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65 tayangan9 halamanVibration Analysis of Ball Bearing

Jul 14, 2013

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Vibration Analysis of Ball Bearing

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Vibration Analysis of Ball Bearing

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Purwo Kadarno 1 and Zahari Taha2 Department of Engineering Design and Manufacture Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur. MALAYSIA. Email: uwo_k@yahoo.com 1 zahari_taha@um.edu.my 2 Tatacipta Dirgantara Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Institute of Technology Bandung. Bandung 40132, INDONESIA Kimiyuki Mitsui Department of Mechanical Engineering Faculty of Science and Technology, KEIO University, Kohoku-Ku, 223-8522 JAPAN. Abstract. Ball and roller bearings, generally called rolling bearings, are among the commonly used components in machineries, since they provide relative positioning and rotational freedom while transmitting a load between two structures, usually a shaft and housing. In various applications, these bearings are considered as critical mechanical component since defect in these components may lead to malfunction, even catastrophic failure. Therefore condition monitoring of bearing have received extensive attention for many years. Vibration analysis is one of the most established methods used to evaluate the condition of bearings in operating machines. In this study, finite element model simulation is developed to analyze the vibration of ball bearings. A dynamic loading model is proposed to create nodal excitation functions used in the simulations. A defect is introduced in the outer ring, and then the vibration signal response of the defected bearing is analyzed and compared with the normal bearing. The vibration signal pattern obtained from the simulation was found to have similar characteristics with experimental data. Time signal parameter such as RMS and peak to peak value, are used to investigate the effect of loads and rotational speed of the bearings. Keywords: Vibration analysis, Rolling bearing, Finite element simulation. components may lead to malfunction, even catastrophic failure of the machinery. Therefore conditioning monitoring of rolling bearings has received extensive attention over the years to identify developing problems before they become severe and causing unscheduled downtime (Rao, 2004). There are several methods used for bearing defects detection and diagnosis; they may be generally classified as vibration and acoustic measurements, temperature measurements and wear debris analysis. Among them vibration measurements are the most widely used (Tandon and Choudhury, 1999). In evaluating the conditions of bearings in an operating machine, vibration analysis is performed for machines with bearing in new conditions as well as for machines whose bearings are deteriorating and/or approaching the end of their useful lives. If a machines vibration response to known excitation forces has been determined through techniques

1. INTRODUCTION

Rolling element bearings are commonly used components in machinery for a wide range of applications. They are employed to permit rotary motion of shafts in simple commercial devices such as bicycles, roller skates, and electric motors. They are also used in complex engineering mechanisms such as aircraft gas turbines, rolling mills, dental drills, gyroscopes, and power transmissions. Generally, rolling bearing structure consists of four main different parts: an inner ring, an outer ring, the rolling elements and the cage. The cage separates the rolling elements at regular intervals, holds them in place within the inner and outer raceways, and allows them to rotate freely. In industrial applications, rolling bearings are considered as critical mechanical components, because defect in these

________________________________________

: Corresponding Author

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such as finite element analysis or modal analysis, then vibration measurements during its in service operation can define the dynamic characteristics of the forces acting on the machines, moreover it can be known also whether the bearing have defect or not. Numerical techniques to simulate the vibration response of structures have become popular in recent years. One of the powerful numerical techniques for solving complex mechanical and structural vibration problem is the finite element method. Some researchers have applied this method to study defect detection in rolling element bearings. Wensing (1998) investigated the dynamic behavior of ball bearings using finite element model simulation, then vibration caused by imperfections like surface waviness was studied. HolmHansen and Gao (2000) used finite element method to calculate the changes in the dynamic loading and speed variations associated with an outer ring fault. Kral and Karagulle (2003) developed the dynamic loading models for rolling element bearing structures using finite element model and performed the finite element vibration analysis to detect the outer ring defect for several bearing geometries and loading conditions. In another study, Kral and Karagulle (2006) investigated the loading mechanism model in a bearing structure which houses a deep groove ball bearing having different localized defects and carrying an unbalanced force rotating with the shaft. In this study, finite element model simulation is developed to analyze vibration response of ball bearing using a commercial software ABAQUS. The transfer load from rolling element to the outer race way is simulated with the dynamic loading model that represent reaction force on the outer raceway due to the rotating of rolling elements into it. Then the vibration signature responses of healthy and defected bearing are compared. Time domain parameter is used for the vibration analysis. RMS and peak to peak value are used as time signal descriptors for condition monitoring purpose. The effect of varying shafts rotational speed and load are investigated. among the bearings rolling element complement. This may cause significant changes in bearing deflections, contact stresses, and fatigue endurance compared to the operating parameters which have the simpler load distributions (Harris and Kotzalas, 2007). To simplify the analytical process, load applied is assumed pure radial load in this study. The load distribution around the circumference of a rolling element bearing under radial load (as shown in Figure 1) is defined approximately by the Stribeck equation (Harris, 2001):

