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: A 'pace,hlp model IS enhanced

and looks more realistic when you create a
miniature Intenor thai lights up and shows
crew members InSide Jack Imes, Jr.
shows you how to create miniature space
ship Intenors that will add a special touch
of realism to your space epIcs The story
begms on page 22.
Left: Bonnie Borucki. the 16mm Grand
PrIZe winner in last year's CINEMAGI CI
SVA Short Film Search. 'Norks on the
ox berry at San Francisco State UniverSity
that she used to create her award winning
Iilm, Swan Creek Fanta8y_ Bonnie talks
about her film and her irwolvement with
animation and filmmaking in this issue's
Profile on page 16
Scan ___ _
Jump into with an ille)(pen'
sive effect based on time exposure streak
photography. By A. Sharples.
Forum __ _
A regular department devoted to readers'
comments and correspondence about
fantasy filmmaking.
ProIDe __ 16
Bonnie Borucki. last year' s grand prize
winner in the CINEMAGIC!SVA Short
Film Search, talks about her involvement
Create spectacular UFO "l ight ships" with
a simple and affordable technique. Bv Jeff
Interiors _ 22
Add a special touch of relliism to your
spaceship models by scrachbuilding
cockpits and interiors that light up and
show crew members at work By Jack
Bulletin 24
Board __ _
with animation. By John Clayton. Latest news of our readers' productions.
A new departmenl Build a dual voltage
regulated power supply! By Chris E
Books for filmmakers-valuable sources
of information and technique for the
filmmaker. By John Clayton.
place __ 33
Classified advertising and
Close-up _34
The Saturn machine. Create a
planet for your next outer space adven
ture! By Jack lmes. Jr.
@7i}lirffll BENCH
PubU.hed by.
475 Park Avenue South
New York, NewVork 10016
Norman Jacobs/Kerry O'Quinn
Rita Eisenstein
David Hutchison
Design Director
Cheh N. Low
Robert Sefdk
MaDIIglng EdItor
John Clayton
Editorial Contributors
Bonnie Borucki
Jack lmmes. Jr.
Jeff PoUiuotto
A. Sharples
Chris E. Ste.rens
Art Staff
Laure. O'Brien
Amy Bergenfeld
Production Assl.taob
Joan Baetz
Eileen Dempsey
Cindy Levine
Nancy Reichardt
Founder of CirlEMAruC
Don Dahler
About the coyer: A dazzl ing UFO "light
bUZZlf5 New Yorl< ' -;!II1JO' "'HI! t ho:!
narrows. The Verrazano Narrows Bridge
is In I he background. Ph:)lographer/
modeler Jeff Polliuotlo shows you how
to creale the effect in his article, "Creal
Ing Spectacular UFO Effects" on page
20. Cover photo by Jeff PoHizlOtt O.
INEMAGIC filmmakers who work in their own backyards and basements with
Super -6 or 16mm equipment hIM!: the potential to equal or better the photographic
effects departments i n Hollywood. Now. perhaps you thi nk your editor has taken
leave ofhis senses with such a brash statement; but let me take a moment tOe!(plai n why I
think you have an edge over Hollywood.
From your letters and phone calls. I believe that almost all of you have a pretty good
grasp of the principals of the photographic effects that create the exciting scenes in such
films as Star Warsor tv's BallieslarGa/aetiea. You realize that the individual elements of a
shot-spaceships, planets, starfields, etC.-are all shot separately and assembled in tin
optical printer. This process of assembly requires several stages of processing and
duplicati ng so that " effects" shots tend to take on a qual ity that is different from the live
action photography. Obviously, the reason forthis is simply that the live action scenes "'go
through the camera once" while the "effects" require many " duplicating" steps. If there
were a way to assemble the various elements of a special effects shoton the same piece of
original emulsion this difference in quality would vanish- the effects sequence would have
the same photographic quality as the live .!Iction. Well of course there is such a method,
and before the days of optical printers photographic effects were assembled "in camera"'
without any duplic.!lting at 211.
There are still a few companies today that prefer this method because of Ihe inherently
higher image quality. It Is. however. slower and therefore more expensive, Timeand money
are the things that Hollywood has in short supply. CINEMAGIC filmmakers, however, have
their own ti me to spend and can work just as qu ickly or leisurely as it suits them. If you want
to take a month to set up a shot so that all of the elements of an effect work together, you
can do it. Steven Spielberg and George Lucas cant. lt costs thousands of dollars.!l minute
when you are on location or in a studio shooting a film and it doesn't matter whether film is
running through the camera or not-the money still goes out.
Since it takes so much time. care and precision to get ell the pieces of an effect shot
working together. few producers can afford to have expensive crews sitting around waiting
for all the elements of.!ln effects shot to worktogether.ltis much more cost effective tofilm
the elements separately lind put them together in the opticlIl pri nter. A crew in an optical
lab is much cheaper than a full crew in a studio.
