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Defining Modern Fantasy

Modern fantasy is about beings, places and events not occurring in the real world. Identifiable authors create extraordinary characters and worlds which challenge and expand our sense of the norm. Fantasy is rooted in folklore but the stories are not handed down orally as in traditional folklore. These stories have strong themes, traditions, and structures which are established in ancient myths and legends. However, the stories are shaped through the vision and style choices of the author rather than in oral tradition, which is rooted in cultural belief and told by the storyteller. (p.207-208)
Galda, L., Cullinan, B. E., & Sipe, L. R. (2010). Literature and the child. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, p. 207-208.

Qualities in Modern Fantasy

stories must always meet criteria for excellence in narrative fiction effective settings are detailed and believable within the context of the story themes are meaningful, challenging the reader to ask questions and think about life writing is rich and structures, syntax and word choices are clear story events are imaginative, and logically consistent within the story world characters are multidimensional, with consistent and logical behavior

Galda, L., Cullinan, B. E., & Sipe, L. R. (2010). Literature and the child. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, p. 209.

Types of Fantasy

Animal

human thoughts, feelings and language attributed to animals

Mercy Watson by Kate DiCamillo

The Underneathby Kathi Appelt

Miniature Worlds/Enchanted Realism

miniature beings and worlds highlight the human desire and needs magical objects, characters or events appear The Borrowers by Mary Norton

Literary Lore

the writer imitates the traditional qualities of ancient folklore The Stinky Rapunzel's Cheese Manby Revenge by Jon Scieszka Shannon Hale characters meet challenges that seem endless and unbeatable characters are portrayed having inner and outer struggles, but the goodness of the character prevails (good vs.evil)

Quest Tales

The Thief Lord by Cornelia Funke

Harry Potter series by J.K. Rowling

All titles listed are in TRC collection. Galda, L., Cullinan, B. E., & Sipe, L. R. (2010). Literature and the child. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, p. 213-216.

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Defining Folklore

Folklore or traditional literature began as stories and poems retold through the generations by storytellers. These stories were used in entertaining, explaining the world, and by passing down cultural values and beliefs. Unlike modern fantasy, the original authors are unknown and variations of the stories occurred through the retelling. However, many of these stories survived over the centuries, resulting in several types of folklore such as; nursery rhymes, folktales, fables, hero tales, myths, and folk songs, Today, all of these forms provide a variety of enrichment to our literary knowledge. (p.175)
Galda, L., Cullinan, B. E., & Sipe, L. R. (2010). Literature and the child. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, p. 175.

Types of Folklore or Traditional Literature

Nursery Rhymes

rhythmic words, imaginative use of words, compact structure

My Very First Mother Mother Goosee Goose Picture Puzzles edited by Iona by Will Hillenbrand Opie

Folktales

magic, witches, tasks, beasts, ogres

The Complete Tales of Uncle Remus Nursery Tales Around by Joel the WorldRetold by Chandler Judy Sierra

Fables

animal stories that teach a lesson Aesop's Fables

Town Mouse and Country Mouse by Jan Brett

Myths

explains natural phenomena and world origins

Song of Demeter by Cynthia and William Birrer

D'Aulaires' Book of Greek Myths

Pourquoi Stories

explain why certain things are the way they are

Why Mosquitoes Buzz in People's Why the Possum's Earsby Verna Tale is Bare by James Aardema Connolly

Hero Tales/Epics/Legends

super deeds of superhuman beings or historical figures

Beowulf by Michael Morpurgo

Saint George and the Dragon by Margaret Hodges

Folk Songs

rhyme and rhythm set to music From Sea to Shining Sea Arroz con Leche by Lulu Durell

by Amy Cohn

Fractured Fairy Tales (See bottom panel for more titles)

stories patterned after traditional tales

The Stinky Cheese Man and Other Fairly Stupid Tales by Jon Scieszka

Splinters by Kevin Sylvester

Titles listed are in TRC collection. Galda, L., Cullinan, B. E., & Sipe, L. R. (2010). Literature and the child. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, p. 182-198.