q( ) = q o 1 21 (1 cos )

]n

(1)

0

Where qo is the maximum load intensity at = 0 , is the load distribution factor and n denotes the load deflection exponent. For ball bearing n is 1.5 while for roller bearing n is 1.11.

Figure 1: The load distribution in a bearing under radial load The maximum load intensity, qo, for ball bearing having zero clearance and subjected to a simple radial load can be approximated by, 4.37 Fr (2) qo = Z cos where Fr is the radial load and Z is the number of balls and is contact angle. The load distribution factor, , is defined by P 1 (3) = 1 d 2 2 r where Pd denotes the diameter clearance, while r is the ring radial shift. If the diameter clearance is assumed as 0, hence the value of is 0.5. The rolling elements transfer the radial load to the outer ring during their rotation with the cage frequency, fc, expressed as f d 1 b cos (4) fc = s 2 dm with fs is the shaft frequency, db and dm is ball diameter and pitch diameter respectively. Since in this study assumed that the ball bearing is subjected to a pure radial load, hence the contact angle will be 00.

2. LOADING MECHANISM

The loads applied to rolling bearings are transmitted through the rolling elements from the inner ring to the outer ring. The magnitude of the loading carried by the individual ball or roller depends on the internal geometry of the bearing and the type of load applied to it. In most bearing applications, only applied radial, axial, or a combination of radial and axial loadings are considered. However, under very heavy applied loading or if shafting is hollow, the shaft where the bearing is mounted may bend, causing a significant moment load on the bearing. Also, the bearing housing may be nonrigid due to design targeted at minimizing both size and weight, causing it to bend while accommodating moment loading. This combined radial, axial, and moment loadings result in distorted distribution of load

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3. FINITE ELEMENT MODEL SIMULATION DEVELOPMENT

52

The bearing type that will be used in this study is a single row deep groove ball bearing. They are the most popular of all rolling bearings because it is simple in design, nonseparable, capable of operating at high even very high speeds, and require little attention or maintenance in service. In addition they have a price advantage (SKF general catalogue, 1989). The bearing model 6205 from SKF is used in this study. This bearing has a bore diameter of 25 mm and widely used for many applications. The geometry for this bearing type is shown in Figure 2.

70

36,5

67

25

Figure 3: Simplified bearing housing (dimensio n in mm). Mesh convergence test is performed to determine the optimum number of elements on the model. In this study, th e number of elements lying on the outer raceway part will become the main parameter for performing this test, since the load from the ball is transferred to this part. In this test, the number of elements lying on the circumference of the outer race will be varied from 40 until 88 elements with an increment of 4 elements in each test. Static analysis is performed for this test. The pressure load of 1000 Pa is applied uniformly on the load zone, and then the displacement of the point P1 which is located on the middle top of bearing housing structure as shown in Figure 4, will be investigated for each model. This point is chosen because this point is used as the location of the sensor for analyzing the vibration of the bearing structure.

