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ERD Working Paper No.

43

Why Has Income Inequality in Thailand Increased? An Analysis Using 1975-1998 Surveys

Taizo Motonishi

June 2003

Taizo Motonishi is an economics professor at Nagasaki University. The author thanks Anil B. Deolalikar, Christopher M. Edmonds, Yukio Ikemoto, Yun-Hwan Kim, Kanokpan Lao-Araya, Tsunao Okumura, Takehiro Iwaki, Takashi Kihara, and seminar participants at the Asian Development Bank, Kyushu University, Nagasaki University, Kyu-Zushi Conference, and Japan Ministry of Finance. This paper was written while the author was a visiting scholar at the Economics and Research Department of ADB in 2002.

TAIZO MOTONISHI

Asian Development Bank P.O. Box 789 0980 Manila Philippines 2003 by Asian Development Bank June 2003 ISSN 1655-5236 The views expressed in this paper are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank.

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Foreword

The ERD Working Paper Series is a forum for ongoing and recently completed research and policy studies undertaken in the Asian Development Bank or on its behalf. The Series is a quick-disseminating, informal publication meant to stimulate discussion and elicit feedback. Papers published under this Series could subsequently be revised for publication as articles in professional journals or chapters in books.

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CONTENTS
Abstract I. II. INTRODUCTION CHANGES IN INCOME INEQUALITY: AN OVERVIEW A. B. C. III. Decomposability of Inequality Indices Household Socioeconomic Survey Inequality Decomposition 4 5 6 vii 1

EMPIRICAL FRAMEWORK A. B. C. D. E. Agricultural and Nonagricultural Sectors Income Financial Service Education Level Disparity Aging 8 11 11 11 12 13 17 18 20

IV. V.

REGRESSION RESULTS CONCLUSIONS Appendix References

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ABSTRACT

This paper analyses the determinants of income inequality in Thailand, which experienced income inequality increases in 1975-1998. The effects of agricultural factors and other sectoral factors are stressed. Regression results strongly suggest the significance of agricultural factors although some limited evidence is obtained that other sectoral factors namely financial development and education level disparity also play an important role in explaining Thailands inequality changes.

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I. INTRODUCTION

he purpose of this paper is to identify the determinants of the changes in income inequality in Thailand. Figure 1 shows that per capita gross national product (GNP) in Thailand has increased from $625 in 1975 to $1831 in 1998 (both figures are in 2000 constant dollars), and Thailand has reached the more developed country status. This means that Thailand can be a precedent for other developing countries. On the other hand, we can see from Figure 2 that income inequality in Thailand has increased significantly in these 24 years. This is significant because income inequality is relatively stable within countries and it varies significantly among countries (Li et al. 1998, 26).
FIGURE 1 PER CAPITA GNP
2500

2000

Dollar 2000 constant price

1500

1000

Philippines 1040 Sri Lanka 850 PRC 840 Indonesia 570 India 450 Pakistan 440 Bangladesh 370

500

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

Note: Figures on the right hand side of the chart is per capita GNP in 2000. Source: Asian Development Bank Key Indicators (various years).

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FIGURE 2 CHANGES IN INCOME DISTRIBUTION


0.6

0.5

0.4
Shares

1975 1981

0.3 1988 1992 0.2 1998 0.1

0.0 1 2 3 Quintile Groups 4 5

Source: Deininger and Squire data set.

While Thailands poverty incidence has decreased due to its economic growth (Deolalikar 2002, Kakwani and Krongkaew 2000), the inequality increase can still be problematic from the perspective of fairness. In addition, there are studies that found significant effect of inequality on economic growth.1 Therefore, it is meaningful to clarify the determinants of the inequality increase in Thailand. Existing studies on income distribution in Thailand stress the importance of the role of the agricultural sector (Deaton 1989, Ikemoto 1991, and Krongkaew et al. 1996). While the share of the agricultural sector in total gross domestic product (GDP) decreased (27 percent in 1974 and 12 percent in 1998), the labor force in the agricultural sector still accounted for 51 percent of the total labor force in 1998. Generally speaking, income levels in the agricultural sector are lower than that of other sectors. Moreover, income level is very volatile because farm prices and harvest directly affect the value of agricultural output. Kuznets (1955) points out the importance of the agricultural sector in understanding changes in income distribution in the process of economic development. His insight is all the more important for understanding changes in Thailands income distribution.

See for example Deininger and Squire (1998) and Forbes (2000).

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SECTION I INTRODUCTION

This paper uses Thailands longitudinal data (24 years, 9 national surveys) for 13 regions from the Household Socioeconomic Survey (HSES). For developing and more developed countries, it is not easy to obtain detailed regional data to identify the determinants of income inequality in their development process. Thailands HSES is one of the few exceptions. The regression results strongly suggest the significance of agricultural factors although some limited evidence also show that other sectoral factors, financial development, and education level disparity are responsible for Thailands inequality changes. The effect of financial development is of interest because consolidation of financial markets is on the policy agendas of many developing countries. Note that the effect of financial development on distribution is theoretically indeterminate. The regression results suggest that financial development in Thailand may have contributed to alleviate its inequality increase. Deolalikar (2002) analyzed poverty in Thailand, focusing on poverty incidence. Deolalikar regressed poverty incidence on distribution and other determinants using provincial data, and found that inequality has a negative effect on poverty incidence both directly and through low growth rates. Deaton (1989) showed, using a nonparametric approach, that higher rice prices benefit rural households in all income brackets. This study, however, does not take into account other determinants of inequality. Ikemoto (1991) is a detailed and elaborate analysis of Thailands income distribution in the 1960s to the 1980s. The focus of this study is more on the precise description of the changes in income distribution than in clarifying the determinants of these changes by econometric investigation. The insight by Kuznets (1955) has provoked a substantial number of cross-country empirical studies on growth and income inequality. Many of these studies utilize per capita GDP as the proxy of inequality between the agricultural and nonagricultural sectors (Papanek and Kyn 1986, Anand and Kanbur 1993, Jha 1996, and Osaka 2000). Others utilize relative variables of the agricultural and nonagricultural sectors (Ahluwalia 1976 and Bourguignon and Morrisson 1998). Li et al. (1998) do not directly test the Kuznets hypothesis, but try to identify the determinants of inequalities by focusing on factors related to political economy and capital market imperfection. It should be noted, however, that these cross-country analyses have their own set of problems. First, Kuznets inverted U hypothesis deals with intertemporal relationships. It is not apparent if this cross-country evidence applies to a countrys course of development. Second, inequality data are not strictly comparable across countries due, for example, to differences in the definitions (income or expenditure, and household or individual). The secondary datasets (the Deininger and Squire 1996 data set, for example) used in most of the cross-country analyses have the same problem.2 Third, country specific determinants of inequalities such as the degree of civil liberty (Li et al. 1998) or trade protection (Bourguignon and Morrisson 1990) are very difficult to measure and likely to be contaminated with measurement errors. The advantage of this present studys withincountry analysis is that it does not need to take cognisance of the possible difference in data definitions or other problems of secondary data sets that are used in those cross-country analyses. There are only a limited number of empirical studies of intertemporal inequality changes. This is largely due to the difficulty of obtaining longitudinal data on income distribution for

More about the problems of secondary cross-country data-sets are given in Atkinson and Brandolini (2001)

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developing countries. Estudillo (1997) analyzed data for the Philippines 1961-1991 and found a significant effect of urbanization and education. Karunaratne (2000) found age is an important determinant in Sri Lanka during the 1963-1987 period. Papanek and Kyn (1986), using a small number of longitudinal observations for 83 countries, concluded that the intertemporal Kuznets hypothesis is supported only partially. Deininger and Squire (1998), exploiting the longitudinal aspect of the dataset by Deininger and Squire (1996), rejected a contemporaneous link between inequality and income levels. Section II introduces indices of income inequality and presents a broad overview of the changes in Thailands income distribution exploiting the decomposability of distribution index. Section III explores determinants of income inequality and details the empirical framework. Section IV shows the regression results. Section V concludes.