Types of Folktales

Talking Animal/ Trickster Tales

personification of animals trickster tales Anansi Goes Fishingby Eric Kimmel

Monkey: A Trickster Tale from India by Gerald McDermott

repeat actions and refrains in sequence include rhyming and rhythm The Cazuela That There Was An Old the Farm Maiden Lady Who Stirred Swallowed a Fly by Samantha R. by Simms Taback Vamos

Cumulative Tales

Noodlehead Tales

silly humans, stupid characters Epossomondas by Collen Salley The Fisherman and His Wife by Isadora Duncan

Fairy Tales

magic, wonder, enchantment supernatural beings Rapunzel Beauty and the

by Paul Zelinsky also feature humans

Beast by Jan Brett

larger-than-life characters indigenous to the United States


Dust Devil by Anne Isaacs John Henry by Julius Lester

Tall Tales

All titles listed are in TRC collection. Galda, L., Cullinan, B. E., & Sipe, L. R. (2010). Literature and the child. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, p. 185-188.

Variations of Folktales Definition: Variants of folklore are retold stories in which the same basic story is retold without changing the integrity of the story. The story may be told by different authors portraying different cultural versions, which reflect characters within a particular culture and setting. A*B*C*D*E*F*G*H*I*J*K*L*M*N*O*P*Q*R*S*T*U*V*W*X*Y*Z
Beauty and the Beast Beauty by Robin McKinley Beauty and the Beast retold by Marianna Mayer Beauty and the Beast retold by Jan Brett

Brave Little Tailor

Jack the Giantkiller by Beatrice de Regniers

Chicken Little

Chicken Little by Rebecca and Ed Emberley

Cinderella by Charles Perrault and translated by Diane Goode Cinderella by San Jose Cinderella by Judy Sierra Cendrillon: A Carribean Cinderella by Robert San Souci Domitila: A Cinderella Tale from the Mexican Traditionby Jewell Coburn

Cinderella

The Egyptian Cinderella by Shirley Climo Fair, Brown & Trembling: An Irish Cinderella Story by Jude Daly Glass Slipper, Gold Sandal: A Worldwide Cinderella by Paul Fleischman The Golden Sandal: A Middle Eastern Cinderella by Rebecca Hickox The Irish Cinderlad by Shirley Climo Kongi & Potgi: a Cinderella Story from Korea by Oki S, Han Martina the Beautiful Cockroach: A Cuban FolktaleRetold by Carmen Deedy Mufaro's Beautiful Beautiful Daughters: An African Taleby John Steptoe Raisel's Riddle by Silverman, Erica The Rough-Faced Girl by Rafe Martin The Turkey Girl: A Zuni Cinderella by Penny Pollock Vasilissa the Beautiful: a Russian Folktale by Elizabeth Winthrop The Way Meat Loves Salt: A Cinderella Tale from the Jewish Tradition by Nina Jaffe Yeh-Shen: A Cinderella Story from China by Ai-Ling Louie

The Emperor's New Clothes

The Emperor's New Clothes by William Kilpatrick

The Fisherman and His Wife by Margot Zemach The Fisherman and His Wife by The Brothers Grimm The Fisherman and His Wife Retold by Rachel Isadora

The Fisherman and His Wife

The Frog Prince

East of the Sun and West of the Moon by Mercer Mayer

The Gingerbread Man

Journey Cake, Ho! by Robert McCloskey The Gingerbread Boy by Richard Egielski

Goldilocks and the Three Bears by James Marshall The Three Snow Bears by Jan Brett Dusty Locks and the Three Bears by Susan Lowell