Point P1

Figure 2: SKF bearing 6205 geometry The dimensions and parameters for the 6205 bearing are as follows: - Outer diameter, D = 52 mm - Bore diameter, d = 25 mm - Pitch diameter, dm = 39 mm - Ball diameter, db = 8 mm - Raceway width, B = 15 mm - Contact angle, = 00 - Number of balls, Z = 9 The housing structure used is adapted from the NTN pillow type bearing unit. The bearing unit number FUCPM205/LP03 having a 25 mm shaft diameter is chosen. Modifications are carried out to simplify the modeling and analytical process for this structure. This bearing unit structure consists of housing and the bearing. Since the bearing has been specified previously, so only the housing structure is adapted. The modifications done include disposing the mounting part and making the width of the housing uniform. The width is chosen as 25 mm. The simplification of the housing structure is shown in Figure 3. Proper boundary condition is applied to the bottom surface of the housing to replace the mounting part of the original structure. The outer ring is assumed perfectly attached to the housing structure; hence the tie constraint is used as an interaction type applied between the outer surface of the outer ring and inner surface of the bearing housing. The material used for both parts is steel with a density () of 7.8 E-6 kg/mm3, young modulus (E) of 209 E3 N/mm2 and Poissons ratio (v) of 0.3.

Figure 4: Geometry model used for mesh convergence test. The result of mesh convergence test showing the numbe r of element along the circumference of the bearings outer raceway with the corresponding displacement of point P1 is in Figure 5. It can be observed that the displacement of point P1 give small differences (less than 0.2%) with the increasing number element after the number of element along circumference of bearings outer race is 64, it indicates that the model already converged. Hence, the model used for analyzing vibration of bearing structure will have 64 elements lying along the circumference of bearings outer raceway.

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Mesh Convergence Test

-0.12 -0.121 -0.122 -0.123 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92

In this case, the indenter load is defined by q(), which is determined using Eq. (1) for each node, while the indenter radius is the radius of the ball, that is 4 mm. Material property such as elastic modulus and Poissons ratio of the indenter and the specimen is similar, that is steel. A sample of dynamic loading model for node at 0 0 is shown in Figure 6, with the applied radial load is 1000 N and the shaft speed is 1000 RPM.

Dynamic explicit step is used to perform vibratio n analysis of the bearing model in Abaqus. The time period of this analysis is taken for one second. The history output is requested as 2500 point during interval of analysis, meaning the result data is written every 4 E-4 second of simulation time. Vibration analysis is performed by plotting the acceleration, velocity, and displacement response as a function of time at the point P1. Finite element model used in this analyzed is shown in Figure 7, including the location of point P1 and its axis direction. The housing structure i s discretized into 1920 finite elements and the outer r ing bearing part discretized into 1920 finite elements also.

P1

Figure 5: Mesh convergence test result In this study it is assumed that diameter clearance, Pd is zero, hence the load distribution factor, is 0.5, meaning the loading zone on the outer race is between -900 900, where is zero in the direction of the radial load Fr. So, the number of element lying on the loading zone will be half of 64, i.e. 32 elements, which resulting 33 nodes from -900 until 900 with an increment of 5.625 degree. Therefore, 33 dynamic loading is developed for each node in the loading zone as the excitation force resulting from the contact with the ball. To determine the time period of contact on each node, the theory of contact between a rigid sphere and a flat surface is used. Once the radius of the contact is determined, it can be transformed to the time period by dividing it with the angular velocity . Hertz found that the relation of the radius of the circle of contact a, with the indenter load P, the indenter radius R, and the elastic properties of the materials is given by (FischerCrips, 2007): 4 PR (5) a3 = 3 E* where E* is the combined modulus of the indenter and the specimen defined by: 1 v 2 1 v' 2 1 = (6) + E' E* E E' and v', and E and , denotes the elastic modulus and Poissons ratio of the indenter and the specimen respectively.

) (

Figure 7: Finite element model used for vibration analysis. The simulation is carried out by applying 1000 N radial load to the model with a shaft speed of 1000 RPM. In this study, the vibration analysis is performed for healthy and defected bearing model, and then the response of both models is compared. Moreover, in order to validate the result obtained from the finite element model simulation, the result is compared with the experimental study.