II. CHANGES IN INCOME INEQUALITY: AN OVERVIEW

A.

Decomposability of Inequality Indices

The average household income in the Greater Bangkok Metropolitan Area is 2.6 times larger than that of the rural area of the Northeastern Region in 1975-1976. The figure had increased to 3.4 in 1998. There is a prevailing notion that this increase in interregional inequality is the driving force behind the inequality increase of the whole country. Therefore, it is meaningful to identify the role of the increase in interregional inequalities. To do this, it might be desirable to decompose the inequality of the whole country into interregional and intraregional inequalities. It is impossible, however, to decompose the Gini Index, which is the most popular among many inequality indices. In this study, the Mean Logarithmic Deviation (MLD) is used as a decomposable inequality index in addition to the Gini Index. The Gini index is denoted by the following equation:

(1)

This index can be expressed geometrically using the Lorenz Curve. Lambert and Aronson (1993) decomposed the Gini Index into three parts as follows:

(2)

where N and Ni are the populations of the whole country and its subgroup i, respectively, . GINIB denotes the Gini Index of the whole country when the income distribution in

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SECTION II CHANGES IN INCOME INEQUALITY: AN OVERVIEW

all groups are perfectly equalized. In other words, this is the Gini Index between groups. The second term is the population weighted average of the Gini Indices of each of the groups (GINIWi). This can be interpreted as the Gini Index within groups. The interpretation of the last term is not very easy. Lambert and Aronson claimed that this term is a mixture of a between group and a within group inequality and not decomposable. Bourguignon (1979) and Shorrocks (1980) proposed a decomposable inequality index which is defined axiomatically. Let us set four axioms that inequality measures ought to satisfy. These are the weak principle of transfers, income scale independence, the principle of population, and decomposability. Weak principle of transfers means that the inequality measure increases when the Lorenz curve goes wholly outside. Income scale independence is satisfied when the inequality measure is unaffected by proportional changes of everyones income. The principle of population implies that the inequality measure is independent of population changes under constant income shares. Decomposability means that inequality of the whole population is a consistent function of the inequality in its subgroups. Any inequality measure that satisfies these four axioms is a generalized entropy measure.3 MLD is one of these generalized inequality measures.

(3)

MLD is decomposable as follows:

(4)

where MLDB and MLDWi are between-groups and within-groups MLD. Between-groups MLD is the MLD of the whole population when income within groups are perfectly equalized. The advantage of MLD is in its intuitively-appealing property that it can be expressed by the sum of between-groups MLD and the population weighted average of within-groups MLD. This index is used to decompose Thailands income inequality into interregional and intraregional inequalities for an overview, using data from the HSES.

B.

Household Socioeconomic Survey

The HSES has been conducted by the National Statistical Office (NSO) of Thailand since 1968, about every five years before 1987 and every two years thereafter. Its objective is to collect data on income, expenditure, and other characteristics of households. Data for five regions (the Greater Bangkok Metropolitan Area,4 Central Region, Northern Region, Northeastern Region, and Southern Region) and has become available since the 1975-1976 survey. Four out of the five regions

3 4

More about the generalized entropy measures and other inequality indices is given in Cowell (1995). The Greater Bangkok Metropolitan Area consists of Bangkok Metropolis, Nonthaburi, Pahum Thani, and Samut Prakan.

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in the HSES have three subregions. These are the municipal area, sanitary district, and villages. Only the Greater Bangkok Metropolitan Area has no subdivisions. Thus there are data for each of the 13 divisions of the whole country. Published volumes of nine full-scale surveys in the period 1975-1998 are used (1975-1976, 1981, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998). See Appendix for more information about the HSES. Unit record data were not used, which are otherwise obtainable from NSO for the surveys in and after 1986. This is because data of the late 1970s and early 1980s were prioritized over using a large data set. As will be seen in the next subsection, this is the period when income distribution increased rapidly. There are four different measures of welfare depending on per capita or household, income, or expenditure. The measure used in this study is household income, which is the only viable option since the HSES does not consistently provide precise data on the other three measures.

C.

Inequality Decomposition

This section provides an overview of the changes in income distribution by decomposing income inequality for the whole country into between-group and within-group inequalities using MLD. The whole kingdom is divided into 13 subregions to obtain interregional and intraregional inequalities. The whole kingdom MLD is calculated using data from Ikemoto and Uehara (2000). They provided average household income by decile groups of households ordered by household income. This was estimated using tables from published volumes of the HSES, which provide average household income for households grouped according to given income brackets. Using this original data directly for calculation of MLD is avoided by the present study because occasional revisions of income brackets used in the HSES in response to overall increase in nominal income can produce errors. Figure 3 shows regional decompositions of the whole kingdom MLD. While the interregional inequalities are much smaller than the intraregional inequalities, this does not necessarily imply that regional or occupational inequalities are not very important. Note that the shares of intergroup inequalities increase as smaller subdivisions are employed. Total inequality increased in the 80s, and it was relatively stable in the 90s. Interregional inequality increased in the late 1980s and in the early 1990s, and decreased afterward. This is partly due to the fact that the Greater Bangkok Metropolitan Area experienced rapid growth around 1990, and other regions caught up with Bangkok. This figure does not support the prevailing notion that interregional inequality increase is the primary reason behind the inequality increase of the whole country. It is difficult to detect econometrically the determinants behind these changes in inequality, because the present study only has nine observations. In the next section, determinants of inequalities are investigated by increasing the number of observations, focusing on inequalities within 13 regions in Thailand.

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FIGURE 3 INTERREGIONAL AND INTRAREGIONAL MLD

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0 1975-76 81 86 88 90 92 94 96 1998

Interregional MLD

Intraregional MLD

III. EMPIRICAL FRAMEWORK

In contrast to existing cross-country inequality analyses, the country analysis does not need to take into account country-specific factors like civil liberty or trade openness. Five factors are considered: relative variability of agricultural/nonagricultural sectors, income, financial services, education level disparity, and aging. Bourguignon and Morrisson (1998) introduced land distribution variables into their regressions and found that they are significant. Asset distribution is, however, not included in the regression equation. This is because asset data is not available or not complete in the HSES for most periods.5 To partially remedy this shortcoming, both with and without an AR(1) error term specifications are used. The estimation method of Baltagi and Wu (1999) provide a feasible GLS procedure to estimate panel regression models with AR(1) disturbances when the data set is unequally spaced.

Financial asset data is not available in the HSES. Land distribution for farm operators is available from 1986. The available land distribution data shows no sign of large-scale variations or trends.

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Regional distribution data is from the HSES tables named average monthly income per household by per capita consumption expenditure decile groups, which means average total current income of households of decile groups ordered by per capita consumption expenditures. MLD and GINI denote MLD and the Gini Index calculated from these tables. While it is desirable to utilize average monthly income per household by per household monthly income decile groups data, we could not obtain this for the whole period. The above choice is the only way to capture the movement of regional income inequalities for the period of 1975-98. We estimate the regression of the form:

(5)

where DUAL, MLDB, and GINIB are relative variables of the agricultural/nonagricultural sectors, which are explained in the next subsection. Log(Y), FIN, EDU, AGE, and u are log household income, a financial development measure, education level disparity, average age, and error term respectively. 1, 2, 4, and 5 are expected to be positive. The sign of 3 is theoretically indeterminate. The following subsections detail each of the inequality determinants.

