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CSE GS Notes

Science & Technology

Polygenicinheritanceisusedtorefertotheinheritanceofquantitativetraits,traitswhichareinfluencedbymultiple genes, not just one. In addition to involving multiple genes, polygenic inheritance also looks at the role of environment insomeone'sdevelopment.Oneeasilyunderstoodexampleofpolygenicinheritanceisheight.Peoplearenotjustshort or tall; they have a variety of heights which run along a spectrum. Furthermore, height is also influenced by environment; someone born with tall genes could become short due to malnutrition or illness, for example, while someonebornwithshortgenescouldbecometallthroughgenetictherapy SolarPanels:basicelementpuresilicon;Whensiliconisstrippedofallimpurities,itmakesaidealneutralplatformfor the transmission of electrons; Solar panels are created by combining silicon with other elements that do have positive or negative charges eg: P; When the negative plates of solar cells are pointed at a proper angle to the sun, photons bombardthesilicon/phosphorusatoms.Eventually,the9thelectron,whichwantstobefreeanyway,isknockedoffthe outer ring. This electron doesn't remain free for long, since the positive silicon/boron plate draws it into the open spot onitsownouterband.Asthesun'sphotonsbreakoffmoreelectrons,electricityisgenerated. Nitrile gloves are a type of disposable glove made of synthetic rubber. They contain no latex proteins and offer excellentresistancetowearandtears.

Cybernetictheoryhasfourcomponents:variety,circularity,processandobservation. Varietyrelatestotheinformationandcommunication/controltheoriesandemphasizeschoices. Circularityignoresconceptsofhierarchyinsystems,favoringamorelevelplayingfield. Processlooksatfeedbackloopsandinvolvesregulationswithinsystems. Observationinvolvesdecisionmakingandhowwecomputeconclusions.

DNAfingerprintingisawayofidentifyingaspecificindividual;alsoknownasgeneticfingerprintingorDNAprofiling usedbothforidentifyingpaternityormaternityandforidentifyingcriminalsorvictims. discussionofusingitasasortofpersonalidentifieraswell,althoughviabilityofthisisdebatable. DNA fingerprinting uses a specific type of DNA sequence, known as a microsatellite, to make identification much easier. Microsatellites are short pieces of DNA which repeat many times in a given person's DNA. In a given area, microsatellites tend to be highly variable, making them ideal for DNA fingerprinting. By comparing a number of microsatellitesinagivenarea,onecanidentifyapersonrelativelyeasily. sections of DNA used in DNA fingerprinting, although highly variable, are passed down from parents to their children usefulinthecaseofidentifyingvictimsbecauseevenincaseswherethebodymaybedisfiguredpastidentification, andteethorotheridentifyingfeaturesmaybedestroyed,allittakesisasinglecellforpositiveidentification

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Nitrileglovesaremorepunctureresistantthanmanyothertypesofrubberglovesandcanbeusedtooffersuperior resistancetomanytypesofchemicals. oftenconsideredtobeoneofthethestrongesttypesofdisposablegloveandaregenerallysafeforpeoplewhoare allergictolatex. popularfortheirhighdegreeofflexibilityandsuperiorsolventresistance. resistanttomanyoils&someacids=>makesagoodchoiceformanymanufacturingenvironments. usedintheemergencymedicalservicefields,suchasbyparamedics.

CSE GS Notes
Stemcellresearch

Science & Technology

is a relatively new technology that takes primitive human cells and develops them into most any of the 220 varietiesofcellsinthehumanbody,includingbloodcellsandbraincells. Somescientistsandresearchershavegreathopeforthisresearchanditsabilitytouncovertreatmentsandpossibly even cures for some of the worst diseases including heart disease, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer'sandParkinson's. gives rise to fear of human cloning and serious concerns over theethics of conducting scientificresearch on, which includesthedestructionof,humanembryos. Types: Human stem cells primarily come from embryos or adult tissue. Embryonic stem cells can be created solely forthepurposeofstemcellresearchortheycanbetheleftoverfromotherprocesses,suchasfromIVF. Adult stem cells can be harvested from adult tissue with minor, if any, harm to the adult. Embryonic stem cells, however, are said to be generally easier to extract than the adult stem cells, and embryonic stem cells are said to havemoreusesthantheiradultcounterparts.

Plasmonics Plasmons are density waves of electrons, created when light hits the surface of a metal under precise circumstances. These density waves are generated at optical frequencies, and are very small and rapid. They can theoretically encode a lot of information, more than what's possible for conventional electronics. Plamonics is thought to embody the strongest points of both optical and electronic data transfer, allowing the fast transmission ofinformationoververysmallwires. Plasmonics, sometimes called "light on a wire," would allow the transmission of data at optical frequencies along thesurfaceofatinymetalwire,despitethefactthatthedatatravelsintheformofelectrondensitydistributions ratherthanphotons. main limitation to plasmonics today is that plasmons tend to dissipate after only a few millimeters, making them tooshortlivedtoserveasabasisforcomputerchips Forsendingdataoverlongerdistances,techneedsimprovementneedmaterialwithalowrefractiveindex,ideally negative. no natural material with ve; so nanostructured materials must be used to fabricate effective plasmonic devices.hence,plasmonicsisfrequentlyassociatedwithnanotech Plasmonicwiresmayactashighbandwidthfreewaysacrossthebusiestareasofthesiliconchip used in biosensors: When a particular protein or DNA molecule rests on the surface of a plasmoncarrying metallicmaterial,itleavesitscharacteristicsignatureintheangleatwhichitreflectstheenergy.

Carbonfiber isthecommonnameusedtorefertoplastic(typicallyepoxy)reinforcedbyagraphitetextile. isknownalternativelyascarbonfiberreinforcedplasticorcarbonfibercomposite. Expensivebuthighweighttostrengthratio;verydifficulttobreak; Introducing carbon nanotubes into the fiber is currently in research stages, and may offer improved ratios of 10 timesorgreateraspaceagematerial employedinhighqualitycars,boats,bicycles,andplanes,includingpopularFormulaOneracecars. old bridges may be spared from destruction and rebuilding through simple carbon fiber reinforcements, which are comparativelycheaper.

Gforcereferstoeithertheforceofgravityonaparticularcelestialbodyortheforceofaccelerationanywhere.Gforce ismeasureding'swhere1g=9.8m/s2

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CSE GS Notes

Science & Technology

Magnetron: Typically used in microwave ovens, a magnetron is a tube that utilizes electrical and magnetic currents in ordertocreateanintenseheatoutput. Wormholeisahypotheticalspacetimetopology,a"shortcut"thatwouldallowtravelbetweentwopointsatapparently fasterthanlightspeeds.Inreality,movementthroughawormholewouldnotbefasterthanlight,butrathermovingat normalspeedthroughfoldedspace. Kevlarisanextremelystrongmaterialthatderivesitsstrengthfromitsweave.Itiswovenliketinyspiderwebs.islight, it is the premium choice for bulletproof vests. use in shelters for protection against tornadoes. can deflect large materialsatspeedsofupto250mph Composite materials for construction, engineering, and other similar applications are formed by combining two or more materials in such a way that the constituents of the composite materials are still distinguishable, and not fully blended.Eg:concrete;usetwoconstituents:abinderormatrixandareinforcement GenomicDNA is the DNA that holds the complete set of genetic data for an organism. spans 46 chromosomes; providing a complete set of genetic information including coding DNA which leads to the expression of genetic traits, and non codingDNAwhichdoesnothavethisfunction. The genomic DNA of humans has been sequenced as part of the Human Genome Project, with the goal of eventuallylearningaboutthespecificfunctionsofvariousareasofthegenome. Being able to locate specific genes and other information could be useful for diagnosis and eventual treatment of geneticconditions.

Since the only geostationary orbit for the Earth is in a plane with the equator at 35,786 kilometers, there is only one circlearoundtheworldwheretheseconditionsoccur.Thismeansthatgeostationary'realestate'isfinite. AgeosynchronousorbitisoneinwhichthesatelliteissynchronizedwiththeEarth'srotation,buttheorbitistiltedwith respecttotheplaneoftheequator.Asatelliteinageosynchronousorbitwillwanderupanddowninlatitude,although itwillstayoverthesamelineoflongitude.geostationaryorbitisasubsetofallpossiblegeosynchronousorbits. Lowearthorbit isonlyslightlyabovetheEarth,byouterspacestandards,2002000km (1241240 miles)inaltitude. Below 124 miles, orbits rapidly degrade, causing surface impact, and above 1,240 miles or even less, the Earth's radiation belts damage electronic equipment, necessitating special shielding. The region from 1,243 miles altitude to geostationary orbit is known as Medium Earth Orbit. Low earth orbit, medium earth orbit, and geostationary orbit are known as LEO, MEO, and GSO respectively. Eg: International Space Station, fluctuates between 320 km and 347 km abovethesurface.makingabout17orbitsperday;MostproposalsforspacehotelsareplacedinLEO Humoralimmunityisatypeofimmunitywhichisconferredthroughthereleaseofantibodieswhichareusedtotarget cells for destruction by the body when these cells are viewed as potentially dangerous. This type of immunity is a complementtocellularimmunity,inwhichcellsreleasetoxinstokillunwantedinvaders,orattacktheinvadersdirectly tokillthem.

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A geostationary orbit is one in which the speed at which a satellite orbits the Earth coincides with the speed that the Earth turns and at the same latitude, specifically zero, the latitude of the equator. Geostationary objects in orbit must beatacertaindistanceabovetheEarthtoremaininthesamepositionrelativetotheEarth'ssurface.

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CSE GS Notes
CentralDogmaofmolecularbiology

Science & Technology

isthatinformationinbiologicalsystemsonlyflowsinonedirection:fromDNAtoRNAtoproteins DNA is transcribed to RNA which is translated to protein. Protein is never backtranslated to RNA or DNA; and except forretroviruses,DNAisnevercreatedfromRNA.Furthermore,DNAisneverdirectlytranslatedtoprotein. DNA is the long term hardcopy of the genetic material; by way of analogy it is similar to informationstoredonacomputer'sharddiskdrive.DNAisverystableandinert RNA is a temporary intermediary between DNA and the protein making factories, the ribosomes. RNA could be compared to information stored in a cache. It is unstable and lackssecondarystructure.SomeRNAhasenzymaticactivity. Proteins could be viewed as the programs of the cell (to complete our analogy). They are the physical representation of the abstract information contained within the genome. Proteins vary greatly in their activity and halflife. proteins they come in all shapes and sizes. For example, collagen is a ubiquitous protein that makesupalmostallofyourbodiesmainstructuraltissue

Geneticdrift

Bioavailability is a term used by several branches of scientific study to describe the way chemicals are absorbed by humans and other animals. A bioavailability measurement of a medication, when it reaches circulation in the body, describesaspectslikeabsorbencyandhalflife.Itcanevaluatemedicationdeliveryaswell. Atransgenicorganismisanorganismwhichhasbeenmodifiedwithgeneticmaterialfromanotherspecies.Thegenetic modification is accomplished by inserting DNA into an embryo with the assistance of a virus, a plasmid, or a gene gun. The embryo is allowed to develop, and the mature organism will express the DNA which has been inserted into its genome. Transgenic organisms can also pass the modification on to future generations by breeding with other membersofthesamespecies.Uses:developmentofgeneticallymodifiedcrops;sometimesarerenderedsterilesothat theycannotinterbreed,forthepurposeofprotectingpatentsandtopreventtransgenicorganismsfromcrossbreeding with wild relatives; used in scientific research eg transgenic mice; Mice can be modified with human DNA for the purposeoftestingmedicaltreatmentsandseeinghowtheymightbehaveinahuman. String Theory, sometimes called the Theory of Everything, is thought by some to be the unifying field theory Einstein sought before his death. String theory is the first mathematically sound theory that reconciles the world of the infinitesimallysmall,withtheworldweknowatlarge.ItunitesEinsteinsTheoryofRelativitywithquantumphysicsand offers a potential explanation for the Big Bang.the strength of string theory is that it accounts for all four known forces in one elegant theory. These fundamental forces are gravity; the strong and weak nuclear forces; and electromagnetism.

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isamechanismofevolutionthatoccursbyrandomchanceratherthannaturalselection. In genetic drift, a population experiences a change in the frequency of a given allele, prompted by random luck rather than a need for adaptation. This differs from natural selection, in which allelic frequency is altered based on thefittestgenessurvivingtoreproduceandtheweakergenesdyingoff. Genetic drift tends to be a phenomenon amongst smaller populations, while natural selection holds sway in larger populations.

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CSE GS Notes
Bioleaching

Science & Technology

RecombinantDNA(rDNA)

is a type of DNA that is artificially created by inserting a strand or more of DNA into a different set of DNA. Recombinant DNA is used in genetic modification to create completely new organisms by adding artificial bits or bitsofDNAfromotherorganismstoanexistingcreature. used to introduce very specific features into crops, bacteria, and animals, usually to make them more beneficial to humans,althoughsometimessimplyasademonstrationofatechnique,orsometimesasanartisticstatement. uses : to make crops drought resistant, to create new vaccines, such as the newest Hepatitis B vaccine, to make cropsnaturallypestresistant,andtheinfamousGloFish,whichwerezebrafishthatweremadefluorescent.

DifferentTypesofRecombinantDNATechnology 1. bacterial transformation it involves encouraging a specially prepared bacterial cell to take in a piece of foreign DNA and incorporate it directly into the bacterial genome. E. coli are often used as the hosts for this method, becausetheyareeasytogrowandreproducequickly. 2. Nonbacterial transformation almost identical to bacterial transformation, except that bacteria are not used as hostcells.iscommonlyusedineukaryoticcells,likeyeastorplantcells.Thistypeoftransformationcanbedoneby shooting DNA fragments attached to tiny pellets directly into cell nuclei, or by injecting DNA into cell nuclei with microscopicneedles

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alsoknownasageomagneticstorm,isadisturbanceintheEarth'smagneticfieldcausedbycoronalmassejections (CMEs)orsolarflaresfromtheSun. A magnetic storm usually begins between 24 and 36 hours after the solar event, when a shock wave of solar wind reachestheEarth'sionosphere.thentypicallylasts24to48hours,thoughsomemaylastaslongasdays. The effects of a magnetic storm include disruption of communications and navigation systems, intense auroras, damagetosatellites,andduringthemostextremestorms,inducedcurrentsinpowerlinesandpipelinesthatresult inpoweroutagesandcorrosion.

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Magneticstorm,

uses bacterial microorganisms to extract precious metals, such as gold, from ore in which it is embedded. As an alternativetosmeltingorroasting,minersusebioleachingwhentherearelowerconcentrationsofmetalinoreand they need an efficient, environmentally responsible method. The bacteria feeds on nutrients in minerals, thereby separatingthemetalthatleavestheorganism'ssystem;thenthemetalcanbecollectedinasolution. usedtorecovercopper,zinc,lead,arsenic,antimony,nickel,molybdenum,gold,silver,andcobalt. Bioleachingcaninvolvenumerousferrousironandsulfuroxidizingbacteria,includingAcidithiobacillusferrooxidans andAcidithiobacillus(formerlyknownasThiobacillus). Asageneralprinciple,Fe3+ionsareusedtooxidizetheore.Thisstepisentirelyindependentofmicrobes.Therole of the bacteria is the further oxidation of the ore, but more importantly also the regeneration of the chemical oxidantFe3+fromFe2+ Experiments have shown that two fungal strains (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium simplicissimum) were able to mobilizeCuandSnby65%,andAl,Ni,Pb,andZnbymorethan95%. Ads: Economical (simpler and therefore cheaper to operate), Envirofriendly > less emissions and hence higher profitbydecreasingcostofabatement Disads: process is very slow compared to smelting> less profits; Toxic chemicals are sometimes produced in the process.SulfuricacidandH+ionswhichhavebeenformedcanleakintothegroundturningitacidic

CSE GS Notes

Science & Technology

3. phage introduction, which involves using specific types of viruses, called phages, to inject foreign DNA into host cells. Viruses can carry either singlestranded or doublestranded DNA, so they can be used to replace single strandedDNAatspecificlocations. Nanorobotsaretheoreticalmicroscopicdevicesmeasuredonthescaleofnanometers. Nanomedicine'snanorobotsaresotiny thatthey caneasilytraversethehumanbody.Scientistsreporttheexterior ofananorobotwilllikelybeconstructedofcarbonatomsinadiamondoidstructurebecauseofitsinertproperties andstrength.Supersmoothsurfaceswilllessenthelikelihoodoftriggeringthebody'simmunesystem,allowingthe nanorobots to go about their business unimpeded. Glucose or natural body sugars and oxygen might be a source forpropulsion,andthenanorobotwillhaveotherbiochemicalormolecularpartsdependingonitstask. Molecular nanotechnology (MNT), the umbrella science of nanomedicine, envisions nanorobots manufactured in nanofactories no larger than the average desktop printer. The nanofactories would use nanoscale toolscapable of constructingnanorobotstoexactingspecifications.

Somatic mutation is a genetic mutation which occurs in a somatic cell after conception. These mutations can lead to a varietyofmedicalissues. canbeidentifiedbyexaminingthegeneticmaterialinaquestionablecellandcomparingittoacellfromelsewhere inthebody;theDNAinthetwocellswillbedifferent,despitethefactthatitisnotsupposedtobe Therearetwotypesofcells:somaticcellsandgermcells.Germcellseventuallygiverisetogametes,whilesomatic cells give rise to everything else. If a somatic mutation occurs in utero, all of the cells descended from the somatic cell will carry the mutation. This results in a situation called genetic mosaicism, in which some of the cells in someone'sbodyhaveDNAwhichisdifferentfromothercells. Somaticmutationscannotbeinherited,becausetheydonotinvolvethegermcells.

Parabensareagroupofchemicalcompoundswhicharewidelyusedaspreservatives,especiallyincosmetics. arealsoutilizedbythepharmaceuticalindustry,andtheysometimesappearasfoodadditivesaswell. controversy,duetoconsumerconcernsabouttheirsafety,someproductsparabenfree areestersofparahydroxybenzoicacidconcentrationofparabensincosmeticsisverylow,oftenlessthan1%; Healthconcernsprimarilyfocusedontheirpotentialtoactlikeestrogencompoundsinthebody Butylparabenisusedasanantifungalpreservativeinvariouscosmeticproducts.

Green engineering is the process and design of products that conserve natural resources, and impact the natural environment aslittleaspossible.The termisoftenapplied tohousing,butit canbeusedforautomobiles,lightsorany othersortofsystemordevicethatrequiresengineering,andincorporatessoundenvironmentalprinciples. Biophotonsareweakemissionsoflightradiatedfromthecellsofalllivingthings.Plants,animalsandhumansgenerate up to 100 photons per second, per 1 sq. centimeter of surface area. Proponents of alternative medicine see a possible connectionbetweenbiophotonsandnaturalhealingtechniques.

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Biological magnification, or biomagnifications/bioamplification, explains why a substance appears in higher concentrations in organisms higher in a given food chain than in organisms lower in a food chain. This happens coz creatures high up in the food chain feed on creatures that are lower in the food chain and absorb the substances from theorganismstheyconsumeinadditiontothesubstancestheydirectlyabsorbfromtheenvironment.Biomagnification ofDDThasbeenstudiedcozofdetrimentaleffectontheenvironmentandonhumanandanimalhealth

CSE GS Notes

Science & Technology

Molecular nanotechnology ("MNT") is an anticipated manufacturing technology that would allow precise control and positional assembly of moleculesized building blocks through the use of nanoscale manipulator arms. If we had many millions or billions of such molecularscale arms, we could program them to work together to create macroscale productsbuiltfromindividualmoleculesa"bottomupmanufacturing"technique,asopposedtotheusualtechnique ofcuttingawaymaterialuntilyouhaveacompletedcomponentorproduct"topdownmanufacturing". Rigor mortis is a condition that begins to develop in the body after death takes place. Essentially, the action of rigor mortis is to begin a process where the muscles in the body begin to stiffen. In most situations, the corpse will begin to undergo the process of rigor mortis at roughly three hours after death takes place and will continue to experience the musclestiffeningforanywherefromthirtysixtoseventytwohours. AfurlongisaunitofmeasureintheUKandtheUS,translatestoaneighthofamile,660feet,or220yards Cryogenics is the study of the production of extremely cold temperatures. Cryogenics has a wide number of potential and actual applications, ranging from tempering metals so that they will be more durable to improving the tone of musicalinstruments.

Neodymium magnets are the greatest of the rareearth magnets. Neodymium is the most powerful permanent magneticmaterialofwhichwearecurrentlyaware.Affordable;usedquitefrequentlyinindustryandamonghobbyists and dabblers. For example, every computer hard drive has a small neodymium magnet which helps direct the needle that reads data. They can also be found in highend speakers and science classrooms around the world. downsides magneticfieldlosessomeintensitywhentemperaturesaretoohigh; Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) is a technology that utilizes lasers to determine the distance to an object or surface. It is used in a variety of industries, including atmospheric physics, geology, forestry, oceanography, and law enforcement. LIDAR is similar to radar, but it incorporates laser pulses rather than radio waves. can also be used for creating three dimensional topographical maps and surveys of geographical regions; can also be used to analyze the ocean floor and to determine canopy heights and biomass measurements. It also has applications in seismology and hasbeenusedinstudiesofuplift,faultlines,andothergeologicalfeatures. UsesofRadar 1. Detection and search radar: such as the "early warning radar," which is used for longrange detection of objects, and Target Acquisition (TA) Radar Systems, used to locate surfacetoair missiles (SAM). These types of radar are frequentlyusedinthemilitaryandincoastalsurveillance,aswellasfordetectingcarspeedduringhighwaypatrol 2. Missileguidancesystemsareradarusedtolocatethetargetofamissile.Thisisoftenpresentinmilitaryaircraft.

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Cold fusion is a blanket term for any nuclear fusion reaction that occurs substantially below normal temperatures, but is most often used to describe a lowtemperature reaction that can be achieved using relatively normal experimental conditions. Deuterium (a hydrogen isotope) is most often looked at as the best potential source of coldfusion based energy.Itisreadilyavailable,haslittlewaste,andproducesgreatamountsofenergy

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When metals are frozen cryogenically, the strength of their molecular structure can increase, causing the metal itself to be stronger and more durable. Many highend metal products may be subjected to cryogenics as part of thetemperingprocess. alsousedinthepreparationofspecializedmedications,andinpreservationofawiderangeofmaterials. Cryogenicfuelsarealsopopularforrocketsandshuttles. cryogenic preservation known as cryonics Humans and other animals can be deep frozen under controlled conditionsinthehopesthatmedicaladvanceswillallowthemtoberesuscitatedatsomepointinthefuture

CSE GS Notes

Science & Technology

3. Radarforbiologicalresearch:birdandinsectradarareusedfrequentlybyscientiststotrackthemigrationpatterns ofanimals.totrackthepresenceofbirds,especiallyvultures,nearlaunchingpads. 4. Air traffic control and navigation radar: used by airports to ensure the safety of planes, this type of radar detects theproximityofanaircraftandidentifiestheidentityandaltitudeoftheplane. 5. Weathersensingradarsystems:mostlyusedtomeasureandlocateprecipitation;measurewinddirection&speed ELISA method is a test which is used in immunology and other scientific fields to detect antibodies and antigens. ELISA stands for enzymelinked immunosorbent assay, which refers to the fact that antibodies coupled to enzymes are used to determine the results of the test. ELISA uses enzymes which react with antibodies to form colored products. The development of color in an ELISA test indicates a positive result. test is used to detect the presence of antibodies to infectiousdiseasessuchasHIV,hepatitis,andothers. Smartgrid is anelectrical gridwhichhasbeendigitizedsothatavarietyofdigitalmeasures canbeusedtocontroland operate the grid. The goal of installing a smart grid is to meet energy demands intelligently, promoting energy efficiencyinadditiontocreatingamorereliablesourceofenergywhichisalsolessexpensive. Seafloor spreading is a constant geologic phenomenon and a primary driver of continental drift. The process begins when the crust is heated from beneath by upwelling in the mantle, sometimes called a mantle plume. The crust along thelengthoftheriftisheatedbytheunderlyingmantle,becomingmoreplasticandlessdense.Thecrustrises,creating abroaddomeandwideningtherift. LOD score (stands for logarithm of the odds )is a representation of the likelihood of a linkage between two genetic traits. If the LOD score is high, it means that the traits are closely linked, and therefore usually inherited together. As a generalrule,iftheLODscoreis3orhigher,itmeansthatthereisahighprobabilityofgeneticlinkage Opticalcamouflageisahypotheticaltypeofactivecamouflagecurrentlyonlyinaveryprimitivestageofdevelopment. The idea is relatively straightforward: to create the illusion of invisibility by covering an object with something that projects the scene directly behind that object. Creating complete optical camouflage across the visible light spectrum would require a coating or suit covered in tiny cameras and projectors, programmed to gather visual data from a multitude of different angles and project the gathered images outwards in an equally large number of different directionstogivetheillusionofinvisibilityfromallangles. Ariftvalleyisageographicfeaturecausedwhenonearmofatriplejunctionbetweentectonicplates"fails"(i.e.,stops spreading) and leaves a remnant canyonlike structure. largest rift valley in the world is the Great Rift Valley in East Africa. All of the world's largest freshwater lakes are in rift valleys, including Lake Baikal in Russia (the world's largest lake by volume, holding 20% of the world's fresh water), Lake Tanganyika in Africa (second largest lake), Lake Superior in the United States (third largest), and a number of others. Some rift valleys are still geologically active, but most are dormant. Quantum dot is a particle having an approximate size of one nanometer which has the display properties of a semiconductor. Working: key to the quantum dot is in the electrons. Electrons occupy one of two bands in a materials crystal. By providingtheproperstimuli,anelectron,orperhapsmorethanone,canbeencouragedtomovefromonebandto theother.Asitmovesfromonebandtotheother,itcreatesahole,whichispositivelycharged.Together,thehole and the electron are referred to as an exciton. Normally, electron and the hole in the exciton keep their distance from each other. However, if the crystal is reduced in size, it crowds this gap. Once that happens, it changes the crystals ability to absorb and emit energy. At this point, the quantum dot is created. Different colors can be obtainedbyreducingorincreasingthesizeofthequantumdot.

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CSE GS Notes

Science & Technology

Applications: Multiple quantum dots can be used as LEDs in sign displays, cell staining for life science observation, even inks that can aid in spotting counterfeits. Another security application that could soon be realized is luminescentdust,whichcouldbeusedtotracktrespassersinrestrictedareas.mayalsobeusedtotransmitdata

DifferentTypesofWastewaterTreatmentTechnology 1. Aerobic wastewater treatment technology involves the use of good bacteria. The bacteria destroy harmful microorganismsandintheprocessgiveoffbothcarbondioxideandwateraswasteproducts. 2. Microfiltration or synthetic membranes based: essentially filters which are designed small enough to catch even minuscule microorganisms, thus removing them from the water. Multiple times done to ensure proper filtration. generallyusedincombinationwithdecontaminatingchemicalslikeClwhichareremovedlater 3. Denitrification uses methanol to purify water by encouraging the growth of certain bacteria which give off carbon. The carbon then neutralizes or removes nitrates from the water. Nitrates can be harmful for human consumption andhavebeenlinkedtoahostofhealthproblems,likecancer. 4. Ozone based: A generator produces ozone containing bubbles that are percolated throughout the water continuouslyoverasetperiodoftime,thusneutralizinganddecontaminatingit.

Geothermal drilling is a process whereby heat is taken from the Earth and used in a productive way for energy needs. The heat can be used directly for some needs such as space heating, but the true value for the mass market comes from that heat's ability to be converted to other forms. Electrical generation is one of the most common reasons for geothermaldrillingonanindustrialscale.

actasabufferzoneduringfloodingandstormsurges; trapsedimentanddebris.Thiskeepsthelargerbodyofwatercleanerandclearer; actasanaturalhabitattofish,waterfowl,aquaticplants,andothermembersofthenaturalworld; canalsobeusedinwetlandsmanagementandrestoration,inwhichcasethegoalisusuallytomaintainorrestorea wetlandforfloodcontrolandenvironmentalreasonswiththeassistanceoftheforebay.