600 500 400

q (N)

300 200 100 0 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35

time (s)

Analyzing the vibration response of the healthy bearing is performed by applying the dynamic loading model due to the response of 1000 N radial load, to the finite element

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model. Then the response of displacement, velocity, and acceleration at point P1 in three axis direction, that is x, y, and z direction, is analyzed. Figure 8 shows the dynamic response of displacement, velocity, and acceleration in x direction.

ux response

0.001 0.0008 0.0006 0.0004 0.0002 u (mm) 0 -0.0002 -0.0004 -0.0006 -0.0008 -0.001 time (s) 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

where Ns is the number of data and xi is the amplitude of vibration. RMS and peak to peak value for displacement, velocity, and acceleration response at point P1 of the healthy bearing is shown in Table 1. The response is significant in x and z direction, since the radial load is transformed into these axis direction. Response in y direction is just the response of the structure from the deformation due to applied load, hence the magnitude of vibration is not significant. Table 1: Time signal parameter for vibration resp onse of healthy bearing Type of Response Displacement (mm) Velocity (mm/s) Acceleration (mm/s2) Axis Direction ux uy uz vx vy vz ax ay az RMS 0.000274 2.08E-06 0.000287 2.675483 0.102216 2.359384 127135.2 5725.132 105861.2 Peak to Peak Value 0.0014454 1.454E-05 0.0014559 16.32028 0.750409 19.50575 824651 40960.3 686747

(a)

vx response

12

4 v (mm/s)

-8

time (s)

-12

(b)

ax response

500000 400000 300000 200000

a (mm/s )

100000 0 -100000 -200000 -300000 -400000 -500000 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

time (s)

(c)

Figure 8: The dynamic response of (a) displacement, (b) velocity, and (c) acceleration in x direction at point P1 for healthy bearing. Time domain analysis is used to analyze the vibration response of this model. RMS (Root Mean Square) and peak to peak value are used as time signal descriptors. Peak to peak value is determined as the difference of the maximum and minimum peak value. The RMS is defined as:

RMS = 1 Ns

xi 2

i =1

Ns

(7)

The defect is assumed located on the node lying in the maximum load intensity qo, at = 00 or parallel with the direction of radial load Fr. This point is chosen as the location of the defect because this area experiences the largest load intensity due to applied radial load on the bearing. A local defect on the bearings outer race is modeled by amplifying the magnitudes of the excitation force on the nodes lying in the defected area The value of amplification constant is chosen simply as 6, as proposed by Kiral and Karaguelle (2003). The width of defect is de fined as the width of the contact area on the constitutive node, hence for this simulation the defect width is 0.506 m m. The first contact point acts as the leading edges of the local defect while the last contact point acts as the trailing edges. Amplification constant of 6 is applied on the trailing edges of the defects, while 3 is applied on the leading edges of the defects. Table 2 shows the amplified dynamic loading model on the defected node, which is the node at = 00, and compare with the original/healthy dynamic loading model. The acceleration response in the x direction at point P1 of defected bearing is given in Figure 9(a), and compared to the response of healthy bearing that is shown Figure 9(b). This response direction is observed because most of the experiment uses single axis accelerometer as the sensor; hence the direction of the accelerometers sensitive axis is perpendicular with the mounted accelerometer.

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Table 2: Defected and healthy dynamic loading model Defected Loading Model time (s) q (N) 0 2185 0.000259 2913.332 0.000269 0 0.016505 0 0.016515 1456.666 0.017033 2913.332 0.017043 0 0.033279 0 0.033289 1456.666 0.033807 2913.332 0.033817 0 0.050054 0 0.050064 1456.666 0.050582 2913.332 Original/Healthy Loading Model time (s) q (N) 0 485.5556 0.000259 485.5553 0.000269 0 0.016505 0 0.016515 485.5553 0.017033 485.5553 0.017043 0 0.033279 0 0.033289 485.5553 0.033807 485.5553 0.033817 0 0.050054 0 0.050064 485.5553 0.050582 485.5553

(a)

1000000 800000 600000 400000

a (mm/s2)

200000 0 -200000 -400000 -600000 -800000 -1000000 time (s) 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

(b)

Figure 10: The vibration response of (a) defected and (b) healthy bearing in Tao, et al. experiment (2007). Statistical parameter of RMS and peak to peak value for acceleration response at point P1 in all of three axis direction of defected bearing which compare with the healthy bearing response is shown in Table 3. The response for defected bearing is most significant in the x direction, with the magnitude about two times of the healthy bearing response, since the defect is locate in the direction of x direction loading in node at 0 degree. The response in z direction is not significant, that is below 7 %, while in y direction even the difference is between 33 44 %, but the magnitude is very small, compare to response in x and z direction. Table 3: Time signal parameter for accelerometer response of defected bearing Acceleration Direction ax Type of Model

Healthy Defected Difference (%) Healthy Defected Difference (%) Healthy Defected Difference (%)

(a)

ax response of healthy bearing

1000000 800000 600000 400000 a (mm/s2) 200000 0 -200000 -400000 -600000 -800000 -1000000 time (s) 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

(b)

Figure 9: The acceleration response of (a) defected and (b) healthy bearing in x direction at point P1. As observed from Figure 9, the acceleration response of the defected bearing model has larger magnitude and random spiky characteristic. This simulated vibration pattern has similar characteristics with the experimental result given in Tao, et al. study (2007), which is shown in Figure 10.