A.

Agricultural and Nonagricultural Sectors

Ahluwalia (1976) used the share of agriculture in GDP as an independent variable. Bourguignon and Morrisson (1998) used relative labor productivity of the agricultural sector as a more natural variable. These variables try to capture directly the effect of the agricultural sector proposed by Kuznets (1955). The relative labor productivity is, however, defective in that it does not take into account the population share of the agricultural sector at all. For example, the effect of an increase in relative labor productivity is small when the population share of the agricultural sector is away from 1/2. Our modified independent variable that captures the dualistic nature of the economy is as follows: (6)

where na is the regional share of agricultural households and yna and ya are regional household income averages of the nonagricultural and agricultural sectors respectively. Note that DUAL is larger when the population share of the economy is close to 1/2 and the relative household income is away from 1.

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SECTION III EMPIRICAL FRAMEWORK

The HSES provides average household incomes for nine occupational groups. Table 1 shows the occupational classification. Farm Operators (mainly owning land/mainly renting land) and Farm Workers are classified as agricultural households and others are nonagricultural households.6 Figure 5 shows the changes in share and relative income of agricultural households.

TABLE 1 OCCUPATIONAL CLASSIFICATION

Farm Operators

Mainly owning land Mainly renting land Entrepreneurs, trade and industry Professional, technical, and administrative workers Professional, technical, and administrative workers Farm workers General workers Clerical, sales and services workers Production workers

Own Account, Nonfarm

Employees

Economically Inactive

DUAL can be interpreted as an intersectoral inequality measure, since DUAL is large under relative household income disparity and even household share of agricultural and nonagricultural sectors. This interpretation leads us to put MLD or the Gini coefficient between the agricultural and nonagricultural sectors denoted by MLDB and GINIB into the regression equation as alternatives to DUAL. MLDB and GINIB are MLD and the Gini coefficient of the regional population when income within the two sectors is equalized. Figure 4 shows the relationship between MLDB and GINIB. Bourguignon and Morrisson (1998) pointed out that it is tautological to explain total income distribution by the income distribution between the agricultural and nonagricultural sectors. Therefore, one key point of our regression analysis is to clarify if income distribution between the agricultural and nonagricultural sectors can explain part of the total income distribution variation that cannot be explained by other determinants of income inequality.

Occupational classification is incomplete for the 1975-76 Survey. See Appendix for the estimation procedure to make up for the missing data.

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FIGURE 4 THE GINI COEFFICIENT AND MLD: A NUMERICAL EXAMPLE


0.25

0.2

0.15

MLDB

0.1

0.05

0 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 GINIB 0.3 0.35 0.4

FIGURE 5 SHARE AND RELATIVE INCOME OF AGRICULTURAL HOUSEHOLDS

0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 1975-76 1981 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998

Share of agricultural households Relative household income of agricultural to nonagricultural households

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B.

Income

Most empirical studies of income distribution include income level or per capita GDP as an explanatory variable in their regressions and test the Kuznets inverted U hypothesis. As pointed out by Bourguignon and Morrisson (1998, 244), the inclusion of the variable is only an indirect way of accounting for the dualism. While agricultural variables are included in the regression equation, they may not be able to capture all the distributional changes caused by sectoral factors of the economy. For example, economic growth accompanied by a sectoral shift from traditional industry to high-tech or service industry can lead to increased income inequality. Therefore, household income, along with agricultural variables, is included in the regression equation. As noted in the introduction, there are studies that found a significant effect of distribution on income. The possible interaction between income and inequality can cause the problem of endogeneity bias in regression analysis. To avoid this problem, instrumental variables are estimated for income. Log(Y), the logarithm of the average monthly household income, and its squares are used as determinants of income inequality in the regression analysis.

C.

Financial Service

The effect of financial service development on income distribution is not straightforward. Developed financial services enable the poor to borrow from the rich and this leads to a decrease in income inequality. The development also locks in inequality because all the agents can increase their financial assets at the same rate.7 On the other hand, developed financial services are often unavailable for the poor, due, for example, to credit constraints arising from information asymmetries or transaction costs. In this case, financial development can accelerate income inequality. One of the aims of this study is to examine the effect of financial service development in Thailands development process. Li et al. (1998) employed M2/GDP as a measure of financial development in their regression analysis and show that the variable has a negative effect on the inequality measure. Their measure is not appropriate for the within-country analysis, and other good financial asset data are unavailable. The proxy for financial development is the ratio of insurance and interest expenditures to income which is denoted by FIN.

D.

Education Level Disparity

We introduce education level disparity as a determinant of income inequality on the assumption that more education leads to more income. The HSES provides the education level distribution of household male members 25 years old or more. We digitize the education levels following Table 2 and employ its standard deviation denoted by EDU as the proxy for education level disparity. Since most of the HSES tables do not show the education level distribution of each subregion, we often need to estimate it from the education level distribution of each occupation.

See Motonishi (2000) for a theoretical analysis of the effect of financial development in a stratified economy.

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The Appendix gives the estimation method. TABLE 2 NUMERICAL EXPRESSION OF EDUCATION LEVELS

Kindergarten or None Elementary Secondary University or Bachelor Degree Vocational or Technical Higher Education

1 2 3 4 4 5

Estudillo (1997) found the presence of household heads with a college degree decrease inequality in the Philippines. Akita et al. (1999) found education level difference is significant in Indonesia for 1987-1993. Bourguignon and Morrisson (1998) used secondary school enrolments as a proxy for the share of skilled workers but the significance of the variable is not robust over time. Li et al. (1998) also used secondary schooling as a determinant, on the assumption that a more educated population can restrain the richest segment of society, and they obtained a significant result.

E.

Aging

Deaton and Paxson (1994) pointed out that inequality should grow with age. As people get older, the cumulative effect of luck diversifies their income distribution. In this case, income distribution of an aging economy deteriorates. Note here that this deterioration of distribution does not reflect the diversification of peoples lifetime welfare. Therefore, it is important to distinguish this aging effect from other effects. Ohtake and Saito (1998) showed, using Japanese household survey data, that half of the increase in the economywide consumption inequality during the 1980s could be explained by population aging. Karunaratne (2000) also found significant effect of aging in Sri Lanka. Estudillo (1997), however, conclude that the contribution of aging is limited in the Philippines. Figure 6 shows that Thailands population is aging. We use the average age of household heads denoted by AGE as an explanatory variable to take into account the relationship between aging and distribution.

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SECTION IV REGRESSION RESULTS

FIGURE 6 CHANGES IN AGE DISTRIBUTION

7 6

Population (millions)

1970 1980 1990

1997

0 5-9 1014 1519 2024 2529 3034 3539 Age 4044 4549 5054 5559 6064

Soure: United Nations Demographic Yearbook.

IV. REGRESSION RESULTS

Table 3 reports descriptive statistics for variables in the regressions. Tables 4-6 show the regression results. We use data from nine surveys from 1975 to 1998. The number of observations is 116. This is (13 regions) x (9 surveys) minus one, since we lost one observation due to a defective survey report. For more about our dataset, see Appendix. We employ two types of inequality measures, MLD and the Gini index. Tables 4a and 5 employ MLD as the dependent variable and Table 4b the Gini index. In Table 4a, sectoral factors are captured by DUAL or MLDB. Two types of econometric model are employed: the fixed effect model (FE) and the random effect model (RE).8 In all the regressions in Tables 4a and 4b, the p-values of the Hausman test are less than 1 percent and strongly reject the validity of the random effect model. The DUAL variable is significant in regressions 1-4. In equation 3 we can see that the coefficients of Log(Y) and EDU are significant and have the expected sign. The effect of FIN is negative, which implies that financial development leads to a decrease in income inequality.