Peter Ellenshaw is one of the great modern proponents of incamera effects.ln Disney's
Darby O'GiII and the Lilll ePeopk Ellenshaw was able to muster enough s:.udio time to
set up many complex perspective shots to make Darby O' GiII appear to be talking and
danci ng with the little people. No optical work was necessary to make Darby to be
talking to an actor only one and a half feet tall if Darby was d ose to the camera and the
actor playing the leprechaun was at the back of the studio. Sets were constructed tn false
perspective to make Darby and the leprechaun appear to be next to each other. Try for
yourself the old photographic trick shot with a frif'nrl far away from the camera sum di ng on
a hi ll and someone else standing quite close to the camera. Your friend on the distant hill
can appear to be standing in the palm of the person standing close to the camera if, while
looki ng through the camera lens, you line up the palm of the actor standing close to the
camera with the feet of your friend standing some distance away on a hill.lfsan old trick.
but very effective and still used today.
It does, however, take a great deal of ti me to line up. If Darby O'GiII were to be made
today, many of the fine perspective shots would have to beellminated and substituted with
trllveJing mattes since the set up time in the studio for these shots would make the film
horrendously expensive.
Cl NEMAGIC filmmakers don't have such worries. Take another look at the article on
foreground minii!ltures in CINEMAGIC #1 and the Close Up section in CINEJv\AGIC #6.
Using the technique of i effects insures that your footage will have a first
generation look- with grainy duplicate shots. ltsa very powerful tool-and one
that is olten overlooked by young filmmakers who have been told that bluescreen com
positing is the only way to achieve an effects shot.
- David Hutchison/ Editor
CI NEMAGI C II O'OWNN STUOIOS. INC . 75 P.r. ... SoUl/! New Tor . NY
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S6t Scan Magic
You can zoom into hyperspace with this easy and inexpensive technique
based on time exposure streak photography with a zoom lens.
ittle appears to have been written
on the subject of slit scan. One can
only digest the b.ts and pieces that
have been written on the subject.
compile them together into a meaningful
order, then venture into experimentation by
trial and error. I have done this, but I make
no claims about covering the subject com
pletely. The material in this article will give
you scope for furthf'r p.xpP.timf"flts.
For further reading, J highly recommend
The Focal Guide to Shooting Animation.
by Zoran Perisic. Although there are barely
two pages covering slit scan, the book Is a
wealth of information covering double ex
posures, the zoptk process, aerial image
projection, front pl'ojection and much more.
Basically. slit scan adopts the method of
time exposure photography whereby a still
camera is mounted on a tripod with its
shutter left open for a given period of time
to record a late evening traffic scene. The
resulting photo shows not the traffic, but II
pattern of colored streaksoflight formed by
the head and tail lights of the Cltrs thaI
whizzed by while the shutter was open. Slit
scan is not just a gimmick, for though its
uses are limited it can be used to good
effect in many aspects of opens
up a new dimension of c:nematic art.
You should understand the basic princi-
pal and to some extent the possible effects
of slit scan from Ken Walker's and John
Cosentino's slit scan article in ClNEMAGIC
liS, but before we study these let' s look lit
the basic requirements.
Pl"eparlng the CameJ"a
You'll need a zoom lens camera (prefer
ably motorized) with manual overide of the
exposure meter, and <!I time exposure fa
For those of you who have a camera with
a time exposure faci lity, we still need a way
of manually overiding tr.e time exposure
meter to allow the shutter to remain open
until you wish to advance to the next frame
of film. Compared to Ken Walker's llnd
John Cosentino' s method of overiding the
meter (CINEMAGIC liS), my technique
may seem crude, but it works fine.
My method for overiding the meter is to
house the meter In II pre-shaped black
Make a hole in the cover to fta bulb directly
in front of the time exposure meter. I use II
1.5 volt 15 milliamp bulb (available from
Radio Shack) because this type of bulb
comes supplied with a rubber grommet for
the bulb to slide into. Fit the grommet i nto
the hole and then place the cardboard cas
ing over the meter llnd secure it with blllCk
tape. Connect the bulb to a 4 1,7 volt battery
and wire a switch (I use a type of switch
called a " push to make switch") into the
circuit (see figure III .) The switch will allow
you to turn the bulb on and off and thus
control the length of exposure because the
shutter will dose when you turn the bulb on.
You won't be able to seewhen the bulb is on
because the cllrdbo.ard hOUSi ng should be
light tighl but you should be able to hear
the shuttet dose and the f ~ m advance to
the next frame when you tum on the lighl
The speed of film advancement can be
regulated by Slightly pushing in or with
drawi ng the bulb in the grommet housing
to displace the bulb aligrment or alter'
nately by reducing the battery voltage, but
I"ve found this battery/ bulb combination to
be just right for my Bauer camera.
Capping Shutte ..
The next requirement for slit scan is a
capping shutter. The shutter is always in the
open poSition when filming a slit scan
effect. The purpose of the capping shutter
is to cut off light from the fim emulsion
after completing the exposure of the alt
work for each frame. You can make a cap-
ping shutter from a piece of rigid scrap
plastic (preferably black) and a small piece
of scrap alloy sheeting (see figure 112.) If
operating (opening and closing) the cap-
ping shutter c a u ~ movement of the foc
using ring,)'Ou can correct this problem by
taping the focusing ring to the lens barrel.