RMS 127135.194 228011.174 79.35 5725.132 8275.828 44.55 105861.156 105205.376 -0.62

ay

az

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5. EFFECT OF SHAFT ROTATIONAL SPEED

0.0045

The effect of various shaft rotational speeds for the simulation is investigated in this section. The shaft speed will be varied from 1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000 RPM. Radial load applied in this test is 1000 N. Since the vibration response at point P1 is most sensitive in the x axis direction, hence in this test vibration parameter will be analyzed in x axis direction only. RMS and peak to peak value of displacement, velocity, and acceleration response at point P1 for healthy and defected bearing is investigated for each shaft speed. The RMS of displacement, velocity, and acceleration response for each shaft speed is shown in Figure 11, while the peak to peak value shown in Figure 12.

RMS

0.0016 0.0014 0.0012

Di splacement (mm)

0.004 0.0035

Displacement (mm)

0.003 0.0025 0.002 0.0015 0.001 0.0005 0 0 1000 2000 RPM 3000 4000 5000

healthy defected

(a)

Peak to peak value

80 70 60 Velocity (mm/s) 50 40 30 20 10 healthy defected

0.001 0.0008 0.0006 0.0004 0.0002 0 0 1000 2000 RPM 3000 4000 5000

healthy defected

(b)

Peak to Peak Value

3500000 3000000 Acceleration (mm/s 2) 2500000 2000000 1500000 1000000 500000 0 0 1000 2000 RPM 3000 4000 5000

(a)

RMS

12

healthy defected

10

Velocity (mm/s)

8

healthy defected

(c)

2 0 0 1000 2000 RPM 3000 4000 5000

(b)

RMS

500000 450000 400000

Figure 12: The peak to peak value of vibration response for (a) displacement, (b) velocity, and (c) acceleration with various shaft speeds. The RMS magnitude for displacement, velocity and acceleration responses for both healthy and defected bearing tend to be higher for faster shaft speed, only in 2000 RPM the trend is not showing the consistency. For displacement response of the defected bearing, the magnitude is a bit lower than the response at 1000 RPM, while the velocity is a bit higher than the response at 3000 RPM. For the healthy bearing the inconsistency is just seen for the velocity response. This is caused by the dynamic characteristic of the structure; otherwise the magnitude response is sti ll in the acceptable range. The peak to peak value also tend to be higher for faster shaft speed, even at speed of 2000 RPM the trend shows a bit inconsistency. Hence it can be observed that the faster the shaft speed, the larger the magnitude of vibration response.

Acceleration (mm/s 2)

350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 0 1000 2000 RPM 3000 4000 5000

healthy defected

(c)

Figure 11: The RMS of vibration response for (a) displacement, (b) velocity, and (c) acceleration with various shaft speeds.

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This is because part of the machine vibrations is produced by the repeatedly changes of rolling elements angular position with time, and this change causes the inner and outer ring to experience periodic relative motion. Therefore, the higher the rotational speed of the bearing, the faster the periodic relative motion and the higher the magnitude of vibration.

RMS

0.0016 0.0014 0.0012

Displacement (mm)

Displacement (mm)

0.004

healthy defected

point P1 in the x axis direction is analyzed, RMS and peak to peak value of displacement, velocity, and acceleration response for healthy and defected bearing is investigated for each radial loading condition. The RMS of displacement, velocity, and acceleration response for each radial load is shown in Figure 13, while the peak to peak value shown in Figure 14.