Since we have at most nine observations for each region, we have not taken a unit root approach.

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TABLE 3 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS FOR VARIABLES IN THE ANALYSIS


VARIABLES MEAN S.D. MIN MAX

MLD MLDB (MLD between agricultural and nonagricultural sectors) GINI GINIB (GINI between agricultural and nonagricultural sectors) DUAL (relative household income adjusted by share) Log(Y) (Log Monthly Household Income) FIN (financial development) EDU (Education Level std. dev.) AGE (Average age of head)

0.093 0.014 0.230 0.054 0.059 8.760 0.026 0.738 45.9

0.035 0.015 0.045 0.043 0.089 0.423 0.014 0.129 2.7

0.029 0.000 0.132 0.000 0.000 7.841 0.004 0.432 39.7

0.197 0.079 0.342 0.141 0.596 9.703 0.066 0.971 51.1

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TABLE 4A REGRESSION RESULTS (DEPENDENT VARIABLE: MLD)


1 FE 2 RE 3 FE 4 RE 5 FE 6 RE

INDEPENDENT VARIABLES\MODELS

DUAL (relative household income adjusted by share)

** 0.129 (0.038)

** 0.167 (0.033)

** 0.124 (0.038)

** 0.168 (0.033) ** 0.869 (0.275) ** 1.183 (0.225) ** 0.044 (0.013)

MLDB (MLD between agricultural and nonagricultural sectors)

Log(Y) (Log Monthly Household Income)

** 0.082 (0.017) ** -0.790 (0.317) ** 0.162 (0.050) -0.001 (0.002)

** 0.035 (0.013)

** 0.081 (0.017) ** -0.865 (0.297) ** 0.168 (0.049)

** 0.035 (0.013)

** 0.084 (0.017) ** -0.874 (0.298) ** 0.163 (0.050)

FIN (financial development)

-0.112 (0.263) * 0.070 (0.039) 0.001 (0.001) ** -0.303 (0.127)

-0.064 (0.234) * 0.063 (0.036)

-0.152 (0.238) * 0.062 (0.036)

EDU (Education Level std. dev.)

AGE (Average age of head)

Const.

** -0.269 (0.096) 1.821 0.620 1.175 0.386 1.754 0.617

** -0.353 (0.101) 1.125 0.398

Durbin-Watson R-squared

1.823 0.621

1.186 0.390

Notes:

Dependent variable: Mean Logarithmic Deviation. Sample periods: 1975-1976,1981,1986,1988,1990,1992,1994,1996, and 1998. Number of observations: 116. Standard errors are in parentheses. *,**: Significant at the 10 and 5 percent levels, respectively.

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TABLE 4B REGRESSION RESULTS (DEPENDENT VARIABLE: GINI COEFFICIENT)


1 FE 2 RE 3 FE 4 RE 5 FE 6 RE

INDEPENDENT VARIABLES\MODELS

DUAL (relative household income adjusted by share)

** 0.154 (0.050)

** 0.203 (0.044)

** 0.148 (0.049)

** 0.206 (0.044) ** 0.417 (0.141) ** 0.610 (0.118) ** 0.068 (0.019)

GINIB (GINI between agricultural and nonagricultural sectors)

Log(Y) (Log Monthly Household Income)

** 0.100 (0.022) * -0.794 (0.416) ** 0.206 (0.066) -0.002 (0.002)

** 0.040 (0.017)

** 0.099 (0.022) ** -0.892 (0.390) ** 0.214 (0.065)

** 0.040 (0.017)

** 0.110 (0.022) ** -0.934 (0.390) ** 0.200 (0.065)

FIN (financial development)

0.033 (0.346) * 0.086 (0.052) 0.001 (0.002)

0.106 (0.308)

-0.104 (0.317)

EDU (Education Level std. dev.)

0.076 (0.048)

0.078 (0.048)

AGE (Average age of head)

Const.

-0.245 (0.168) 1.790 0.608 1.116 0.357 1.783 0.606

-0.194 (0.128) 1.100 0.350 1.747 0.605

** -0.455 (0.145) 1.091 0.375

Durbin-Watson R-squared

Notes:

Dependent variable: Gini coefficient.

Sample periods: 1975-76,1981,1986,1988,1990,1992,1994,1996, and 1998. Number of observations: 116. Standard errors are in parentheses.
*,**: Significant at the 10 and 5 percent levels, respectively.

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SECTION IV REGRESSION RESULTS

In regressions 5 and 6, DUAL is replaced with MLDB. We also include AGE in these regressions and find that they are insignificant. The results in regressions 5 and 6 are very similar to those obtained in regressions 3 and 4. Regressions 1-6 in Table 4a are re-estimated using the Gini coefficient instead of MLD and the results presented in Table 4b are very similar to the results obtained in Table 4a. The insignificance of AGE is partly due to the fact that Thailands aging process is just getting started. In Asia, the effect of aging seems to be more important for more developed countries like Japan, Korea, and Singapore.9 To capture Kuznets U-shape, we also put the square of Log(Y) into all specifications and find that it is insignificant. This implies that Thailands data show no signs of the U-shape that is often found in cross-country analyses. In order to account for the possible endogeneity bias due to interactions between income and distribution, we also estimate using instrumental variables (average age of head, standard deviation of the age of head, and average education level) for household income. While the coefficient of income increases slightly, the overall result does not change significantly and is omitted. Durbin-Watson statistics of fixed effect estimations in Tables 4a and 4b suggest the existence of a weak positive autocorrelation of residuals. 10 Note that asset accumulation can lead to autocorrelation in residuals, because asset accumulation can transmit temporary income inequality to later periods through asset accumulation of households. Since we have no complete asset data, assuming AR(1) disturbances is our second best policy. We set the length of the eight intervals of the nine unequally spaced surveys as follows: 3, 3, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, and 1. The estimation results by Baltagi and Wu (1999) procedure are presented in Table 5. While MLDB stays significant in the table, FIN and EDU are not significant. This result, however, could be immaterial because the autocorrelation of residuals is not very strong. Table 6 shows the standardized coefficients of regressions of Tables 4a and 4b.11 The effect of household income is the largest. The effect of variables capturing sectoral factors (agricultural factor and income) is larger than the effect of FIN and EDU.

9 10 11

More information about the aging process in Asian countries can be obtained from Asian Development Bank (2002). These Durbin Watson statistics are conservative because there are gaps in our dataset. The standardized coefficient is the standard deviation change in the dependent variable caused by one standard deviation change in each independent variable.

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TABLE 5 REGRESSIONS WITH AR(1) DISTURBANCES

INDEPENDENT VARIABLES\MODELS MLDB (MLD between agricultural and nonagricultural sectors)

1 FE ** 1.277 (0.310)

2 RE ** 1.309 (0.209)

3 FE

4 RE

GINIB (GINI between agricultural and nonagricultural sectors)

** 0.546 (0.167) ** 0.047 (0.014) 0.030 (0.247) 0.020 (0.037) ** -0.357 (0.101) 0.585 0.414 0.593 * 0.015 (0.009) 0.054 (0.444) 0.025 (0.081)

** 0.681 (0.111) ** 0.079 (0.019) 0.116 (0.325) 0.011 (0.048) ** -0.518 (0.144) 0.390

Log(Y) (Log monthly household income) 0.002 (0.007) FIN (financial development) -0.039 (0.335) 0.029 (0.062)

EDU (education level std. dev.)

Const.