Genomics is the study of the collective genetic material in an organism. This scientific discipline is focused on sequencing the DNA in an organism to form a complete picture, and then identifying specific genes in that sequence whichcouldbeofinterest. Proteomics is the study of all the proteins that make up an organism. Proteomics doesn't just study the proteins themselves, but also the way they interact, the changes that they undergo, and the effects that they have within the organism. The size and complexity of the human proteome is part of what makes proteomics a very complex science. there a huge number of proteins in the human proteome, about 400,000; these proteins also occur in different locationswithinthebodyatdifferentstagesinaperson'slife,andcanchangewithinasinglecell Opticalcomputingisacomputingtechnologyintheresearchandtheorystage.Theideawouldbetomakeacomputer thatreliesentirelyonlight(photons)insteadofelectricity(electrons)todocomputing. The appeal of optical computers is limited, because with short distances, they require more power than electronic computerstodothesamecomputation.primarilyuseslaserstosendsignals.

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Forebayisahumanmadepoolofwaterinfrontofalargerbodyofwaterwhichmaybenaturalorengineered.

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Bioprinting is a new area of research and engineering that involves printing devices that deposit biological material. The longterm goal is that the technology could be used to create replacement organs or even entire organisms from rawbiologicalmaterials.

CSE GS Notes

Science & Technology

could produce computers tens of thousands of times faster than today's computers, because light can travel that much faster than electric current; could be used in large supercomputers to send data more efficiently than electronics.

Planet X is a hypothetical planet that has been searched for throughout the years by many astronomers. While searchingforPlanetX,astronomersfoundPluto,andXenaorEris,allclassifiednowasdwarfplanets Smartdust is a term used to describe groups of very small robots which may be used for monitoring and detection. Currently, the scale of smartdust is rather small, with single sensors the size of a deck of playing cards, but the hope is to eventually have robots as small as a speck of dust. Individual sensors of smartdust are often referred to as motes becauseoftheirsmallsize.ThesedevicesarealsoknownasMEMS,whichstandsformicroelectromechanicalsensors. may eventually be used to monitor traffic and better direct it, to accompany soldiers and alert them to any poisons or dangerous biological substances in the air, to follow people around and track their activities, to track defects in productsastheycomeoffofanassemblyline,andeventoenterhumanbodiesandcheckforphysiologicalproblems. DNA electrophoresis is a method used to sort DNA molecules by length. Pieces of DNA are suspended in a tray of gel and subjected to an electric field, which causes them to migrate toward one end of the tray. The DNA separates out into bands, with the distance from the electrode corresponding to length of the strand. The technique plays a role in identifyinggenesfordiagnosingdiseaseandforotherformsofgeneticresearch. Carbonsequestrationreferstoeffortstocaptureexcesscarbondioxidefromtheatmosphere,condenseit,andstoreit insomebenignway. Carbon capture and storage (CCSD) technologies are implemented in some limited way in many fossil fuel power plants.technologyforcapturingisaheadofthetechnologyforstoring,whichisjuststartingtobeexplored mostprimitiveformwouldbetosimplyplantmoretrees.moresophisticatedversionartificialphotosynthesis; After CO2 is gathered, it has to be disposed of. Current approaches involve injecting it into the ground or pumping itto1000mdeepwatersatthebottomofthesea,whereitformslarge"lakes"thattaketimetodissipate

cyborgisanorganismwithbothartificialandorganiccomponents. Although the average prosthesis does not fall within the definition of cyborg technology, a prosthetic device which employs sensors to replicate a persons natural gait, such as a CLeg system, is considered a modernday cyborg application. development of RFID tag prolific cyborg application microchip implanted in a human being or animal to potentiallystoreinformation. controversial application involves the utilization of insects and animals in the military for tactical combat purposes.Eg: DARPA, has begun to explore the possibility of implanting insects with pupal data sensors for surveillancepurposes,aswellasimplantingsharkswithsimilarcyborgsensorstodetectexplosivesunderwater.

Biopolymer is any organic polymer. Biopolymers have been around for billions of years longer than synthetic polymers likeplastics.Wellknownbiopolymersincludestarch,proteinsandpeptides,DNA,andRNA. Bioinformaticsisafieldwhichusescomputerstostoreandanalyzemolecularbiologicalinformation. Using this information in a digital format, bioinformatics can then solve problems of molecular biology, predict structures,andevensimulatemacromolecules. MainbranchesincludeGenomics,Proteomics,Computeraideddrugdesigning,biodatabase,dataminingetc

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most wellknown application of bioinformatics is sequence analysis. In sequence analysis, DNA sequences of various organisms are stored in databases for easy retrieval and comparison. The wellreported Human Genome Projectisanexampleofsequenceanalysisbioinformatics. otherapplications:predictingentireproteinstrands,learninghowgenesexpressthemselvesinvariousspecies,and buildingcomplexmodelsofentirecells.

Positronemissionisabyproductofatypeofradioactivedecayknownasbetaplusdecay. positron emission tomography (PET): isotopes known to produce positron emissions are introduced to the body and followed as they move through the body and produce gamma rays. Isotopes with short half lives which will not cause damage to the body are selected so that the PET scan will not be dangerous, and the imaging study may becombinedwithotherimagingtechniquessuchasMRItogetacompletepicture PETscansallowdoctorstoimagefunctionsofthebody,perhapsmostnotablyinthebrain. Thescanisnotinvasive,providinganappealingalternativetosurgery

Xerox copier, generically known as a photocopier, essentially works on the principles of static electricity. Document viewed as nothing more than black or white spaces. Beneath the transparent glass tray lies a flat belt or round drum called a photoreceptor. The surface of this photoreceptor is made from special materials which can be negatively and positively charged in different areas at the same time; "paints" the photoreceptor drum or belt with static electricity, creatingapatchofpositivelychargedimagesofletterssurroundedbynegativelychargedareasthatwillremainwhite. Nanobes are bizarre filamentary structures found in some rocks. Nanobes must not be confused with nanobacteria, another type of supersmall controversial possible class of life. The difference is that nanobacteria are said to have cell walls,whereasnanobesarewalllessfilamentarystructures. Trihalomethanesareagroupofchemicalsthatinclude chloroformandstructurallyrelatedcompounds. Someareused industriallyasrefrigerantsandsolvents.Thetermisgenerallyappliedtoasubsetofthesecompoundsthatarepossible carcinogenicbyproductsofthechlorinationofwater. Electronic microscope is a scientific instrument that uses a beam of highly charged electrons to examine objects at close range. works the same way as the optical microscope. The only difference is the electron microscope doesn't use light; instead a beam of focused electrons are used to create the image of the specimen. This also gives scientists informationabouttheobject'sstructureandcomposition. Artificial Photosynthesis: Researchers relied on the HondaFujishima effect, which was discovered in 1953 and uses titaniumdioxideasaphotocatalyst.Aphotocatalystacceleratesprocessesrelatingtolightand,inthiscase,energy. producedtwodifferentresults:photoelectrochemicalcellsanddyesensitizedsolarcells. Photoelectrochemical cells, also referred to as PECs, use the electric current of water to create hydrogen and oxygen in a process called electrolysis. Electricity can then be stored in the hydrogen, which is an energy carrier, andtheenergycanbeusedlater,suchasinbatteries.

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Biomimetics, sometimes known as bionics or biomimicry, is the art of taking natural adaptive strategies used by plants or animals and translating them into engineering designs that can be used to implement products or tools. Some unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) simulate various aspects of insects used in flying and clinging to walls. Radar and sonar allegedly imitate the echolocation faculties of bats. An artificial pacemaker mimics a collection of organic pacemakercellslocatednexttotheheart.

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dyesensitized solar cell, also called a Graetzel cell. cells use a semiconductor to collect energy, usually silicon. In dyesensitizedcells,thesemiconductorisusedtotransportthecollectedenergy,andthephotoelectrons,orenergy particles,areseparatedandharnessedusingspecialdyes.

nootropic coined to describe a substance that positively affected brain function. Although nootropics are frequently referredtoassmartdrugs,notallofthesesubstancesaresynthesizedchemicaldrugs.Somenootropicsarevitamins, minerals,orherbsthatenhancecognition. Heliostats are scientific instruments that use a mirror to reflect the light of the sun in a specific direction. Since the position of the sun in relation to the Earth changes throughout the day, most heliostats have some sort of mechanism builtintotrackthismovement. Scramjet(SupersonicCombustionRamjet)usesatmosphericoxygenasanoxidizer,bypassingtheneedforanonboard oxidizer completely. A large scoop at the front of the craft takes in air, while onboard systems isolate oxygen from the air, compress it, and introduce it to a stream of fuel which then uses the oxygen to combust and produce thrust. For a scramjet to intake sufficient oxygen for selfsustaining flight, it must already be moving at supersonic speeds. For this reason,ascramjetmustbecoupledtoaconventionalrocketatthebeginningofitsflight. Heat island effect, also referred to as the urban heat island effect, is an effect where the average temperature of an area is higher than nearby rural areas. The primary cause of the heat island effect is the conversion of space into an urban environment that absorbs more sunlight and stores it in large thermal masses. A secondary cause of the heat island effect is waste heat generated by massive uses of energy. The heat island effect has an impact not only on the city itself, but also on nearby areas downwind, which generally see between 10% and 30% more annual rainfall than areasupwind. leastcompressiblematerialknown,withabulkmodulusof491gigapascals(GPa)isaggregateddiamondnanorods.get theirstrengthfromthefamoussp2bond;areevendenserthanpurediamond; Epigenetics is a term which is used to describe situations in which genes express themselves differently, although the underlyingDNAisthesame.Forexample,ifacalicocatiscloned,theclonewillnotlookphysicallyidentical,despitethe factthattheirgeneticcodeisthesame.Thisisbecausetheexpressionofgenesisinfluencedbyepigenetics. Supercontinent cycle is a geologic cycle where the Earth's continents alternatively merge into a single supercontinent, split into numerous continents, then merge again. The cycle is estimated to be 300 500 million years long. Previous supercontinents have included Pangaea, which formed 250 million years ago, Gondwanaland, which formed about 600 millionyearsagoetc Krmn line is the international definition for the edge of space. It is located 100 km (62 miles) above the Earth's surface,aroundwheretheAuroraBorealisforms. Gulf Stream is an ocean current that runs through the Atlantic Ocean. Although it starts out extremely warm in its southern reaches, temperature drops and salinity increases as it flows north. Even with the drop in temperature, the Gulf Stream is believed to increase the temperatures of the coastal regions of Scotland, Ireland, England, and Norway. Renownedforitssizeandwarmingcapabilities,theGulfStreamisalsonotableforitsincrediblespeed. Genegunisadeviceusedinbiolistictransfection,aprocessusedtointroducegeneticmaterialtocellsthroughtheuse of tiny DNAcoated particles fired at high velocity into a cluster of cells. Gene guns are used in laboratory settings to conductresearch,developnewproducts,andtagsamplesofmaterials.

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gene gun or a biolistic particle delivery system, is a device for injecting cells with genetic information. The payload is an elemental particle of a heavy metal coated with plasmid DNA. This technique is often simply referred to as bioballisticsorbiolistics. Using a gene gun, a researcher can introduce new DNA to force a cell to produce proteins it wasn't making before. Gene guns have been used extensively in the genetic modification of crops to introduce genes which make crops more resistant to drought, increase the nutritional value of crops, or allow herbicides to be used safely around crops.Genegunshavealsobeenusedexperimentallytodelivergeneticvaccines,andtointroduceDNAintoanimal cellsforthepurposeoftaggingthemformicroscopyorforgeneticengineeringofsuchcells.

Flywheelsareawayofstoringenergyintherotationalmomentum(kineticenergy)oflargewheelssealedinavacuum. They are used as a way of storing and releasing large amounts of electrical energy, and although their method of storageisnonchemical,arraysofflywheelsaresometimescalledbatteries. Yellowcake, known as U3O8 to chemists, is a product obtained by treating uranium ore. Raw uranium ore does not usually contain very high concentrations of this useful mineral, so it must be refined to purify it and concentrate the uranium.Theproductionofyellowcakeisonestepintherefineryprocess. Orogeny is a mountainbuilding event caused by extreme volcanism (as in the Deccan Traps) or movement of the tectonic plates, large slabs of rock that make up the Earth's crust. The plates float on top of a plastic, superheated mantle, madeofpartially meltedrock. Asthe materialinthemantlecirculates,the tectonic platesslowly movearound ontop,creatingdifferentcontinentalarrangementsovertensorhundredsofmillionsofyears. OneofthemostfamousandrecognizableistheHimalayanorogeny,whichoccurredaround55millionyearsago,when the subcontinent of India collided with the Eurasian Plate while moving north. These two plates pressing together causedthecreationofgreatmountainrangesattheboundary,knowntodayastheHimalayas

Gene flow is the transfer of alleles, various forms of a gene coding for specific traits, between distinct populations of individuals. This can increase genetic diversity in some cases, and decrease it in others, depending on the circumstances. It occurs both within populations of the same species and populations of different species, in some cases. radiative forcing: In the context of climate change, a more specific definition of radiative forcing agreed upon by theIPCCistheextenttowhichafactoralterstheenergybalanceinthetroposphere. Earth receives energy from the Sun, mostly in the form of light, some of which is absorbed and warms the planet, causing it to radiate energy in the form of heat, or infrared radiation, and resulting in a balance between incoming and outgoingenergy.Variousfactorsaffecttheamountofsunlightabsorbedandtherateatwhichenergyisradiatedbythe Earth.Whenthesefactorsremainconstantoveraperiod,theenergyflowscanbeexpectedtosettleintoequilibriumat a particular average annual temperature, with the same amount of energy going out as coming in. If any of these factors change, it might result in a mismatch between incoming and outgoing energy, leading to an overall increase or decrease in global average temperatures. A general definition of radiative forcing is the degree of change, positive or negative,tothisbalance,anditisnormallyexpressedinWattspersquaremeter(W/m2). Conjugated antibodies are laboratorymanufactured compounds made up of antibodies combined with dyes, chemicals,orproteins.Theseantibodycombinationsareusedforresearch,testing,andmedicaltreatment.

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Protein engineering is a method that can be used to develop new types of proteins. This field of science is relatively new, and original ways of combining protein elements continue to be studied and discovered by researchers. This type ofengineeringallowsmaterialswithspecificstrengthsorfeaturestobedeveloped.

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A synoptic chart provides information about climate conditions across a large area, big enough to encompass most major weather systems. Such charts are useful not just for meteorology on Earth, but also for depictions of magnetic fieldsandotherphenomenaontheSunandothercelestialbodies. Stem cell differentiation is a process where an unspecialized stem cell develops into a particular type of tissue, like a mature red blood cell. This occurs at all stages of life, from very early embryonic development into adulthood, as the bodyneedsaconstantsupplyofnewspecializedcellstofunction. Severalfactorsareinvolvedincellulardifferentiation,incenvironmental&biologicaltriggersforvariouscelltypes Thenumberofdifferentkindsofcellsastemcellcanmatureintoarereflectedbyitspotency. totipotent cell can develop into any kind of cell at maturity. Such cells are found in the early blastocyst phases of embryonicdevelopment,wheneverycellneedstobeabletogiverisetoavarietyofcellsforanembryotodevelop Asembryonicdevelopmentprogresses,thestemcellsbecomepluripotentinnature,withtheabilitytodivergeinto avarietyofcelltypes,butnotall.

A flood dam operates as part of a flood control system to protect communities from uncontrolled flood waters. Such damsdo not createreservoirstostore waterforusein thefuture,nordothey generatehydroelectricpower.They can beinstalledbygovernmentagenciesandcommunities,andaresubjecttoregulationforsafety. In genetics, certain gene mutations are capable of causing disease. Sometimes, everybody with a mutation displays symptoms of that disease, and sometimes, only some of the people carrying the mutation display symptoms. The proportionofpeoplewhoshowsymptomsfromthemutationiscalledthepenetranceofthegene. Gneiss is a common type of surface rock composed of different minerals and is classified as metamorphic. One of the most common features of gneiss rock is that it has a banded or striped internal structure, which is usually the result of alternatinglayersofdarkandlightsilicatecompoundsthatmakeitup. Dimethylol dimethyl hydantoin (DMDM hydantoin), is a common preservative ingredient found in cosmetics production, construction materials, and household products. The chemical compound is typically added to products in minute quantities as an antimicrobial agent. Certain consumer advocates fear that when combined with other chemicals,thesubstancemaycausecancer. Gene silencing is the process of "turning off" a gene, thereby preventing it from expressing in the form of protein productionorotherformsofexpression.Thisprocesshappensnaturallyinmanycasesforthepurposeofregulatingthe expression of genes and preventing potential damage from viruses. Gene silencing is also an important laboratory technique,asdisablingageneisahighlyeffectivewayofdeterminingthepurposeofthatgene. Geneexpressionoccurswhendeoxyribonucleicacid(DNA)isconvertedtoribonucleicacid(RNA)throughaprocess calledtranscription.TheRNAisthenconvertedtoproteins,theprimaryfunctionalunitsincellsthatareinvolvedin almostallcellularprocesses,throughaprocesscalledtranslation.

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Gene targeting is the use of genetic recombination technology to alter genetic sequences in embryonic stem cells. After a scientist alters the genome, it is possible to introduce the cells to a developing embryo in a procedure called embryonicinjection.

A genome map is a visual diagram that represents an organisms complete genetic structure. Many people confuse genome with genes, but the difference is that the genes are just one part of the genome, which is the entire structure consistingofothercomponentssuchasthedeoxyribonucleicacid(DNA)andribonucleicacid(RNA).

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Gene silencing can occur at a transcriptional or a posttranscriptional level, meaning that it can interfere with the process of transcription or with some later process that leads to gene expression. The gene itself is not affected, butthevariousstepsthatleaduptoexpressionarenotallowedtoruntocompletion. One transcriptional gene silencing process is referred to as DNA methylation. Methylation involves attaching a methyl group to certain points on a nucleic acid strand and can, based on the circumstances, have a variety of differenteffects,someofwhichpreventtranscription. RNA interference, or RNAi, is a common method of posttranscriptional gene silencing. In RNAi, small RNA moleculesenterintoaproteincomplexthatcleavesspecificRNAstrands,preventingthemfrombeingtranslatedto protein,therebypreventinggeneexpression.

Red biotechnology is a branch of biotechnology that deals specifically with human health care and methods of treatment through the development of medicines such as antibiotics. The field can also involve research into the manipulationofgenesthroughgermlineengineeringattheembryonicstageorgenetherapyinadultpatients. Blue biotechnology is confined to the marine environment, while green biotechnology is focused on agricultural applications. White biotechnology has an industrial base that involves organic enzymes and the processes that they facilitate, and gray biotechnology has a similar basis, where cells and natural organisms are used to create synthetic compounds. Longshore drift is the a natural process describing a current that often moves mostly parallel to a beach's shoreline. main problem with longshore drift relates to the removal of sand from one place and the deposition of it in another. one of the most common practices is to build a wall that extends from the shoreline into the ocean at an angle of 90 degreesinrelationtotheshoreline.Thishelpsbreakupthecurrentandstopsthedriftfromtakingplace. Geosynthetics are manufactured polymeric products used with materials such as stone or soil as part of manmade projects, such as buildings or roads. These products or materials can be used, often in conjunction with natural materials, for a vast variety of purposes. Geotextiles, for instance, can be used to separate or filter soil, and geomembranesareoftenusedasimpermeablelinersforpondsorothermanmadebodiesofwater. A deep space probe is a spacecraft drone that makes a one way trip into deep space to collect scientific information and broadcast it back to Earth. examples include the Pioneer and Voyager spacecrafts. Lithiumthionyl chloride batteries are commonly used in deep space missions as well as rovers like those landed on Mars. The batteries have a verylargestoragecapacity. Probiotic bacteria, often called friendly bacteria, are living microorganisms similar to those found in the human digestive tract. They naturally occur in some foods and beverages, such as fermented cheese and certain types of yogurt,andcanbeproducedseparatelyasdietarysupplements.Probioticbacteriaarealsousedincomplementaryand alternativemedicinetoaidwithdigestivedisorders.B.acidophilus,lacticacidbacteriatypicallyfoundindairyproducts, couldprolonglifebypreventingfoulinginthelargeintestine. Western blot antibodies are large Yshaped proteins, or immunoglobulins, produced to use in the Western blot immunoassay,atesttodetectanassociatedproteininatissueculture. A quantum well is used to confine electrons at specific energy levels. Quantum wells consist of an extremely thin semiconductor with a small band gap, resting between material with a larger band gap. They are extremely small, usuallybetween1and20nanometers.Theyaremostoftenusedinlaserdiodesandinfraredimaging. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is an imaging technology in which electron beams pass through very thinly sectioned specimens. As the electrons are transmitted through the specimen and interact with its structure, an image

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resolves that is magnified and focused onto an imaging medium, such as photographic film or a fluorescent screen, or capturedbyaspecialCCDcamera. A quantum wire is a cable or a wire, often similar in function to copper wire, but made with nanotubes of a specific element,usuallycarbon.Quantumwiresareusuallyconductors,butmayalsobemadeasinsulatorsorsemiconductors. Thesewiresareidealforelectricalwiringfunctionsandforuseonspacecraftsbecausetheyaresmallerandlighterthan theirmetalcounterparts. Biometricstechnologyisusedtotakemeasurementsofthehumanbody,generallyfocusingonthingsthatcanserveto uniquely identify individuals. used in the fields of law enforcement and security. fingerprints, genetic signature or eye structure.Othertypesmeasurelessphysiologicallyunique,butstillverydistinctive,aspects,suchasvoiceorgait. Nanocomposite is a manmade material designed for enhanced performance in any number of unique applications: structural, functional or cosmetic. As with other composites, the nanocomposite includes a base medium, or matrix, composedofplastic,metalorceramiccombinedwithnanoparticlesinsuspension. Fingerprint dusting is a procedure used by police officers at crime scenes in an attempt to identify suspects. Dusting powder over commonly touched surfaces, or surfaces that are particularly relevant to the crime, in order to find fingerprintsmighthelpofficersfigureoutwhoisresponsibleforacrime.

Tectonicplates

arelarge,disconnectedchunksoftheEarth'scrust,floatingonthemantlebelow,composedofsoftmagma. varygreatlyinthicknessdependingonwhethertheyareoceanic(about5km)orcontinental(about50km). Continental crust generally consists of lighter rocks, while oceanic crust consists of heavier rocks. => when an oceanictectonicplatecollideswithcontinental,itcertaintoslipunder,orbesubductedby,thecontinentalplate. 3maintypesofplateboundaries,describedintermsofthewaythattectonicplatesmoverelativetoeachother 1. transformboundaries,whereplatesgrindparalleltoeachother, 2. divergentboundaries,whereplatesaremovingapart,and 3. convergentboundaries,whereplatespressintoandsometimesundereachother. These plate boundaries result in faults, rift valleys, oceanic ridges, oceanic trenches, mountains, island arcs, subductionzones,volcanoes,andothergeologicphenomena.

"Nanofabrication" refers to the fabrication of structures with feature sizes measured in the nanometers, especially below20nanometersonaside.Currenttechnologymostlypermitsnanofabricationonlyinatwodimensionalsense.

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Powdersusedinfingerprintdustingcanvarybutaregenerallymineralbasedwithalowreactivity. Ridgesinhumanskinareresponsiblefortheexistenceoffingerprints.Naturaloilsintheskinmakethefingerpads act somewhat like a stamp when they touch a surface. These oils create an outline of the unique ridges on whatever surface a person touches, resulting in a fingerprint. Fingerprint dusting powder sticks to the oils, highlightingthepatternoftheridgesandrevealingthefingerprint. Fingerprintliftingistheprocessofsecuringcopiesoffingerprintsthatareleftatacrimescene. Acommonlyusedstrategyinliftinglatentprintsinvolvesusingcyanoacrylateester placing the object into a controlled environment. As the cyanoacrylate ester is heated, it begins to release fumes. Over a period of several hours, exposure to the fumes will cause the prints to become readily visible, making it easiertophotographtheprintsbeforeanyattemptstocopytheprintsontoanothermediumaremade. Powders work well on smooth surfaces, while the use of cyanoacrylate ester or even products like silver nitrate aremoreeffectivewithsurfacesthatareribbedorotherwisenotsmooth.

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A major subset of current nanofabrication are the technologies that fall under the purview of nanolithography, whichbasicallyjustmeans"nanoscalewriting"andimpliesa2dimensionalresult. In anticipation of running up against physical limits with photolithography, computer companies have invested billions of dollars in research for nextgeneration lithography techniques. These include xray lithography (feature sizes of 15 nm), double patterning (using a lowerresolution approach but patterning the same surface twice), electronbeamdirectwritelithography(EBDW),extremeultravioletlithography,nanoimprintlithography,scanning probelithography(whichcanmanipulateindividualatoms),andatomicforcemicroscopenanolithography. More advanced approaches to nanofabrication are molecular selfassembly, which has been demonstrated in the lab hundreds of times, or positional mechanosynthesis, which is at the earliest research stages. Both are attempts totakenanofabricationintothe3Drealm,whichwouldtrulyunlockitstechnologicalpower.

Reversegeneticsisanapproachtogeneticsresearchwhichtakesanunknowngeneticsequenceandattemptstofigure out the phenotype with which it is associated. This is in contrast with classical genetics, in which researchers take a knownphenotype,suchasstripesonacat,andtrytodeterminewhichgeneorgenescausethephenotypetoappear. Labonachipdevices

Rare Earth hypothesis claims that the Earth is rare, and that few planets can support complex life. The Rare Earth hypothesis stands in contrast to the principle of mediocrity, which assumes that the Earth must be a typical planet, as thereshouldbenothingspecialabouthumanityortheEarth. Nanopaper is a cutting edge variety of paper with a strength of 214 megapascals (MPa), greater than 130 MPa of cast iron and approaching that of structural steel (250 MPa). Typical paper has a strength of 1 MPa. The cellulose fibers in nanopaper were produced by making a sludge of cellulose, similar to the way normal paper is made, but then further breaking it down using enzymes, mechanical grinding, and chemical treatment with carboxymethanol. The result are fibers1000timessmallerthanthefibersintypicalpaper. JunkDNAisDNAwhichdoesnotappeartohaveanydiscerniblefunction.However,thetermjunkisabitmisleading, asresearchonjunkDNAhassuggestedthatitmayactuallyplayanimportantroleintheevolutionaryhistoryandlives of many organisms. Rather than junk, this DNA may in fact be stored for a critical reason, and researchers have started exploring it. Some people refer it as noncoding DNA, referencing the fact that it does not code proteins which express in the host organism's phenotype. Whatever you call it, the percentage of junk DNA in the genome is often quitehigh.Inhumanseg:95%ofthegenomeiscomposedofnoncodingDNA.

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Gene therapy is a way of inserting genes into a patient's cells and replacing the preexisting alleles, or gene variants, to perform some therapeutic function. It has been used thus far primarily to replace mutant defective genes, or alleles, with normal alleles, but could in theory be used to edit the human genome arbitrarily. If gene therapy were applied to reproductive cells in the gonads (the germline), these genetic changes would be heritable. This process has never been performed,butithasaname:germlinegeneticengineering.