Goldilocks and the Three Bears

Hansel and Gretel

Hansel and Gretel by Jacob Grimm

The House That Jack Built

The Pot That Juan Built by Nancy AndrewsGoebel

Jack and the Beanstalk

Jack and the Bean Stalk retold by John Howe Jack the Giant-Killer retold by Beatrice de Reigniers Jack and the Beanstalk by Steven Kellogg Jack and the Bean Tree retold by Gail Haley

The Little Red Hen

The Little Red Hen by Paul Galdone The Little Red Hen by Jerry Pinkney The Red Hen by Rebecca and Ed Emberley

Little Red Riding Hood

Little Red Riding Hood by Trina Schart Hyman Petite Rouge: A Cajun Red Riding Hood by Mike Artell Little Red Riding Hood by John Goodall Red Riding Hood: Retold in Verse by Beatrice

De Regniers

Little Red Riding Hood retold by Charles Perrault Lon Po Po: A Red Riding Hood Story from China by Ed Young Red Riding Hood retold by James Marshall Pretty Salma: A Little Red Riding Hood Story from Africaby Niki Daly Auntie Tiger by Laurence Yep

The Mitten

The Mitten by Alvin Tresselt The Mitten by Jan Brett

Puss in Boots

Puss in Boots retold by Lincoln Kirstein Puss in Boots by Paul Galdone Puss in Boots by Charles Perrault, translated by Malcolm Arthur

Rapunzel

Rapunzel retold by Barbara Rogasky Rapunzel retold by Paul O. Zelinsky Petronsinella: A Neapolitan Rapunzel by Diane Stanley

Robin Hood and His Merry Men by Sara Sterling The Merry Adentures of Robin Hood by Howard Pyle Robin of Sherwood by Michael Morpurgo The Adventures of Robin Hood by Marcia Williams

Robin Hood

Rumpelstiltskin

Duffy and the Devil by Harve Zemach The Girl Who Spun Gold by Virginia Hamilton

Rumpelstiltskin retold by Paul O. Zelinsky

The Sleeping Beauty

The Sleeping Beauty retold by Trina Schart Hyman Sleeping Beauty by Peter Seymour The Sleeping Beauty by Charles Perrault

Snow White

Snow White by Grimm. translated by Paul Heins Snow-White and the Seven Dwarfs translated by Randall Jarrell

Something From Nothing

Joseph Had a Little Overcoat by Simms Taback

Stone Soup

Stone Soup by Marcia Brown

The Story of Little Black Sambo

The Story of Little Back Sambo by Helen Bannerman The Story of Little Babaji by Helen Bannerman

Three Billy Goats Gruff

The Three Billy Goats Gruff by Paul Galdone Billy Goats Gruff by Susan Hellard

The Three Little Pigs by James Marshall The Three Pigs by David Wiesner The Three Sillies by Kathryn Hewitt The 3 Little Dassies by Jan Brett The Three Little Pigs by Paul Galdone

Three Little Pigs

The Tortoise and the Hare


Titles listed are in TRC collection.

The Really Groovy Story of the Tortoise and the Hare by Kristyn Crow

Fractured Fairy Tales and Other Spoofs Definition: A fractured tale is a folktale taken from the oral tradition and retold to find unexpected humor in the way it portrays the characters, by using a different vernacular, by plot deviations and twists to alter the original story. The changes may be in characterization, points of view, plots, sequel, and settings. A*B*C*D*E*F*G*H*I*J*K*L*M*N*O*P*Q*R*S*T*U*V*W*X*Y*Z
Boy Who Cried Wolf The Wolf Who Cried Boy by Bob Hartman Never Cry Woof!: a Dog-U-Drama by Jane Wattenberg

Cinderella Bella At Midnight by Diane Stanley Splinters by Kevin Sylvester Cinder-Elly by Frances Minters Chickerella by Mary Jane Auch Dinorella: A Prehistoric Fairy Tale by Pamela Edwards The Paper Bag Princess by Robert Munsch Ugh! by Arthur Yorinks Cinderella's Rat by Susan Meddaugh Ella Enchanted by Gail Carson Levine Wolf! by Becky Bloom