R-squared

Notes:

Dependent variable: Mean Logarithmic Deviation in Regressions 1 and 2. Gini coefficient in Regressions 3 and 4. Sample periods: 1975-1976,1981,1986,1988,1990,1992,1994,1996, and 1998. Number of observations: 116. Standard errors are in parentheses. *. ** Significant at the 10 and 5 percent levels, respectively.

In summary, the effects of the agricultural variable is very robust. The effects of income, financial development, and education level standard deviation are somewhat sensitive to the model specification about the error term. If we adopt panel regression without AR(1) disturbances on the grounds of the weak autocorrelation of residuals, the standardized coefficients show that the effects of variables capturing sectoral factors dominate the effects of the other determinants. The coefficient of FIN is negative, which suggests that financial development decreases income inequality.

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SECTION V CONCLUSIONS

TABLE 6 STANDARDIZED COEFFICIENTS


TABLE 2(A) INDEPENDENT VARIABLES\REGRESSION # DUAL (relative household income adjusted by share) MLDB (MLD between agricultural and nonagricultural sectors) GINIB (GINI between agricultural and nonagricultural sectors) Log(Y) (log monthly household income) FIN (financial development) EDU (education level std. dev.) 0.984 -0.356 0.616 1.018 -0.360 0.597 1.198 -0.367 0.787 3 0.316 5 3 0.378 TABLE 2(B) 5

0.377

0.517

1.324 -0.385 0.734

Note: Standardized coefficient denotes standard deviation change in the dependent variable caused by one standard deviation change in independent variable.

V. CONCLUSIONS

Kuznets (1955, 12) asks: What about the trend toward greater inequality due to the shift from the agricultural to the nonagricultural sectors? In view of the importance of industrialization and urbanization in the process of economic growth, their implications for trends in the income distribution should be exploreeven though we have neither the necessary data nor a reasonably complete theoretical model. Even though we now have the necessary data and this study reconfirms the importance of sectoral factors, a theoretical model capturing sectoral factors of the developing economy still seems to be not fully developed. This study shows that inequality between the agricultural and nonagricultural sectors plays a significant role in determining the income distribution of Thailand. The effect of agriculture/nonagriculture disparity is very robust. The impact of variables related to sectoral shifts in the economy, i.e., agriculture/nonagriculture disparity and household income, is larger than that of other determinants (financial development, education level disparity, and aging). Therefore, these sectoral factors are largely responsible for the inequality increase in Thailand. We also find some limited evidence that financial development alleviate the inequality increase.

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APPENDIX

All the data used in the regression analysis is from the HSES (Household Socio-Economic Survey) conducted by NSO of Thailand in 1968-1969, 1971-1973, 1975-1976, 1981, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1994, 1996, and 1998. Simplified versions of the survey were conducted in 1999 and 2001. A stratified three-stage (1975-1986) or two-stage (1988-) sampling was adopted. The sample size was about 12000 to 16,000 during 1975-1992 and increased to about 32,000 in 1994. The 1975-1976 survey was undertaken during the period November 1975 through October 1976. The other surveys were undertaken February of the reference year through January of the next year. Income data is based on total current income, which is before-tax, after-transfer income minus other monetary receipts (insurance proceeds, lottery winnings, and other receipts). Three subregions (municipal area, sanitary district, and villages) are formed by the administration according to the degree of urbanization. The subdivision is simplified to two (municipal area and villages) from the 2000 Survey. For more about the definition of these subregions, see Ikemoto (1991, 31-2). The HSES volumes for 1975-1976 do not show the percentage of Farm Workers. By comparing data from 1975-1976 with that of 1981, it can be assumed that this is due to the fact that Farm Workers are included with General Workers. The HSES volumes of the 1975-1976 survey available from the Economic Statistic Division of NSO include some handwritten corrections. The writing on Table 5.2 for the 1975-1976 survey Northern Region volume also shows that Farm Workers are included with General Workers. Therefore, household ratio and income of Farm Workers in the 1975 survey was calculated by dividing the data for General Workers according to the Farm Workers/ General Workers ratio of the 1981 survey. The HSES volume for the Greater Bangkok Metropolitan Area in 1986 is different from other volumes for the same region. It provide tables for three subregions (City Core, Suburbs, and Fringe Areas). However, it does not provide data for the whole region or for the household ratio which is necessary to sum these data. Therefore, data could not be obtained for income distributions and others for the Greater Bangkok Metropolitan Area in 1986. The HSES volumes for four regions other than the Greater Bangkok Metropolitan Area in and after 1986 do not provide education level distribution data for three subregions (Municipal Area, Sanitary District, and Village), while they provide it for six occupational groups. The education level distribution for each subregion is estimated from the weighted average of education level distribution for these occupational groups, using occupational distribution in each subregions as its weight. The education level classification in 1975-1976 volumes shown in the Appendix Table is different from that of Table 2. The No Formal Education class in the 1975-1976 volumes is expressed as Kindergarten or None. There is no distinction between University Education and Higher Education in the 1975-1976 volumes. This is not a big problem because the number of people with Higher Education in 1981 is less than 1 percent in all the regions and subregions. People with University or Higher education are assigned as 4.

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REFERENCES

APPENDIX TABLE CLASSIFICATION OF EDUCATION LEVELS IN THE 1975-1976 SURVEY

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

No formal education Elementary or less Secondary University or Higher Vocational or Technical

Household head is defined as the person recognized as such by other members, whether he or she was responsible for financial support or welfare of the household members or not (HSES 1998). Unit record HSES data in and after 1986 are available on CD-ROM from the NSO of Thailand. While there are studies that used data from surveys before 1986 on tape (Ikemoto 1991, for example), there is no announcement about the availability of unit record data of these old surveys. More detailed information about the survey and its design can be found in each of the volumes of the survey published by NSO (both in Thai and in English; see also http://www.nso.go.th/ eng/stat/socio/socio.htm).

REFERENCES

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Bourguignon, F., 1979. Decomposable Income Inequality Measures. Econometrica 47(4):901-20. Bourguignon, F., and C. Morrisson, 1990. Income Distribution, Development and Foreign Trade: A Cross-Sectional Analysis. European Economic Review 34(6):1113-32. , 1998. Inequality Arid Development: The Role of Dualism. Journal of Development Economics 57(2):233-57. Cowell, F. A., 1995. Measuring Inequality, 2nd ed. London: Prentice Hall/Harvester Wheatsheaf. Deaton, A., 1989. Rice Prices and Income Distribution in Thailand: A Non-Parametric Analysis. The Economic Journal 99(395):1-37. Deaton, A., and C. Paxson, 1994. Intertemporal Choice and Inequality. Journal of Political Economy 102(3):437-67. Deininger, K., and L. Squire, 1996. A New Data Set Measuring Income Inequality. World Bank Economic Review 10(3):565-91. , 1998. New Ways of Looking at Old Issues: Inequality and Growth. Journal of Development Economics 57:259-87. Deolalikar, A. B., 2002. Poverty, Growth and Inequality in Thailand. ERD Working Paper No.8, Economics and Research Department, Asian Development Bank. Estudillo, J. P., 1997. Income Inequality in the Philippines, 1961-91. Developing Economies 35(1):68-95. Forbes, K. J., 2000. A Reassessment of the Relationship between Inequality and Growth. American Economic Review 90(4):869-87. Ikemoto, Y., 1991. Income Distribution in Thailand: Its Changes, Causes, and Structure. Institute of Developing Economies, Tokyo. Ikemoto, Y., and M. Uehara, 2000. Income Inequality and Kuznets Hypothesis in Thailand. Asian Economic Journal 14(4):421-43. Jha, S. K., 1996. The Kuznets Curve: A Reassessment. World Development 24(4):773-80. Kakwani, N., and M. Krongkaew, 2000. Analysing Poverty in Thailand. Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy 5(1,2):141-60. Karunaratne, H. D., 2000. Age as a Factor Determining Income Inequality in Sri Lanka. Developing Economies 38(2):211-42. Krongkaew, M., P. Tinakorn, and S. Suphachalasai, 1996. Thailand. In M. G. Quibria ed., Rural Poverty in Developing Asia. Vol. 2. Asian Development Bank, Manila, Philippines. Kuznets, S., 1955. Economic Growth and Income Inequality. American Economic Review 45(1):128. Lambert, P. J., and J. R. Aronson, 1993. Inequality Decomposition Analysis and the Gini Coefficient Revisited. The Economic Journal 103(420):1221-27. Li, H., L. Squire, and H. F. Zou, 1998. Explaining International and Intertemporal Variations in Income Inequality. The Economic Journal 108(1):26-43.