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more formally known as "Micro Total Analysis Systems" (TAS) are microfluidicsbased systems which integrate multiplelaboratorytypecapabilitiesonasinglechiponlyafewcentimetersinsize. usesarerealtime polymerasechainreactions (used toamplifysmallDNAstrandsintomore manageable samples), immunoassays, which diagnose diseases based on antigen/antibody presence, dielectrophoresis, used to detect certaincelltypes,andbloodsamplepreparation,suchastheextractionofDNAfromredbloodcells. LabonachipresearchcanbeconsideredasubsetofMEMS(microelectromechanicalsystems)

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HorizontalGeneTransfer

Islandgigantismis a biological phenomenon where animals that live on isolated islands tend to grow larger because of alackofpredatorsandcompetitionwhichwouldotherwisebepresentonthemainland.Ratherthanbeingcausedbya novel selection pressure, as is thought to be the case with the complementary phenomenon of island dwarfism, island gigantismiscausedbytheremovalofconstraints.Theresultareorganismsthatswelltoponderoussizes.Therearethe famousGiantTortoises,foundontheSeychellesandGalpagosIslands. Petroleum is predominantly comprised of various hydrocarbons in gas, liquid, or solid states. Crude oil and natural gas are members of this group. One hydrocarbon in crude oil is paraffin, which is commonly known in food preservation. During the refining process, various temperatures yield different products, and the temperature at which the wax beginstoemergeinthefueloroilisknownasthecloudpoint. SuperEarthisatypeofextrasolarplanet(exoplanet)moremassivethantheEarthbutlessmassivethanagasgiantlike Jupiter or Saturn. The concept is relatively new (2003). Scientific papers variously define a SuperEarth as a planet betweenoneandtenEarthmasses,orasaplanetbetween5and10Earthmasses

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or lateral gene transfer; genetic material is transmitted between organisms that arenotparent and offspring. Instead,thetwoorganismsareusuallyunrelated,andareoftenofdifferentspecies. most common way in which singlecelled organisms, bacteria in particular, acquire new genetic material. allows bacterialspeciestomaintaindiversity.threewaysinwhichbacteriacanexchangegeneticmaterialhorizontally. TransformationisaprocessinwhichbacteriaingestnakedDNAorRNAmoleculesandexpressthemwithinthecell. Intransduction,geneticmaterialistransferredbybacteriophages,whicharevirusesthatinfectbacteria. bacterialconjugation,inwhichgeneticmaterial,oftenplasmids,istransferredviaintercellularcontact.

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isaresearchfacilityinlowEarthorbit,orbitingatanaltitudebetween320km(199mi)to345km(214mi). When completed in late 2011, the ISS will consist of sixteen pressurised modules (like small rooms) with a combinedvolumeofaround1,000cubicmetres hasbeencontinuouslystaffedsince2November2000;expectedtoremaininoperationuntilatleast2020 serves as a research laboratory that has a microgravity environment in which crews conduct experiments in biology,humanbiology,physics,astronomyandmeteorology Operated as a joint project between the five participant space agencies NASA, Russian Federal Space Agency (RKA),theJapanAerospaceExplorationAgency(JAXA),theCanadianSpaceAgency(CSA),andESA Somemodulesare:Zarya(1st),Kibo,Destiny,Unity,Harmony,Tranquility,Columbus,Leonardo(latest,2011) largest robotic arm on the ISS, Canadarm2 weighs 1,800 kilograms and is used to dock and manipulate spacecraft andmodulesontheUSOS,andholdcrewmembersandequipmentduringEVA's. Photovoltaic (PV) arrays power the ISS; station uses rechargeable nickelhydrogen batteries (NiH2) for continuous powerduringthe35minutesofevery90minuteorbitthatitiseclipsedbytheEarth. ISS Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) provides or controls atmospheric pressure, fire detectionandsuppression,oxygenlevels,wastemanagementandwatersupply. Space debris objects are tracked remotely from the ground, and the station crew can be notified of many objects with sufficient size to cause damage on impact. This allows for a Debris Avoidance Manoeuvre (DAM) to be conducted,whichusesthrusterstoalterthestation'sorbitalaltitude,avoidingdebris

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SETI, or the Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence, is a project which aims to detect extraterrestrial intelligent life. SETI primarily uses radio telescopes to search for extraterrestrial signals, although optical telescopes and other methodshavebeenproposed. Casimir effect refers to the tiny attractive force that appears between two uncharged plates in a vacuum. This Casimir forceisonly measurable whentheplatesareextremely closetogether.Casimireffectreferstothe tinyattractiveforce that appears between two uncharged plates in a vacuum. This Casimir force is only measurable when the plates are extremelyclosetogether fumaroleisaholeintheEarth'scrustwhichventsgases.Fumarolesareusuallyfoundaroundareasofvolcanicactivity, although they can appear anywhere. If enough groundwater is present, the vent may turn into a hot spring, creating a supplyofbubblingnaturallyhotwaterwhichisheatedbytheescapinggases. Swarm robotics is an approach to robotics that emphasizes many simple robots instead of a single complex robot. A robotswarmhasmuchincommonwithanantcolonyorswarmofbees.Noindividualinthegroupisveryintelligentor complex, but combined, they can perform difficult tasks. Swarm robotics has been an experimental field, but many practicalapplicationshavebeenproposed. humidity map is a map which provides humidity values for a region, usually expressed in terms of relative humidity. Such maps can be useful in a wide variety of applications. They are often generated by government agencies, although weatherforecastingcompaniesandprivateorganizationsmayalsogeneratetheirownhumiditymaps. Anarcticfrontisaboundarybetweenanarcticairmassandapolarairmass.Thisboundarytendstoexistmoreorless continuallyinnorthernlatitudes,althoughitwillchangelocationasseasonalweatherpatternsareexpressed. Molecular medicine involves applying knowledge about the molecular basis of disease and how new clinical practices can be brought to bear. It includes practices, such as interventions on the cellular and/or DNA level including genetic and cellular therapies, and incorporating new understanding, such as those that have grown out of studying the posttranslational modification of proteins. It often makes reference to such specialties as genomics, proteomics, and bioinformatics. transgene is a section of genetic material from one organism which appears in the DNA of another organism. Depending on a number of factors, the transgene may fail to express, may express in a way different from that observed in the original organism, or may express in the new organism in exactly the same way it did in the original one.Ageneisidentifiedasatransgenewhenithasbeensequencedinonespeciesandlateridentifiedinanother. Sidereal time refers to the length of days and other measurements of time with respect to stars other than our sun. Whereas a solar day lasts 24 hours, a sidereal day is about four minutes shorter. In everyday life, solar time is always used,butastronomersoftenfinditusefulto usesiderealtimewhen expressing theapparent movementofstarsin the sky,asobservedfromearth In the nucleus, genes are sections of DNA that code for specific proteins in the cell. This is referred to as the genetic code. All of the DNA is not included as part of the genetic code. There are lengths of DNA, called introns, which do not codeforproteins.ThepartsoftheDNAformthegeneticcodearecalledexons. Jatropha is a genus of plants, trees, and shrubs native to South America and the Caribbean uses: ranging from compoundswhichcanbeusedasvegetabledyestooilswhichcanbeutilizedintheproductionofbiofuelsespbiodiesel Tribology, a science that studies how friction and lubrication work together, has been used since ancient times. By understanding friction and lubrication, a tribologist is better able to reduce the corrosion of numerous machines and

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products.Therearefourthingsthatatribologistmuststudytopreventwearandtear:abrasion,erosion,corrosionand adhesion. MEMS stands for Micro ElectroMechanical Systems, referring to functional machine systems with components measuredinmicrometers.MEMSisoftenviewedasasteppingstonebetweenconventionalmacroscalemachineryand futuristicnanomachinery. modernMEMSfabricationtechniquesarelargelybaseduponthesametechnologyusedtomanufactureintegrated circuits,thatis,filmdepositiontechniqueswhichemployphotolithography. Most often mentioned in conjunction with MEMS is the idea of a "labonachip," a device that processes tiny samplesofachemicalandreturnsusefulresults. MEMS are fabricated in one of two ways: either throughsurface micromachining, in which successive layers of material are deposited on a surface and then etched to shape, or through bulk micromachining, where the substrateitselfisetchedtoproduceafinalproduct. Surface micromachining is most common because it builds on the advances of integrated circuits.Various microscalegears,pumps,sensors,pipes,andactuatorshavebeenfabricated Examples of modernday MEMS use include inkjet printers, accelerometers in automobiles, pressure sensors, high precisionoptics,microfluidics,monitoringofindividualneurons,controlsystems,andmicroscopy.

Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is a method of achieving nuclear fusion by quickly compressing and heating a material.Thisprocessisusuallydonewithhighpoweredlasers,whichareallfocusedontoasmallpellettorapidlyheat itup.Theintenseheatingvaporizesthematerialinsidethepellet,creatingashockwavewhichishotanddenseenough to cause the material to fuse. The basic ingredients of an ICF pellet are deuterium and tritium. The fusion reaction between deuterium and tritium is much easier to achieve than any other reaction, and so a powerproducing deuterium/tritiumreactoristheprimarygoalofmodernfusionresearch. Cosmic dust is a substance which is found throughout the Universe. It consists of small grains of material and aggregates of such grains, with a composition which can vary radically, depending on the circumstances in which the dustisformed. Nutrigenomics is a combination of nutrition and genomics. describes a field which is concerned with the relationship between diet and gene expression. Nutrigenomic research investigates questions such as how food influences gene expression,andhowgenesinfluencethewayindividualsabsorbandmetabolizedifferenttypesofnutrients. Lagrangepointsarestablegravitationalpointsinspacewhereanobjectcould beplacedanditwouldremainatafixed position with respect to a body orbiting the Sun, such as the Earth. Every orbiting planet has five Lagrange points. Earth's Lagrange points are called L1, L2, L3, L4, and L5. Lagrange points often feature in discussions about space or sciencefictionbecausetheywouldbeideallocationstobuildspacestations.

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Activegalacticnucleusisasmallregion,betweenabout1and100lightyearsindiameter,atthecenterofagalaxythat emitsprodigiousamountsofradiationoversomeoralloftheelectromagneticspectrum,fromtheshortestgammarays to the longest radio waves. Active galactic nuclei are among the most energetic phenomena in the universe, beating outevensupernovaeintermsofluminosity.

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Eugenicsisasocialmovementwhichinvolvesmanipulatinghumangeneticinheritancetobringoutthetraitswhichare believed to be best. Eugenics has been used historically as an argument for mandatory sterilization and a variety of other policies which have been targeted at the lesser members of the society with the goal of eliminating their geneticheritagefromthegenepool.

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Photonicsisabroadfieldofstudythatinvolvestheresearchandapplicationoflightinallofitsmanyforms.Thefieldis not only interested in the visible light spectrum; ultraviolet light and infrared light are very important as well. The field of photonics was originally aimed at applying light to tasks that could previously only be solved through electronics, such as telecommunications. The modern field seeks to continue this endeavor and to expand upon it by searching for any and all applications for light. Photonics draws from and contributes to several other fields, such as quantum electronicsandmodernoptics. usedinmanydifferentindustries,rangingfromconsumerelectronicstorobotics. BarcodescannersandDVDreadersarebothlightbasedtechnologies. Inmedicine,lightintheformoflasersisusedforeyesightcorrectionandtattooremovalaswell. Militaryapplicationsincludethedetectionofinfraredlighttoexposeheatsourcesinthedark.Someapplicationsof photonicsareusedentirelyforentertainment;theseincludelasershowsandholographicart.

XSeed 4000 is the largest building ever fully envisioned and designed. It is 4 km tall (13,123 feet), with a 6km base. X Seed4000wasdesignedbyTaiseiConstructionCorporation W54 Nuclear Warhead: is the smallest nuclear warhead to be deployed by the United States and the smallest known nuclear warhead in general. It is similar in size to a computer printer, with a diameter of 27 cm, about 40cm , and weighingslightlyover23kg

FarnsworthHirsch fusor is a device for generating nuclear fusion reactions. FarnsworthHirsch fusors use strong electric fields to contain the fusion plasma, unlike the more common tokamak design, which uses magnetic fields. Farnsworth fusors are generally quite simple to build, and numerous amateurs have built their own, often from spare parts.basicprinciplebehindtheFarnsworthfusor,inertialelectrostaticconfinement(IEC),wasfirstnoticedintelevision vacuumtubes. Higgs particles, also known as the Higgs Boson, are units that have been theorized in particle physics but, as of yet, have not been proven to exist. They are sometimes referred to as the God Particle because they are thought to be all around us, yet nearly undetectable. These are some of the same traits people associate with God, thus the reason for the name. Higgs particles are thought to exist in a field known as the Higgs field. In general, Higgs particles could explainwhatgivesmattertomass,andthuscomposestheuniverse. One of the challenges of cancer treatment is how to destroy malignant tumors without damaging healthy cells. A new method that shows great promise for accomplishing this employs the use of a suicide gene. A suicide gene is a gene which will cause a cell to kill itself through apoptosis, or programmed cell death (PCD). PCD is a series of biochemical

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tokamak is characterized by the use of the plasma current to generate the helical component of the magnetic field necessary for stable equilibria. This can be compared to another toroidal magnetic confinement device, the stellarator, in which all of the confining magnetic fields are produced by external coils and there is a negligible currentflowingthroughtheplasma. Why doughnut shaped? The distinctive shape of the fusion reactor is necessary because of a particular property of adoughnutthatasphere(forexample)doesnothave.Essentialytheproblemisthehairyballtheorem.Ifasphere hashairgrowingoutofitthenitisimpossibletocombitsothatnohairsticksup.Howeverahairydoughnutcanbe so combed. This is important because a fusion reactor is a hairy doughnut with the hair being the magnetic field lines.Astrandofhairthatisstandingonendwouldbeaninstabilityinthereactor.

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A tokamak is a toroidal (doughnutshaped) magnetic plasma confinement device, the leading candidate for producing magneticfusionenergy.

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events which cause the cell membrane to dissolve, the cell to shrink, and the nucleus and DNA to fragment. The processalsoprovidesforthebodyscleanupofthecellulardebris. 2methodsofsuicidegenetherapy:Genedirectedenzymeprodrugtherapy,virusdirectedenzymeprodrug Genedirected enzymeprodrug therapy (GDEPT) uses a gene taken from the cancer cell and then modified with othergenestoformenzymesthatareharmlesstohealthycells.Thisforeignenzymeisinsertedintothetumorcells where it releases a prodrug, which is a small molecule harmless to healthy cells,but destructive to cancerous cells. Themodifiedsuicidegeneconvertsthenontoxicprodrugintoacytotoxicsubstance. virusdirected enzymeprodrug therapy: uses a virus, such a herpes simplex or cold virus, as the carrier, or vector, to deliver the modified genes to the cancer cells. A study being conducted by Methodist Neurological Institute in Texas will be using herpes virus to deliver the suicide genes to brain tumors. The patients will be given Valtrex, a drugusedtotreattheherpesvirus.Thesuicidegenesareexpectedtobreakdownthetumorcellstosuchadegree, thanwhenthedrugtreatstheherpescarrier,thecellshouldbedestroyed. Suicide gene therapy is not necessarily expected to completely eliminate the need for chemotherapy and radiation treatment for all cancerous tumors. The damage inflicted upon the tumor cells, however, makes them more susceptible to the chemo or radiation. This approach has already proven effective against prostate and bladder cancers.Theapplicationofsuicidegenetherapyisbeingexpandedtoseveralotherformsofcanceraswell.

Tacticalnuclearweaponsarerelativelylowyieldnuclearweaponsintendedtobeusedonthebattlefieldinwar.Thisis incontrasttostrategicnuclearweapons,whicharedesignedtotargetlargecitiesandmilitaryfacilities. Augmented Reality (AR) refers to computer research that aims to produce information systems that merge real world informationseamlesslywithdigitalinformation. The science of genetics focuses on genes as the units of heredity, and how that information is transmitted. At an entirely different level, genomics focuses on the entire genome of an organism, which comprises all of its genetic information. The field of genomics is divided into several categories, including functional and comparative genomics. While functional genomics is concerned mainly with how genes and the genome function in a given organism, comparativegenomicsfocusesoncomparinggenomesfromdifferentspecies. A tsunami, or tidal wave, is created when a substantial volume of water in the oceans is displaced, resulting in a wave front which eventually reaches human coastal settlements. A tsunami can be caused by an earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide or meteorite impact, though earthquakes are by far the most common cause. While a normal tsunami taken alone is a quite impressive, unique events (massive landslides or asteroid impacts) can trigger tsunamis solargeanddifferentfromtheirsmallercounterpartsthattheyhavebeencalledsupertsunamis,ormegatsunamis,for thepurposeofclassifyingthemseparately. Waste vegetable oil (WVO) is vegetable oil which is left over from other uses, most typically uses in the restaurant industry, such as deep fryers. There are a number of applications for WVO, ranging from rendering it for use in animal

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gravitational lens is an astronomical phenomenon observed when a massive object, like a cluster of galaxies or a black hole, bends light from a very distant light source, such as a quasar (young and bright galaxy). This occurs due to the gravitational warping of spacetime first described by Albert Einstein in his general theory of relativity. Gravitational lensingcancausedistantquasarstoappearinlocationswheretheydon'treallyexist.

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"Mitochondrial Eve" is the name given by scientists to the woman who is the matrilineal most recent common ancestor of all living humans. That means that all living humans have mitochondrial DNA derived from hers. MitochondrialEveisthoughttobeawomanthatlivedineasternAfricaabout140,000yearsago.

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feed to processing it so that it can be used in alternative fuel vehicles. process the vegetable oil for use in cosmetics, animalfood,andotherproducts. Ocean thermal energy conversion, sometimes referred to as OTEC, is a form of renewable energy that utilizes the difference in ocean temperatureat various depths and converts it to a heat engine. The heat engine converts this heat energytoamechanicaloutput. 3typesofOTECsystemsincludeclosed,open,andhybrid. Theclosedcyclesystemusesaliquidthathasaverylowboilingpointtomoveaturbinetocreateelectricity.Thisis accomplished by sending warm ocean surface water through a heat exchanger where the fluid is vaporized. When the vapor expands, it moves the generator. Cold ocean water, drawn at much deeper depth, is sent through a differentheatexchanger,whichthenreducesthevaporbacktoliquidform. Anopencyclesystemuseswaterfromtheoceanthatistheclosesttotheequator,sinceitistypicallythewarmest. Warm ocean water that is placed inside of a low pressure container will begin to boil. As the steam expands and leaves the low pressure container, the salt remains. The steam powers a low pressure engine that is attached to a devicethatcreateselectricity.Itisturnedbacktoliquidformbyexposingittocoldtemperaturescreated byocean waterfromalowerdepth. The hybrid system combines components of the first two methods. Warm ocean water is pulled into a container whereitisturnedintosteam.Thesteamthenturnsalowboilingpointliquidintovapor,whichpowersaturbineto createelectricity.

Scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is an innovative type of microscope which, instead of using reflecting light like conventionalopticalmicroscopes,usesquantumtunnelingbetweenasampleandaprobetiptoimagethesurface.The resolutions achieved by an STM can be as high as 0.1 nm lateral resolution and 0.01 nm depth resolution. This is a few timeshigherthantheresolutionsachievableusingthebestelectronmicroscopes.

SpaceShipOneisa3passengerspaceplanedevelopedbytheCaliforniacompanyScaledCompositesin2003.In2004,it achieved world fame by flying the world's first privately funded spaceflights and winning the $10 million US Dollars (USD)AnsariXPrizeforitscreators.hasachievedmultiplesuborbitalspaceflights Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a highenergy particle accelerator. passes through both France and Switzerland. The Large Hadron Collider is the world's most powerful particle accelerator, and is capable of colliding protons at energies up to fourteen trillion electron volts, as well as heavier particles, such as iron nuclei. It is hoped that the experiments doneattheLargeHadronCollidermayhelpresolvefundamentalphysicsquestions,suchasthenatureofmass,andthe existenceofextradimensions. Particles are injected into the tunnel at high speeds in opposite directions, and are then accelerated by powerful magneticfields.Keepingtheparticlesinabeam,whiletheyarecirculatingaroundthetunnelatclosetolightspeed, is quite difficult; large, superconducting magnets are needed to provide the necessary force. When two particles collide,thekineticenergyoftheparticlesgoesintocreatingapanoplyofexotic,shortlivedcollisionproducts. Large Hadron Collider incorporates six different detectors, with the goal of discovering what these new particles are, and how they behave. Many particle physics theories predict that the Large Hadron Collider will be powerful enoughtocreatenewparticles,suchastheHiggsboson,orsupersymmetricpartnerstocommonparticles.

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SpaceShipTwo is a space plane developed in a joint venture between the Virgin Group and Scaled Composites. It is designed for suborbital commercial flights, with passengers booking flights of a two and a half hour duration so that they get a chance to experience space, albeit briefly: around six minutes of weightlessness are in store for the passengersaboutSpaceShipTwo.

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ITER,earlierInternationalThermonuclearExperimentalReactor The project is a consortium of seven national and supranational parties: the European Union (EU), India, Japan, People'sRepublicofChina,Russia,SouthKorea,andtheUS. objectofITERistoproduceasustainedfusionreaction,onethatgenerates500megawattsforupto1000seconds. ITER is is expected to be completed by 2018 and operate for 20 additional years. If successful, it could be the first fusion power plant that produces more power than it consumes, though the heat generated in its core will not be usedforelectricitygenerationitspurposeisonlyexperimental. ITERisatokamakdesign.Thetorusiswrappedwithpowerfulmagneticcoils,trappingaplasma(ionizedgas)within. This plasma is heated up to great temperatures over 100 million degrees Kelvin using ohmic heating; the same mechanism that heats up a wire if it has excessive electric current running through it. At around this temperature, thenucleibegintofuse,releasingenergy.

Magnetic confinement fusion is an approach to nuclear fusion that involves suspending a plasma (ionized gas) in a magnetic field and raising its temperature and pressure to great levels. Nuclear fusion is a type of nuclear energy produced when light atomic nuclei hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or helium are fused together at great temperaturesandpressures. Nanotechnologyenergy:producedthroughthenanofabricationofcertainpowerproducingdevices.Fuelcellbatteries made up of nanometer components can power automobiles and other equipment, such as computers. The dvlpmt of nanotechtopowervehiclesandothermachinesisinpartaresponsetothegrowingscarcityoffossilfuels Genetic algorithm is any type of software that uses variation and selection to produce an evolutionarily tuned output. That output may be a program, a value, or even a picture. The genetic algorithm needs a process for generating new variantsandfeedback,orfitnesscriteria,inordertodeterminewhichvariantstodiscardandwhichtouse.

Nuclear lightbulb is the nickname for a specific type of nuclearpowered rocket engine or energy source. In a nuclear lightbulb, the coolant/propellant is separated from the nuclear fuel by a quartz wall. Although the reactor reaches temperatures of approximately 25,000C, most of the radiation is in the hard ultraviolet range, which quartz is practicallytransparentto. Seasteading is the concept of homesteading on the high seas, where the only laws that apply are those by home nations which continue to apply to citizens out of the country (not many). Seasteading is favored by libertarians, who seek a country with minimal government, and others seeking to pioneer new territory and create new nations. Since oceans cover 70% of the Earth's surface, some have suggested it prudent to attempt to colonize some of that area beforeattemptingcoloniesontheMoonorMars. In robotics, an exoskeleton, also known as a powered exoskeleton, is a powered suit that is used to magnify human strength and/or speed. For medical care, researchers at several universities in Japan have designed soft exoskeletons designed to help medical caretakers carry the old or infirm. HAL 5 (Hybrid Assistive Limb) is marketed as being capable ofenhancingtheliftingcapacityoftheuserbyfivefold.

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Diamondoid mechanosynthesis (DMS) refers to the hypothetical mechanical synthesis of stable chemical structures using covalently bonded carbon, otherwise known as diamond. Mechanical synthesis (mechanosynthesis) contrasts with chemical synthesis is that the synthesis (creation of a new chemical or structure from two smaller precursors) is performed using mechanical forces alone rather than combining the chemicals in a test tube randomly. Mechanosynthesis is a technology in the early research phases. Though mechanosynthesis has been demonstrated several times, proving its physical viability, it has primarily been performed with silicon, not carbon, and only on a very limitedscale

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MarsReconnaissanceOrbiterisaUSspacecraftbuiltbyLockheedMartinforthepurposeoforbitingMars,mappingits surfaceingreatdetail,andstudyingtheMartianclimate,weather,atmosphere,andgeology. 1 among 5 other spacecraft on or orbiting Mars. Others: Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Express, Mars Odyssey, and twoMarsExplorationRovers.MarsExpressESA,othersNASA entered into a long, elliptical orbit, and used the technique of aerobraking intentionally dipping low into the atmospheretoslowitselfdownandachieveamoresuitableorbit(250316km)forobservations 2 most interesting discoveries have been a few signs of the past presence of liquid water and the discovery of large,darkholes,thoughttobecaveentrances. signature instrument, HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) camera, is capable of taking photos of theMartiansurfacetoaresolutionof0.3mperpixel.HiRISE'sdatahasallowedforthecreationofaGoogleMars. SHARAD, the Shallow Subsurface Radar, is another instrument designed to look under the surface of Mars using radarwaves.Itcanresolveundergroundfeaturesupto1kmdeepataresolutionof7m.

SpiritRoverisrobotonexplorationtoMars,andithasatwinrobotcalledOpportunity.beganthisworkin2003,when theywerelaunched,andespeciallyin2004,whentheylandedwithintwoweeksofeachotheronMarssurface. BoththeExplorerandSpiritRovercanmoveacrossMarsbecauseofheavydutywheels They possess other instruments like panoramic cameras, spectrometers, which help to identify different types of materials, magnets, and microscopic imagers. As Sprit Rover and Explorer collect information, this is transmitted backtoNASAscientistssoitcanbeanalyzed. primary mission is to give a detailed account of Mars' surface. Understanding the makeup of the surface can give moreevidencetowardstheoriesaboutthecreationofthesolarsystem. O:receivespowerfromsolarpanels&usesrechargeableLiionbatteriestopowerduringtheevenings Outfitted with two cameras: a panoramic camera to examine the local landscape, and a navigational camera to assistindrivingthevehicle.AminiatureThermalEmissionSpectrometer,orMiniTES,isabletogetacloseuplook atrockandsoilanddeterminehowitwasformed. O:investigatedtheEagleCrater,EnduranceCrater,ErebusCraterandVictoriaCrateramongotherareas.

Carbon cap and trade is a system by which governments can seek to limit the carbon emissions produced. It sets an overallgoalofreducingcertainemissions,especiallycarbon,byallowingindividualcompaniestoonlyemitsomuchina given year. Those who go beyond that amount may be fined, or face other governmentimposed sanctions, but they wouldalsobeabletobuycreditsfromotherswhoarenotusingtheirentireallotments Chandra Xray Observatory is a space telescope designed to detect xray sources in outer space. It is part of NASA's Great Observatories program, which includes the Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Compton GammaRayObservatory. Chandrahaslookedintothecentersofnumeroussupernovarelics(planetarynebulae)anddiscoveredthecompact objects that remain, which are black holes or neutron stars. It has observed xray emissions from Sagittarius A*, a supermassiveblackholeatthecenteroftheMilkyWaygalaxy. Chandrasatellite,inahighlyeccentricorbitaveraging10,000kmabovethesurface By observing collisions between galactic superclusters, Chandra has helped verify the existence of socalled "dark matter"invisiblematterthatisonlyobservedindirectly,throughitsgravitationalinfluenceonvisiblematter. Ithasobservedxrayemissionsfrommaterialinprotoplanetarydiscsorbitingfarawaystars,observationsthatgive usinsightintohowoursolarsystemformed.