The Emperor's New Clothes The Principal's New Clothes by Stepanie Calmenson

The Fisherman and His Wife Pizza For Breakfast by Maryann Kovalski Luba and the Wren by Patricia Polacco

The Frog Prince The Frog Prince, Continued by Jon Scieszka

The Gingerbread Man Gingerbread Baby by Jan Brett The Gingerbread Cowboy by Janet Squires

Goldilocks and the Three Bears Deep in the Forest by Brinton Turkle Somebody and the Three Blairs by Marilyn Tolhurst Rubia and the Three Osos by Melissa Sweet

Jack and the BeanStalk Jim and the Beanstalk by Raymond Briggs Kate and the Beanstalk by Mary Pope Osborne The Giant and the Beanstalk by Diane Stanley

The Little Red Hen With Love, Little Red Hen by Alma Flor Ada The Little Red Hen (Makes a Pizza) Retold by Philemon Sturges Out of the Egg by Tina Matthews

Little Red Riding Hood Little Red Cowboy Hat by Susan Lowell Ruby by Michael Emberley Into the Forest by Anthony Browne Carmine: A Little More Red by Melissa Sweet Betsy Red Hoodie by Gail Carson Levine

Rapunzel Rapunzel's Revenge by Shannon Hale (graphic format) Raounzel: A Groovy Fairy Tale Retold by Lynn Roberts

Robin Hood Outlaw: The Legend of Robin Hood by Tony Lee (graphic format)

Rumpelstiltskin Rumpelstiltskin's Daughter by Diane Stanley

The Sleeping Beauty Sleeping Ugly by Jane Yolen Snoring Beauty by Bruce Hale

Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs Snow White in New York by Fiona French

Something from Nothing Joseph Had A Little Overcoat by Sim Taback

Stone Soup Cactus Soup by Eric Kimmel Bone Button Borscht by Aubrey Davis Fandango Stew by David Davis

The Story of Little Black Sambo Sam and the Tigers... by Julius Lester

Three Billy Goats Gruff The Three Silly Billies by Margie Palatini The Three Bully Goats by Leslie Kimmelman

The Three Little Pigs The True Story of the Three Little Pigs by Jon Scieszka Where's the Big Bad Wolf by Eileen Christelow The Three Little Javelinas by Susan Lowell The Three Pigs by David Wiesner The Three Little Pigs by Steven Kellogg The Three Little Wolves and the Big Bad Pig by Eugene Trivizas

Tortoise and the Hare Really Groovy Story of the Tortoise & The Hare by Kristyn Crow

Collections of Fractured Tales Red Ridin' in the Hood: And Other Cuentos by Patricia Santos Marcantonio Squids Will Be Squids: Fresh Morals, Beastly Fables by Jon Scieszka The Stinky Cheese Man and other Fairly Stupid Tales by Jon Scieszka There's A Wolf at the Door by Zoe Alley An Undone Fairy Tale by Ian Lendler Fairytale News by Colin & Jacqui Hawkins Once Upon a Time, the End: Asleep in 60 Seconds by Geoffrey Kloske Dear Peter Rabbit by Alma Flor Ada

Titles listed are in TRC collection.

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Defining Nonfiction
Nonfiction and informational books provide information and facts about any topic, and this distinguishes these books from fiction books. In nonfiction, facts and concepts are presented by the author, which should be truthful, verifiable and easy to understand. In fiction writing, the storyline is the most prevalent feature in the book. The information in nonfiction books is presented in a variety of interesting formats such as; picture/concept books, photo essays, nature identification books, experiment and activity manuals, books derived from original documentation and journals, and reference books and periodicals. Nonfiction books also cover a diversity of topics in all subject areas. (p. 304-305)
Galda, L., Cullinan, B. E., & Sipe, L. R. (2010). Literature and the child. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, p. 304-305.