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Motonishi, T., 2000. On the Effects of the Development of International Financial Markets When the World Economy Is Stratified. Discussion Paper Series No.2000-02, Faculty of Economics, Nagasaki University. National Statistical Office, various years. Household Socio Economic Survey. Office of the Prime Minister, Bankok, Thailand. Ohtake, F., and M. Saito, 1998. Population Aging and Consumption Inequality in Japan. Review of Income and Wealth 44(3):361-81. Osaka, H., 2000. Economic Development and Income Distribution: Survey and Regional Empirical Analysis. Kyushu University Discussion Paper No. 2000-5. Papanek, G. F., and O. Kyn, 1986. The Effect of Income Distribution of Development, The Growth Rate and Economic Strategy. Journal of Development Economics 23:55-65. Shorrocks, A. F., 1980. The Class of Additively Decomposable Inequality Measures. Econometrica 48(3):613-25.

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ECONOMIC STAFF PAPERS (ES)


No. 1 International Reserves: Factors Determining Needs and Adequacy Evelyn Go, May 1981 Domestic Savings in Selected Developing Asian Countries Basil Moore, assisted by A.H.M. Nuruddin Chowdhury, September 1981 Changes in Consumption, Imports and Exports of Oil Since 1973: A Preliminary Survey of the Developing Member Countries of the Asian Development Bank Dal Hyun Kim and Graham Abbott, September 1981 By-Passed Areas, Regional Inequalities, and Development Policies in Selected Southeast Asian Countries William James, October 1981 Asian Agriculture and Economic Development William James, March 1982 Inflation in Developing Member Countries: An Analysis of Recent Trends A.H.M. Nuruddin Chowdhury and J. Malcolm Dowling, March 1982 Industrial Growth and Employment in Developing Asian Countries: Issues and Perspectives for the Coming Decade Ulrich Hiemenz, March 1982 Petrodollar Recycling 1973-1980. Part 1: Regional Adjustments and the World Economy Burnham Campbell, April 1982 Developing Asia: The Importance of Domestic Policies Economics Office Staff under the direction of Seiji Naya, May 1982 Financial Development and Household Savings: Issues in Domestic Resource Mobilization in Asian Developing Countries Wan-Soon Kim, July 1982 Industrial Development: Role of Specialized Financial Institutions Kedar N. Kohli, August 1982 Petrodollar Recycling 1973-1980. Part II: Debt Problems and an Evaluation of Suggested Remedies Burnham Campbell, September 1982 Credit Rationing, Rural Savings, and Financial Policy in Developing Countries William James, September 1982 Small and Medium-Scale Manufacturing Establishments in ASEAN Countries: Perspectives and Policy Issues Mathias Bruch and Ulrich Hiemenz, March 1983 Income Distribution and Economic Growth in Developing Asian Countries J. Malcolm Dowling and David Soo, March 1983 Long-Run Debt-Servicing Capacity of Asian Developing Countries: An Application of Critical Interest Rate Approach Jungsoo Lee, June 1983 External Shocks, Energy Policy, and Macroeconomic Performance of Asian Developing Countries: A Policy Analysis William James, July 1983 The Impact of the Current Exchange Rate System on Trade and Inflation of Selected Developing Member Countries Pradumna Rana, September 1983 Asian Agriculture in Transition: Key Policy Issues William James, September 1983 The Transition to an Industrial Economy in Monsoon Asia Harry T. Oshima, October 1983 The Significance of Off-Farm Employment and Incomes in Post-War East Asian Growth Harry T. Oshima, January 1984 Income Distribution and Poverty in Selected Asian Countries John Malcolm Dowling, Jr., November 1984 ASEAN Economies and ASEAN Economic Cooperation Narongchai Akrasanee, November 1984 Economic Analysis of Power Projects Nitin Desai, January 1985 Exports and Economic Growth in the Asian Region Pradumna Rana, February 1985 Patterns of External Financing of DMCs E. Go, May 1985 Industrial Technology Development the Republic of Korea S.Y. Lo, July 1985 Risk Analysis and Project Selection: A Review of Practical Issues J.K. Johnson, August 1985 Rice in Indonesia: Price Policy and Comparative Advantage I. Ali, January 1986 Effects of Foreign Capital Inflows on Developing Countries of Asia Jungsoo Lee, Pradumna B. Rana, and Yoshihiro Iwasaki, April 1986 Economic Analysis of the Environmental Impacts of Development Projects John A. Dixon et al., EAPI, East-West Center, August 1986 Science and Technology for Development: Role of the Bank Kedar N. Kohli and Ifzal Ali, November 1986 Satellite Remote Sensing in the Asian and Pacific Region Mohan Sundara Rajan, December 1986 Changes in the Export Patterns of Asian and Pacific Developing Countries: An Empirical Overview Pradumna B. Rana, January 1987 Agricultural Price Policy in Nepal Gerald C. Nelson, March 1987 Implications of Falling Primary Commodity Prices for Agricultural Strategy in the Philippines Ifzal Ali, September 1987 Determining Irrigation Charges: A Framework Prabhakar B. Ghate, October 1987 The Role of Fertilizer Subsidies in Agricultural Production: A Review of Select Issues M.G. Quibria, October 1987 Domestic Adjustment to External Shocks in Developing Asia Jungsoo Lee, October 1987 Improving Domestic Resource Mobilization through Financial Development: Indonesia Philip Erquiaga, November 1987 Recent Trends and Issues on Foreign Direct Investment in Asian and Pacific Developing Countries P.B. Rana, March 1988 Manufactured Exports from the Philippines: A Sector Profile and an Agenda for Reform I. Ali, September 1988 A Framework for Evaluating the Economic Benefits of Power Projects I. Ali, August 1989 Promotion of Manufactured Exports in Pakistan

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Jungsoo Lee and Yoshihiro Iwasaki, September 1989 Education and Labor Markets in Indonesia: A Sector Survey Ernesto M. Pernia and David N. Wilson, September 1989 Industrial Technology Capabilities and Policies in Selected ADCs Hiroshi Kakazu, June 1990 Designing Strategies and Policies for Managing Structural Change in Asia Ifzal Ali, June 1990 The Completion of the Single European Community Market in 1992: A Tentative Assessment of its Impact on Asian Developing Countries J.P. Verbiest and Min Tang, June 1991 Economic Analysis of Investment in Power Systems Ifzal Ali, June 1991 External Finance and the Role of Multilateral Financial Institutions in South Asia: Changing Patterns, Prospects, and Challenges Jungsoo Lee, November 1991 The Gender and Poverty Nexus: Issues and Policies M.G. Quibria, November 1993 The Role of the State in Economic Development: Theory, the East Asian Experience, and the Malaysian Case Jason Brown, December 1993