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Riparian zone is an area around a stream or another watercourse which has distinctive vegetation and other characteristics which separate it from the land beyond the riparian zone. Riparian zones contribute a number of important things to the natural environment, with many conservation groups promoting the maintenance and restorationofriparianzonesforthebenefitoftheenvironmentintheirregions. Stalagmite is a type of rock formation which appears in caves. It is considered a type of speleothem. stalagmite forms when mineralized water drips from the ceiling of a cave to the floor. stalagmites are made from calcium carbonate, becausetheyappearinlimestonecaves,althoughothermineralsmayappearinastalagmiteaswell. Dendrochronology is a science which involves the study of growth ring patterns in trees, and using these growth patternstoestablishachronologyofdates. Reliesonthefactthatlivingtreescreatedistinctivelayersknownasgrowthringsforeachyearoflife,andthateach growthringwillvaryincompositionandappearancedependingontheconditionsatthetimeofthegrowth.During drought years, for example, a growth ring might be extremely slender, reflecting the fact that the tree didn't grow verymuch.Intemperateyears,agrowthringmightbefat,reflectingidealgrowingconditionsforthetree. Bylookingatthepatternofringsinacrosssectionoftreetrunk,ascientistcanlearnabouttheweatherconditions that the tree witnessed. By analyzing isotopes and minerals from each growth ring, it is even possible to learn aboutvolcaniceruptionsandothermajoreventsinthearea.

Thermal pollution refers to an increase of temperature in a body of water due to human or environmental causes. While a degree or two of difference may sound minor, warming of an aquatic or marine environment even by a small amount canresultin devastatingalterationstothe habitatsoffish,insects,plants,andanimals.Thereare severalmain causes of thermal pollution, each contributing to what some environmental experts call a possible environmental catastrophe.Oneofthemajorcausesofthermalpollutionisindustrialuseofwaterasacoolant. Photochemicalsmog isauniquetype ofairpollutionwhichiscausedbyreactionsbetweensunlightand pollutantslike hydrocarbons and nitrogen dioxide. Although photochemical smog is often invisible, it can be extremely harmful, leading to irritations of the respiratory tract and eyes. In regions of the world with high concentrations of photochemicalsmog,elevatedratesofdeathandrespiratoryillnesseshavebeenobserved. Eutrophicationreferstoanincreaseofnutrientsinabodyofwater.Althougheutrophicationisanaturalprocess,when it is accelerated it is an issue for concern. Many human activities have led to widespread eutrophication in rivers, streams,lakes,andoceansaround the world.Ifleft unchecked,eutrophicationbecomesa problem,severelyimpacting waterqualityandbiodiversity.

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Fjord is a geologic feature caused by glaciation, with distinctive examples of fjords being found in Norway, Greenland, Chile, parts of Alaska and Canada, the Arctic, and New Zealand. A fjord is caused by flooding of a glacial valley with sea water, and typically occurs on Western shores with highly durable rock which resists erosion by other forces, leaving the basic fjord shape intact over the centuries. Norway in particular is known for its fjords, which are a popular tourist attractionandsummerretreatforNorwegians.

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Greenbelt is a swath of land around a city which is protected from development and construction. The land in a greenbelt may be used in various ways, ranging from farming to the construction of urban wetlands. Greenbelts are typically established through mandate in the form of a city plan, restrictive covenant, or land use designation, and many communities have placed a priority on the installation of greenbelts, encouraging people to think about the naturalenvironmentwhileengagingincityplanning.

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Eutrophication can be rapidly accelerated by human activities, in which case it is known as nutrient pollution. Fertilizerandmanurerunofffromfarmsisaleadingcauseofeutrophicationaroundtheworld.Asthesenutrientsenter the water supply, they encourage an explosion of plant life and algae, an event sometimes called an algae bloom. The plant life dramatically reduces the amount of available oxygen in the water, ultimately choking out animal species and creatingasocalleddeadzone. BiodiversityhotspotisaregionoftheEarthwhichisextremelybiologicallydiverseandalsounderseverethreatdueto habitat loss, climate change, or extensive species loss. Around 25 sites worldwide are recognized as biodiversity hotspots, Biologists have organized all the life on Earth into four levels of complexity and interaction. In this schema, species of organismslivein"communities"wheretheycompeteforfoodandhabitat.Atthenextlevel,communitiesinteractinan "ecosystem."Theecosystemincludesweatherandgeologyoftheareainadditiontoplantsandanimals.Forexamplea specific forest qualifies as an ecosystem. Then, taken together, those ecosystems that share major characteristics of terrain create a biome. A biome is united by temperature, precipitation, soil type, vegetation, latitude, and elevation. AtthemostmacroscopiclevelreignsthebiosphereofourEarththatcontainsallthelifeweknowexistsintheuniverse. The major biomes are divided into terrestrial (ground) and aquatic (water) biomes. The aquatic biome can be categorized as both Marine and Freshwater biomes. Sometimes freshwater lakes, rivers, streams, and underground aquifers belong to the surrounding terrestrial biome. The terrestrial biomes are Tundra, Tropical Forest, Grasslands (also called Prairie or Steppe), Taiga (Boreal or Coniferous Forest), Savannah, Desert, and Temperate (Deciduous) Forest. Some biologists define more than seven terrestrial biomes, adding Chaparral, Mountain, Island, or Tropical Dry Forest.Otherbiomesarefurthersubdivided,suchasdeepocean,openocean,andshallowoceanMarinebiome,orthe hotandcoldDeserts. jetstreamisariverofwindthatblowshorizontallythroughtheupperlayersofthetroposphere,generallyfromwestto east,atanaltitudeof20,00050,000feet(6,1009,144meters),orabout7miles(11kilometers)up. Midocean ridge is the world's longest mountain range, although it is submerged. It is a continuous ocean ridge that stretches through all the world's oceans, including the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic, and Southern Ocean. It exists along the boundary of tectonic plates. In fact, the only reason that the midocean ridge exists is due to weaknesses in the Earth's crust at plate interfaces which permit volcanic activity. The volcanic activity generates magma, which cools toformthiscontinuoussubmarinemountainrange. Estuaryisawaterfeaturewherefreshandsaltwatermix.Becauseanestuaryrequiresfreeandopenaccesstothesea, estuaries always occur along coastlines, although in some cases they can extend several miles inland. The unique natural environment of an estuary hosts numerous animal and plant species, and tends to be a profitable place for humanstosettleaswell,sinceanestuarycanmakeanexcellentlocationforaharbor. International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) lists itself as the oldest global environmental organization. Since its inception in the 1940s, IUCN has led the world in environmental research and conservation efforts. In 1948, the director of the UNESCO founded the group to give global environmental issues a central scientific base. The goal of the organization includes helping local communities understand the crises in their own ecosystems, to encourage conservation on the closest level. They try to maintain the balance between necessary developmentandthepreservationofthenaturalworld. Troposphericductingoccurswhenaradiosignalisreflectedoffofthetroposphereandcontinuesonapaththatallows the signal to travel much farther than it normally would. This occurs when the temperature in the atmosphere experiences a shift called an inversion. When a temperature inversion occurs, radio waves that would normally

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continue into space beyond the Earths atmosphere are instead reflected and continue to follow the curvature of the planet Solar gain refers to the increase in temperature that occurs when the energy from the sun passes through windows or doors. It is essentially a type of greenhouse effect. It raises the temperature in an area in the same way that a glass greenhouse protects plants and flowers from the cold. Depending on the climate or the seasons, it canbe beneficial or detrimental. New technologies and building materials can manage solar heat gain to maximize the comfort and minimizetheenergycostsofhomesandoffices. Wetland mitigation, also known as wetland mitigation banking, is the act of restoring, enhancing, establishing or preserving a wetland environment. Typically, such mitigation projects are undertaken to protect streams and other sources of water from harmful chemicals. For example, a wetland project in an urban area may catch runoff from streets. In a rural area, wetland mitigation projects may catch field runoff, such as chemicals and fertilizers that are knowntobeharmfultotheaquaticenvironment. Tropospheric ozone is simply ozone that is located closer to the ground or at ground levels where it can come into contact with people or objects. While stratospheric ozone is generally considered to be a good thing that helps protect the planet from harmful ultraviolet radiation, tropospheric ozone is often considered very harmful. Generally, it is thoughtofasapollutant.

Chemicalnutrients,likenitrogenandphosphorususedinfertilizers,accidentallyreleasedintotheoceanalsocontribute to marine pollution. These often make it into bodies of water because of agricultural runoff. Excess amounts of these types of nutrients can cause excessivealgaegrowth. This process, known aseutrophication, can often lead to less oxygeninthewater. Transgenic plants are those that have been genetically engineered to contain gene sequences that do not naturally occur within their species. These gene sequences can come from plants of a different species, and are introduced in order to try to change some fundamental characteristics of the plant. Some plants that most commonly undergo this process are food crops, which can ideally be made more efficient and more productive by the introduction of new genetic material. Eg resistances to disease and pests, higher yield, higher quality fruits, vegetables, or flowers, and an increasedtolerancetoweatherconditions; Adaptive radiation is when one species branches out to occupy multiple niches within an environment and eventually evolves into multiple species. Species are most successful at adaptive radiation after a mass extinction or when colonizing a previously uninhabited island. In both of these cases, niches that normally would be occupied by competing species are left free for a new species to exploit. One of the most famous examples of adaptive radiation is theevolutionoffinchesontheGalapagosIslands.Itisbelievedthatthesesmall,seedeatingbirdsarrivedafewmillion years ago. In the absence of other small birds, the parent species evolved different beak shapes in order to eat the

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Biogeochemical cycles is the collective name for the cyclical processing of certain substances through living and non livingmatterinEarth'sbiological,geological,andchemicalsystems.Relativelyrare,biogeochemicalcyclesoccuronlyin atoms which can be found in both organic and inorganic substances. The most common biogeochemical cycles are the nitrogenandthecarboncycle,followedbytheoxygenandthehydrologic,orwater,cycle.

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Factors for formn include the burning of fossil fuels, particularly from automobiles, power plants, and manufacturers. Together, those emissions, typically nitrogen oxides, combine in the lower atmosphere where they interact with sunlight and hydrocarbons. Once those come together, ozone is often a natural result of some very unnatural processes.

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differentfoodsavailableontheislands.Finchesevolvedtohavebeaksthathelpedthemeatinsects,grubsandflowers, andonespeciesevenevolvedtohaveabeakthatmadeitpossibletofashionanduseatooltocatchbugs. Pleomorphism is a phenomenon that has to do with plant life. Specifically, a pleomorphic event has to do with the developmentoftwoormorestructuralformsduringalifecycle.Bacteriaisunderstoodtohavetheabilitytochangeits shape dramatically during the life cycle, as well as change or morph into a series of different forms that continue to shiftinshapeforthedurationofthecycle. Amudvolcano,sometimesalsocalledagasoilvolcano,isgeologicalformationcreatedbytheextrusionofpressurized gases and mud from below the Earth's crust. Just likeigneousvolcanoes, mud volcanoes can vary in size, and the strength of their eruptions is also quite diverse. Azerbaijan is famous for its mud volcanoes. They are like steam vents for the planet: they erupt with pressurized gases, hot water, and various sediments. Many of them also contain petroleumproducts,whichcancausethevolcanotoflare. Buildingintegratedphotovoltaics(BIPV) usesphotovoltaic panelsin the place of traditional building materials in building structures such as roofs, windows, and facades. Photovoltaic panels generatesolar powerby converting sunlight to electricity. This renewable, nonpolluting source of energy makes buildingintegrated photovoltaics an integral part of sustainable architecture. Photovoltaic panels are designed into many new construction projects, but theycanalsobefittedonpreexistingbuildings.

A cryovolcano is an icyvolcanofound on icy bodies, especially moons, in the outer solar system. Cryovolcanoes have been observed directly on Neptune's moon Triton, during a Voyager II flyby in 1989, and on Saturn's moon Enceladus, by theCassiniprobe on 27 November 2005. Instead of erupting molten rock, as in a conventional volcano, cryovolcanoes erupt volatiles (low boiling point elements or compounds), like water, ammonia, carbon dioxide,nitrogen, or methane, accompanied by gasdriven solid fragments. This is called cryomagma. A cryovolcano produces plumes that may be a hundred or more degrees hotter than the frozen surface matter. Exposed to the cold and vacuum of space, the plumes quickly solidify, becoming airborne dust. As the gravity is weak on many ice moons, the plume may completely escape the moon's gravity well, go into an orbit, or crash back down on the surface in anotherarea. CLOUDS: There are essentially two kinds of clouds, layered clouds and convective clouds. Layered clouds are clouds thatappearhighinthesky.Convectivecloudsarethekindthatareclosertotheearth. 1. The namecumuluscomes from Latin and means "pile" or "heap." A cumulus cloud formation is marked by vertical developmentofthecloudaswellasclearlydefinededges.Thesearethetypesofcloudsthatlooklikepuffyballsof cotton.Cumuluscloudsoftenappearduringfairweather.However,theycanbeprecursorstosevereweather. 2. A stratus cloud formation is a uniform layer of clouds that have a consistent base.Stratus cloudsoften bring light, steadyprecipitationsuchasdrizzlingrain.These cloudsoftenappeartobeflat,featureless, andhazy.Theyarelow tothegroundandoftengrayincolor. 3. Nimbuscloudsareprecipitationproducingclouds.Thenimbuscategoryisoftencombined withothercategoriesto indicatestormconditions.Acumulonimbuscloud,foranexamplewiththesuffix,isaprecipitatingcumuluscloud.

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The termresurrection ecologyis used to describe two distinct areas of practice. The first is the hatching of dormant eggsofastilllivingspeciesatapreviousstageofitsevolution.Thesecondistheactofbringingasubspeciesbackfrom extinction by introducing a related subspecies into the original environment, and letting it evolve naturally. First one has received more attention. Scientists find dormant eggs in a number of sustaining environments: extreme cold, lake beds, and even small sealed pockets in rock formations. These eggs, so far only of insects andplankton, are brought backtolifeandhatchedinincubators.

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4. Cirrus clouds form the highest in the sky. A cirrus cloud formation will appear in the coldest region of the troposphere.Theyappearfromthegroundtobemadeoflong,thinstrands.Sometimesdescribedaswispy. Downcycling involves repurposing a material into a new product of lesser quality. This can include varying grades of plastic,paperproducts,andothermaterials. Astrobiology is the study of the potential for life beyond the confines of planet Earth. It incorporates several scientific disciplines, includingbiology, chemistry, astrology, andgeology. Several colleges and universities have astrobiology programs,forpeoplewhowishtofocusonthestudyofthisbranchofthesciences Phytoremediation is a form of environmental cleanup which involves the use of plants and fungi. Many plants are capable of uptaking pollutants and storing them, meaning that people can plant trees or plants and then remove them after they have pulled the pollutants out of the soil. Plants can also be used to control the spread of pollution. Some plants will actively metabolize pollutants, breaking them down into harmless substances, while others stimulate the growthofmicrobeswhichcanmetabolizepollutants. Biomonitoring is a field of scientific research which analyzes the tissues of humans or animals to detect and measure the subject's exposure to both natural and synthetic, or manmade, chemicals. Both natural and synthetic chemicals leave their impact on the body in one way or another through "markers." These markers can either be the actual chemical which remains in the body's tissues, or the byproducts of its breakdown. Biomonitoring measures what remainsinthebody'stissuesafterexposuretothesechemicals. TheInternationalUnionfortheConservationofNatureandNaturalResources(IUCN)haspublishedacomprehensive list that concerns the conservation status of animal andplant species. The IUCN red list, as it is often known, is considered the largest database of conservation information in the world. The maintenance of the list is a complex process,involvingtheworkofseveralorganizationsandrequiringconstantnewresearchtoupdatestatus. ElNioisaweatherphenomenoncharacterizedbyabnormallyhighsurfacetemperaturesinthetropicalPacificOcean, andweakertradewinds,which havebeenknown tocauseaglobalrippleeffectofturbulentandunusualweather.The effect is caused in large part by the weakening of trade winds, which normally push the warmer surface water of the Pacific westward. As these winds grow weaker, they allow warm surface water to change course and ebb eastward. As seaandsky encourage different behaviorinoneanother,jetstreamschange course,causing stormsystemstoshowup in locations they normally don't. This weather condition can often cause fishing populations to die off, as they are unable to cope with drastic changes in sea temperature. It also tends to make hurricane season around Central and NorthAmericalessfierce. An inversion is a situation in which the layers of the atmosphere do not act normally, inhibiting normal weather processes and often trappingsmog, smoke, and clouds close to the ground. The most common form of inversion is a temperature inversion, although inversions can take other forms as well. In normal conditions, hot air close to the ground slowly rises upwards, pushing through a layer of cooler air. When a temperature inversion occurs, cooler air gathersneartheground,withalayerofhotairpressingdownontopofit.Thisforcesclouds,smog,andpollutiontobe trapped near the ground, because they cannot waft upwards, and a temperature inversion can sometimes break explosively,withseverethunderstormsortornadoes. Species adaptation is the way in which organisms change or evolve to meet the needs of their environment. These changes typically involve behavior, body parts, or body coverings. Adapting to their habitat is generally geared toward protectingthespeciesfrompredators,findingwaystoattractorcaptureprey,andattractingamate.

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Coralbleaching is a phenomenon in which corals lose their distinctive color because they expel the onecelled organisms which live with them in a symbiotic relationship. If a coral is fully bleached, it will turn entirely white, and it willdieunlessthestressonthecoralisreduced,allowingthesymbioticorganismstoreturntothecoral.Itiscausedby stress to coral. Coral is in fact a very delicate organism, adapted to survive in nutrientpoor waters, but it does not tolerate environmental changes well. A healthycoral reefcan sustain a wide assortment of organisms, promoting biodiversity, and if the corals die off, the creatures which surround the reef may die off as well. Therefore, coral bleachingisn'tjustathreattocoral,buttomarinehealthingeneral Electroceptionisthebiologicalabilityeithertocreateortodetectelectriccharges.Itisfoundmostfrequentlyinocean animals because of the superior ability of water to conduct electricity. Electroception is used to increase the animal's awareness of its surrounding environment and sometimes to detect prey. In electric eels, it is even used as a high voltageweapon. A keystone species is an organism that plays a significant role in its environment. Like the keystone in an arch, this species holds theecosystemtogether. If removed, the structures it supports will collapse. The influence exerted by the organismsisdisproportionatetotheiroverallnumbersinthenaturalenvironment.Manyspeciesconsideredkeystones in their environments are predators. While predator populations tend to be small, they are critical members of theecosystemsthey live in. Predators keep prey numbers within reasonable limits, reducing the risk that prey will overruntheenvironment. La Nia is an extreme phase of a climate cycle that occurs naturally. The climate cycle involved is a coupled ocean atmospheric occurrence resulting from the interaction between the atmosphere and the surface of the ocean. Known as theSouthern oscillation, this climate cycle includesEl Nioon one extreme and La Nia on the other. La Nia is the coldphaseofthecycle.ALaNiapatternexistswhenunusuallycoolseasurfacetemperaturesoccurintheeasternand central tropical Pacific Ocean around the equator in the area between the International Date Line and the coast of SouthAmerica. Taken together, La Nia and El Nio generally are viewed by scientists as among the most powerful of weather phenomena ontheplanet,becausetheycanaffectthe climateovermore thanhalfthe Earth.Onaverage,this cycleof cold surface ocean temperatures occurs every three to five years and, typically, lasts about nine to 12 months. Cold episodes are important because they disrupt the usual patterns of atmospheric circulation and tropical precipitation. Theeffectofdisruptionofthesepatternsistoenhancethenormalclimatethatprevailsinaffectedregionsofearth. During a La Nia, for example, an area such as the Pacific Northwest in the United States, where there usually is a wet winter,wouldhaveawinterthatiswetterthannormal.Ontheotherhand,themorearidclimatesofthesouthwestern U.S. would be drier than normal. La Nia also affects the intensity and position of the jet streams; this, in turn, affects boththetrackandintensityofstorms. Southern oscillation or El Nio pertains to the temperature of the ocean and the atmosphere. It is commonly referred to as El Nio or La Nia depending on the weather pattern. This typically happens every five years but it can also occur every three to seven years. The changing of temperatures during a southern oscillation can affect the weather all aroundtheworld.Floodsordraughtscanalsooccurduringtheseweatherpatterns. El Nio is a warming of the central tropical pacific ocean waters. Typically, cooler northeasterly winds combined with warm ocean surface water produces average weather conditions but when there is little to no cooling effect and the surface ocean water is allowed to heat up, it is considered an el Nio event. This can cause substantial rains in some areas,whiledroughtsinother.LaNiaoccurswhencoolernorthernwindsmixwithcoolersurfaceoceanwaters.

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A southern oscillation can last from a few months to a few years. Experts can sometimes predict when the oscillations willoccur.Whenthereisariseorfallinthesurfacepressureortradewindschangecourse,thiscanindicateachangein weather patterns. For example, if these winds carry warmer ocean water to a specific area, another area may suffer becauseitwillalsotaketherainfallwithit.Thisleavestoomuchraininsomeareasanddroughtconditionsinothers. A livingfossilis an organism which represents the one of the few, if not the only, surviving members of a taxonomic group,withnocloselivingrelatives.OnewellknownexampleofalivingfossilisGinkgoBiloba. Nuclear winter: The detonation of large numbers of nuclear weapons could trigger a dramatic change in the global climate, causing extreme cold and potentially resulting in serious trouble for the living organisms. Most of the studies on nuclear winter point out that a massive number of nuclear weapons would need to be detonated to triggerclimate changeon this scale; something along the lines of half of the known nuclear devices on Earth. It has also been suggested that the detonations would need to be fairly close together, creating a steady stream of material which wouldworkitswayupintotheatmosphere. The RoHS is an acronym for the Restriction on Hazardous Substances, a guideline first established by the European Unionin2002.In2007,theRoHSbecomeslawinallcountriesbelongingtotheEUandwillrestricttheuseanddisposal of products containing mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and most importantly lead.One purpose of the RoHS is to eliminate toxic substances from unprotected waste areaswheretheycanpollutedrinkingwaterandairsupply. Malware is an abbreviated term used to describe a "malicious software" program. Malware includes things like spyware or adware programs, such as tracking cookies, which are used to monitor your surfing habits. It also includes moresinisteritems,suchaskeyloggers,Trojanhorses,worms,andviruses. Mobile computing embraces a host of portable technologies that makes Internet access on the go not only possible, but integral to every day life. From notebook computers to personal digital assistants (PDAs) like the Blackberry and iPhone,tostandardcellphones,mobilecomputinghasbecomeanindispensablewayoflife. AccessinternetthruWiFiorcellularbroadband. Another service associated with mobile computing is cloud computing, or the ability to use website services from mobilecomputers.Cloud computing providesaccesstoa networklikeenvironmentwith various applicationsand virtually unlimited resources so that field representatives, for instance, can utilize website resources rather than beingsuppliedwithweighty,expensivemachinespackedwithcompanysoftwareanddata. Mobile computing also provides access to a companys virtual private network (VPN) by tunneling through the Internet.

Torrents are specialized files utilized in peertopeer (P2P) network environments. P2P is a network of personal computers that communicate with one another by running proprietary P2P software. Unlike downloads off the Web, torrents do not point to a single source on a P2P network when requesting files. Instead, torrents contain specific informationthatmultiplecomputersinthenetworkcanreadtosendvariouspartsoftherequestedfilesimultaneously andenmasse. A Tablet PC is a cross between a notebook PC and a personal digital assistant (PDA). It's a flatpanel portable PC in the form of a slate. A user inputs data either by tapping the screen with a stylus, or using the stylus to write directly on to the screen. The tablet PC can wirelessly connect to the Internet and other PCs and is intended to provide the power of anotebookinhandheldform.

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Ethical hacking, often performed by white hats or skilled computer experts, is the use of programming skills to determine vulnerabilities in computer systems. While the nonethical hacker or black hat exploits these vulnerabilities for mischief, personal gain or other reasons, the ethical hacker evaluates them, points them out, and may suggest changestosystemsthatmakethemlesslikelytobepenetratedbyblackhats.Whitehatscanworkinavarietyofways. Many companies utilize ethical hacking services from consultants or fulltime employees to keep their systems and informationassecureaspossible. digital divide refers to the gap between people who possess regular access to technology and those who do not have thisaccess. An optical mouse uses camera technology and digital processing to compare and track the position of the mouse, ratherthanaballandrollersusedonoldermice. helpsgiveusersmorepreciseperformancewithoutthemaintenanceandcleaningneededonoldermice. Inside each optical mouse is a small camera that takes more than a thousand snapshot pictures every second. A small LED (lightemitting diode) provides light underneath the mouse, helping to highlight slight differences in the surface underneath the mouse. Those differences are reflected back into the camera, where digital processing is usedtocomparethepicturesanddeterminethespeedanddirectionofmovement. mouseballrequiredcleaningtoscrapeaccumulatedgrimeoftheballortherollersinside. Astherearenomovingpartsinopticalmice,almostnomaintenanceorregularcleaningisrequired. digitalprocessingoftenresultsinsmoother,moreaccurateperformancethanpriortechnologies. don'trequireamousepadandcanbeusedonmanysurfaces,includingthosenotentirelyflat

DifferentTypesofMemoryCards

1. Secure Digital Card (SD card) SD cards are used in many small portable devices such as digital video camcorders, digitalcameras,handheldcomputers,audioplayersandmobilephones. 2. MiniSD Card: was developed to meet the demands of the mobile phone market. The MiniSD Card provides the same benefits as the SD Card, but is smaller than the original SD Card. found in many newer mobile phones with features such as builtin digital cameras, downloading and games, basically the mobile phones where the miniSD canmeettherequirementsforincreaseddatastorage. 3. MicroSD:MainlyusedinmobilephonesandothersmallhandhelddevicestheMicroSDformatiscurrentlyavailable incapacitiesupto4GB,anditroughly1/4ththesizeoftheSDcardat15mmW11mmW0.7mm.TheMicroSDcard isalsothesmallestmemorycardavailable. SDRAM Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory, and it is a fast method of delivering computing capacity. SDRAM can run at 133 Mhz, which is much faster than earlier RAM technologies. SDRAM is very protective of its data bits, storing them each in a separate capacitor. The benefit of this is the avoidance of corruption and the maintenance of"pristine"data. phishingscamisanidentitytheftscamthatarrivesviaemail Spyware refers to programs that use your Internet connection to send information from your personal computer to someothercomputer,normallywithoutyourknowledgeorpermission.Mostoftenthisinformationisarecordofyour ongoingbrowsinghabits,downloads,oritcouldbemorepersonaldatalikeyournameandaddress. Dark fiber is a term used to describe fiber optic cable that is not being used at the time. The amount of dark fiber, particularly in the United States, is very high. Dark fiber is contrasted with active fiber optic cable, often referred to as litcable.

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Leetspeak or leet is a substitution cipher created by computer users by replacing Latin letters with various codes that aremeanttoimplythesamething. The Google Slap is a term used unaffectionately by mainly small businesses that rely on AdWords accounts through Google to drum up business for their sites. However, if Google finds or determines that the page that potential customers visit when they click on the ad is not related, is poor in quality, or even loads too slowly, they may take punitiveactionintheformofaGoogleSlap VPN, or virtual private network, is a catchall phrase for a variety of networking schemes that allow businesses to use publicInternetlinestocreateavirtualnetwork. The VPN can operate between branches, regional centers and field representatives via a set of software and hardwareprotocolsthatauthenticateusersandencrypttraffic. It is a network used by companies to connect users at different locations to the company intranet, a private networkthatonlycompanyemployeesorotherauthorizedindividualscanaccess. Remoteaccessandsitetositearetwotypesofnetworkscommonlyinuse.