Qualities in Nonfiction

facts must be complete and current stereotypes should be avoided scope should be appropriate for the subject and intended audience documentation of author's resources and expertise Quest for the Tree Kangaroo by Sy Montgomery

Accuracy

Birmingham Sunday by Larry Dane Brimner

ideas are clearly developed and logically presented author demonstrates relationships between Team Moon by the facts and between Catherine Thimmesh facts and theories The Race To Save the Lord God Birdby Phillip Hoose

Organization

format should be attractive, complementing the text illustrations should be appropriate and Eyewitness strategically placed Booksby Dorling illustrations should Kindersley illuminate the concepts and facts

Design

Frogs by Nic Bishop

within the text

Style

the prose should be interesting, revealing the author's enthusiasm for the subject

Shipwreck at the language should the Bottom of stimulate the reader's the Worldby interest in the subject Jennifer Armstrong

Tracking Trash by Loree Griffin Burns

All titles listed are in TRC collection. Galda, L., Cullinan, B. E., & Sipe, L. R. (2010). Literature and the child. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, p. 306-309.

Subjects in Nonfiction

The Arts

Let It Shine: Three Favorite Spirituals by Bryan Ashley

Building Big by David Macaulay

Language

Punctuation Takes a Vacation by Robin Pulver

I'm and Won't, They're and Don't What Are Contractions? by Brian Cleary

Literature

Pass It Down: Five Picture Book Families Make Their Mark by Leonard Marcus

Writing Magic: Creating Stories That Fly by Gail Carson Levine

Mathematics

Math Curse by Jon Scieszka

Math Potatoes by Greg Tang

Science

all books by Seymour Simon

Living Color by Steve Jenkins

Social Studies

We Are the Ship by Kadir Nelson

Children of the Great Depression by Russell Freedman

All titles listed are in TRC collection. Galda, L., Cullinan, B. E., & Sipe, L. R. (2010). Literature and the child. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, p. 310-318.

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Defining Biography and Memoir


Biographies, autobiographies and memoirs tell stories about a real person's life or a portion (episodic) of a person's life, showing how they have shaped or are shaping history. Memoirs and autobiographies are written by the subject of the story. Biographies and autobiographies may be fictional or non fictional accounts of a person's life. Memoirs are interpretive accounts in which parts of the author's life are selected to bring out a particular theme or trait. They are factual but are also based upon and interpreted through memory. All of the stories written in this genre are interpreted and written by the author, but still provide the basic facts about the person's life. This genre can be found in the picture book format and also in full length novels. (p. 285)
Galda, L., Cullinan, B. E., & Sipe, L. R. (2010). Literature and the child. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, p. 285.

Qualities in Biography/ Memoir


Accuracy story grounded in fact facts and story line are integrated details are vivid, accurate, and show accomplishments of the individual Lafayette and the American Revolutionby Russell Freedman

depict and vividly present key events that influenced the subject's life plots must blend the factual background with the story Martin's Big Words by Doreen Rappaport

Setting/Plot

Portrayal of Subject

subject's character is well developed author avoids stereotypes When Marian Sang by Pam Munoz

Style

language should reflect the authenticity of the subject and the times Becoming Billie Holiday by Carol Boston Weatherford

Theme

the unifying theme must have a universal application and appeal Lincoln Shot by Barry Denenberg

Illustrations

illustrations help visualize time and place illustrations help illuminate the character of the subject Life and Death of Adolf Hitler by James Cross Giblin

Biographical Subjects

SUBJECTS:

EXAMPLES:

Political and Military Leaders The Boy Named FDR by Kathleen Krull

The Amazing Life of Benjamin Franklin by James Giblin

Philosophers and Religious Leaders

Confucius: The Golden Rule by Russell Freedman

Martin Luther by Sally Stepanek

Scientists and Inventors

Genius: A Photobiography of Albert Einstein by Marfe Delano

Snowflake Bentley by Jacqueline Briggs Martin

Adventurers and Explorers Antarctic Journal by Jennifer Dewey Manfish: A Story of Jacques Cousteau by J. Berne

Artists/Authors
TRC Author Biographies Booklist

Dave the Potter: Artist, Poet, Slave by Laban Carrick

Michelangelo by Diane Stanley

Extraordinary/Ordinary People Elizabeth Leads the Way by Tanya Lee Stone

Families by Susan Kuklin

All titles listed are in TRC collection. Galda, L., Cullinan, B. E., & Sipe, L. R. (2010). Literature and the child. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, p. 292-298.