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The Economic Benefits of Potable Water Supply Projects to Households in Developing Countries Dale Whittington and Venkateswarlu Swarna, January 1994 Growth Triangles: Conceptual Issues and Operational Problems Min Tang and Myo Thant, February 1994 The Emerging Global Trading Environment and Developing Asia Arvind Panagariya, M.G. Quibria, and Narhari Rao, July 1996 Aspects of Urban Water and Sanitation in the Context of Rapid Urbanization in Developing Asia Ernesto M. Pernia and Stella LF. Alabastro, September 1997 Challenges for Asias Trade and Environment Douglas H. Brooks, January 1998 Economic Analysis of Health Sector ProjectsA Review of Issues, Methods, and Approaches Ramesh Adhikari, Paul Gertler, and Anneli Lagman, March 1999 The Asian Crisis: An Alternate View Rajiv Kumar and Bibek Debroy, July 1999 Social Consequences of the Financial Crisis in Asia James C. Knowles, Ernesto M. Pernia, and Mary Racelis, November 1999

OCCASIONAL PAPERS (OP)


No. 1 Poverty in the Peoples Republic of China: Recent Developments and Scope for Bank Assistance K.H. Moinuddin, November 1992 The Eastern Islands of Indonesia: An Overview of Development Needs and Potential Brien K. Parkinson, January 1993 Rural Institutional Finance in Bangladesh and Nepal: Review and Agenda for Reforms A.H.M.N. Chowdhury and Marcelia C. Garcia, November 1993 Fiscal Deficits and Current Account Imbalances of the South Pacific Countries: A Case Study of Vanuatu T.K. Jayaraman, December 1993 Reforms in the Transitional Economies of Asia Pradumna B. Rana, December 1993 Environmental Challenges in the Peoples Republic of China and Scope for Bank Assistance Elisabetta Capannelli and Omkar L. Shrestha, December 1993 Sustainable Development Environment and Poverty Nexus K.F. Jalal, December 1993 Intermediate Services and Economic Development: The Malaysian Example Sutanu Behuria and Rahul Khullar, May 1994 Interest Rate Deregulation: A Brief Survey of the Policy Issues and the Asian Experience Carlos J. Glower, July 1994 Some Aspects of Land Administration in Indonesia: Implications for Bank Operations Sutanu Behuria, July 1994 Demographic and Socioeconomic Determinants of Contraceptive Use among Urban Women in the Melanesian Countries in the South Pacific: A Case Study of Port Vila Town in Vanuatu T.K. Jayaraman, February 1995 No. 12 Managing Development through Institution Building Hilton L. Root, October 1995 Growth, Structural Change, and Optimal Poverty Interventions Shiladitya Chatterjee, November 1995 Private Investment and Macroeconomic Environment in the South Pacific Island Countries: A Cross-Country Analysis T.K. Jayaraman, October 1996 The Rural-Urban Transition in Viet Nam: Some Selected Issues Sudipto Mundle and Brian Van Arkadie, October 1997 A New Approach to Setting the Future Transport Agenda Roger Allport, Geoff Key, and Charles Melhuish June 1998 Adjustment and Distribution: The Indian Experience Sudipto Mundle and V.B. Tulasidhar, June 1998 Tax Reforms in Viet Nam: A Selective Analysis Sudipto Mundle, December 1998 Surges and Volatility of Private Capital Flows to Asian Developing Countries: Implications for Multilateral Development Banks Pradumna B. Rana, December 1998 The Millennium Round and the Asian Economies: An Introduction Dilip K. Das, October 1999 Occupational Segregation and the Gender Earnings Gap Joseph E. Zveglich, Jr. and Yana van der Meulen Rodgers, December 1999 Information Technology: Next Locomotive of Growth? Dilip K. Das, June 2000

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STATISTICAL REPORT SERIES (SR)


No. 1 Estimates of the Total External Debt of the Developing Member Countries of ADB: 1981-1983 I.P. David, September 1984 Multivariate Statistical and Graphical Classification Techniques Applied to the Problem of Grouping Countries I.P. David and D.S. Maligalig, March 1985 Gross National Product (GNP) Measurement Issues in South Pacific Developing Member Countries of ADB S.G. Tiwari, September 1985 Estimates of Comparable Savings in Selected DMCs Hananto Sigit, December 1985 Keeping Sample Survey Design and Analysis Simple I.P. David, December 1985 External Debt Situation in Asian Developing Countries I.P. David and Jungsoo Lee, March 1986 Study of GNP Measurement Issues in the South Pacific Developing Member Countries. Part I: Existing National Accounts of SPDMCsAnalysis of Methodology and Application of SNA Concepts P. Hodgkinson, October 1986 Study of GNP Measurement Issues in the South Pacific Developing Member Countries. Part II: Factors Affecting Intercountry Comparability of Per Capita GNP P. Hodgkinson, October 1986 Survey of the External Debt Situation in Asian Developing Countries, 1985 Jungsoo Lee and I.P. David, April 1987 A Survey of the External Debt Situation in Asian Developing Countries, 1986 Jungsoo Lee and I.P. David, April 1988 Changing Pattern of Financial Flows to Asian and Pacific Developing Countries Jungsoo Lee and I.P. David, March 1989 The State of Agricultural Statistics in Southeast Asia I.P. David, March 1989 A Survey of the External Debt Situation in Asian and Pacific Developing Countries: 1987-1988 Jungsoo Lee and I.P. David, July 1989 A Survey of the External Debt Situation in Asian and Pacific Developing Countries: 1988-1989 Jungsoo Lee, May 1990 A Survey of the External Debt Situation in Asian and Pacific Developing Countries: 19891992 Min Tang, June 1991 Recent Trends and Prospects of External Debt Situation and Financial Flows to Asian and Pacific Developing Countries Min Tang and Aludia Pardo, June 1992 Purchasing Power Parity in Asian Developing Countries: A Co-Integration Test Min Tang and Ronald Q. Butiong, April 1994 Capital Flows to Asian and Pacific Developing Countries: Recent Trends and Future Prospects Min Tang and James Villafuerte, October 1995

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No. 9

SPECIAL STUDIES, OUP (SS,OUP) (Co-published with Oxford University Press; Available commercially through Oxford University Press Offices, Associated Companies, and Agents)
1. Informal Finance: Some Findings from Asia Prabhu Ghate et. al., 1992 $15.00 (paperback) Mongolia: A Centrally Planned Economy in Transition Asian Development Bank, 1992 $15.00 (paperback) Rural Poverty in Asia, Priority Issues and Policy Options Edited by M.G. Quibria, 1994 $25.00 (paperback) Growth Triangles in Asia: A New Approach to Regional Economic Cooperation Edited by Myo Thant, Min Tang, and Hiroshi Kakazu 1st ed., 1994 $36.00 (hardbound) Revised ed., 1998 $55.00 (hardbound) Urban Poverty in Asia: A Survey of Critical Issues Edited by Ernesto Pernia, 1994 $18.00 (paperback) Critical Issues in Asian Development: Theories, Experiences, and Policies Edited by M.G. Quibria, 1995 $15.00 (paperback) $36.00 (hardbound) Financial Sector Development in Asia Edited by Shahid N. Zahid, 1995 $50.00 (hardbound) Financial Sector Development in Asia: Country Studies Edited by Shahid N. Zahid, 1995 $55.00 (hardbound) 9. Fiscal Management and Economic Reform in the Peoples Republic of China Christine P.W. Wong, Christopher Heady, and Wing T. Woo, 1995 $15.00 (paperback) From Centrally Planned to Market Economies: The Asian Approach Edited by Pradumna B. Rana and Naved Hamid, 1995 Vol. 1: Overview $36.00 (hardbound) Vol. 2: Peoples Republic of China and Mongolia $50.00 (hardbound) Vol. 3: Lao PDR, Myanmar, and Viet Nam $50.00 (hardbound) Current Issues in Economic Development: An Asian Perspective Edited by M.G. Quibria and J. Malcolm Dowling, 1996 $50.00 (hardbound) The Bangladesh Economy in Transition Edited by M.G. Quibria, 1997 $20.00 (hardbound) The Global Trading System and Developing Asia Edited by Arvind Panagariya, M.G. Quibria, and Narhari Rao, 1997 $55.00 (hardbound) Social Sector Issues in Transitional Economies of Asia Edited by Douglas H. Brooks and Myo Thant, 1998 $25.00 (paperback) $55.00 (hardbound)