Callb ... ted Zoom Scale
The last camera requirement for doing
sill scan is a calibrated zoom scale. This can
be made from a piece of white cardboard or
white plastic sheeting ( <!IS from a discarded
ice cream container, etc. ) Pre-shape the
cardboard cover glued at the edges and The cardboard meter housing is taped to the camera with the inserted lightbulb i n the
reinforced with black plllStiC insulating tape. ru bber grommet. The capping shutter is in the open position.
6 ClNEMAGIC 1113
Figure IP
Figure #2
retractable lime ellposure
at _-_-: :_-_-_ -_-
<I-- blade handle

, , .

0015 represent the
cardboard meier
Rubber grommet
jilted InlO side
of card housing
___ :::/- 1.5 volt lightbulb
__ push to rna
light bulb
1- ---
,.-- grommet
exposure meter ,
; _ cardboard

tnp view
ke switch
Overriding the ExpoSLre Meter
bend forward
at 45"
blade SlOp
... front
bend backwards
The Cappmg Shutter
The shutter blade "A" can be made from scrap rigid plastiC (black preferable.) The bl ade support 'B can be made from sheet alloy.
As i llustrated. "An and " 8" are held together by an 8 B.A. bolt and tensioned at Ihe rear with a spnng secured With a washer and 2 B.A
nuts locked together. Check tenSIOn before locking nuts together little tension IS reqUi red. Measurements are not given because
camera lens diameters vary, but the shutler blade should overlap the front of the lens by .. all around. Tape is fitted to the underside
of the blade 10 avoid s:ratchlng the fOCUSing rmg. Blade support 'S" is taped onto the fOCUSing ring to ensure that Ihe st" utler blade
hes flush agamst the lens when the shutter IS In a closed posi tion to avoid light spill.
zoom scale to fit your own particular camera
and tape it to the front of the camera body.
The number of calibrations is up to you, but
have them running both ways 10 calibrate
zooming both in and out.
The zoom S(:ale poi nter is simply an
extension of the zoom ring lever. I made
/IIim:: f l UIII i:I j.'i=t: of cI u:.t:d udlll-'Vilil pt:11
that fitted snugly over the zoom and a
piece of pre-shaped wire glued lO lhe ball
point pen piece. The simplest wtly to make
a sClile pointer is to preshape a piece of
wire, paint it black (if necessary) and tape it
directly to the zoom lever.
This completes the camera modifica
tions necessary for doing slit scan cinema
tography, It shouldn't take more than an
aftemoons work or cost more than a few
The Anim.tJon Stand
The dninlCltion :!>klnd i:!> 1:1 mean:!> o f SUp"
porting the camerll and artwork. It can
horizontal or verticlll, simple or sophisti
cated. The horizontal type is the si mplest to
construct, but it mllkes it difficult to hold the
artwork in place, Some of you may already
have an animation stand, in which case
you're ready to start experimenting. For
those of you who don't have an animation
stand and for those who are unfamiliar with
animati on (especiallytheyounger readers,)
I'll tell you what you'll require and how to
make the various items. I'll tell you what is
essentilll, and you can decide on the reo

The horizontal support is simply a reverse
of the vertical support-so we'll forget it
because apart from simplifing rear projec
tion (no mirror needed) it has tess advatl'
tages than the vertical stand (see figure 3.)
I have designed an animation stand that
'/0" camera
mount hole
milled steel
lamp support
brackets bent
lamp mounting hole
Figure Jt3
Bolt through with washer
and wing nut

Ani mation Stand backboard :y." plywood I'S" x2' approximate
Animation Stand table :y." plywood 1'S"xl'3" approximate
Animation Stand mirror board 0/,' plywood I'S"xl " approximate

rear projection screen
Horizontal Stand
wall support holes
hardwood or metal
camera support bar
<-H-- camera mount
extension blocks
Figure 1t4
Bolt through
washer s and wing nuts
mirror board
support arms
(milled steel)
adjustable mirror
support board
'Drawing not to scate
A Simply Made Wall Mounted Wooden Animation Stand
Before fixing the camera mount, ensure that when filted and the camera is in place that your cut out lil!ld si1P IS COrrl'!ct and. il a
closeup lens is to be used. measure the distance from the table surface to the lens-not the !lIm plane. Most lenses are supp
lied with a camera distance scale. A practicallield size would be around 9"x12". Paint or spray the animatIon stand and all associated
parts maue black. Allow sufficient space between the table and camera lens lor a hi nged platten and shadow mask. See text. When
I/Iewing the artwork through the camer a eyepiece, as with most animation stands, the artwork Will appear to be upside down. The
camera mount can be extended and the camera can be lilted behind the !TlOiJn\. This will gil/e you the right side up view. This makes
working With the animat ion stand easier.