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Defining Historical Fiction


Historical fiction is the genre which tells stories about events from the past which are based on fact, by including events and actions that could have actually occurred, but are fictionalized because they are set in the past. The stories are created and told within a historical setting. But the characters in the stories may seem real to us and may be someone we care about. This gives the reader the opportunity to experience life in the past and consider historical events as issues that had real consequences for the people who lived these experiences. Books which were once contemporary realism may later be classified ashistorical fiction because of the setting and the passage of time. Authors may portray their stories as historical fiction because they are set in the past but the story may have no connection with any historical event or people. Some stories may be based on memories of the authors own lives or the lives of ancestors, while other stories may take on the form of an adventure story. (p. 255)
Galda, L., Cullinan, B. E., & Sipe, L. R. (2010). Literature and the child. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, p. 255.

Qualities in Historical Fiction


Historical Accuracy appropriate to time portrayed avoid distortion and anachronism remain within limits of chosen historical background appropriate sexism and racism portrayal uniqueness of each character, not stereotype Johnny Tremain by Esther Forbes Milkweed by Jerry Spinnelli

Setting

authentic and consistent with historical evidence helps make stories real A Single Shard by Linda Sue Park Alchemy and Meggy Swann by Karen Cushman

Characterization

should be believable with the historical time portrayed

Rose Blancheby

One Crazy Summer by Rita

Robert Innocenti

WilliamsGarcia

Plot and Theme

developed through facts and the narrative Elijah of Buxton by Paul Curtis Out of the Dust by Karen Hesse

authentic dialogue and word choices characterization and mood should reflect time and place Riot by Walter Dean Myers

Style

Heart of a Samurai by Margi Preus

must support and enhance the story historically accurate, reflecting an understanding of the story

Illustrations

Show Way by Jacqueline Woodson

Blueberries for the Queen by Katherine Paterson

Titles listed are in TRC collection Galda, L., Cullinan, B. E., & Sipe, L. R. (2010). Literature and the child. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, p.257-259.

Historical Timeline

Prehistoric/Ancient Times

Pharaoh's Daughter by Julius Lester

The Bronze Bow by Elizabeth George Speare

Middle Ages

Crispin: The Cross of The Midwife's Leadby Avi Apprentice by Karen Cushman

Renaissance/Exploration

The Shakespeare Steeler by Gary Blackwood

Pedro's Journal by Pam Conrad

Colonial/Revolutionary War

Attack of the Turtle by Chains by Laurie Halse Drew Carlson Anderson

Westward Expansion & Civil War

Sacajawea by Joseph Bruchac

Day of Tears by Julius Lester

World War I

The Impossible Journey by Gloria Whelan

Tree By Leaf by Cynthia Voight

Great Depression

Dust for Dinner by Ann Turner

Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cryby Mildred Taylor

World War II

The Yellow Star by Carmen Agra Deedy

The Devil's Arithmetic by Jane Yolen

Vietnam War

Fallen Angels by Walter Dean Myers

The Wednesday Wars by Gary Schmidt

20th Century Issues

The Green Glass Sea by Ellen Klage


Titles listed are in TRC collection.

Witness by Karen Hesse

Galda, L., Cullinan, B. E., & Sipe, L. R. (2010). Literature and the child. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, p. 263-275.