Encrypted tunneling: utilizes SSL (Secure Socket Layer) encryption to authenticate users and send information betweentheremoteclient(s)andserver(s). IPSecurity(IPsec):encryptsIPpacketslikeSSL,butcanalsoencryptUDP(userdatagramprotocol)traffic,onelayer deeper in the network model. UDP traffic accounts for only a small percentage of network traffic, but is used in somekeyapplicationslikestreamingmedia,andVoiceoverIP(VoIP). PointtopointProtocol(PTPP):Microsoft'sVPNprotocol,notconsideredassecureassomeothers,includingIPsec. Other VPN models include "trusted VPNs," which rely on the third party services of an established network provider. A VPN differs from a WAN (wide area network) in that the latter uses leased network lines, thus restricting all traffic to corporate business only. This is effective but costly, particularly when the network must span large distances Some companies use intranets or extranets to facilitate 'private' communication. These protocols involve passwordprotected pages or sites that, ideally, only employees and authorized personnel can access. However, connections betweenremoteusersandhostserversarenotalwaysencrypted, andintranetsandextranetsarenot technicallyprivatenetworks.ThealternateanswerisaVPN. A VPN is expandable, much more costeffective than a traditional WAN, connects field operators, international offices,affiliatedpartnersorclients,andimprovesproductivity. Assuming care is taken to build a secure VPN, it is a highly beneficial step that can be a tremendous asset to any companywithnetworkingneeds.

Disadvantages One disadvantage of a VPN is the fact that deployment requires a highlevel of knowledge and understanding of suchfactorsaspublicnetworksecurity.VPNsecurityrequirespasswordanddataencryption. AnothersignificantdisadvantageoftheVPNisthatitsavailabilityandperformancearedifficulttocontrol.Typically, VPNspeedsaremuchslowerthanthoseexperiencedwithatraditionalconnection. VPNtechnologiesfromdifferentcreatorsmayworkpoorlytogether. One of the VPN's weakest links may, in some cases, be its users. When a remote telecommuter or an employee connectstohisorhercorporateofficeusingaVPNfromalaptoporhomecomputer,securitythreatsmayresult.

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AfewtypesofVPNsecurityinclude:

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Flaming is the often deliberate act of posting or writing messages on Internet bulletin boards and message groups that havetheintentofinsultingorcreatingdissentwithinagroup.AnInternetflameisoftenfilledwithcoarselanguageand personalinsults. Sometimes, people called Internet trolls intentionally practice flaming to provoke a group of people. This may be merely for the purpose of annoying a group, or may be an attack aimed at a group of people who have an interest not sharedbytheflamer. Cyberbullyingisameansofharassmentthatmakesuseofonlinetoolstoaccomplishthepurpose.Thecyberbullymay post embarrassing images, information, or gossip about another individual on various social networking sites as well as email,instantmessaging,andmessageboardsorforums. LTE is under development to enable wireless providers using both types of networks to transition from 3G technology to fourth generation (4G) networks and equipment. For consumers, LTE will enable existing applications to run faster, plus make available new mobile phone applications. Enhanced video and presentation mobile phone applications may be included.LTE uses radio waves to allow more data to be transferred over the same bandwidth used by 3G equipment.Asaresult,serviceprovidersshouldbeabletogetmoredatatransferoutoftheirexistingcellsandpossibly lower the cost to run their networks. Since LTE connects to existing networks, providers can plan for a seamless transition,thencontinuetouselegacyCDMAandGSMnetworksasbackups.

Noob is an alternate spelling of newbie, which refers to an inexperienced person, particularly in the gaming communitybutalsoinotheronlinevenues. Point of sale (POS) software is software that retailers use to calculate sales and operate the cash drawer; it is the computerizedcashregister. RSS or Really Simple Syndication is a useful tool for keeping updated on your favorite websites. RSS makes use of an XML code that constantly scans the content of a website for updates and then broadcasts those updates to all subscribersthroughafeed. Cluster computing is a form of computing in which a group of computers are linked together so that they can act like a single entity. There are a number of reasons for people to use cluster computers for computing tasks, ranging from an inability to afford a single computer with the computing capability of a cluster to a desire to ensure that a computing systemisalwaysavailable. Microblogging is a networking service that allows mobile users of cell phones and other Internet connected devices to stayabreastofactivitieswithinagroupbyreceivingfrequentpublishedupdates,typicallyof140charactersorless. Internet robots are known by many names bots, spiders, web bots, robots, and crawlers. What all bots have in common is that they are software applications or scripts. Where they differ is in the tasks that they perform. They're purpose or benefit is simple: to quickly complete jobs, especially repetitive ones. Bots are most commonly used in indexingonasearchengine. faviconisacustomiconassociatedwithawebpageorwebsitethatappearsnexttothehttpaddressintheURLwindow ofabrowser.Thefaviconwillalsooccupyopentabsintabenabledbrowsers,andwilldisplaynexttobookmarkedlinks

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Cognitive computing refers to the development of computer systems modeled after the human brain. Cognitive computing integrates technology and biology in an attempt to reengineer the brain, one of the most efficient and effectivecomputersonEarth.

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Vlogging,shortfor"videoblogging",isbloggingthroughthemediumofvideo. Programs that tap into a computer network with the purpose of intercepting data traveling between two network machines are called sniffing software. This type of software program can be used to intercept and interpret data on a computerornetwork,includingbrowserpasswords,chatprograms,usersettingsandnetworktraffic. SSL or Secure Sockets Layer is a security protocol created by Netscape that has become an international standard on theInternetforexchangingsensitiveinformationbetweenawebsiteandthecomputercommunicatingwithit,referred toastheclient. Multihoming is a situation that describes a single computer host that makes use of several IP addresses associated with various connected networks. Within this scenario, the multihomed computer host is physically linked to a variety ofdataconnectionsorports.protectedfromtheoccurrenceofanetworkfailure. 1. multihomingcanhelptodistributetheloadbalanceofdatatransmissionsreceivedandsentbythecomputerhost 2. redundancythatisinherenttomultihomingmeanslessincidencesofdowntimeduetonetworkfailure. 3. multihoming provides an additional tool to keep network connectivity alive and well in the event of natural disastersorothereventsthatwouldnormallyrenderahostinoperativeforanextendedperiodoftime. Multihoming is often employed in situations where access to the Internet is critical to the operation of a business relatedeffort. For example, multihoming will be included as part of the disaster recovery initiatives that many financial institutionshaveinplace.Bycreatingnetworkredundancy,itispossibleforbanks,brokers,andinvestmentfirmsto remain accessible to customers even when some type of unanticipated event has crippled the primary network interface.

Tethering is a process involving the establishment of a connection between a cell phone or other mobile device and a computer. The connection may be created by using a cable to tether the cell phone to the computer, or some type of wirelessconnectionmayprovidethelink. Cybersquatting is the act of registering domain names, especially those connected with celebrities or recognizable trademarks,withtheintentionofresellingthemataninflatedprice. invisible web is the hidden area of the Internet that is not searched automatically by search engines. It is information thatisfreelyavailableontheInternet,butthatwillnotberetrievedbynormalsearchrequests.Theinformationthatis hiddenontheinvisiblewebtakesalittlemoreworktofind. Databases are created using spiders. These are computer programs that search around the web looking for information. Lossy compression is a type of data compression in which actual information is lost. This means that after reconstructing the data from the information available, one winds up with something less than was in the original file. Generally, the goal is to use lossy compression such that there is not much observable loss in the final product, while savingenormouslyonfilesizeoverlosslesscompression. Evergreen content refers to informational or reference material that never goes out of date, therefore desirable to websites looking to build a lasting readership. Good evergreen material is needed over and over by the general public, creatingabuiltinguaranteeofcontinuinghits.

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Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is a nonprofit corporation tasked with managing the logistics of Internet Protocol (IP) addresses and domain names. Every computer than connects to the Internet must have a unique address in order to issue requests and receive information within the Internet. When a user logs on to the Internet, the Internet Service Provider (ISP) assigns an IP address. ISPs are assigned blocks of proprietary IP addressesfortheiruse.TheIPstheyassigntotheircustomersarepulledfromtheseblocks. Generictopleveldomain (gTLD)referstothoseInternetdomainswithgeneraladdressextensions.Forexample,.com, .net, .edu, .gov and .mil all belong to the category known as gTLD. The other category of Internet domain names is country code toplevel domain (ccTLD). This category applies a country code for the extension, such as .us for the UnitedStates,.frforFranceand.ukfortheUnitedKingdom. A CAPTCHA, or Completely Automated Public Turingtest to tell Computers and Humans Apart, is used to keep bots and other automated programs from signing up for offers, collecting or signing up for email addresses, violating privacy,tryingtocrackpasswords,orsendingoutspamtounsuspectingemailrecipients.ACAPTCHAworksbyissuinga challenge to the person or entity attempting to gain access. A CAPTCHA challenge is usually a simple visual test or puzzlethatasightedhumancancompletewithoutmuchdifficulty,butthatanautomatedprogramcannotunderstand. Internet protocol (IP) address blocking, more commonly known as IP blocking, is a way for an Internet server or other program that communicates online to prevent contact with another system. One of the most common uses for IP blockingistopreventacomputerthatisaknownsecuritythreatfrommakingcontactwithaserver,therebyprotecting the server from any malicious actions. Other uses for IP blocking include preventing tracking cookies or websites from seeinguseractions,andrestrictinginformationfrombeingaccessibletoanetwork. (MIST): Entity integrity is one of the primary rules of effective database construction. It refers to the process of enforcingaprimarykeyforeachtableinadatabase,wherethekeymustbeeitheraroworacombinationofrowsthat are unique nonnull values. By maintaining entity integrity, each record in each table of a database can be specifically identified via the primary key. This prevents duplicate records and other issues that would indirectly compromise the integrity of the database. In the absence of entity integrity, the entries in a database can accidentally overlap, as there willbenowaytopluckaspecificentryfromthetable. Bluesnarfing is a hacking attack that uses a Bluetooth connection to access a mobile device. It is a much more serious attackthanbluejacking,whichismoreofapracticaljokethatdoesnotalteranydata.Bluesnarfingallowsthehackerto take complete control of the device and access many of the functions and all of the data in the device. The hacker is able to make calls and texts, listen to conversations and remove all information without the phones owner being alerted A WPA key is part of the WiFi Protected Access scheme of wireless Internet security. WPA and its successor, WPA2, use preshared keys to facilitate very strong encryption security for wireless data transmission. These keys are used to mutually authenticate communications between wireless devices, usually using a hubandspoke model that sends communications from many devices through a wireless network router, which then communicates with the Internet usingawiredconnection. DNShijackingisaprocessbywhichInternetusersmayberedirectedtoadifferentwebsitethantheyareattemptingto reach. The domain name system (DNS) is a set of protocols used to allow users to connect to various websites on the Internet. When a user types in a particular web address, a DNS server translates that address into an Internet protocol (IP) address and directs the user to the proper site. DNS hijacking changes this process, however, so that the user is directedtoanIPaddressotherthantheproperone.

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Cobrowsing is a browserbased technology, or technology that works exclusively with Internet browsers, that allows two or more computers to view the same Internet page at the same time. This differs from screensharing programs that send a large amount of screenshots to emulate movement, because cobrowsing actually synchronizes the computers to work together and show the same Web pages. No software is needed to cobrowse; the computers only need to be connected. This is useful for technology support or presentations but can also be used by hackers to infiltratecomputersandinvadeprivacy. IBM's Watson is a computer built to tackle the pernicious problem of openquestion answering. computer developers have long been frustrated at the inability of artificial intelligence to properly understand context recognition and the complex relationships involved in human communication and language. Watson was designed specifically to try and defeat this longstanding problem in a unique way: developers could test its capabilities by having it play the popular Americangameshow,Jeopardy!.In2011,thecomputersuccessfullydefeatedbothchampionsKenJenningsandBrad Rutterinatwogameseries. In computer science, a hashmap or hash table is a form of structuring data so that each piece of data is linked to a unique identification number or symbol. This allows easy retrieval, especially from a large database containing thousandsofentries. Meta tagging is the process of placing specific pieces of information into the language that creates a Web page. Many types of meta elements may be placed within the language of a page. Search engines use the meta element data to glean information about individual Web pages. Using the process of meta tagging allows the Web page developer to placeadditionalinformationwithinthelanguagethatcreatesthepagebutdoesnotappearonthepageitself. A chat bot is a computer program that is designed to engage in conversation with a human partner. This type of software is intended to convince its interlocutors that it is an active participant in the conversation and that real meaning is being exchanged. Modern chat bots can often fool users for some period of time and many have good results in passing the Turing test. This test features a conversation between a human and a computer program. A programwhoseoutputcannotbedistinguishedfromhumanconversationcanbeconsideredtohavepassedthetest. SEOAnalysis:Asearchengineoptimization(SEO)analysisisareportthatdetailshowawebsiteownercanimprove his orherrankingonpopularsearchengines. phlog.Thistermmayrefertoaphotoblog.

Despiteitsname,Ghostscriptisnotascript.ItisasuiteofsoftwareprogramsthatcaninterpretthePostscriptlanguage created by Adobe Systems Inc. Through these programs, a user can convert Postscript language files into different raster image processing (RIP) formats for printing and display, or interpret a Postscript file for a printer that doesn't havePostscriptcapabilitiesbuiltin. Alsoknownascrowdsourced capitalandcrowdfinancing,crowdfundingisthecooperationofagrouptoputforward money or other resources in order to help other people achieve something. Basically, an idea is presented by an individualorcompany,andpeopledonateorinvestmoneytohelpthatindividualorcompanymaketheideaareality. An orphan file is a file on a computer that has been rendered obsolete because the application or file it is linked with has been moved or deleted. The most common reason for an orphan file to be present on an operating system is an incomplete program uninstallation, as when someone simply deletes a program instead of running the uninstall utility. Thisleavesprogramfilesbehindontheharddrive,althoughtheyhavenopurposebecausetheprogramisnolongerin use.

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Aconsumertoconsumerwebsite,alsoknownasapeertopeerwebsiteorC2Cwebsite,facilitatesthesaleortransfer of goods and services between individuals. While some of the participants in a consumertoconsumer website also haveotherbusinessvenues,suchasanecommercewebsiteforbrickandmortarstore,theymayuseaC2Cwebsiteto expandtheircustomerbase. FarmVille, which was launched in June 2009, is a game developed by Zynga and used as an application on the website Facebook. It is a simulation of some of the aspects of a real farm, including taking care of animals and plants as well as putting up buildings and decorations. With the help of FarmVille coins and dollars combined with the work of the the playerandneighbors,thefarmcancontinuetoexpandandprosper. A dictionary attack is an attempt to literally use every word in the dictionary as a means of identifying the password associatedwithanencryptedmessageortogaincontrolofabusinessnetworkorevenanemailaccount. Hacktivism is a type of socialor political activism that centers around the act of hacking into computer systems for the express purpose of gaining access to proprietary information or disrupting that system so that it cannot perform efficiently.Unlikehackingthatisdonefornoparticularreason,hactivismusuallyhasanunderlyingmotivethatiseither aimed at discrediting an opposing party or collecting data that can in turn be used to promote the ideals of the hacker ratherthanthoseofthepartythatexperiencesthehacking. A denial of service (DoS) attack is an attempt to make a website or another Internet resource unavailable to users. Denial of service attacks may be very costly, as businesses lose money and customers every hour they are unavailable; they are generally illegal, and they also violate the Internet Architecture Board's proper use policy. The traditional denialofserviceattackisexecutedbyfloodingthetargetedserverwithdummyrequests,overloadingitandpreventing itfromhandlinglegitimatetraffic;othertypesofattacksincludeseveringthenetworkconnectionentirely,crashingthe server,orshuttingdowntheserviceforoneparticularpersonorgroup.

The qubit is an example of a quantum bit. In quantum computing, the qubit serves as the counterpart to the binary digit, which is normally known as a bit. A binary digit serves as the most basic unit of information in a classical computer. In like manner, the qubit serves as the most basic unit of information in a quantum computer. With a quantum computer, these quantum bits or qubits are essentially photon or electron particles that carry a polarization orchargethatiseitherpositiveornegative. The function of the qubit is governed by two principles that are basic to the idea of quantum physics. One of these principles is superposition. In terms of the qubit, superposition has to do with how the qubit performs within a magnetic field. If the qubit or electron particle is rotating or spinning in alignment with the field, this is known as a spinupstate.Shouldthequbitrotateorspininoppositiontothefield,thisisknownasaspindownstate.Usingan influx of energy can change the spin of the qubit and thus make it possible to manipulate the utility of each qubit containedwithinthefield. A second principle that has an impact on the function of a qubit is entanglement. This principle has to do with the way that individual qubits interact with one another. Essentially, once a connection of some type is made between qubits, the connection remains in place. This leads to the formation of qubit pairs. The pair contains a qubit that is in a spinup state, while the second qubit is in a spindown state. The interesting thing about this phenomenon is

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Spamdexingisaformofsearchenginemanipulationwhichisdesignedtopushasiteupinsearchresults,ensuringthat people land on that site when they search for specific things. While search engine optimization requires a certain amount of search engine manipulation to ensure that sites rank high in search results, spamdexing is typically more offensive,andthe materialislessrelevanttothesearchthan thesearchermightdesire.Becausemanypeoplebecome frustrated by constantly finding spam sites when they look for legitimate content, most search engines have tools in placetodefeatspamdexing.

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that there may be great distances between the two qubits in the pair, yet they still react to one another as opposites. War dialing is a practice that involves calling large volumes of phone numbers to collect information about which numbers connect to modems and other devices of interest. There are a number of reasons why people may engage in wardialinganditisnotlegalinsomeregions. An online divorce is a slightly deceptive term because in most countries, an actual divorce doesnt occur by filing paperworkonline.However,therearenownumerousservicesthathelppeoplefilloutdivorcepaperworkwithrelative ease that can then be filed with local court systems. Essentially, online divorce refers to the numerous agencies that offer this paperwork help, usually at far less cost than it would be to get a lawyer to help complete and file forms requiredtoobtainadivorce. Click fraud is a new type of Internet scam that targets advertising companies rather than consumers. Click fraud has takenadvantageofthepayperclickadvertisingprogramsbyrepublishingtheadsinotherwebpages. A podcast is simply a name for an audio or video file which is available on the web through some sort of syndication service. Strictly speaking, the files, format, and content of a podcast is no different than any other video or audio file that might be made available on the web, either through a streaming delivery or a download. What makes a podcast different from these other files is that its presence as a syndicated format means that programs built to pick up syndication feeds can automatically download a new podcast that a user has subscribed to, immediately when it becomesavailable. An html tag is a word, or group of words, used to describe the content of a website. When multiple tags are present, the website may utilize a tag cloud to list all of the tags, or the most popular tags, used in its content. This visual depiction is often in the shape of a cloud. Most html tags consist of only one word. Normally, tags are listed alphabetically within a tag cloud. Important and frequently used tags are often indicated within the tag cloud by a darkercolororalargerfontsize. An Internet refrigerator, or a net fridge, is an appliance that can store chilled or frozen foods while allowing access to the Internet. Its structure is very similar to a traditional refrigerator, with one prominent difference. On one of its doors, there is a builtin computer. This builtin computer is what gives Internet refrigerators more sophisticated features. Also known as electronic fingerprinting, digital fingerprinting is a contemporary approach to creating images of fingerprints that can be used for purposes of identification in a number of settings. This type of resource may be used to enhance security measures at companies, government buildings, and other physical locations, as well as create a moreefficientmeansofcopyrightprotectionandtheidentificationofcriminalsinvolvedinthecommissionofaspecific crime. Unlike older fingerprinting techniques, modern digital fingerprints are not subject to deterioration and can be matchedwithvariouselectronicrecordsinverylittletime,possiblyevenafewsecondsinsomeapplications. TheRegistryisafoundationaldatabase,constantlyupdatedasnewprogramsorhardwareareinstalledanduninstalled. Over time the Registry can become cluttered with fragmented data, often from programs that dont uninstall cleanly. Thiscanslowperformanceorevencausethecomputertohangordelivererrormessages.A Registryfixcanreturnthe databasetoasmoothlyfunctioningstate. In gaming and persistent virtual worlds that employ their own form of currency, participants purchase virtual currency with realworld dollars. This generates a synthetic economy within the virtual world. Second Life, a virtual world

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community, whowasmakingseveral hundredthousandrealworlddollarsayearsellingvirtualland.Facebooksvirtual creditscanbeboughtforrealmoney Munging is a term used on the Internet, which helps to eliminate some uses of your email on sites where your email address may be collected and used to send you spam, often by programs called spam bots. The practice means you alter your email address so it is either invalid or not viewed as email address by these bots. Eg. Rob at server dot net insteadofrob@server.netorgivewrongaddresslikes@b.com Data mining algorithms are programmed queries and programs used to identify patterns and trends in data sets. The primary use of data mining is to determine customer needs and preferences, based on their actual activity. Although the information is based on past performance, it can be an excellent indicator of customer behavior and trends. Two excellentexamplesofdataminingalgorithmsaretheclusteringandnearestneighborpredictors. Geocoding is the process of marking landmarks or specific location with latitude and longitude coordinates. This process is typically done with mapping devices that use satellites to give the exact coordinates of a location. The geocodedataisthenaddedintoadatabaseforusebyothersoftwaresystems.

The email account has become the new "inbox" for personal and professional communication, and like its predecessor it appears to grow without ceasing. Some email may contain important or timesensitive information, while others ask for personal replies or updates. Declaring email bankruptcy means clearing out an entire email account and starting anew. Email bankruptcy may seem like an extreme action to take, but it can also be a freeing experience for those who feel pressured by accumulating stacks of email. Answering older emails often reduces the amountoftimeavailableforotherprojectsandduties. The social web is the term used to identify the many different types of opportunities for people to socialize via use of the World Wide Web. This web within a web includes a variety of web sites that each have their own particular tools for creating and sustaining interaction among a wide range of people. Sites that are considered part of the social web maybefocusedongeneralsocialinteraction;devotedtospecifichobbies,interests,orpastimes;orprovideagathering place for professionals who wish to communicate with others who face the same types of everyday challenges and opportunitiesthattheydo. Robot software is software that issues coded commands to some type of mechanical devices, usually referred to as a robot. The software can be configured to automate various tasks associated with these mechanical devices, making it possiblefortherobotstocarryoutthetaskswithouttheneedformanualintervention.

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In computing applications, a project fork is a situation where a particular aspect or feature of an established software product is used as the basis for creating a new product that is geared toward applications that are not the focus of the originalsoftware.

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Also known as a geographical weblog, a geoblog is any type of blog that is constructed to include specific types of geographical informationwithinthetextandgraphicsonitspages.Severaldifferenttypesofgeographicaldatamaybe included, such as latitude and longitude, or any other information that helps to fixed a geographic position. This process of geoblogging is accomplished with the use of metatags that are sometimes referred to as geotags, which are strategically positioned within the text and graphics to attract the attention of search engines, enhancing the chances ofthesiteshowinghighinsearchesconductedbyInternetusers.

acronymDWTstandsfordrivingwhiletextingThisbehaviorismostprevalentamongyoungerdrivers

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DVDROM:ADigitalVersatileDiscReadOnlyMemory,orDVDROM,isamediastoragediskthatcloselyresemblesa CDorcompactdisk.ThemajordifferenceisthattheDVDROMisformattedtoholdfarmoredata.ACDcommonlyhas acapacityof650megabytes,whilethesmallestcapacityDVDcanstoreaboutseventimesmoredata,or4.38(GB). There are various kinds of DVDs, but the DVDROM refers to a readonly disc, or a disc that cannot be written over. If youpurchaseaDVDmoviefromthelocalvideostore,youhaveagoodexampleofaDVDROM. 4G: 4G, an acronym for fourthgeneration wireless it provides a comprehensive and secure IP (Internet Protocol) solution.Userswillenjoyhighqualitystreamingvideoand"anytime,anywhere"voiceanddataatamuchhigherspeed than previous generations. The fourthgeneration wireless technology will provide a wide variety of new services including HD video (high definition video), and high quality voice and highdatarate wireless channels. 4G technology will not only be used for cellulartelephone systems, but will also include several types of wirelessbroadbandaccess communicationsystems. EDGE: EDGE is a wireless network technology generally considered the next step in the 2G network. The name is an acronym that stands for Enhanced DataGSMEnvironment. Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution is an alternative name that is also used. As both names suggest, EDGE is an improvement on theGSM wirelesstechnology, which is secondgeneration,or2G,cellphonetechnology.EDGEisusedforthepurposeofwirelessdatatransfer,suchassharing picturesand videosorbrowsingtheInternetviaamobilephoneconnection.Thisisbecausethe technologyoffersdata transfer rates up to four times faster than ordinary GSM networks. Important because of iPhone, Blackberry. Because EDGE is an upgrade of GSM, it is easy for wireless carriers to upgrade their networks to offer it. The increase in data speedisachievedviamoresophisticatedcoding,notbyequipment,sonewhardwareisnotusuallynecessary.Instead, a software upgrade enables the wireless carriers base stations to support data transfer speeds up to 384 kilobits per second(kbps). WirelessTelevision: Thoughtelevisionshavebeenabletoreceive awirelesssignal,oftenreferredtoasanovertheair signal, for years, wireless television takes that concept and applies it to subscriptionbased services. These services havetraditionallydependedonwires,traditionallycoaxialcableandmorerecentlyHDMIforhighdefinitionsignals.The latest standard in wireless television is known as Wireless Home Digital Interface, or WHDI. This technology was developed by a number of different companies, who came together to come up with a single standard they hope will be used across the entire industry as the technology starts to gain a foothold among consumers. The companies that have worked to come up with the standard for wireless, high definition digital television include: Sony, Hitachi, Motorola,Samsung,SharpandAMIMON. Themainadvantagetowirelesstelevisionisoneofconvenience.Thisallowseverytelevisiontobeconnectedtoacable orsatellitehubwithouttheneedofrunningwiresthroughoutthehome.Manywhoareputtingtelevisionsonwallsand other such locations have no way of hiding wires other than to run them behind the walls, which can make for a difficultinstallation. Dry Cell Battery: A dry cell battery is different from a wet cell battery because its electrolytes are contained in a low moisture paste. A wet cell battery's electrolytes are contained in a liquid. Wet cell batteries are often used in cars becausetheyarerelativelycheapandeasilyrecharged. Components: At the center of each dry cell battery is a rod called acathode, which is generally made of metal or graphite and is surrounded by anelectrolytepaste. The cathode and electrolyte paste are wrapped in paper or cardboard. One or more of these cells are sealed into a metal cylinder called ananode, which is typically made ofzincoralkaline.

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RF: RFrefers toradio frequency, the mode of communication for wireless technologies of all kinds, including cordless phones, radar, ham radio,GPS, and radio and television broadcasts.RF waves are electromagnetic waves which propagateatthespeedoflight,or186,000milespersecond(300,000km/s).ThefrequenciesofRFwaves,however,are slowerthanthoseofvisiblelight,makingRFwavesinvisibletothehumaneye. MiniDV: MiniDV is one of three common digital formats used in sound and picture recording. Using digital technology, MiniDV captures video and audio on highdensity cassette tapes. This format is very popular, as it delivers sound and video that is decidedly sharp and high quality. The MiniDV format is one of the most commonly used formats for camcorders.MiniDVtapesaretiny,onlyafractionofthesizeofotherdigitalvideo(DV)cassettes. Optical Cable: An optical cable is anoptical fiberthat has been coated with a tough layer of resin. This layer is then surrounded by what is referred to as ajacket layer. Most often, the jacket layer of the optical cable is made of plastic. Thelayersaroundtheopticalfiberhelpprovidetheopticalcablewithextrastrength.Atthesametime,theselayersdo notpreventthefiberwithintheopticalcablefrommaintainingitsproperties. The fiber in an optical cable is typically made of eitherglassor plastic. The fiber itself is thin and transparent, making it capable of transmitting light. An optical cable may have 1000s of these fibers within it, making the cable capable of transmitting a great deal of information throughbandwidthcommunication or large amounts of electricity when the opticalcableisusedforthispurpose.