8 ClNEMAG/C Ii 13
is simple to construct, yet relatively sophis
ticated In its VfiSitiUty (see figure This
will serve as a model from which to build
your own stand. The stand can be built
quite cheaply-especially if you have access
to used lumber. &!cause it is wall mounted
it takes up little space and needs little rede-
signing for future refinements. Apart from
slit scan, you will find it useful forfilm copy.
i ng, animating tlIes, pnotos and artwork,
shooting moving star fields and much
I've in<:luded useful approximate mea
surements for the anirTl!ltion stand, but the
camera support bar distan<:e to table de-
pends on your camera and the size of the
artwork you decide to work with. Also.
should you need a close-up lens, the diop-
ter of the lens you choose will
table to lens (not table to film plane) dis
tance. The ideal closeup lens is a two diop-
ter lens-this gives you II range from 11" to
19" lens to table distance. The closeup
lens doesn't effect the loom range, and
once the focus has been set at the tele
photo end the zoom 'Will remain in focus
throughout its full range.
When the camera is fitted to the support
bar on the animation stand. the lens axis
should be over the certer d the table By
looking through the camera eyepiece (ref
lex cameras only) you can determine the
largest field size that you'll be woridng with.
Mark this area out on the table and then,
allowing a W' safety margin all around. cut
this area out as shown ... figure -4.
Rear Projection Mlrror
Assuming that we have now built the
wall mounted stand, WI!! will start to build
the rear projection assembly. The pivoting
mirror stand shown in figure -4 holds a
mirror at a 45 degree angle to the artwork to
reflect light from a prOjector to the under
side of the artwork. An ordinary mirro will
suffice for slit scan, but ifyou're planning to
rear project background plates for other
projects you should use a front surfaced
mirror. The mirror should be secured tothe
mirror stand with Cellotape Sticky Fingers
or double surface adhesive tape.
Rear Projection M..t.erial
We now come to the cut out area on the
lInimation table. A piece of diffused mate-
rial is fitted Into this area. This can be
frosted glass, rear proJection mate ial (fog
gy mylar) or even a piece of draftman's
quality tracing paper sandwiched between
two pieces of glass. \\!hat ever material you
use, it should be nush with the surface of
the table. Thejoints between the glass edge
and the cut out area cI the table can be
dressed over with black tape to give a fi n-
ished effect and to prevent dust from
Registering the Artwork
The zoom calibrati on scale. ThiS would be
marked on the opposite side for a verticle
stand. Capping shutter In closed position.
po!lition even ofter being removed
and replaced several tines during the
course of filming. The best. way to register
artwork is with a pegbar. The usual amateur
method is to punch two holes into each
layer of artwork with a standard office per'
forator (these are fairly inexpensive and are
available at most stationary stores.) Fit two
pegs into the table (sawn off screws or
wood dowels) that match both the diameter
of the punched out holes and the distance
between the holes in the artwork.
There is a better method for more acu,
rate and versatile registration, The pro' s use
a three-pegged bar. The pegs are fitted into
a thin metal plate and the whole plate can
be moved and taped down in any desired
position on the table. Professional registra
tion peg bars are very expensive, but I have
devised a way of making one that works
almost as well and costs very little.
The hole perforating punch that you pick
up at the stationary store usually punches
standard Purchase four \(i" x \4"
roller bearings (these will make two peg.
UeU:O) <.:ut twu pie\:e5 o f f1m tin meG!lure-
ing 41,7" x I " from an old tin can or scrllp
sheeting. Cut a piece of thick cardboard to
the same dimensions and centrally punch
two holes in it with the perforator. Now
place the punched card onto one of the
pieces of flat tin and secure them together
with a piece of tape. Place two roller bear
ings into the holes and glue them into posi
tion with super glue or any other suitable
glue. When the glue has set, remove the
cardboard and repeat the process with the
other piece of tin and bearings. You now
have two movable pegbars that register
ex;actly into the punched holes. These can
be lightly sprayed with matte finish black
cartouch up spray paint for a better looking
finish and to help stop reflectons. Another
method for mounting the roller bearings to
the tin is to solder them into place, but you
must first heat them to kill the temper of the
hard casing on the bearings(seefigure #5.)
The Platten
You now have the artwork registered into
place on the cut out area on :he table. The
artwork must be held down flat on the table.
This can be done with a suitable sized piece
of plate 91ass. but this is akward to handle
repeatedly. You can solve this problem by
building a platten, which is a suitably shaped
hinged frame that supports the glass and
has a handle on the front to lift the frame.
The platten is not difficult to make (see
figure -6.) The platten should be can
structed to allow sufficient space for the
pegbar. so that the platten doesn't foul the
Whether the artwork is on paper, plastic
sheeting or a clear acetate eel, you need a
wlly to register each piece of artwork on the
animation table so that it stays exactly in the An e)(ample of slit scan shows a saucer blasting off into hyperspace.
c/NEMAG/C -13 9
Handle extension pieces
made from sheet alloy
Allow space
for peg bar
/;>,_ y' pop flvel
Bracket screwed into table
wllh wood screws
Figure 1/6
W' wood dowel
The Platten
Figure itS
Glass covers and overlaps
cut out Ileid area
Front and rear cross
sections are made
from slrlp alloy.