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Defining Science Fiction

Science fiction is concerned with the impact of present-day scientific possibilities in the world of the future. These stories are created around problems and events that would not happen except for the scientific content. They include scientific discoveries, space travel, life on planets and futuristic visions. Science fiction, like fantasy, is also rooted in folklore but the stories are not handed down orally as in traditional folklore. These stories have strong themes, traditions, and structures which are established in ancient myths and legends. However, the stories are shaped through the vision and style choices of the author rather than in oral tradition, which is rooted in cultural belief and told by the storyteller. (p.207-208)
Galda, L., Cullinan, B. E., & Sipe, L. R. (2010). Literature and the child. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, p. 207-208.

Qualities in Science Fiction

stories must always meet criteria for excellence in narrative fiction effective settings are detailed and believable within the context of the story themes are meaningful, challenging the reader to ask questions and think about life writing is rich and structures, syntax and word choices are clear story events are imaginative, and logically consistent within the story world characters are multidimensional, with consistent and logical behavior

Galda, L., Cullinan, B. E., & Sipe, L. R. (2010). Literature and the child. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, p. 209.

Themes in Science Fiction

Mind Control

mind control, telepathy, ESP, communication through time and space The Giver by Lois Lowry

Life in the Future

examines future life and considers individual commitment and ethical behavior Among the Hidden by Margaret Haddix

The Girl Who Could Fly by Victoria Forester

Survival

both gloomy and hopeful views of the future The House of the Holes by Louis Scorpion by Sachar Nancy Farmer

All titles listed in TRC collection. Galda, L., Cullinan, B. E., & Sipe, L. R. (2010). Literature and the child. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, p. 219-221.

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Typically, Children's books are classified by the following genre: Picture Books. Children's books that provide a "visual experience" - telling a story with pictures. There may or may not be text with the book. The content of the book, however, can be fully explained or illustrated with pictures. Note that picture books do not even need to tell stories - they might illustrate letters of the alphabet or numbers. A picture book may even tell a story entirely with illustrations. Many times, these books are published in a small size, something that children can actually hold in their small hands - these books are called hand-books. (Note that "hand-books" are not a genre, but are a format for a book.) There are fun books for young, non-reading children to play with. Often, they can tell the story based on the illustrations, pretending to "read" the book. Picture Story Books. Children's books that contain pictures or illustrations that complement the story, often mirroring the plot. Both the text and the illustrations are important to the development of the story. The pictures are the "eye-candy" that get people's attention, but the text is also needed to complete the story. In well-written picture books, the 2 work together in a seamless fashion. As we read and enjoy the book, we don't even think about which is more important, the illustrations or the text. Often, the pictures are what set the mood or allow us to anticipate what will happen next. Traditional Literature. Stories that are passed down from generation to generation, changing slowly over time are called traditional literature. In many ways, this is what makes them so fascinating - they provide a link between the past and the future. The stories, while retaining much of their original flavor and content have to evolve in subtle ways to remain meaningful in different eras. Traditional literature is a great starting point to introduce children to the concept of a story and introduce them to different types of stories or genres. and We can further break traditional literature down as: Folktales. These feature common folks, such as peasants, and commonplace events. There maybe be some "make-believe" elements, like talking animals, but the stories, overall, sound logical - even realistic. Folk tales seek to explain things about life, nature, or the human condition. Fairy Tales. Also called "magic stories," these are filled with dreamlike possibility. Fairy tales feature magical and enchanted forces. They always have a "happily ever after" ending, where good is rewarded and evil is punished. Fables. Short stories, in verse or prose, with an moral ending. These types of stories are credited Aesop (6th century BC), who told tales of animals and other inanimate objects that teach lessons about life. Legends. While based in history, these stories embellish the life of a real person. The facts and adventures of the person are exaggerated, making the individual famous for their deeds. Myths. Some stories have to be told as related tales to be meaningful. Myths portray themselves as representing a distant past. They contain common themes and characters, often "gods." Myths attempt to explain the beginning of the world, natural phenomena, the relationships between the gods and humans, and the origins of civilization. Myths, like legends, are stories told as though they were true. Historical Fiction. These are stories that are written to portray a time period or convey information about a specific time period or an historical event. Authors use historical fiction to