Passive polarized glasses operate on the same basis as anaglyph glasses, only they filter light waves rather than color. Again, two identical and slightly offset images are superimposed, in this case each image is polarized to project light differentlythantheother. Pulfrich glasses can also create a 3D effect, but only with objects moving across the viewer's plane of vision. These 3D glasses have one completely transparent lens, and another that is heavily tinted. As an object moves across the visionary plane, the image is immediately transmitted to the eye through the transparent lens, but the tinted lens causesaslightdelay.Thisdelaycausesthebraintoaddmoredepthtotheimage,creatingsomewhatofa3Deffect. LCD technology, which is capable of digitally transmitting images at super highspeeds, 3D glasses have made great technological leaps and bounds. Active shutter glasses are able to communicate wirelessly with an LCD display, interactingwiththeactiononthescreenviainfraredsignals.Thisenablesthelensonactiveglassestoshutterbackand forth between different light filters, further enhancing the 3D viewing experience. Another significant upside to active technologyisthatitisadaptableto3DTVsets. Infrared: Infrared (IR) light is awavelengthof energy that is invisible to the human eye. The most common source of this energy is heat; objects can have their relative temperatures measured by how much of this energy they give off. Lower wavelengths or "near infrared" closest to thevisible lightcolor red are not hot, and are often used to

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Anaglyphic 3D (Generally 3D movies) works by projecting two identical but slightly offset images on a screen, each imagetintedwithadifferentcolor.Tothenakedeye,ananaglyphicimageappearsblurry,withreddishandbluishhues. Theglassesusecolorfilteringlensestotargetoneimagetotherighteye,andanothertotheleft;theresultisthateach eye sees a different image, but the mind is tricked into believing it sees only one. The mind compensates for this by focusinginbetweenthetwooffsetimagesandblendingthemintoone,whichcreatesanillusionofdepth.

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3D Glasses: All types of3D glassescan be divided into two categories: passive and active. Active 3D glasses interact wirelessly with images on a screen to enhance 3D viewing, whereas passive glasses do not. Passive 3D glasses have been around since threedimensional viewing first arrived in the 1920s, subdivided into two major subcategories: anaglyphicandpolarizedglasses.

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transmitdatainelectronics.Aremotecontrol,mayuseaparticularwavelengthofnearinfraredtocommunicatewitha receiver, sends out light in pulses, which are translated into binary codes that have corresponding commands. The receiver is positioned on the front of the device, where it receives these pulses of light and decodes them into binary data,whichisunderstoodbythemicroprocessorinsidetheapparatus. ApplicationsofInfrared:Convertinginfraredenergy,alsoknownasradiantheat,intoanimagethatthehumaneyecan see and understand is done with a process calledthermal imaging. AnIR camerais used to accurately measure the temperature of an object, which is then translated into color. For example,infrared imagingtypically shows the warmest areas in a human body as red, followed by yellow, green, blue, and violet as the temperature decreases. By studying how body heat is distributed, thermal imaging can health professionals to analyze body tissue and fluid to detectinjuryordisease. Infrared light is used innight visionequipment, allowing the user to see in the dark. Two types of night vision both use IR: thermal and imageintensifying. Thermal night vision allows the user to recognize people and objects by the heat patterntheyemit.Intensifiersamplifyexistinglightincludinginfraredtoallowtheusertosee. 1. Fluorescent Lights: Fluorescent lights are far more complex in design thanincandescent lightbulbs, and more efficient. An incandescent light bulb generates very little light relative to the amount of heat it generates, wasting muchenergy.Fluorescentlightswasteverylittleenergyandgenerallylastuptosixtimeslongerthanincandescent lightbulbs. 2. Fluorescent lights are tubular in design with capped ends that feature two external pins each. The inside of theglasstube is powdercoated with phosphorous. A small drop of mercury is also placed inside the bulb, which is filledwithargongas.Anelectrodeateitherendconnectstoelectricalcircuits. 3. Atoms have negatively charged electrons orbiting the nucleus at various distances. When an atom absorbs enough energy it can cause one of the electrons to jump to a higher orbit. As the electron loses energy, it falls back to its previousorbit.Whenitdoesso,itemitsaphotonoflight.Thekeyinproducinglightisinexcitingatoms enough to knockelectronsfromtheirorbits. 4. When electricity flows through the electrodes in fluorescent lights, it produces a charge that causes free electrons to travel through the gasfilled tube from one electrode to the other. This energy vaporizes a small portion of the mercury inside the tube. Electrons andions(charged atoms) collide with gaseous mercury atoms, which in turn releaseultraviolet(UV)photons. 5. We cannot seeUV light, so when phosphor is exposed to UV light, it absorbs the energy and radiates it back out asvisible light. This is where fluorescent lights excel over incandescent bulbs, as the UV energy wasted as lost heat inalightbulbistransformedintovisiblelightinfluorescentlights. Incandescent light is a form of electric illumination that uses extreme heat to produce artificial light. When the power switch in a room is turned on, an electric current flows inside the bulb and runs through the thin wire filament inside. This filament is often made oftungsten, which is a metal resistant to high temperatures that produces bright illumination.Thefilamentisusuallycoveredbyathinglassbulbthatkeepsoxygenoutsideandprotectsthetungsten. GPS: Global Positioning System. It refers to a system of satellites and receivers that allow people and devices to pinpoint their precise location on the earth. The heart of the system relies on 24 satellites that orbit the earth twice per day. Devices that are equipped with GPS equipment receive transmissions from at least a few of the satellites and areabletodiscernveryprecisepositioningdata. Asatellitephone orsatphoneis amobile phonethat sends and receives calls using satellites rather than landlines or cellular broadcasting towers. A satellite phone only requires a clear line of

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sight to the sky. The advantage of a satellite phone is that it can complete calls from anywhere. A satellite phone can operate in the middle of the Sahara desert, at the top of Mount Everest. It is an indispensable tool for remote excursions of all kinds, and provides solid communication on the seas and in the air. Disadvantage: noticeable delay in conversations. The signal must first travel to the satellite, then to an earthbound gateway before being routed to the receiver. The receiver's response will follow the same path in reverse, taking equally long to reach the caller. Satellite minutesarealsomoreexpensivethancellularminutes. Fiberoptics are made of abundleof thinglassor plastic strands. This bundle allows light to pass through without leaking out. Since the light is unable to escape, crystal clear images are passed through the fiberoptics from the point oforigintothedestination,wheretheycanbeviewedbytheuser. Uses total internal reflection. Optical fiber typically consists of a transparentcoresurrounded by a transparentcladdingmaterial with a lowerindex of refraction. Light is kept in the core bytotal internal reflection. This causesthefibertoactasawaveguide. WiMax: Combines broadband, and wireless delivering highspeed broadbandInternet accessover a wireless connection. Because it can be used over relatively long distances, it is an effective "last mile" solution for delivering broadband to the home, and for creating wireless "hot spots" in places like airports, college campuses, and small communities. WiMax delivers a pointtomultipoint architecture, making it an ideal method for carriers to deliver broadband to locations where wired connections would be difficult or costly. It may also provide a useful solution for delivering broadband to rural areas where highspeed lines have not yet become available. A WiMax connection can also be bridged or routed to a standard wired or wireless Local Area Network (LAN). WiMax offers some advantages overWiFi,asimilarwirelesstechnology,inthatitoffersagreaterrangeandismorebandwidthefficient. GPRS: In between 3G and 2G is General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). GPRS is a series of functionalities that allow mobile data streaming and transfer to users of Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) mobile phones. GPRS is sometimes called 2.5G. GPRS allows multiple users to share atransmissionchannel by opening the transmission for transferonlywheneachindividualuserneedsit.Veryfewusersneedalwaysondatatransfercapability,soGPRSworks for a vast majority of users. Such newtechnology functions as Web browsing, instant messaging, and real timeemailreception require intermittent data transfers and are perfect examples of the successful functionality of the kindofsharedbandwidthcapabilitythatGPRSoffers.Thiskindofsharedtransmissioniscalledpacketswitching. Voice recognition can refer to one of two types of computer science: forensic voice identification or speechtotext capability. This article addresses the latter definition. Voice recognition, or speech recognition in this case, is a computer technology that utilizes audio input for entering data rather than a keyboard.voice recognition software is designed with an internal database of recognizable words or phrases. The program matches the audio signature of speechwithcorrespondingentriesinthedatabase. A universal remote control often replaces the factoryissued remote control included with a television, cable box,VCR,DVDplayer or stereo system. Often a universal remote control can be programmed to operate several electronic devices, reducing the need for individual controllers.A universal remote control works on the principle that almost all remote control devices work on a limited number of codes. There may be numerous television, stereo and DVD player manufacturers in the world, but they all use the same handful of frequencies and programming codes. By identifying and listing the codes used by individual manufacturers, a universal remote control can duplicate the functions of the original remote. Consumers simply find their make and model of electronic device in the coding list, thenusetheuniversalremotecontrol'sfunctionkeystoenterthenecessaryinformation. AnMP3isadigitalaudiofilecompressedwithastandarddefinedbytheMotionPicturesExpertsGroup(MPEG).MPEG was formed to develop techniques for dealing with digital video; since most video also contains audio, MP3 was

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developed as an audio extension of that work. Officially known as "MPEG1, Layer 3", MP3 is alossy compressionalgorithmthat uses psychoacoustic modeling to reduce the size ofaudio filesby up to 90%. Psychoacoustics takes advantage of deficiencies in the human hearing system to throw away digital bits corresponding tosoundsthatcannotbeheard.Thehumanearcannothearsoftsoundsinthepresenceofloudsoundshavingasimilar frequency; for example, a voice conversation becomes inaudible when a jet flies low overhead. This effect is known as auditory masking, and done correctly the discarded sounds will not be missed. MP3 is a lossy algorithm in the sense thattheoriginalbitscannotberecreatedfromthecompressedbits. Bluetooth is the name of a wireless technology standard for connecting devices that is set to replace cables. It uses radiofrequenciesinthe2.45GHzrangetotransmitinformationovershortdistancesofgenerally33feet(10meters)or less. By embedding a Bluetooth chip and receiver into products, cables that would normally carry the signal can be eliminated. One wireless standard that is already familiar to many is IrDA orinfrared. Infrared uses pulses of nonvisible light to communicate between two devices, such as a remote control to a television orDVDplayer. One drawback of IrDA is that there mustbea clearlineofsight betweenthe twodevices, andtheotherdisadvantageisthat IrDAnormallyonly operates between two devices at a time. An infrared remote control unit cannot communicate with the DVD player while it is signaling the TV. Bluetooth overcomes these limitations by usingradio wavesto send information in packet bursts.Theburstscanbesenttoanydevicewithin'earshot'allowingcommunicationwithseveraldevicesatonce. IPTV (Internet Protocol Television)delivers television programming to households via a broadbandconnection using Internet protocols. It requires a subscription and IPTV settop box, and offers key advantages over existing TV cable andsatellitetechnologies. One of the advantages of IPTV is the ability for digital video recorders (DVRs) to record multiplebroadcastsatonce. However, the real advantage of IPTV is that it uses Internet protocols to provide twoway communication forinteractivetelevision. One application might be in game shows in which the studio audience is asked to participate byhelpingacontestantchoosebetweenanswers.IPTVopensthedoortorealtimeparticipationfrompeoplewatching at home. Another application would be the ability to turn on multiple angles of an event, such as a touchdown, and watchitfromdualanglessimultaneouslyusingpictureinpictureviewing. AMOSFET(MetalOxideSemiconductorFieldEffectTransistor)isasemiconductordevice.AMOSFETismostcommonly used in the field of power electronics. A semiconductor is made of manufactured material that acts neither like ainsulatornoraconductor. A relatively lowenergy means of emitting light, light emittingdiode(LED) technology is used in many electronic devicesusedfrequentlyintheaveragehome.LEDisdifferentfromthestandardlightbulbseeninmosthomesbecause it uses an electrified semiconductive material to produce light instead of an electrified filament.In an LED light, electrifiedenergycausesthesemiconductorcontainedinside the LEDbulb toemitlight.LEDdiodescanbedesignedto haveonecolor,ortheycanbedesignedtohaveseveralcolorsoflightcontainedwithinonediode.Theabilitytochange colorusingmulticoloredLEDdiodespowersmanyhightechLEDscreenlikethoseusedonlargeLEDsigns. Standard Definition television (SDTV) andHigh Definition television(HDTV) are two of the new formats. SDTV is a digitalformatthatprovidesahighqualitypicture,verysimilartothatofdigitalversatiledisk.SDTVisalowerresolution picture than HDTV.The difference between SDTV and HDTV is that the signal on SDTV is more compressed than that of HDTV. As the digital signal is compressed, broadcasters can transmit five SDTV programs, whereas HDTV can only broadcast one. Multiple program broadcasting, called multicasting, was not previously available with analog transmissions.ThepicturedefinitionofSDTVisalsoslightlylowerthanonHDTV.

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There are actually three types ofDVDplayers in the marketplace: the ubiquitous standard DVD player; the High Definition (HD) DVD player that is perhaps less wellknown; and theBlurayplayer. When references are made to DVD versus Bluray the comparison is between the HD DVD player and Bluray player. Both are highcapacity players that use a proprietary HD format, which pitted the technologies against each other for market dominance. The format war essentiallyendedon22February2008whenToshibaannounceditwouldceasemanufacturingtheHDDVDplayer. The secret to the Bluray player and HD DVD is that they both use blue lasers rather than the red lasers used in standard DVD/CD players. The pinpoint focus of alaseris the tool that produces the pits and lands on the surface of a disc,laterreadasdigitalbits.Asmallerormorerefinedbeamcanburntinierpits(morebits)onthesurfaceofthedisc, resulting in greater data capacity. Blue light has a shorter wavelength than red light, producing a more tightly focused beam. Theblue laseris therefore capable of burning more data than a red laser into the same size space. Blu ray Sony,HDDVDMicrosoft AnHDDVDplayerisconsiderablylessexpensivethanaBlurayplayer Difference Between AMD and Intel: Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) and Intel are two different companies that producemotherboardsand central processing units (CPUs) found within personal computers (PC). TheCPUis probably the most important part of the computer, as it is where most calculations take place that run computer programs and systems. The speed with which a CPU can process these calculations is usually given in megahertz (MHz) orgigahertz(GHz).Motherboardsprovidethecircuitryforallcomputerstofunction. AMD tends to be cheaper than Intel. Besides cost, the other key differences between AMD and Intel processors are theclock speedand the socket used to connect the processor to the computer. The clock speed is the number of operations a computer can perform in a clock cycle, which is usually one second. Due to design differences, Intel processors are usually faster than AMD ones, but AMD processors are more efficient. As such, for each AMD and Intel processor,theIntelversionisusuallyslightlyfasterthanitsAMDcounterpart. A Light Amplification by Simulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is a device used to concentrate light into a narrow beam.The light emitted by a LASER is thin and coherent. LASER light is different from the light that normally radiates from atoms. Atoms typically radiate light randomly, resulting in light that is refereed to as incoherent. Basically, this means atoms radiate jumbles of photons that go in numerous directions. Coherent light behaves quite differently, going in one clearly defined direction. Normally atoms emitted radiate light randomly. To produce coherent light Atoms are excited within a LASER cavity, putting most of them at higher energy levels, while reflective surfaces in the cavity reflect energy and enable it to build up. Through a process called stimulated emission, photons with matching frequencies and phases are emitted. Finally, a fast, chain reaction occurs, discharging atoms and leading to the productionofcoherentlight. A motion detector is a device that monitors a field of view and performs a function if motion is detected within that field.Thefunctionmightbetotriggertheopeningofadoor,asinthecaseofagrocerystore;startavideotapemachine for surveillance; turn onfloodlights; or sound an alarm. It might detect motion through the use of optics or acoustics andcanbepassiveoractive. Passiveinfrared(PIR) motion detectors are commonly used inside homes, linked to security systems. The unaided humaneyecannotseeinfraredlight,butthehumanbodygeneratesaninfraredsignatureintheformofheat.Apassive motion detector does not emit signals, but monitors the temperature of the field of view looking for changes in the infraredspectrum.Ahumanbodymovingthroughthefieldcantriggerthemotiondetectortosoundanalarm Anactivemotiondetectoremitsoptics orsoundwavesand measuresfeedbackto detectmotion.Thesimplesttype of active motion detector is commonly used in commercial doorways to trigger adoorbell. A device is fixed to one side of

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the doorway, anoptical sensorto the other. A beam of light passes from the device to the sensor. When someone enterstheestablishment,thebeamisbroken,triggeringthedoorbell. SONAR is an abbreviation for SOund Navigation And Ranging, a navigational technique which uses sound to gather informationaboutthesurroundingenvironment.TherearetwotypesofSONAR:active,andpassive,andtheyareboth widely used, depending on the situation. Passive SONAR involves listening for sounds, such as noises generated by passing ships and submarines. When a ship uses active SONAR, it emits a pulse of sound in one of a range of frequenciesandthenlistensfortheecho. "smart clothing" is a futuristic form of clothing that functions as an active device, for example releasing chilled water vaporwhenitsensesitswearerishot.Theterm"smartclothing" denotesthepresenceofembeddedelectronics.Have notbeenmassproducedyet.Militaryandcommercialresearchscientistsseektodevelopsmartclothingthatpossesses many of the useful properties of computers the ability to store and manipulate data; display images, text, and video; connect to the Internet; offer input devices; and so on. Other possible features of smart clothing include the ability to detectchemicalsintheair,quicklyhardenoncontactwithaspeedingbullet,changecolororopacityetc A halogen bulb is a type ofincandescent lightbulb, introduced in 1958. The halogen bulb is capable of burning much more brightly than conventional light bulbs, and it is a popular choice for headlights and other applications for which verybrightlightisneeded.Inadditiontoburningmorebrightly,halogenbulbsarealsomoreefficientandhavealonger life expectancy than conventional light bulbs. design very similar to that of conventional light bulbs, consisting of atungstenfilament enclosed in another material. The halogen bulb usesquartzinstead ofglass, however, allowing the bulb to be much smaller because quartz can withstand higher temperatures than glass and therefore may be positioned muchcloserto thefilament. Inaddition,halogenbulbs usehalogen gases,insteadofargonornitrogen, two gasescommonlyusedinconventionallightbulbs. A light bulb works by applying electricity to thetungsten filament, which heats up and puts out light. However, as the filament heats, it also begins to break down the tungsten, which begins to collect inside the bulb, often leaving dark deposits.Ultimately,thefilamentwillbreakataweakpoint,causingthelightbulbtoburnout. Awirelessdevicecanrefertoanykindofcommunicationsequipmentthatdoesnotrequireaphysicalwireforrelaying information to another device.Wireless headphonesfitted with a receiver use either radio frequency (RF) orinfraredtechnologytocommunicatewithatransmitterthatisconnectedtothesoundsource,sayatelevision. RS422 is atelecommunicationsstandard for binary serial communications between devices. It is the protocol or specificationsthatmustbefollowedtoallowtwodevicesthatimplementthisstandardtospeaktoeachother. Semiconductors are unique materials, solids whose electrical conductivity can be changed deliberately, usually in a dynamic (reversible) fashion. Semiconductors are used to make semiconductor devices, which led to the Information revolution. Thestructurethatunderliesanytransistor,orsemiconductordevice,isthepnjunction.Apnjunctionhastworegions apregionandannregion.Thepregionis"doped"withsmallamountsofboron,causingthematerialtobecomefilled with numerouselectron"holes" absence of electrons where electrons should be. This happens because boron has a valence of three, which causes it to absorb weaklybound outer electrons from the valencefour semiconductor atoms, leaving voids in its place. The n region is doped with a material that has a valence of five, causing the reverse effect, wheretheimpuritiesdonatetheirextraelectrontothesemiconductingmaterial,causinganabundanceofelectrons.

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This relative abundance and absence of electrons is exploited in the transistor.By manipulating the junctions, charge flow can be regulated precisely, allowing for complex electronics. Variations on transistor can be used to make LEDs andverydelicatesensors. Telemonitoringisamedicalpracticethatinvolvesremotelymonitoringpatientswhoarenotatthesamelocationasthe health care provider. In general, a patient will have a number of monitoring devices at home, and the results of these devices will be transmitted via telephone to the health care provider.Some of the more common things that telemonitoringdeviceskeeptrackofincludebloodpressure,heartrate,weight,bloodglucose,andhemoglobin. Adv:efficientwaytogathernecessarypatientinformationwithoutagreattimecommitment,relevanttodiseasebased research, Bluescreen is a special effects process used in film, television, video, computers. To create a bluescreen image, the actorisphotographedorfilmedinfrontofanevenlylit,purebluebackground.Theimageisthenusuallytransferredto computer and the blue background is replaced with another image. This is known as the background plate.The reason blue is favored for this process is that the most common color in scenes is peach shades; blue is the most complementarycolortopeach.Alsocamerasandfilmaremoresensitivetobluelight IED is the abbreviation for anImprovisedExplosiveDevice. An IED is usually a makeshift bomb that can be extremely destructivewhendetonated.AnIEDrequiresadetonatorandalsoasystemthatwill triggertheelectrical charge toset offthebomb.Duetoitsmakeshiftnature,thetypeofexplosivesusedcanbemixed.Somecontainlethalchemicalsand some contain metal parts such as nails and ball bearings. The size of the IEDs mean that they can be placed almost anywhere. In small boxes, bags and under tables. IED has been widely used by Iraqi insurgents in Iraq. They have been thecauseof1/3rdofallAmericandeathsduringthewar. Biometricface recognition works by using a computer to analyze a subject'sfacialstructure. Face recognition software takes a number of points and measurements, including the distances between key characteristics such as eyes, nose andmouth,anglesofkeyfeaturessuchasthejawandforehead,andlengthsofvariousportionsoftheface.Usingallof this information, the program creates a unique template incorporating all of the numerical data. This template may thenbecomparedtoenormousdatabasesoffacialimagestoidentifythesubject. The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) and Enhanced Data Rates forGSMEvolution (EDGE) are competing mobile communication technologies. These are both third generation (3G) communication technologies withnewfeaturesandcapabilitiesthatadvancetheoptionsforcellphonesparticularlythoseusing3G. The underlying technology for EDGE networks is Time Division Multiple Access transmission. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a recent enhancement to EDGE that expands its capability for handling multimedia at higher speeds. UMTS deployment relies on the more secure Wideband Code Division Multiple Access transmission for handling data transmissiontraffic.EDGEnetworksarecapableofdecentspeedsfortextandgraphics.UMTSnetworksuseHighSpeed Packet Access at transmission rates that support large file transfers and mobile dataintensive Internet activities like videoandmusicstreaming. TherapidevolutionofUMTShasmadeitthemoredominantofthetwotechnologies.Itisfullycompatiblewith GSM the world's most widely used mobile communication technology. Most UMTS handsets currently on the market are dualbanddevicesthatcanseamlesslyswitchtotheGPRSsystemfordatatransmission. RADAR, short for RAdioDetectionAndRanging. A powerful radio beam is sent out at a specific frequency. When this burst of radio energy strikes a solid object, at least part of that energy will be reflected back to the transmitter. By calculating the speed of the radio waves and the time it takes for the signal to bounce off the object and hit the

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receiver, a radar operator can gauge the distance between himself and the object. Moving the transmitter to different points allows the radar operator to receive multiple returns. All of these individual reflections are combined to estimatethesizeoftheobjectorobjectsbeingstruck. Instead of exposing a photosensitive chemical known as film to a scene to create an imprinted image, most digital cameras use a chargecoupled device (CCD), an electronics instrument that creates apixelmap based on the electric charge generated when photons slam into a sensitive material. This phenomenon is called thephotoelectric effect. The termCCDbased camerais sometimes used interchangeably withdigital camera, because by its very nature the CCD based camera takes digital camera pictures pictures with a certain pixelbypixel resolution that can be encoded digitally. A chargecoupled device is an integrated circuit, meaning it uses multiple semiconductor elements on a unified platform to achieve its goals. The active components of the chargecoupled device in a digital camera or other CCD based camera are the capacitors. These are linked in a circuit, hence the termchargecoupled. Acapacitoris a basic electronics device that stores a potential difference, or voltage, in the variance between two plates with equal but oppositeelectricalcharges. A lens projects the image onto the CCDs. Each capacitor acquires a charge proportional to the brightness of incoming light. CCDs are not inherently colorsensitive, and to take color photos, a Bayer mask must be employed to selectively filterlightintodesignatedpixelsbasedoncolor.Uponacquiringthecharge,thecapacitorsbeginpassingtheirchargeto adjacent capacitors in a chargecoupled, daisychain fashion. A register at the end of a capacitor array makes the appropriatemeasurements,anda2Dpixelmapiscreated. M2M technology is the utilization of different types of mechanical devices to establish a communication and exchange of information. More properly known as machine to machine technology, the M2M interface allows businesses to monitor and manipulate remote equipment that is crucial to the business operation. This type of remote monitoring and control makes it possible for corporations to address service issues and restore functionality with little or not interruptioninproductivity. ThebasicstructureforM2Mtechnologyinvolvesacentralsystemthatisabletoconnect withothersystemsatvarious locations. The connection allows the central or mother system to collect or send data to each remote location for processing. For example, M2M technology may be utilized to create an integrated network for sales offices across the world. ErasableProgrammableReadOnlyMemory(EPROM)referstoatypeofcomputerchipthatcanholdasmallamountof data in resident memory. The main difference between EPROM chips and Programmable ReadOnly Memory (PROM) chips is that the EPROM chips can be programmed more than one time, while PROM chips are not reprogrammable. Primarily,thepurposesofanEPROMchiparetoprovideprogrammerswithawaytomapaddressableinputstoasetof predetermined data outputs, similar to alookup table, and to store small bits of data that reflect state changes in ongoingelectricalprocesses. Nuclear batteries run off of the continuousradioactivedecay of certain elements. These incredibly longlasting batteries are still in the theoretical and developmental stage of existence, but they promise to provide clean, safe, almost endless energy. They have been designed for personal use as well as for civilengineering, aeronautics, and medical treatments. The almost magical production of electricity in nuclear batteries is made possible by the process ofbetavoltaics. Through this technology, the electrons that radioactiveisotopesregularly lose due to decay can be harnessed and directed into a stream of electricity. A semiconductor, possibly made fromsilicon, catches the flying

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electrons and directs them into a steady power source. Even a small amount of radioactive material will provide a chargeforaverylongtimebeforeitexpires. ASCARArobotisanassemblymachinethatinstallspartsorcarriesitems.Itisdesignedtomimictheactionofahuman arm and can be used in jobs from automobile factories to underwater construction. This tool is frequently utilized becauseofitsspeed,efficiencyandlowcost. SCARA stands for Selective Compliant Assembly Robot Arm or Selective CompliantArticulated RobotArm. A SCARA robot has a full range of motion on its X and Y axis but is bolted down and unable to move in the Y axis. It can be programed to perform precise jobs repetitively, such as installing a pin or carrying items from one location to another within its range of motion. In the field of robotics, the SCARA is considered more affordable than many of its competitorsandisoneofthemostpopularmethodsofautomatedassembly. ASCARArobotisprimarilyusedforassembly.Theyareusedbymanufacturersofeverythingfrombulkyautomobilesto minuscule electronic items. It can be programmed to handle very precise installation work and cannot carry a great dealofweight,sothearmworksbestwhenhandlingsmallparts. Triband technology refers to portable communications devices (generally cell phones) that operate over threebroadbandfrequencies instead of one. Sometimes referred to as "world phones," triband phones offer the ability to send and receive calls over a greater geographical range. The three most common frequencies used are GSM900 and GSM1800, which are used in most parts of the world, and GSM1900, which is used mostly in the western hemisphere.