Fasten the platten together With pop rivets. Spray paint With malle black car touch up paint before gluing the glass Into position to the
undersides of Ihe platten. Screw a "terry clip" onto the blackboard of the animation stand to act as a catch to clip the dowe handle
Into when the pl atten is in the open pOSition. The platten holds the artwork flat on the table.
Figure ,a
Shadow Mask
This can be made 01 sheet
alloy or even stiff card. II can
be secured dlreclly below
Ihe camera Wi th small
angle brackets.
Figure #6
/ " ' . O " ~
Arrows indicate the way Ihat the polarizing
filters are crossed.
A star gate tunnel is a prime example of a slit scan effect. Widescreen creates more impact.
pegbar when in the closed position. This
depends on whether you have the pegbar in
the front or back of the artwork. Be surethat
the glass lies flat on the artwork.
The Shadow Board
The shadow board is simply a shaped
piece of metal shee-jng or cardboard.
painted matte black (at least on the side
that faces the'lHtwork.) with a hole cut out in
the center for the camera lens to film
through. It is mounte<! below the camera
lens, with the camera lens In poSition over
the hole. It's purpose is to cut out camera
reflections on the artv.ofk (see figure 7.)
The cut out area on the shadow board can
also be used to mount filters, etc.
Llgbting the Artwork
Fit lamp holders to the adjustable arms
on the animation stand (see figure #4.)
When fitted. the lamps should be adjusted
so that they are at approximateb' a 45
degree an!:Jle to the artwork. Make sure that The lIght box in use. Note :he peg bars for registrat Ion of the IIflwnrk.
there are no visible reflections on the art
work when viewed through the lens.
The simplest type of lamp to use IS a
Phillips with a builtin reflector, Any photo-
flood lamp will do. More elaborate types
can be made from large round Of square
cans. or if you are good at metal work, you
can design your own. This type of lamp--
housing requi res plenty of ventilation in the
form of holes or slits to disperse the heal
Also, metal lamp holders are best suited to
en enclosed lamp, but care must be taken
to ground the lampholders.
Filter holders can be fitted to the base of
the lamp housing to hold colored filters.
masks or polorizing filters. Polarizing filters
will kill the glare from reflections and scat
tered Iighl When used with shiny black art
work, they will produce a very dense black
that ls necessary for arlmated space back
grounds. superimpositions, el c. lhe polar
izing filters must be suitably crossed (see
figure #8.)
The mosl suitable type of polorizing
material to use is MN 39. II is available from An example of slit scan shows a stars hip passing through a stargate tunnel.
the Polaroid Corporation and they will cut
A vertical animation stand with all the fittings mentioned for a doityourself Rostrum.
Note the slide projector for back illumination and rear projection.
Figure #10
Figure #9
~ L 11 "--------'
II>" ----t"--------
The light Box
Pegbar is fitted over or
below the cut out area
the material to any size you desire. This
material should be sandwiched between
two pieces of glass for protection when
used in the filter holders and should be
used for short periods of time only, when
subjected to strong, hot liQhts.
J made my filter holders from two small,
discarded metal photo frames. These reo
12 c/NEMAGIC 1113
0 0
Field Guide
Drawn on clear acetate eel to
field size area (4x3) f:lrmat
quired very little alteration, I designed my
lamp hOUSings with these filter holders in
mind. Hinged barn doors can be fitted to
each side of the filter holder (see the photo
of the animation stand setup.) The lamp-
housings can be made to be detachable
from the animation stand for lighting model
set-ups. Lastly, should you find it necessary,
a dimmer switch can be fitted to the lamps
to give you full control over any lighting
This completes the animation stand, but
there are many refinements which can be
found in Zoran Perisic's book..
For those of you who read TOllY Shapp's
article on widescreen in CINEM.A.GIC #5
and may be considering trying slit scan with
an anamorphic lens. this can be done, but
this type of accessory lens reduces your
camera's zoom range by roughly half. This
is a shame, for J have seen a few of Tony" s
demonstrations and they really are imp-
Animation Table or Ught Box
When compiling animated artwork in
sequence, you should register the artwork
on a pegbar and position it in relation to the
preceeding piece of artwork This can be
done on the animation stand but you can't
work comfortably for many hours "With
most animation stands, and sometimes the
artwork must be backlit to facilitate tracing
through to the underlying artwork.
For the little time it takes to build. an
animation table is well worth the effort. It is
easy to make and quite inexpensive. An
animati on table is simply a sloping box with
a cut out area on top into which a piece of
difusing material Is fitted, The artwork rests
on top of the difusing material and is backlit
by a small lamp inside the box beneath the
difusing material. Tape the second pegbar
you made to the animation table to hold the
artwork in place. The cut out area on the
animation table should have the same
dimensions as the cut out area on the ani
mation stand (see figure 69.)
AIlgnlng the Artwork
The chart shown in figure 61 Ois a means
of aligning titles and artwork and is the
simplest and fastest method possible. The
chart should be drawn with black. water
proof ink on a clear acetate cel. The chart
should conform to the camera field size,
plus the W' safety margin.