create drama and interest based on real events in people's lives. The characters may be real, based on real people, or entirely made up. In many ways, these types of books can be more powerful teaching tools than nonfiction, especially for children. Often, historical fiction presents history from the point of view of young participants. There are few contemporary accounts of how children have experienced and participated in history - children's historical fiction attempts to help readers see how history affects people of the same age. When these books are written for young readers, they are called chapter books because they expand the concept of a story by presenting a tale in segments, each building on the last and leading to a final resolution (Note that "hand-books" are not a genre, but are a format for a book). Children's historical fiction features youth a playing an important, participatory role in history. Modern Fantasy. This broad genre is probably easier to define by example or by what it is NOT. The stories are contemporary or are nondescript as to when they occur. They are imaginative tales require young readers to accept elements and story lines that clearly cannot be true - readers must suspend disbelief. The stories may be based on animals that talk, elements of science fiction, supernatural or horror, or combinations of these elements. When written for young readers, these books are calledchapter books - a format that breaks a story into sequential chapters that move towards a final resolution. "Charlottes Web," "Winnie the Pooh," "Alice in Wonderland", "Willie Wonka and the Chocolate Factory," and "The Wizard of Oz" are all examples of modern fantasy written for young readers up to 12 years old. Realistic Fiction. Books that are written for today's youths, representing contemporary times, based on real-world situations are called realistic fictions. Similar to historical fiction, except these stories are based on current events. They feature children as their main characters and often allow young readers to "experience" different settings, cultures, and situations than what is the norm for their lifestyle. Children's realistic fiction features main characters of approximately the age (or slightly older than) the book's intended audience. The books present a "real-world" problem or challenge and show how a young person solves that problem. By nature, children's realistic fiction is positive and upbeat, show young readers how they too can conquer their problems. When written for young readers (up to 12 years old), these books are called chapter books (a format, not a genre) Non-fiction or Informational Books. Books that are designed to help readers learn more about real things. They provide young readers information without the literary devises common to fiction. They can be a challenging genre for children because a given presentation about the real-world has to assume something about a reader's abilities, understanding or interests. The challenge is to match high interest topics with appropriate reading levels and background knowledge. For example, may children are interested in jets and rockets, but few are ready to read "rocket science." In schools, these books have traditionally been used for academic study and research projects. Today, more and more librarians are recognizing the value of ALL reading - both fiction and nonfiction. Perhaps the best way to reach out to "unmotivated readers" is to find a high-interest topic and a book that matches that young reader's abilities and understanding. Many reading specialists and librarians believe that we do not promote enough non-fiction to young readers. Studies tend to show that many children that are not interested in fiction will become motivated readers if introduced to appropriate nonfiction - this is especially true of non-majority youth. Biography. A form of non-fiction that is based on the life of a person. Children enjoy reading stories about other people - biographies and form an effective "bridge" between storytelling and nonfiction - after all - everyone's life is a story! Because biographies are almost always published about notable people in notable fields, biographies are often used to introduce children to the concept of nonfiction. Biographies can also be extremely motivating - young children love to dream about what they will be when they grow up. The lives of

famous, important people let children see how the process of growing up shapes the opportunities, choices, and challenges people face in life. Poetry and Drama. Poems and drama are important genres that introduce children to verse, prose, rhythm, rhyme, writing styles, literary devices, symbolism, analogies, and metaphors. From a librarian's point of view, they are important because the they are written at different reading levels so that a young reader's interests can be matched with text that is consistent with their abilities. This is especially important for "reluctant readers" that may read below their age group. The simple language used in some poems and drama can be appreciated by readers of varying abilities, providing a context to teach a variety of language arts skills. http://www.breitlinks.com/my_libmedia/children's_genres.htm