NRAM, short fornanoRAMornanotubebased/nonvolatile random access memory, is a new memory storage technology owned by the company Nantero. The technology blends together tinycarbonnanotubes with conventional semiconductors. Because the memorycontaining elements, nanotubes, are so small, NRAM technology will achieve veryhighmemorydensities:atleast10100timesourcurrentbest.NRAMwilloperateelectromechanicallyratherthan justelectrically,settingitapartfromothermemorytechnologiesasanonvolatileformofmemory,meaningdatawillbe retainedevenwhenthepoweristurnedoff. SatelliteTV is a broadcasting service which allows subscribers to receive television signals through a dishshaped receiverunit.Thesesignalsareoriginallyuploadedtoacommunicationssatellitethatisinafixedorbitabovetheearth, then electronically scrambled to prevent unauthorized downloading. Those who pay a subscription fee for satellite TV service are issued both the receiving dish and a descrambler. The actual tuning information is fed into the television throughacable,muchliketheearthboundcabletelevisionservicesincompetitionwithsatelliteTVproviders. Traffic light If it looks like a honeycomb of bright red dots LED lights. Cities around the world have been systematically replacing their olderincandescent bulbbased traffic signals with the more energy efficient LED traffic lights. One major advantage of LED traffic lights is increased visibility. Incandescent bulbs were often covered by color filters, reflectors andglasslenses, which could affect how much light actually reached drivers' eyes. LED traffic lights use an

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arrayofbrightLEDs,whichdonotrequireadditionalfiltersoramplification.Ifasingleincandescentbulbburnsout,the entirelightsequenceisdisturbed.SeveralLEDscanfailinLEDtrafficlightswithoutcausinganoticeabledisruption. Another advantage of LED traffic lights is lower maintenance costs. Almost all of the cost of LED traffic lights are upfront LEDs are expensive, and the signals themselves require more labor to produce. These expenses are usually offsetbylowermaintenancecosts.Ifanincandescentbulbburnsout,whichhappensthreetimesayearreplacement. LEDonlyyearlycleaning. The termLEDstands forLight Emitting Diode. Modern electronics relies heavily upon LED light bulbs.LED light bulbs areminiaturebulbsthatdonotusefilamentstoproducelight.Therefore,thelifeofanLEDismuchlongerthanthat of a regularincandescent bulb, because there is no filament to burn out. Incandescent bulbs also tend to be much larger in size due to the filament, which must be housed in a vacuum inside the bulb. LED light bulbs last as long as a standardtransistorusedinmodernelectronics,andarelitpurelybythemovementofelectrons. An LED is a light emitting diode. A semiconductor diode is a twoterminal device, sometimes described as a pn. An LED is fabricated from a semiconductor material. One side of the semiconductor is attached to the P side which is the anode; the other side of the semiconductor is attached to the N side, the cathode. Electricity can flow from the p side tothenside.However,noelectricitycanflowinreverse.Ineffect,therefore,adiodeisaunidirectionalconductor. Electroluminescent wire is a decorative, flexible wire that glows much likeneon. Other names include EL wire, EL fiber, ELcableandglowwire.Itgeneratesnoheatandcanbetapedorgluedtoalmostanysurface. Electroluminescent wire iscopperwire covered withphosphorusthen wrapped with two thin transmitter wires, sealed inaplasticskin.ItrequiresACandinvertersordriverscanbepurchasedforusewithDC. An OLED (organic light emittingdiode) consists of an emissive organic material, that when supplied with an electrical current,canproduceasuperiorfullcolorflatpaneldisplay. SeveralfactorsmakeOLEDsuperiortoLCDorCRTtechnology.ThemostobviousdifferenceisthatOLEDissoultrathin itcanevenbeplacedon plasticfilm! Thismakesitmuch lighterthanoldertechnologyanda greatadvantageforhand held devices, laptops and notebooks. It even opens the door toflexibledisplays. OLED is also brighter and has better contrastthanLCD,butdoesnotrequire backlighting.It consumes about20%lesspowerthanLCD,andhasaresponse time every bit as fast as CRT displays. OLED displays can be clearly viewed at nearly any angle a full 170 degrees. An OLED display consists of very thin sandwiched layers of materials. When an electric current is supplied, the negatively charged electrons in thecathodelayer move through the organic substances towards the positively chargedanodelayer. The reverse happens from the anode's side, as positively charged electrons are drawn towards the cathode leaving holes in the conductive material. These positively charged holes jump to the organic material to recombine with electrons, which causes electroluminescent light. The chemical composition of the organic material dictateswhichcolorsoflightareproduced. Virtually every product that uses LCD or CRT technology is a candidate for OLED, including game devices, cellular phones, video cameras,DVDplayers,GPS, audio displays, PDAs, notebooks, monitors, and televisions. With the low power consumption, virtual weightlessness, clarity, brightness and wide viewing angle, OLED is the next generation displaytechnology. Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) is a network of cameras and monitors that are directly connected on a closed circuit. This means the images picked up by the cameras arent accessible by anyone who has a receiver, which is the norm with regular television. Instead, the monitor must have a direct connection to the cameras of the system in order to accessitssignal.

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ThedisplaymonitorshaveadirectconnectiontotheCCTVnetwork,whichisthereasontheycanpickuptheimageson thecameras.Displaymonitorsthatarenotdirectlyconnectedtotheclosedcircuitnetworkcannotaccessthesignal. This type of system may use coaxial cables for signal broadcasting, but some systems use other types of technology to accomplish this. For example, a CCTV may also use microwaves orinfraredtechnology to send its broadcasts from its camerastothedisplayunitsthatareconnectedtothenetwork. Doppler radar is a listening device that uses microwaves to 'hear' physical changes. Microwaves reflect off objects at different times based on their relative position to the Doppler radar. Based on how quickly waves bounce back, a precise picture can be created.Commonly associated with meteorology, the pulseDoppler can measure both distance andvelocity. It is based on theDoppler Effect, hence the name Doppler radar. Using this science, if a stationary object is shooting microwaves at a moving object, the velocity of waves will change as the position of the moving object changes. For instance,ifmicrowavesarefocusedon apersonwalking towardtheradar,thesewaveswouldbecometallerand more frequent as the person moved closer to the machine. This is because distance between the object and radar is shorter and the waves have less space to travel. The opposite is also true, meaning if a moving target were to walk away from themicrowavesource,thewaveswouldlengthenandshortenasdistancebetweenthetwoincreased. HDTV stands forhigh definition television, a new means of broadcasting and the machines that take advantage of it. HDTV broadcasts video digitally. HDTVs require an HDTV tuner to pick up high definition programming.The increase in resolution is just one of the benefits of HDTV. Because the image is digital rather than analog, it tends to be much sharper on televisions of all sizes. Its image display technology is "progressive" rather than "interlaced", meaning that the entire picture is continuously shown, rather than alternating between partial picture displays as in a conventional television.Interlacedpixelsandlowrefreshratesareresponsiblefortheflickeringeffectseeninoldertelevisions.HDTV hasbeenslowtocatchon.Thesetsarestillveryexpensive. RFID, Barcode: Although the way they function is very different, barcode and RFDI technology are both useful forinventorymanagement and other applications.RFDI stands forRadio FrequencyData Identification or Radio FrequencyDataIdentifier.Abarcodeisaseriesoflinesandnumbersusedtorecordinformationaboutanitem. ARadiofrequencydataidentifierorRFDIisamicrochipembeddedinaproduct'spackagingorlabel.Thismicrochip,like a barcode, stores data about the product or item to which it is attached. When the RFDI is scanned, the data on the RFDI chip can be used to move an item into and out of a companys inventory system, or track the attached item throughoutthesystem. RFDIisamicrochipthatisattachedtoorembeddedinsideaproduct'spackaging,makingitmuchmoresecureandless likely to be illegible or be removed. A barcode is usually printed on a product's label and can be smudged or removed beforeitcanbeused. It is possible for an RFDI tag to be embedded in a family pet to allow a veterinarian to immediately access information abouttheanimalifitisfoundorwandersawayfromhome.Barcodecannotbeusedforthis. Magneticstripereadersaredevicesthatareutilizedtoallowtheencodedinformationcontainedinthemagneticstripe thatisfoundonthebackofcredit,debit,andothertypesofpaymentcards.Thereadermakesitpossibleforvendorsto accept the cards for payment and quickly complete the transaction. The magnetic stripe reader reads and verifies the

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information with the card issuer in real time, and makes it possible to credit the account of the vendor while also applyingthechargeordebittothecardholdersaccount. AVoice overInternet Protocol (VoIP) phone is a type of phone that uses digital technology to transmit phone calls via the Internet rather than regular phone lines. A VoIP phone allows the user to bypass traditional phone companies entirely,placingallcallsviatheWeb.VoIPphoneservicesrequiretheusertohavedigitalsubscriberliner(DSL)Internet service. Metal detectors work on the principal of electromagnetics and their effects on conductive metals. There are actually twoseparateelementsinthecoilofatypicalunit.Oneisahighpoweredcoilofmetalwhichusesthebatterypowerto generateapenetratingmagneticfield.Thiscoiliscalledthetransmitter.Astheelecromagneticfieldenterstheground, anythingmetallicwillbecomechargedwithmagnetism. The coil of a metal detector also contains a very sensitive wire array called the receiver. This receiver reacts to any charged magnetic field it passes over, especially the newlymagnetized metal elements. When the receiver detects the electromagneticsignature,itsendsasignaltotheelectronicbox.Aspeakeramplifiesthissignalandtheoperatorhears abeep. Night visionglasses usually refer to any number of glasses,binoculars,goggles, or telescopes that use special means to increase vision at night. Some night vision glasses use thermal vision, some use animage intensifier, and some use activeinfrared. A cartesian robot/ cartesian coordinate robot, is a common type ofindustrial robot. It has three "arms" that each function along linear axes of control. Each of these axes is at a right angle to the other two. A common application for the cartesian robot is a computer numerical control (CNC) machine, and it can have a multitude of uses, especially as eitheramillingordrawingmachine. Thebasicformofacartesianrobotconsistsofthree"arms."Eacharmcanmoveonlyalongatwodimensionalaxisit can only move backwards or forwards or, if the arm is vertical, up or down. Each arm is at a right angle to the other two, though, which allows the robot to utilize the motions of all three arms to reach various points in a three dimensional space. These arms can vary tremendously in size, depending on the purpose of the robot. In some particularlylargedesigns,thehorizontalarmwillhavesupportonbothends.Thisiscalledagantryrobot. Radio telemetry uses radio technology to perform remote measurements in an effort to report and analyze information. Data is transferred from point to point via radio technology to create radio telemetry systems, enabling users to gather information and use it to make a determination about a subject. Usually, this system requires external instructionsinordertooperate.Thisisdonethroughaprocessknownastelecommandcontrol. The concept of radio telemetry uses the same basic technology as standard radios found in cars and homes. Transmittersrangeinsizefromsmallportabledevicestolargeradiostations,andallemitradiowaves.Thesewavesare transferredthroughanantennatoareceiver.Generally,thesystemdoesnotusecomplexinformationtransfersuchas coding, but simply signals transmitted at specific frequencies. This enables users to identify the location, direction and otherdataaboutaspecificsubject. Bioink is a material made from living cells which behaves much like a liquid, allowing people to essentially print it in ordertocreateadesiredshape.Thegoalofsomedaybeingabletodothingslikeprintreplacementsforfailingorgans To make bioink, scientists create a slurry of cells which can be loaded into a cartridge and inserted into a specially designed printer, along with another cartridge which contains a gel known as biopaper. After inputting the standards

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for the thing they want to print, the researchers trigger the printer, and the cartridges alternate layers to build a three dimensionalstructure,withthebiopapercreatingasupportivematrixwhichthebioinkcanthriveon. There are several commonly used systems that allow for touch screens to work. Each method allows for commands to be translated by the computer as a result of touching a certain point on the screen. Many convert the coordinates of thetouchlocationstospecificactionstobetakenbythesystem. Oneofthemostcommonsystemsfortouchscreensiscalledresistive.Coveringthetransparentpanelofthescreenare conductive and resistive metallic layers that have an electric current between them. When the screen is touched, the electrical current can tell the exact spot of contact and send the coordinates to theoperating system. This is similar to how a mouse works with a computer, where the central operating system notes the exact point of a click and can respondbyactivatingtheactionrequested. Capacitive systems give a brighter and clearer image than resistive technology, as the electric layer on the monitor allows more light to pass through. These touch screens carry an electrical charge that reacts to the electrical fields of the human body. Circuits at each corner of the screen measure the distortion that occurs when we touch the screen andcausetheoperatingsystemtoreact. Strain gauge touch screens are often to be found on public ATMs. By using a spring mechanism in the corners of the screen, the strain gauge can measure the pressure put on a touch point. As anyone who as ever used an old ATM can tellyou,thepressurepointscanwearoutwithuse,preventingthemachinefromrespondingcorrectly. 3D imaging is a process to render a threedimensional image on a twodimensional surface by creating the optical illusion of depth. Generally, 3D imaging uses two still or motion camera lenses a slight distance apart to photograph a threedimensional object. The process effectively duplicates the stereoscopic vision of human eyes. The image is reproduced as two flat images that viewers eyes see separately, creating a visual illusion of depth as their brains combinetheimagesintoasingleone. Digital paper is a type of special paper that can be written on with adigital pento create digital copies of handwritten documents.Differentfromelectronicpaper,whichisadigitalwayofdisplayingdocumentsinawayeasiertoreadthan traditional screens; the paper is imprinted with individual patterns of dots, which help a scanner in the digital pen identify exactly where the pen is on the paper. The pen then uses this information to come up with a digital picture of whatis beingdrawnorwritten,whichitcanstoreinternally,ortransfertoa computer.Thus,digitalpapercan be used as a replacement to normal paper, allowing people to write in the same manner they would with a traditional pen and paper,butwithmuchmoreversatilityastowhatcanbedonewithit. Spintronics is a nascent form of electronics which uses the magnetic state (spin) of electrons to encode and process data, rather than using electric charge. Technically, spin is a quantum property, closely related to but not exactly the same thing asmagnetism. Spintronics is therefore sometimes regarded as exploiting quantum effects. Anelectroncan possess either anupordownspin, depending on its magnetic orientation. The magnetism offerroelectricmaterials, nonconductorswhichbecomepolarizedwhenexposedtoanelectricfield,existsbecausemanyoftheelectronsinsuch objectsallhavethesamespin. Also known as magnetoelectronics, spintronics has the potential to become the ideal memory media for computing. It has been claimed that spintronic memory, orMRAM(Magnetoresistive Random Access Memory) has the potential to achieve the speed ofSRAM(Static RAM), the density of DRAM (Dynamic RAM), and the nonvolatility offlash memory.Nonvolatilitymeansthatthedataisstillencodedwhenthepowerisshutoff.Spintronicshasalsobeencalled astepinthedirectionofquantumcomputing.

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The first widely acknowledged breakthrough in spintronics was the exploitation of giantmagnetoresistance, or GMR, a technology now employed in the read heads of most hard drives. GMR and other spintronics can be used to detect extremely small magnetic fields by using a nonmagnetic material sandwiched between two magnetic plates. This materialchangesitselectricalresistivityrapidlybasedonthemagneticorientationoftheplates.GMRcanbe100times strongerthanordinarymagnetoresistance.SometimesGMRdevicesarereferredtoasspinvalves. Electronic paper is an enhanced form of display technology provides a look that is very much like that of conventional paper.Sometimesreferredtoasepaper,theelectronicpaperdisplaywillexhibitsomeofthequalitiesofagoodgrade ofwhite paper, including the reflection of light off the surface. In addition, the combination of electronic paper andelectronic inkwill allow text and images to be written onto the surface, and hold the script and images for an indefiniteperiodoftime. Nickel metal hydride, or NiMH, batteries are a type ofrechargeable batterysimilar to NiCad batteries, but made with more affordable and environmentally friendly components. NiMH batteries are increasingly popular, particularly for use in consumer electronics, because of their relatively long lifespan, high charge rate, and affordability. NiMH batteries are often considered an alternative tolithiumionbatteries. While lithium ion batteries may have longer life spans, their high cost and relatively high maintenance needs make NiMH a wiser choice for many types of consumer electronics. Barcodescanners are devices which use some sort of lightemitting device and a photo conductor to read barcodes.Barcodes are simple visual representations of data which can be transferred to a computer via a barcode scanner. Traditional barcodes consist of parallel lines, but a number of variations now exist, including scatterings of dots and embedded codes hidden within images. Barcode scanners typically utilize alaserscanner, though LED and imagingvarietiesalsoexist.Lightisshotoutofthebarcodescannerontothebarcode,thenreflectedback,pickedupby a photodiode in the scanner and decoded. The decoded information is then transmitted to the computer that the scannerishookedupto. Regulated by the Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG), MPEG3 refers to coding standards for high definition television(HDTV)signals. Thegroupis partofthe International OrganizationforStandardization.Since1988,thegroup hasbeenresponsibleforcreatingbothvideoandaudiocodingstandards. ItisimportanttonotethatthespecificMPEG3standardnolongerexists,andthatthestandardssetforthwithinitare nowapartofMPEG2.Whenthegroup originallytookontheresponsibilityforsetting MPEG3regulationsforHDTVin 1992, they were simultaneously working on what is called MPEG2. It was discovered, however, that MPEG2 encoding couldaccommodateHDTVsignalsaswell.TheMPEG3standardwasthereforediscontinued. AnIRphotodiode is an electrical component that converts light into electricity. This type of component is specifically designed to respond to light in theinfraredrange. Communications, sensors, and security are three applications that oftenusethem. All photodiodes use the photoelectric effect to generate electrical current from light. When photons of light hit the surface of adiode, electrons are "knocked" out of place. A charge occurs when the electron is moved. Continuous exposure of a photodiode to light will create a constant flow of electricity. The amount of current corresponds to the amtoflighthittingthesurfaceofdiode. Standard photodiodes create electricity in response to visible light. An IR photodiode uses aninfrared filterto block visiblelight,andallowonlyIRwavelengthsoflighttopass.Thisreducesthelevelofinterferencefrombackgroundlight, and ensures that current is generated only when infrared light is present. An IR photodiode is technically able to generatecontinuouselectricitybybeingexposedtoinfraredlight.

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Ballisticsgelatin, also known as ballistics gel, is a analogue for the tissue of living organisms which is made from gelatin which is dissolved in water, allowed to set, and then chilled so that it becomes very dense. As the name implies, ballistics gel is used to test firearms, although it is also used in experiments where people want to approximate the amountofdamagesomethingwillcausetoabodywithoutactuallyusingabody. A charged coupled device (CCD) allows the transportation of electrically charged analog signals through differentcapacitorsset up in a series. This device is controlled by a clock signal that oscillates between high and low states.Theentiresystem actsasashiftregisterthat hasitsinputsandoutputs linked togetherinseries,whichallows a charged coupled device to be used as a way of delaying analog signals. The most common use of these devices is for photoelectriclightsensorsthatarelinkedtoparallelanalogsignals.Thistechnologyisthebasisofhowdigitalcameras, videorecordersandpicturephonesoperate. The way that a charged coupled device works in capturing images is by focusing an image that is projected from a lens ontoaphotoactivecapacitorarray.Thisresultsineachcapacitoraccumulatinganelectricchargethatisproportionalto the light intensity of the image. This captures a twodimensional image that is transferred to a charge amplifier, which inturncovertsitintovoltage.Thisimageisthenstoreddigitallyinamemorymoduleandcanbeaccessedlater. A basic charged coupled device is efficient in capturing luminance, but it has difficulty rendering color. To solve this problem, modern digital cameras use a device called a Bayer mask over the CCD. It links fourpixelsinto blocks and filters different luminance levels as different colors. These pixels are colored, with one being red, one blue and two green,becausethehumaneyecanidentifygreenmorereadilythanothercolors. Abladelessfanisabletopropelairwithoutanyuseoffanblades.Differenttypesofbladelessfansareavailableonthe market,includingoscillatingelectricfansaswellasceilingfans.Bladelessfansoperatebypullingairinwithamotorand propelling it back out via an internal impeller. Bladeless fans are far more allergy friendly than conventional fans: they collectandspreadlessdust,andcancomeequippedwithairfilteringsystems. A nuclearlaseris a device proposed by physicists in 2011 based on the stimulation of atomic nuclei to produce light, instead of electrons like other types of lasers. It may allow for extremely accurate tests of the laws ofphysicsand properties of nature, without emitting gamma rays. The laser will emit light by exciting enough nuclei in a sample; the change in state created either by a strong magnetic field or a powerful and dense gradient in the electrical field within the device. By using a nuclear laser, researchers are working to develop a new way to analyze frequencies or make a precisenuclearclock. Foranuclearlasertowork,theatomicnucleineedtoremaininanexcitedstateforalongperiodoftime.Thorium has the properties that are sufficient to achieve this. An electric or magnetic field could interact with a compound made of lithiumcalciumaluminumfluoride. Thorium would be added to the compound in place of some of the calcium atoms. The electric or magnetic field would be used to change the state of the atomic nuclei in a process called a population inversion. Nuclear technology has been used to develop functional plans for how a nuclear laser would operate. In a nuclear pumpedlaser,theenergystoredinatomicnucleiisconvertedintothelaserbeam.Specificwavelengthsoflightcanalso be produced through the generation of plasmas based on the principles of nuclear fission. Excited nuclei split to produce energy in the laser mechanism, the principle behind creating the light for the laser beam. An optical system with mirrors further modifies the light so that it is concentrated into the beam, enabling the device to be used in scientificapplications.

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A digital integrated circuit (IC) is a highly miniaturized electronic circuit, operating on individual voltage levels, fitted intoasmallpackage.Itcommonlyoperateswithlowvoltagedirectcurrent(DC)powersupplies.Typicalsupplyvoltages are5and3.3volts(V).Earlierdigitalintegratedcircuitsworkedon12Vpowersupplies. A contact image sensor (CIS) scans materials in close proximity, rather than using mirrors to reflect light to an image sensor inside a device. In a flatbed scanner, for example, the image sensor is directly below theglass, as close as possible to the media in the scanner bed. These devices can be more efficient than older scanning techniques, butalso tendtoproducelowerqualityimages. These devices include an array of LEDs to illuminate the media, along with an optical head and a sensor to detect and recordlight.Thecontactimagesensorprovidesscansataonetooneratio,withnomagnificationoftheimageorother distortions. There are two competing 4G standards: wireless interoperability microwave access (WiMAX) and longterm evolution(LTE). WiMax NewDeployments WiMAXisslightlyeasiertosetup LTE is slightly more affected by the number of users than WiMAX. 2.3gigahertz(GHz)and3.5GHz LTE existingmobileandbroadbanddeployments LTEisslightlyfaster

Optical recording is a method of recording either data, audio content or video content in a form which is played back usinglight.Thisisusuallydonewithadiscasthestoragemedium.Themainadvantagetoopticalrecordingisthatthere is less physical contact with the surface storing the data than with other forms of recording, theoretically giving it a longerlifespan. In most forms of recording, optical recording methods have replaced magneticbased methods. For example, inaudio recording, thecompact discreplaced the audio cassette. In video recording, theDVDreplaced the videotape. In computerdatastorage,theCDandDVDreplacedtheaudiocassetteandfloppydisk. Optical recordings are only possible where data is in digital format, meaning it has been converted to binary. This binary code is then stored in physical form on the disc.1 pit on the disk, 0 leaving the surface flat. The data is then read by the disc spinning around as alaseris beamed onto the surface. The time it takes for the light to bounce back will vary depending on whether or not the surface is flat or pitted. This system is the reason that optical recording is normallystoredonadisc:thisisinherentlythemostefficientshapeforanobjectthatisspun. Chrominance is the part of a video signal which carries information about the attributes of the colors being displayed. The development of a technique for transmitting information about color paved the way to color television, a move whichrevolutionizedthetelevisionindustry.Colorvaluesaregivenintheformofquantitativemeasurementsagainsta

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Prosthetic hands are artificial devices that are utilized to approximate the appearance and function of a natural hand. While many models have limited mobility, advances in technology have made it possible to create a prosthetic hand that is capable of gripping objects, holding pencils and even moving in a natural manner with the wrist and forearm. Over the years,prostheticshave made it possible to develop artificial limbs that not only restore some degree of functionforamputeesbutalsoresemblenaturallimbsmorecloselythanbefore.Thisisespeciallytrueoftheprosthetic hand.

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standard reference color so that the signal is standardized, although properties of the display screen can change the wayinwhichthecolorexpresses.2attributescolor RGBcolormetricforaquantitativedescriptionofthecolor.Luma referstobrightness Androidisasynonymforhumanoidrobots. A ringlasergyroscopeis a precision instrument that uses alaser beamtraveling in two directions to measure changes in angle, or a direction. Gyroscopes are used in navigation systems for aircraft and ships, and for guidance systems in missilesandprecisionweapons.Gyroscopesusetheprincipleofinertiatodeterminedirectionorchangesinposition.A spinning gyroscope wheel wants to remain in one position and will resist being turned.A ring laser gyroscope makes use of the Doppler principle to measure differences in laser light beams. When the gyroscope is level, the two laser beams return to the detector at a known time difference, and the interference patterns are stationary. Tilting the ring laser gyroscope to one side causes the laser beams to return at slightly different times, and the interference patterns moveatarateconsistentwiththeamountoftilt.Thedetectorcanbecalibratedtoshowatiltmeasurementforaturn andbank indicator on an aircraft used for precision turns, or to turn a compass dial used for navigation called a directionalgyro. Organic electronics have carbonbased molecules or carbonbased polymers formed into a pliable substance that can conduct a current.Organic electronics created fromnanoparticles, or small molecules, and generally require a more complexvacuumedprocessofapplication. Opticalinterferometryis theuseoftheinteractionbetweentwo ormorewavesofenergy tocollectinformation.They either come from the same source or are of similar frequency, and the interference generated within the measuring instrumentoffersimportantdataabouttheirbehaviorandthecharacteristicsofthesource. Electromagnetic metamaterials are compounds engineered to have unique structural as well as chemical properties that are not natural to the materials themselves. Nanoscale surfaces are created that can affect themetamaterial's reactiontoordinarylight,aswellasothertypesofradiationsuchasmicrowaveradiationbythefactthatthestructural featuresaresmallerinsizethantheactualwavelengthofradiation.Propertiessuchelectromagneticmetamaterialsare often created to display include unique dielectric effects, as well as a negative refractive index with silver metamaterials, which could be used to make a superlens that could resolve features a few nanometers in size or be usedtoviewtheinteriorofnonmagneticobjects. Microwaveengineeringfor advanced antennas and other magneticrelated systems. These artificiallystructured materialsarecapableofdeveloping magnetismfeaturesin the presenceofmicrowavefieldsorterahertzinfraredfields thatexistdirectlybetweenthemicrowaveandvisiblelightrangeoftheelectromagnetic(EM)spectrum.Suchmaterials would otherwise be nonmagnetic, and stimulating this property in them is referred to inphysicsas creating Left Handed (LH) behavior. Creating such a behavior in nonmagnetic devices would be instrumental in the manufacture of advancedfiltersandbeamshiftingorphaseshiftingelectronics. Claytronics is a system designed to implement the concept ofprogrammable matter, that is, material which can be manipulated electronically in three dimensions in the same way that twodimensional images can be manipulated through computer graphics. Such materials would be composed of catoms claytronics atoms which would, in analogywithactualatoms,bethesmallestindivisibleunitsoftheprogrammablematter.Eachcatomwouldbecapable of receiving electronic instructions, processing information, and communicating with and adhering to other catoms. Groupsofcatomswouldbecapableofmovement,butwithouttheindividualcatomshavinganymovingparts.Theaim is for very large numbers of extremely small catoms to be used in nanoscale robotics, allowing a wide range of applications.