The SIlt Scan Effect
Apart from the 200 I stargate effect, you
can reverse this to create the effect of leav
ing the stargate. Imagine one half of the
screen occupied by a spacecraft (photo
cutout) and the other half ofthe screen with
the stargate effect. This could really daule
your audience! Spaceships blasting into
hyperspace (again by means of photo
cutout) are another effect you can achieve.
With a smaller photo you could make the
craft disappear into infinity. The stargate
could be a tunnel with your ship entering or
leaving it.
The most suitable material for slit scan
artwork is thin. black cardboard. Thin,
black, opaque plastic sheeting is better still,
because it is easier to cut-and the edges
look cleaner when the film is projected. Use
a small Xacto knife to cut out the slits.
!f you cut a small slit off center on the
artwork and punch a small hole opposite to
The pushtomake switch fitted to the support bar. On the doityoursell i
stand, this should be fitted to the left hand side on the camera support bar. The battery
is concealed behind the support bar.
the slit, b.!IckUghl the onwork ond then
zoom into this with the shutter open. the dol.
would register liS II short l ine and the slit
would appellr liS II much longer line. The
slits and/ or dots can vtJry i n both length and
thickness and can be placed anywhere off
center on the artwork., but they must radiate
from the center.
To create movement, the slits must be
lInimated by varying the slits from frame to
frame and by use of the zoom SClile. Each
frame can be built upl!ISa composite, or the
film clln be backwound (see CINEMA.GIC
-1) and extra art\llOf'k added either to indio
vidual of the whole scene. You can
also superimpose either top li t artwork or
rear proj ected artwork. The latter can be
done by rear projecting a colored, rotating
oil ring-which produces en effect of fluid,
flowing color. Colored cels can be placed
behind the slits and moved a little between
each frame, or a clellr eel can be colored
with felt markers. pieced beneath the slits
and moved between frames.
Slits that cross artwork either vertically,
horizontally or In a circular motion must be
added after zooming hlls been completed
or may be added after backwinding the
film. Because such slits are placed on the
artwork without lOom movement, they are
called "static
The front artWOrk (slits) can be made to
rotate i n one direction and a spiral , colored
cel can be placed behind the slits and
rotated in the opposite direction. The art
work can be changed between frames and
this can be done in silhouette or with
colored, superimposed frontal artwork. The
speed of rotation can be Vllried, as can the
speed of the ani mated slits. The slits can
also be made to appear to be moving in
either an inward or outward direction. The
colored, spiral cel cen be slowed to a stop
while the front artwork continues to turn, or
vice versa. The center ofthe artwork (which
should not have My slits) can be occupied
by given shope "s I!I center piece of
focal point.
Where no backlit color i s used on the slits
or stargate effects, the slits could made
from extremely narrow strips of tape of vary'
ing colors and thicknesses. These-as well
as colored felt markers-are available from
local art or offICe supply stores. The strips of
tape can be' applied to a sheet of clear
acetate or over a black background or
directly onto black artwork-which ever
you find cheapest. Paint or special Ink can
be used. but they are not as opaque or
accurate as tape.
There are too many variations of slit
scan effect to mention. I have just outli ned
the basic technique and outlined the possi
ble uses you may want apply slit scan to.
There's plenty of room for experimentation
and your imaginetion is probably already
exploring the possibilities. You'lI have to do
test exposures (and maybe even build the
animation stand if you don't have one
already) before you can embark upon this
exciting effect.
Careful planning and timing will have to
be made. You' lI have to make a dope sheet
or chart showing the breakdown of each
frame of artwork. This should i nclude ti m'
ings, exposures. the artwork numbers (be
sure to number each eel of artwork.) It's
good practice to check off on the dope
sheet each and every frame you' re filming
because if you' re distracted from your work
it's very easy to forget where you left off.
Before filming, take the precaution of
cleaning the film gate in youfcamera.lf you
don't have an external battery pack fOf'youf
camera, be sure to install new batteries
(ret,:h<lrgdbles <lit: 0 good investment.) The
long time exposures involved in slit scan
can really drain your batteries. Make sure
that the capping shutter is In the dosed
position before switching on the camera.
Also, make sure that your exposure meter
(F stop) is manually set. (1/
If you are II young filmmaker with a
special i nterest in science: fictio",
special effects and the limitless
magi c of the: cinema ...
HCl'w to produce professoonal fJtles thlll
change color, lTd, sparkle. burst
It'ltO fIbmts, lCO'T1 "01to spxe all fer" a

TIred clSQUolre screens' learn about ..,.
IWses and di':vces :0 fTI<Ike
your OICture W+()'ES-CREEN.
Breakaway proos fer" realistIC ftght scmr:s.