Peak to peak value

0.006

0.005

healthy defected

0.003

0.002

0.001

0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Radial Load (N)

(a)

RMS

9 8 7

(a)

Peak to peak value

70 60 50

Velocity (mm/s)

Velocity (mm/s)

healthy defected

healthy defected

(b)

RMS

400000 350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Radial Load (N) healthy defected

Acceleration (mm/s 2)

(b)

Peak to Peak Value

3500000 3000000 2500000 2000000 1500000 1000000 500000 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Radial Load (N)

Acceleration (mm/s 2)

healthy defected

(c)

(c)

Figure 13: The RMS of vibration response for (a) displacement, (b) velocity, and (c) acceleration with various radial loads.

Figure 14: The peak to peak value of vibration response for (a) displacement, (b) velocity, and (c) acceleration with various radial loads. The RMS magnitude for displacement, velocity and acceleration responses for both healthy and defected bearing tend to be higher for larger radial load. The peak to peak value also shows the same trend. Even the peak to peak value for the velocity and acceleration response for load 1500 N is higher than 2000 N, but the displacement response shows that the magnitude of vibration response for 2000 N is higher than

The effect of various radial loadings for the simulation will be investigated in this section. The radial load is varied from 500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 Newton. The shaft rotational speed for this test is 1000 RPM. The vibration response at

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the response for 1500 N. Hence it can be clearly concluded that the larger the given load, the larger the magnitude of vibration response of the structure. Since the higher the load will result the higher excitation force subjected to the bearing, hence the magnitude of vibration also will increase. Kral, Z. and Karagulle, H. (2003) Simulation and analysis of vibration signals generated by rolling element bearing with defects, Tribology International 36, pp. 667 678. Kral, Z. and Karagulle, H. (2006) Vibration analysis of rolling element bearings with various defects under the action of an unbalanced force, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 20, pp. 19671991. Rao, S. S. (2005), Mechanical Vibration , Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd., Singapore. SKF General Catalogue, (1989). SKF Groups. Gr eat Britain. Tandon, N. and Choudhury, (1999) A. A review of vibration and acoustic measurem ent methods for the detection of defects in rolling element bearings, Tribology International 32 (1999), pp. 46980. Tao, B., Zhu, L., Dang, H. and Xiong, Y. (2007) An alternative time-domain index for condition monitoring of rolling element bearings A comparison study. Reability Engineering and System Safety 92, pp. 660 670. Wensing, J. A. (1998). On the Dynamics of Ball Bearing . PhD Thesis, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.

7. CONCLUSIONS

A finite element model simulation for analyzing vibration response of a bearing has been develo ped. A dynamic loading model simulates the distribution lo ad in the outer race due to transfer load from the ball. Moreover, the model to simulate the impulse force due to impact between the ball and the defect located in the outer race is proposed. Time domain analysis is performed to evaluate the output result of vibration analysis from the finite element software. RMS and peak to peak value is used as the time signal descriptors and can be used as a parameter for condition monitoring purposes. The vibration response of healthy and defected bearing is compared. The simulated vibration pattern has similar characteristics with results from experimental study in literature. The effect of shaft rotational speed and ra dial load is investigated. It can be observed that the faster the shaft speed and the larger the radial load, the larger the magnitude of vibration response. The proposed simulation method can be used to determine the vibration signal response for various shaft speeds and loading conditions, which can be used as the condition monitoring application for the bearing structure.

BIOGRAPHY

Purwo Kadarno is a Master s tudent in Department of Engineering Design and Manufacture, University of Malaya, Malaysia. He received a Bachelor of Science from Department of Aerospace Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Indonesia in 2006. His research interests include vibration and stress analysis using finite element method. His email address is uwo_k@yahoo.com.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors would like to thank for ASEAN University Network / Southeast Asia Engineering Education Development Network (AUN/SEED-Net) and JICA for their financial support in this research.

REFERENCE

Fischer-Crips, A.C. (2007) Introduction to Contact Mechanics, 2nd ed. Springer Science and Business Media, USA. Harris, T. A. (2001) Rolling Bearing Analysis , 4th ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Canada. Harris, T.A. and Kotzalas, M.N. (2007) Advanced Concepts of Bearing Technology, Taylor & Francis Groups, USA. Holm-Hansen, B.T. and Gao, R.X. (2000) Structural design and analysis for a sensor-integrated ball bearing. Finite element in Analysis and Design 34, pp. 257 270.

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