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Virtual realityandaugmented realityuse much of the same technology to provide enriched experiences for users. Augmented systems add something to the existing environment to enhance the real world, while virtual systems actuallycreateanentirelynewreality.Bothhaveawiderangeofapplications,fromadvertisingtopsychotherapy. Inthecaseofvirtualreality,thekeycharacteristicisthatwiththeuseofacomputersystem,theuserentersanentirely immersiveworld.Everythingaroundtheuserisfabricatedbythesystem.Thismaydisplayinsideablankroometc. Augmented reality takes place in the real world, with added virtual elements. These can include sounds, sensations, or images generated by a computer system. Haptic feedback which consists of vibrations and other sensations on computerequipment,forexample,isaformofaugmentedrealitythatenhancestheexperiencefortheoperator. Electronic maps are digitized representations of geographic areas. These tools can be used in everything from incar navigation to the mapping of ethnographic data. Many are freely available to members of the public who candownloadandusethem "Flexible electronics" or "flex circuitry" are technologies that uses flexible plastic materials for electronic circuit manufacturing. Circuits that are built using flexible electronics use standard components such astransistorsand resistors,butcanbemoldedtoaspecificshape.Thismethodallowsverycompactandruggeddevicestobecreated. Aninfraredlight emittingdiode(IRLED) is a device that creates light with awavelengthjust slightly longer than what thehumaneyecansee.Thesedevicesemitlightinthenearinfraredrange.AnIRLEDlightfunctionsinasimilarwayto anLEDlightthatproducesvisiblelight.Thesedevicesarecommonlyusedinelectronicsandsecuritysystems. AnIRLEDlightismadeupoftwosectionsofsemiconductormaterial,apositivelycharged sectionandandanegatively charged section. When the LED light is powered off, the area inbetween these two sections becomes a neutral depletionzonethatdoesnotallowcurrenttopassfromonesidetotheother.Withtheadditionofanelectricalcharge, electrons on the negative side are able to jump to the positive side, a process that allows the electrons to release a certain amount of energy and emit a photon. The distance that the electrons jump dictates the wavelength of the photon they release. In an IR LED light, the device is designed to allow the electrons to only jump across a limited distancethatcorrespondstotherangeofacceptableinfraredwavelengths. One of the most common uses for an IR LED light is in a security system. Though infrared light is beyond the range of light visible to the human eye, a cameras is able to detect infrared light that is just below the visible spectrum. This means that infrared light can be used to illuminate an area at night so that a camera can see clearly and continue to videotape the area, though the light will be invisible to humans in the area. Security cameras designed to function at night will often have an IR LED array mounted around the lens to light up the area being filmed. Another use remote controls. Graphene looks set to become one of the most revolutionary scientific discoveries of all time. This simplecarbonallotropepossessesphysicalqualitiespreviouslyunheardofandalmostunthinkablepotentialintermsof thesheernumberofitspossibleapplications.Itisliterallyalayerofatomsthatcanbemovedaroundthatismorerigid thanadiamond,totallyimpermeable,andhasanelectricalcurrentdensityamilliontimesbetterthanthatofcopper. Graphene is basically a single atomic layer of carbon molecules that is not only rigid enough to pick up, but also visible to the naked eye. It is totally impermeable, possesses outstanding thermal and electrical conductivity, and is resistant tostrongacidandalkaliattack.Italsoexhibitsexceptionalstrengthandflexibilityandalsohasgoodopticalproperties. A solar array is a loosely defined term referring to a group ofphotovoltaic solar panelsor cells that convert sunlight to electricity, arranged and linked in such a way as to operate as a single unit. The term can also refer to a similar set of

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reflectingmirrorsusedfordirectingandfocusingsunlightontosuchagroupofphotovoltaicunits.Photovoltaiccellsare the basis for most solar arrays. These devices convert sunlight into electric current, and can generate substantial amountsofelectricityinlargeenoughnumbers. Ananolaserhasallthetypicalpropertiesofastandardsizelaser,meaningthatlightisamplifiedthroughthestimulated emission of radiation. The primary difference with a nanolaser is the scale of both the mechanism and the light beam that is emitted. Nanolasers feature the ability to condense or confine the light beam emitted beyond the diffraction limit of light. As a scientific concept, the diffraction limit of light refers to the ability to confine light. At one time, scientists believed that light could be confined to a maximum of half itswavelength. Such limits were deemed the diffraction limit of light. Unlike traditional lasers, however, nanolasers are able to confine a light beam as much as 100 times smaller than half its wavelength. Prior to the development of nanolaser technologies, the minimum resonator size was thought to be half the laser light's wavelength. By using surface plasmons rather than photons, developers wereabletoreducethesizeoftheresonatorrequiredfornanolasersandthuscreatetheworld'ssmallestlasers. Threedimensional (3D)image processingis the method by which a twodimensional (2D) image becomes a 3D image, usually from model building and rendering. To create the image, 3D image processing starts with an objects mesh skeleton,whichcontainsmanydifferentlinesandvolumedatatocorrectlyrepresentthe3Dspace. A field emission display (FED) is a flat panel screen that combines elements of liquid crystal display (LCD) and cathode ray tube (CRT) technology. It retains the sharp, clear, high quality image associated with CRT screens, but has the narrowerprofileandlighterweightofanLCDsystem.Thistechnologyismoreenergyefficientthancomparablescreens ofeitherstyle. Nanoradio: A receiving and transmitting structure, it consists of acarbonnanotube radio that can be bundled into fibers.Thestructureiscreatedonthenanometerscale.Traditionalradiostranslateairborneradiowavesintoelectronic current. A nanoradio, however, behaves much more like the vibrating hair of the inner ear, or a tuning fork. With one endrootedintoanelectrode,thefilamentvibrates,alteringabattery'selectricfield. The nanotube vibrates in harmony with an electromagnetic signal, which is essentially demodulated or amplified. Dependingonthetechnicaldesign,soundmaybeproducedthroughmechanicalvibrationorthermoacoustically. Alinefollowerrobotisarobotthatcantracklinesandfollowthem,proceedingalongapresetpaththatcanbealtered by moving the lines. Sophisticatedrobotscan distinguish between different colors, making it possible for them to follow one among several lines accurately. Such devices can be subjects of competitions in robots and computing, and they also have a number of real world applications. For example, robots in warehouses can follow lines to pick up and deliverproductsalongaspecificroute. An ultrasonic probe is a type of sensor that usesultrasound (sounds at frequencies higher than the human ear can detect) Ultrasound is useful because it can penetrate through a medium, such as a person's body, and provide information about the medium's internal structure. Ultrasonic probes are used for a number of different areas, such asdiagnosticimaginginmedicineandqualitytestinginindustry. When a sound wave passes from one material to another material with a different density, part of the sound is reflected back. By measuring the precise times at which sound waves from the ultrasonic probe echo back, the probe candeterminethedepthofdifferentmaterialswithinwhateverisbeingscanned. Alasertelevision, or laser TV, is a type of display that uses a series of lasers to project a picture onto a screen. Three coloredlasersandrotatingmirrorsareusedtodirectthelightontoasurface. Thecombinationofthedifferentcolored

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lasers can form a much wider range of colors than other types of display technologies. A laser TV also is more energy efficientthanothertelevisions. Quantumdotsolarcellsaresolarcellsbuiltuponanetworkofcrystalsmanufacturedatthenanometerscalethathave the potential to outperform conventionalsolar celltechnologies due to a fundamental limitation of how solar cells capture sunlight. A standard solar cell is built upon a layer of material that is most efficient at capturing one particular bandorwavelengthoflight.Thequantumdotsinquantumdotsolarcells,however,canbecreatedtocapturemultiple bandsoflightbyvaryingtheirsizeandchemicalmakeupinthemanufacturingprocess.Thismakesanarrayofdifferent kinds of quantum dots on one layer ofsubstrate potentially able to capture a wide range of light wavelengths, making them much more efficient and economical to produce than standard solar cells. Can achieve much higher conversion efficiencythanconventionalsolarcells. The emerging technology of quantum dot solar cells is built upon the physics and chemistry of the quantum dots themselves,butalsoincludestheprincipleofamultilayeredsolarcell,andtheabilitytoincorporatethesecomponents intoamoreeasilymanufactured,potentiallyflexiblesubstrate. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are variations of standard light emitting diodes (LEDs) that use organic compounds in place of artificial layers. OLEDs have two layers of organic material. These are called emissive and conducting layers to which a cathode and an anode are attached. When current is applied, electrons move from the cathodethroughtheorganiclayersandoutoftheanode.Thisproducesvisiblelightaselectronspassthrough. Nanowire battery: It is a form of chemical storage battery based on thelithiumionbattery model. The technology utilizes an array of many connectedsiliconnanowiressituated at the negative voltage end of the battery. This advancement in materials science has increased storage density from 8 to 10 times over that of conventional lithium ionbatteries.Itismadewithatransmissionelectronmicroscope(TEM).

Stereolithography is a manufacturing method where parts are built layerbylayer using alaserand liquidresin. This is anadditive manufacturingprocess, meaning the part is built up from nothing, as opposed to the more common subtractiveprocess,wherematerialisremovedfromaworkpiecetocreateafinishedpart. A nanopowder is an extremely fine powder produced on the nano scale for applications in industry and research. Production methods can include grinding and heat treatment to produce extremely tiny particles of materials like metals.Targeted drug delivery can rely on a nanopowder carrier, for example, and these compounds are used in solid fuels, conducting pastes, and specialized paints and glazes. Finished coatings with metallic effects are often made with theassistanceofnanopowders. 3DTVActiveshutterglasses Another type of 3D TV technology which is commonly referred to as "autostereoscopic" does not require glasses. This type of 3D TV is designed to automatically send a different image to each eye of a viewer, creating the desired three

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Magneticnanoparticlesare extremely small particles of materials that will respond to magnetic fields. The base materials for magnetic nanoparticles include metals like iron, cobalt, and nickel, and a number of production methods can be used to create them in labs and manufacturing facilities.Behavior of magnetic nanoparticles in a magnetic field candependonthesizeandcompositionoftheparticles,thestrengthofthefield,andanyobstaclesthatmaybeinthe way. One potential application of such particles is in medical treatment; research shows, for example, that these particles can heat up in a magnetic field. Targeted particles aimed at tumors and other tissues can be heated with the useofmagnetismforminimallyinvasivetissueablationinthetreatmentofcancersandothermedicalconditions.

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dimensional effect. Since there are no glasses used with this type of technology, a viewer typically has to be a certain distancefromthetelevisionandwithinalimitedviewingangleinordertoseetheimagein3D. Threedimensional printing works on a principle of layering. The printer heats a specific type of resin, causing it to hardenintoaverythinlayer.Asthelayersbuild,theheatimprintchanges,whichmakestheresinformthedesired shape. A3Dprintercanbeusedtomakeawiderangeofthings,fromcustomjewelrytoindustrialprototypestoartwork. The medical world is already making use of3D printingto make customized hip replacements, heart valves and evencellularstructurestorepairorreplacepartsoforgans.

Liquidcrystaldisplays(LCD)areatypeofflatmonitordevicethatrendersanimagebyusingsandwichedlayersofglass, electrodes, and liquid crystals (LCs). These LCs are physically liquid, though they also display a number of crystallike properties in the way the molecules are arranged. The unique properties of LCs allow them to change alignment in a predictablewaywhenanelectricalcurrentisintroduced.Thiscanbeusedinaliquidcrystaldisplaytoactivatediscrete, monochrome patterns like in a clock radio, or tinypixelsin a high resolutioncomputer monitoror television. Liquid crystaldisplaysarefoundinitemsrangingfromwatchestocellularphonesandlaptopcomputers. There is typically a layer of LCs that is sandwiched between the electronics necessary to activate them, one or more layersofglass,andpolarizersorreflectors.LCDsthatrelyonoutsidelightwilltypicallyhaveareflectorasthebacklayer so that light can pass through the LCs and return to the eyes of a viewer. Other liquid crystal displays use a backlight insteadofareflectorsothatthedevicerequiresnoexternallightsource.Polarizinglayersaretypicallynecessarydueto thewaythatLCsrotatetoblocklightorallowitthrough. A microelectromechanical systems, or MEMSgyroscope, is an inertial sensing integrated circuit that measures the angle and rate of rotation in an object or system. Programmable for targeted applications, this technology relies on three dimensional axes of sensing, which are X (pitch), Y (roll), and Z (yaw). The devices can accurately track complex motions without being influenced by factors such as gravitation or magnetic fields. Once occupying transports and vehicles,thistechnologynowturnsupinahostofconsumertechnologies. Microelectromechanical systems are technologies that rely on microfabricated integrated circuits. These devices use active perception and control functions to serve two purposes: as microsensors and actuators. A MEMS gyroscope is sensitive enough to detect even slight degrees of rotation, eliminating the linear movement factors measured by accelerometers.Thisservestoorienttechnologytoanabsolutepositioninphysicalspace. A fiberopticgyroscopeis a device that measures rotational movement of the platform or object it is on through the useoffiberoptictechnology.Theonlythingsnecessaryforbuildingafiberopticgyroscopeareopticalfiber,asourceof light, a beam splitter and a detector. First the light source emits a beam of light at preset intervals, which the splitter dividesintotwoseparatephotons. MRI short formagnetic resonance imaging machines use highpowered magnets to create incredibly detailed images of the body. A powerful primary magnet creates amagnetic fieldthat's much stronger than even the magnetic field given off by the earth. The intense magnetic field causes the abundant hydrogen atoms in our bodies to arrange uniformly along the edge of the magnetic field. Then, smaller gradient magnets pulsate magnetic fields with surgical precision, which scatter the hydrogen atoms and cause them to spin in different directions. As the primary magnetic field pulls the hydrogen atoms back to their uniform formation, their movement and alternate spinning directions give offenergy,calledresonance,whichcanbetranslatedintoimageswiththehelpofradiofrequencies.

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BackscatterXray technology is an advanced form of traditional Xray scanning. It differs from traditional dualenergy systems by providing a far more comprehensive picture, particularly of organic material. Traditional Xrays create an image by measuring the amount of Xrays absorbed by an object undergoing detection. In medical usage, the reason bones are easier to see on an Xray than skin or organs is that the composition of bones absorbs more Xrays. BackscatterXraytechnology,ontheotherhand,detectthereflectionoftheradiationfromtheobjectbeingexamined. Elementslowontheperiodicscale,suchashydrogenorcarbon,scatterXrayphotonseffectivelyratherthanabsorbing them, which makes them much less visible in traditional Xrays. Most of the soft tissues in the body are made up of theselowatomicweightelements,makingXraysfairlyuselessforexaminingorganicmaterial. The most prominent use of backscatter Xray machines is in commercial airports. Put in place to detect concealed weapons or explosives, these machines can create a highly detailed twodimensional picture of anyone who passes through the scanner. The downside to this procedure is that the image created is quite clear and removes the concealment of all clothing, creating, in effect, a naked picture of the target. This has led to a considerable outburst among civil liberty activists, religious leaders, and many people uncomfortable with the idea of a naked picture being taken and viewed by others, especially as the scanners have the capability to store and save images. (millimeter wave device) Aprotonexchange membranefuel cell(PEMFC) is a fuel cell that useshydrogenandoxygento liberate electrical energy. Its distinguishing feature is anelectrolytemembrane called a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) that allows the passage of protons but not electrons. A proton exchange membrane fuel cell has potential applications as both a stationaryandportablefuelcell. An MEA has ananodeside and acathodeside. An electrical current flows into the MEA's anode side and out of its cathode side. A proton exchange membrane fuel cell delivers hydrogen gas to the MEA's anode side, which splits the hydrogenatomsintoelectronsandprotons,aprocessthatcanbe shownbyan equation:H2>2e+2H+. The protons inthisreactiontravelthroughtheMEAtoitscathodeside,andtheelectronspasstotheMEA'scathodesidethroughan externalcircuit.Thecombinationoftheseprocessescreatesanelectricalcurrent. AprotonexchangemembranefuelcellalsodeliversoxygengastotheMEAscathodeside.Ifthemoleculesofdiatomic oxygen (O2) can be split into oxygen atoms, the protons traveling through the MEA can react with these oxygen atoms toformmoleculesofwater.Thisreactionalsocanbeshownbyanequation:O+2H++2e>H2O. Fuel celltechnology is the use offuel cellsto produce electricity to power motors. Fuel cells come in a variety of types, and each type can be utilized to power different types of objects, such as transportation vehicles or large generators. Fuelcelltechnologyhascometotheforefrontofenergytechnologyasanalternativesource. A fuel cell produces electricity through a conversion ofoxygenandhydrogento water. Through the transfer of the electronscontainedwithinhydrogentothecell,directcurrentelectricityiscreatedanddirectedtoamotor.Oneofthe majoradvantagesofusing fuelcells tocreateelectricityisthat thebyproducts oftheprocessareonlywaterandheat, whereasusingfossilfuelsforenergycreatespollutionandwaste.Also,afuelcelldoesnotneedtoberechargedaslong as it has hydrogen and oxygen to convert to energy, but it cannot store energy like a battery can. There are five major typesoffuelcells:phosphoricacid,moltencarbonate,solidoxide,alkaliandprotonexchangemembrane. Xrayphonesarebasicallymobilephoneswithtransparentcasing,enablingapersontoseethewiring,chips,andother innergadgetsthatmakethephonework.

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Carbondioxide (CO2) lasers are one of the earliest and most widely used types of gas lasers. Gas lasers use an electric current discharged through a gas to emit light that is coherent.Laserlight has a high degree of temporal and spatial coherencethatcannotbeattainedanyotherway. Acarbon dioxidelaser produces aninfraredlight. It is the highestpower continuous wave laser and one of the most efficientlasersavailable.Carbondioxidelasersuseanairorwatercooleddischarge,whichusuallyismadeupofcarbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen andhelium. Like all lasers, carbon dioxide lasers rely on population inversion to function. Thisoccurswhenasystemofatomsormoleculeshasmoremembersinanexcitedstate. A satellite telephone relies on satellites in the atmosphere to relay communications from one person to another. It is mostcommonlyusedinremoteplaces,wherethelandbasedtelephonelinesandcellulartowersarenotpresent,such as in undeveloped countries or on an oceangoing boat. It can also be helpful if other forms of communications are unavailableduetoanaturaldisaster. A scatterometer is a precision measuring device that transmits microwave energy, and reads reflections of light scattered back from a target surface in order to obtain dimensional data. The backscattered light can be read as graphical or color plot overlays of the target surface imaging, thus permitting very accurate observations and measurements. This technology is utilized in the laboratory, in the field, and in satellites for numerous scientific, industrial, and military applications. Some uses include measuring oceanic wave heights and flows to determine wind direction and speed for oceanic current analysis and monitoring; additionally, scatterometry can measure topography, globalclimateandweatherevents,andtheconstructionofprecisionmicrocircuitsandnanotechnology. Using optical detectors and lasers of differing wavelengths, scatterometers can determine the optical characteristics of surfaces and underlying substrates. Groundbased technology may utilize parabolic reflectors,radio frequency(RF) subsystems,intermediate frequency(IF) electronics, and data acquisition units. Such systems can monitorbackscatterdatafromterrainsuchasforests,soil,andvegetation. Near field communications (NFC) is a subset ofradio frequencyidentification (RFID) technology. NFC is different from RFID because of near field communications' standardized communication distance of roughly 4 feet (1.2 m). NFC is defined as contactless communication, because it allows information to travel between a source and receiver without anyactualphysicalconnection;thelimitedproximityallowsforgreatercommunicationsecurity,andtheinstantaneous communicationallowsforfastinformationexchange. Near field communications relies on two separate components, an NFC tag and an NFC reader/writer. The NFC tag is a printedcircuitintegratinganantennaandstoreddata.SomedevicesareonlycapableofreadingNFCtags,whileothers are capable of reading and writing data to NFC tags; at the very least, a device must be capable of reading NFC data to takepartinanNFChandshakeortransaction. Paper battery The battery, which is made of up to 90 percent cellulose, is no thicker than a common sheet of printer paper. Because of its composition, the paper battery is completely nontoxic and fully biodegradable. It is a result of paper infused withcarbonnanotubes, which allow the paper to conduct electricity. The introduction of carbon nanotubes into the paper battery gives it a unique property. Unlike most batteries in use, the paper battery can be twisted, crumpled, molded or contorted into a variety of shapes and not lose any integrity. The flexibility of nanotubes allowstheseactionstooccur,andthebatterywillbejustasefficientnomatterwhatformitistwistedinto. The paper also is infused with electrolytes in the form of liquid salt, which furthers the conductive properties of the battery.Becauseoftheirhighlyconductivestate,paperbatteriescanfunctionasbothanormallithiumionbatteryand asupercapacitor.Thismeansthatthebatterycanstoreandregulatehigheramountsofelectricity.

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Often referred to as a network camera, an IP camera is a camera system that utilizes Internet Protocol (IP) to transmit video and images over a FastEthernetconnection. This type of system typically serves the same purpose as a traditional closedcircuit television (CCTV) camera, which is to monitor a location. Among the many differences is that anIPcamerausuallystreamscontenttoanetworkvideorecorder(NVR),oraPC,ratherthantoadigitalvideorecorder (DVR). Some vendors describe an IP camera as a combination of a camera and computer. This is because, similar to a computer, it has its own uniqueIP address, is attached directly to a network, and can be installed wherever a network connection is present. Another commonality is that this type of camera offers web, File Transfer Protocol (FTP), andmailservercapabilities,inadditiontosupportforanumberofInternetandnetworkprotocols. Aliquidlensusesthepropertiesoftwodifferentliquidswithinasmallspacetoprovidemagnification.Waterandoildo not mix, and are both safe and inexpensive, so they are perfect for use in a liquid lens. The mixture of water and oil is sandwichedbetweentwopiecesofclearglassorplastic.Inthisway,alight,cheapliquidlensiscreated. The nanoemissive display is said to have a better quality, durability and economics than most traditional forms of display technology.The nanoemissive display is said to have a better quality, durability and economics than most traditionalformsofdisplaytechnology. A very small aperture terminal (VSAT) is used to receive and transmit information such as narrowband data,radio frequencyidentification (RFID) data, and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA). Its name originated from the relatively small dish antenna with a diameter no longer than 10 feet (3 meters). The VSAT is commonly employed for commercial purposes such as transmittingcredit carddata and giving companies a stable communications infrastructure. Data is usually transmitted from network hubs to satellites that follow a regular orbit. As the satellites get near asatelliteground station, they transmit data to earth. The data transmitted normally varies from 56 Kbit/s to 4 Mbit/s. ItisthenreceivedbytheVSATusingatransceiverwhichinterpretsthedatafortheenduser. Capable of interacting with other VSATs. It can also act as a twoway satellite ground station, and relay information back to orbiting satellites. This enables realtime communication between the end user and the hub. Can be used in remotelocationsetc Ahydrogengas detectoris a piece ofsafety equipmentdesigned to detect traces of hydrogen gas in the air for the purpose of alerting people to safety hazards in their environment. These devices can be used in industries like mining andpetroleumrefiningandinconditionswherehydrogengasmaybepresentincoolingandmanufacturingsystems. Adigital storageoscilloscopeis an electronic test instrument which can store a digital copy of each waveform that it measures. It uses analogtodigital converters to sample and digitize measured voltages, storing the results in memory. The stored waveforms can then be processed further using digital signal processing techniques. This type of oscilloscope is used by engineers, scientists and technicians to measure signals in electronic circuits. Many spectrum analyzers, medical devices and ignition analyzers also include a customized oscilloscope to measure and display data. Oscilloscopescandisplaychangesinsignalvoltageovertime. As a device that records and measures both temperature and radiant energy, the radiometric camera plays an importantroleinseveraldifferentindustries.theconceptistoutilizetheabilitiesofthecameratodetectbothhotand cold factors within a given situation. These generally show up on the image produced by the camera as a range of colors, with colder portions of the captured scene identified with darker colors and the hotter portions depicted as brighter colors. Because a radiometric camera is looking essentially at intensity, a higher number of image bits will

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produce a more precise reading. That is, the mix of colors will more accurately reflect graduations in temperatures of each scanned object, which may be very helpful if the task is to pinpoint some factor that is causing an undesirable increaseordecreaseintemperature. Thefunctionofhapticglovesisusuallybuiltaroundtwomainapplications.Inonetypeofinteractiveactivity,thegloves allow the wearer to receive stimulation along the fingertips that mimics actual physical contact with an object or another person. The sensations are connected to an electronic simulation, such as in a video game. Haptic technology allowstheindividualwearingtheglovestonotonlyviewthevirtualsimulation,butalsotophysicallyinteractwithit. Along with allowing for the creation of an artificial sense of touch, haptic gloves also allow the wearer to move the fingers and impact the movement within the virtual simulation. Thus, the wearer is able to use the gloves to help the virtual self move around in the virtual reality and interact with the other elements of the reality. The sense of movementandtouchwillseemperfectlynaturaltothepersonwearingthegloves,andcanbeveryentertaining. Infraredthermometersaredevicesusedtoremotelymeasuretemperatureinsituationswhereitisnotpossibletobein physicalcontactwiththe objectbeing measured. Thisincludesobjectsthatareveryhot,verysmallorveryfaraway.In taking an infrared temperature reading of the moon, a simplified example would use a telescope hooked up to an infrareddetector,whichconvertsinfraredradiationintoanelectricalcurrentorvoltage. A solar LED light is a device that uses energy from the sun to power a lamp containing lightemittingdiode(LED) bulbs. These lights collectsolar energythrough a photovoltaic panel, then store this energy until it is needed to power the lights. Nearinfraredspectroscopy(NIR) is a type of spectroscopy in which the near infrared region of theelectromagnetic spectrumis used as an evaluation tool. Spectroscopy is the study of the way in which matter absorbs and emits light and the way it disperses emitted light into different wavelengths, which are visualized as colors. All types of matter absorbandemitlight,andbystudyingthetypeoflightthatisabsorbedoremitted,itispossibletogain cluesastothe properties of the matter under examination. An object absorbs or emits light of certain colors or wavelengths dependingonitstemperature,mass,compositionandotherfactors.Wavelengthsbetween800and2,500nanometers; NIR technology has a good signaltonoise ratio, which means that background readings generally are low in comparisontoresultsrelatingtothesamplebeingtested.Thismakesiteasierfortechniciansandscientiststoreadand evaluate the results of a given NIR test. Another advantage is that NIR is inexpensive in comparison to other spectroscopictechniques,andevenhighthroughputNIRexperimentscanbecarriedoutrelativelycheaply.Finally,this methodissuitableforanalyzinglargesamples,becausenearinfraredlightcanpenetratefurtherthaninfraredlight. Alsoknownascryptophones,cryptophonesarecommunicationdevicesthatmakeuseofadvancedsecurityfeaturesas ameansofminimizing the potentialforinterception ofvoiceand datatransmissionsduring aliveexchange.Theability tocircumventmanyformsofelectronicsurveillanceandlessenthepotentialforeavesdroppingmakesthecryptophone ideal for use in a number of business settings, as well as for high profile government officials and intelligence operatives. AnIRcamera is aninfrareddevice that creates images frominfrared radiation. Also known as athermographic camera, an IR camera uses wavelengths longer than visible light to create images even in total darkness. The basic operation of an IR camera works by detecting the amount of radiation being emitted from an object based on its temperature. The hottertheobject,themoreradiationitemitsandthemoreintensetheimagecolorwillbe. A hyperspectral image is a picture that encompasses the entire light spectrum. These images are typically used to find information that is invisible to the human eye. Certain things, from oil to plant illnesses, show up differently when

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photographed using nonvisible light. This property allows people to locate trace amounts of a substance simply through a photograph, rather than extensive testing. The process of creating a hyperspectral image is expensive, but it isoftenlessexpensivethanblindtestingmethods. The original use for this technology was finding oil andminerals. The trace amounts of material in the soil would cause shifts in nonvisible light spectrums. After using the images to find likely locations for natural resources, people could goinandmaketestsinspecificareas. A hyperspectral image is made up of many layers of individual images; each of them represents a specific frequency of light. These layers stack on top of one another making a cubelike image showing the entire light spectrum. The strength of a light emission becomes obvious when going through the images since stronger sources push through morefrequencies.

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