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SPECIAL STUDIES, COMPLIMENTARY (SSC) (Published in-house; Available through ADB Office of External Relations; Free of Charge)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Improving Domestic Resource Mobilization Through Financial Development: Overview September 1985 Improving Domestic Resource Mobilization Through Financial Development: Bangladesh July 1986 Improving Domestic Resource Mobilization Through Financial Development: Sri Lanka April 1987 Improving Domestic Resource Mobilization Through Financial Development: India December 1987 Financing Public Sector Development Expenditure in Selected Countries: Overview January 1988 Study of Selected Industries: A Brief Report April 1988 Financing Public Sector Development Expenditure in Selected Countries: Bangladesh June 1988 Financing Public Sector Development Expenditure in Selected Countries: India June 1988 Financing Public Sector Development Expenditure in Selected Countries: Indonesia June 1988 Financing Public Sector Development Expenditure in Selected Countries: Nepal June 1988 Financing Public Sector Development Expenditure in Selected Countries: Pakistan June 1988 Financing Public Sector Development Expenditure in Selected Countries: Philippines June 1988 Financing Public Sector Development Expenditure in Selected Countries: Thailand June 1988 Towards Regional Cooperation in South Asia: ADB/EWC Symposium on Regional Cooperation in South Asia February 1988 Evaluating Rice Market Intervention Policies: Some Asian Examples April 1988 Improving Domestic Resource Mobilization Through Financial Development: Nepal November 1988 Foreign Trade Barriers and Export Growth September 1988 The Role of Small and Medium-Scale Industries in the Industrial Development of the Philippines April 1989 19. The Role of Small and Medium-Scale Manufacturing Industries in Industrial Development: The Experience of Selected Asian Countries January 1990 20. National Accounts of Vanuatu, 1983-1987 January 1990 21. National Accounts of Western Samoa, 1984-1986 February 1990 22. Human Resource Policy and Economic Development: Selected Country Studies July 1990 23. Export Finance: Some Asian Examples September 1990 24. National Accounts of the Cook Islands, 1982-1986 September 1990 25. Framework for the Economic and Financial Appraisal of Urban Development Sector Projects January 1994 26. Framework and Criteria for the Appraisal and Socioeconomic Justification of Education Projects January 1994 27. Investing in Asia Co-published with OECD, 1997 28. The Future of Asia in the World Economy Co-published with OECD, 1998 29. Financial Liberalisation in Asia: Analysis and Prospects Co-published with OECD, 1999 30. Sustainable Recovery in Asia: Mobilizing Resources for Development Co-published with OECD, 2000 31. Technology and Poverty Reduction in Asia and the Pacific Co-published with OECD, 2001 32. Guidelines for the Economic Analysis of Telecommunications Projects Asian Development Bank, 1997 33. Guidelines for the Economic Analysis of Water Supply Projects Asian Development Bank, 1998

15. 16. 17. 18.

SPECIAL STUDIES, ADB (SS, ADB) (Published in-house; Available commercially through ADB Office of External Relations)
1. Rural Poverty in Developing Asia Edited by M.G. Quibria Vol. 1: Bangladesh, India, and Sri Lanka, 1994 $35.00 (paperback) Vol. 2: Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Philippines, and Thailand, 1996 $35.00 (paperback) Gender Indicators of Developing Asian and Pacific Countries Asian Development Bank, 1993 $25.00 (paperback) External Shocks and Policy Adjustments: Lessons from the Gulf Crisis Edited by Naved Hamid and Shahid N. Zahid, 1995 $15.00 (paperback) Indonesia-Malaysia-Thailand Growth Triangle: Theory to Practice Edited by Myo Thant and Min Tang, 1996 $15.00 (paperback) Emerging Asia: Changes and Challenges Asian Development Bank, 1997 $30.00 (paperback) Asian Exports Edited by Dilip Das, 1999 $35.00 (paperback) $55.00 (hardbound) 7. Development of Environment Statistics in Developing Asian and Pacific Countries Asian Development Bank, 1999 $30.00 (paperback) 8. Mortgage-Backed Securities Markets in Asia Edited by S.Ghon Rhee & Yutaka Shimomoto, 1999 $35.00 (paperback) 9. Rising to the Challenge in Asia: A Study of Financial Markets Asian Development Bank Vol. 1: An Overview, 2000 $20.00 (paperback) Vol. 2: Special Issues, 1999 $15.00 (paperback) Vol 3: Sound Practices, 2000 $25.00 (paperback) Vol. 4: Peoples Republic of China, 1999 $20.00 (paperback) Vol. 5: India, 1999 $30.00 (paperback) Vol. 6: Indonesia, 1999 $30.00 (paperback) Vol. 7: Republic of Korea, 1999 $30.00 (paperback) Vol. 8: Malaysia, 1999 $20.00 (paperback) Vol. 9: Pakistan, 1999 $30.00 (paperback) Vol. 10: Philippines, 1999 $30.00 (paperback) Vol. 11: Thailand, 1999 $30.00 (paperback) Vol. 12: Socialist Republic of Viet Nam, 1999 $30.00 (paperback) 10. Corporate Governance and Finance in East Asia: A Study of Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia,

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Philippines and Thailand J. Zhuang, David Edwards, D. Webb, & Ma. Virginita Capulong Vol. 1: A Consolidated Report, 2000 $10.00 (paperback) Vol. 2: Country Studies, 2001 $15.00 (paperback) 11. Financial Management and Governance Issues Asian Development Bank, 2000 Cambodia $10.00 (paperback) Peoples Republic of China $10.00 (paperback) Mongolia $10.00 (paperback) Pakistan $10.00 (paperback) Papua New Guinea $10.00 (paperback) Uzbekistan $10.00 (paperback) Viet Nam $10.00 (paperback) Selected Developing Member Countries $10.00 (paperback) 12. Government Bond Market Development in Asia Edited by Yun-Hwan Kim, 2001 $25.00 (paperback) 13. Intergovernmental Fiscal Transfers in Asia: Current Practice and Challenges for the Future Edited by Paul Smoke and Yun-Hwan Kim, 2002 $15.00 (paperback) 14. Guidelines for the Economic Analysis of Projects

15.

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20.

Asian Development Bank, 1997 $10.00 (paperback) Handbook for the Economic Analysis of Water Supply Projects Asian Development Bank, 1999 $10.00 (hardbound) Handbook for the Economic Analysis of Health Sector Projects Asian Development Bank, 2000 $10.00 (paperback) Handbook for Integrating Risk Analysis in the Economic Analysis of Projects Asian Development Bank, 2002 $10.00 (paperback) Handbook for Integrating Povery Impact Assessment in the Economic Analysis of Projects Asian Development Bank, 2001 $10.00 (paperback) Guidelines for the Financial Governance and Management of Investment Projects Financed by the Asian Development Bank Asian Development Bank, 2002 $10.00 (paperback) Handbook on Environment Statistics Asian Development Bank, 2002, Forthcoming

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