MIfMtlOl'l en your hornerna<:k stand
Build your own robcts Wl\h
light effects_
"""I(e 'fO!Jf own foam t<'l tex ilntmilllQfl
models, molds <'Ind MnllltUres and
fMl!: them come aiM! Glass pi'lntlflSS.
oox effects, split screem,
RevIe'NS of nf:V.I equ,pmem. !tnse!. and
fO!' creamg specl<'l l d
fects! ReaQers' forum- letters and
q uesttOl'ls excnanglng t!!chfllques ana
proouctiof'1 secretSI Step-bystep it
iusullted artICles detaili ng met hods yoo
use to Cfeilte IIlSu<'I1 dfects,
dndsoond FX
.. ------------
I """",""
OQu.fVl SluckIs. h: DEPT. C13
(75 P"rk .... \ICtlUI' SOoJUl, New York. NY 10016
(U 5 and GJn.KJ,,)
5T .... 1 z;-- )
...... ----------'
ClNEM4,G/C # J 3 13
Ron Woodson desCri bed II "safe" stunt In the Fi lmmakers Forum
section of eM 1t8
Getting Stunted
As lin IIrMte\lr rdmrmr.ker
and stunltnlln. I h_ been
concerned about the numter
of letters In Clnemag/c c0n-
cerning stunt work I would like
to caution fi lm makers tNl one
can never remove all of the risk
from II stunl The performance
of stunt! requires training.
practice, and II regular regi-
men of elIercise. A stuntman
(or worMn) must be In goOO
physi<:111 condition, limber, and
ill 1-1,<1<':1,1<.:.,. 1IIIJdIULUIC:II.
must be meticulously wor ked
out and practiced for weeks in
advance of fllmlng,
the proper preparation often
results in pulled muscles,
sprains, and broken bones, and
sometimes in paralysis and
even death. The ba-ck and reck
are surprisingly \o\llnefaole.
This does not rnNO lhat you
should forget ever h8V1ng
stunts in your films. If you must
do them yourself, don't do any-
thlJlg you have not been tJ'l\lned
for. Cbmero anglt's and under
cranklng can achieve a lot
ually. as can reversing footage
(seeCinemagk "8). For swnts
you can' t do yourself , thefeare
other than
sional stunt people. Check with
your local high school or cel-
lege gymnastics teams for
tumbling stunts (Luke Sky-
walker' s fall through the win-
dow of the CI<)lJd City was
done by a gymnlst), For saling
thlough windows or over
obstacles, check with the \rock
team high j umpers. For
straight drops. see if there is a
local skydiving club -they are
very goot at hrtting the ground
from several feet up. And dont
forget, some very exciting
can resIJit from edit
ing footage of different stunt.5
together. For example. you
might shoot footage of a diver
doing IS flip (in costume) from
a high board. framing out the
board and shooting against
then skydiver of
simi lar build, Jumping from rIVe
or six feet up and hitting the
ground, shot at a low angle to
match the Ilrs! one. Carefully
planned and edited, it would be
quite convincing.
Remember: stunt.5 are not
easy. They are dangerOlls.
1hey should be one of the
most carefully planned aspects
oill film, and can nol be ad
6bbed. I would be happy to
IInsWel' questions from readers
about how their specific stunt
requirements might be mel
lind how much preparation
they would need. I don't like it
'Nhen people get hurt, so I hope
people wiU write.
/I\oe Pitman
1404 Richmond Ave..
Houston. TX 77006
Amen! Conlilct Moe or ClNE-
MAGIC with your stun1 qucs-
and don't leI anyone gel
hwt in the meantime!
Calling AU Creatures
... 1 om beginning preprodoctk>n
on II tim entitled Sacrifice. One of
the cevm charactefS is an
demon. I have tried to dHlgn an
evil. frightening creature, but my
elfCNts 01 look ridiculous. Maybe
roden could
help me out. Anyone: with ideas Of'
designs for lin evil
would to portidpote In the
productloo of my film, Is IISked to
write to me and send me designs
lind idea$. The one used will be
credited In the film.
Keep In mind met rm looking
for II costume for II person, not
de$igns for II stop motion model.
Please keep your designs as slm
. While corrl!$ponding with val
ious film clubs across the count!)'.
I hllve found that some neve
acquired /I very diSlastefulllttitude
called 'secrecy:' This was the caSo!!
when I wrote to a film club in New
YorK conrning their techniques
for creMlng miniature explosions.
While I re1!liLe that they hIIve II
right to their " secrets,"1 believe
thIIt other film groups /I right
10 know!
Thrnk IIboi.c this ror a moment:
Is a fUn company that is hundreds
of lIWtIy lICtually compding
with another company? Even If
yotJ reduced the distance to just til
few mill!$ or even II few bIod<s.
WQuld the two companies actually
be competing? The IInswe' is plain
lind simple: Nol Since they' re lima
teurs, they are definitely not com
I think that filmmllking, tiS fllr as
amtlteurs tire concerned, should
be conducted with lin IIItltude of
pie, evil lind ugly IIS)I:IU am. rli
appreciate reply
4120 Welter Ave..
Las Veg.IIS. NY 81094
.. , Maybe CfNEMAGIC can help
you out Check oul Craig Rear
don's article on slush molded
IlItf'.JC appliances in lest Issue. !t'll
give you some great palnters on
how to make a scary crealure
costume. Try not to copy Craig's
design_just. use his technique.
