as possible and still represent the physical system relatively accurately, 3)the model must estimate runoff, percolation, erosion, and dissolved and adsorbed plant nutrients and pesticides and, 4)the model must distinguish between management practices.

Based on these objectives, since the management practices were usually on a field basis, the size of a field to represent the scale of the model was needed. A field is defined in the context of the CREAMS model as a management unit having 1) a single land use, 2) relatively homogeneous soils, 3) spatially uniform rainfall, and 4) single management practices, such as conservation tillage or terraces Processes and Approach: The hydrologic component consists of two options. When only daily rainfall data are available to the user, the SCS curve number model is used to estimate surface runoff. If hourly or breakpoint rainfall data are available, an infiltration-based model is used to simulate runoff. Water movement through the soil profile is modeled using a simple capacity approach, with flow occurring when a layer exceeds field capacity. The erosion component maintains elements of the USLE, but includes sediment transport capacity for overland flow. The plant nutrient submodel of CREAMS has a nitrogen component that considers mineralization, nitrification, and denitrification processes. Plant uptake is estimated, and nitrate leached by percolation out of the root zone is calculated. Furthermore, both the nitrogen and phosphorus parts of the nutrient component use enrichment ratios to estimate that portion of the two nutrients transported with sediment. The pesticide component considers foliar interception, degradation, and washoff, as well as adsorption, desorption, and degradation in the soil. Several of the equations developed for the CREAMS model have been used or modified within other models, such as

WEPP SWRRB SWAT SWIM

II. Technical Information


II.1 Executables:

Operating System(s): DOS, UNIX

II.2 Source-code:

Programming Language(s): FORTRAN

II.3 Manuals:

II.4 Data:

III. Mathematical Information

III.1 Mathematics

III.2 Quantities

III.2.1 Input III.2.2 Output

IV. References Foster, G. R., L. J. Lane, J. D. Nowlin, J. M. Laflen and R. A. Young. 1980. : A model to estimate sediment yield from field-sized areas: Development of model. In: W. G. Knisel (ed.) CREAMS: A field scale model for Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems, U. S. Dept. of Agric., Sci. and Educ. Admin., Conser. Rep. No. 26. pp. 36-64.
Kinsel, Walter G.(ed.),1980 CREAMS: A Field Scale Model for Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion From Agricultural ManagementSystems. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Conservation ReportNo. 26, 640 pp. Heatwole, C. D., K. L. Campbell, and A. B. Bottcher. 1987: Modified CREAMS hydrology model for Coastal Plain flatwoods. Trans. ASAE 30:10141022. Heatwole, C. D., K. L. Campbell, and A. B. Bottcher. 1988: Modified CREAMS nutrient model for Coastal Plain flatwoods. Trans. ASAE 31:154160. Parsons, J. E. and R. W. Skaggs. 1988: Water quality modeling with DRAINMOD and CREAMS. ASAE Meeting Paper No. 88-2569. St. Joseph, MI 49085. Parsons, J. E., R. W. Skaggs and J. W. Gilliam. 1989: Pesticide fate with DRAINMOD/CREAMS. Proc. of the CREAMS/GLEAMS Symposium. Sept. 27-29, 1989, Athens, GA. Saleh, A. R. B., R. L. Bengtson, J. L. Fouss and R. W. Skaggs. 1992: Validating the DRAIN-MOD-CREAMS model in a warm, humid climate. In: D. L. Thomas, A. Shirmohammadi and B. A. Engel (ed.) Application and Enhancement of Hydrologic/Water Quality Models. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin No. 372. pp. 59-74.

Smith, S. J., D. E. Kissel and J. R. Williams. 1980. Nitrate production, uptake, and leaching. In: W. G. Knisel (ed.), CREAMS: A Field Scale Model for Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion from Agricultural Management System. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Science and Education Administration, Conservation Report No. 26. pp 65-87.