Maybe Craig'S desigr, and his
account of how he executed it
will inspire you and you'll sud
denly see the creature coming 10
life in your mind. Good luck.
ShllrillQ, instead of an tttitude of
se<.:recy. What if. OlIt of all the
CINEMAGIC readers, ID one con-
tributed to the Filmmakers'
Forum? Amateur filmmakers
should strive to spread their craft
in any wflj they can. TI.ey should
share-not guard-their special
knowledge or techniques.
Finally, by 5haring. a filmmaker
not only sprellds his craft among
InIIny other filmmakers. but he
Illso encourages the growth of new
film clubs lind brings other film
milkers closer together than e"VeI'
before. Amateur filmmaking can'
not gl'O\ll in IIIl atmosphere of
tlghtllpped "secrecy." Only by
sharing wiU filmmaking continue to
grow lind inspire people who care
"bout n l<lklng film:..
Jack Norton
EpIc Film Productions. Ltd.
13013 VaUy Forge CIr.
Balch Springs, TX 75180
Backwinder Blues
.. While reading a back issue of
CINE.M..A.GIC ("'3). I noticed a little
backwinding gizmo made by EWA
products. Mr, ellidwell mertioned
eve!)thing about the product in his
review except the price lind where
you can purchase it Can you tell
me where to find itl
Rodney Schulz
7 Gatlneau Bay
Winnipeg Manitoba
Canada R2J . 1 T7
,. Check the Halmar ad the
CINEMAG/C Marketplace of this
issue. They disUibule the EWA
Backw/nder. YOll can send for
their catalog. Tell 'em ClNE-
MAGIC senl you.
Frame Marker for EWA
.. If you've bought an EWA back
winder and found that the frame
"counter" is nothing more rtu:m a
mark on the winding knob telling
you thai you've rewound 19
frames. then you share my frustra-
tion. If you would like single frame
m .. ,kjn9:';, YUU Cd" ph<;>-
tocopy of the above frame count
ing wheel that I devised to correct
this problem.
Arst, cut out the Inner circle and
outer Circle of the frame counting
wheel. Next. remove the winding
knob of the backwinder by simply
pulling it off. Apply some glue to
the back of the frame maMler
you've cut out and slip it 0I0'er the
post of the backwinding knob.
Animation Gauge
.. . l'm in a dilemma. I've been
looking for an animation gauge
and have not been able to Rnd
one. Could you please tell me
where to find one? I've looked
everywherells an !lnimation
gauge re/;llly nece5sory for
good animation?
Thomas Trimble
2 1940 Hall Rd.
Woodhaven. MI 48181
. . An animation gauge is not
absolt,lely necessary for good
animation. but it sure helps!
Dean Barnes and Greg Gil
ger animated the Bigfool
character In The Good, The
Bad and the Furry (see CINE
MAGIC" 12) withoul an ani
malion gauge and they
achieued excellent results.
Paul Vilous and Mike Anto
nucci animated Ihe Fanta-
cinni Follies (see ClNEMAGIC
"8) without the <lid of a
gauge and they too achieved
excellent results.
!J",!"II wanl In
build a gauge {or yourself-
it's very easy 10 cons.(ruct a
simple gauge. All you haLJe to
do Is anchor a suitably sized
piece of wire (heavy solder
wire best) into some
sort of base. The base call be
EWA's backwinder is available from Halmar. Make a photocopy of
t his frame marker for 'lour EWA Backwlnder.
making sure to match one of the
marks with the market already 0 1"1
the bac:kw"inder. No ..... put the
backwinding nob back 01"1 over the
marker and you're ready to go to
.....ork. I've found that Scotch Spray
Moul"lt. an arti sts' spray adhesive is
the best glue to use because you
can spray it 01"1 the back of the
maMler. let dry for about a minute,
lind l will stick just like tape when
you push it into place on the
I live in San Francisco and rd
li ke t:> correspond with other film-
makers. Please write to me at the
address below.
Maurice Meyer
151 Broad 51.
San Franc:isc:o. CA 94112
Animat ion gauges are used to gauge incremental
stop motion movement.
made oul 0( wood or even a
heavy lump of d ay. Ail you're
trying to do wilh a guage is
keep /Jack of where your
animation model was before
!Jm" Il'I/p . ..t ;nrrpmpnll'll
movement Just position the
homemade guage as dose as
possible to your stop-motion
model before you moue it
A(!.eryou'ue moved your
model. the tip of Ihe guage
wire will sl.ilI be in Ihe mod
e/'s last position. This refer-
ence will help you judge the
size of the incremental
movement. Remove the
guage before you ShOOl Ihe
A more sophisl.icated pr0-
ject for building an animation
gauge appears in Dan
Dahler's Stop Meliorl Anima
tion. You may want to try
building the guage described
in Dohler's book Good Luck!
The Bigfoot character i n
The Good. The Bad and
the Furry was a stop motion
More Fur
.. . Here' s some more info about
The Good. The Bad and the
Purry that didn' t appear in the
filmmakers' Profile in CINEMAGIC
"12. I thought that ClNEMAGIC
readers would be interested in
learning more about how the film
was made.
The sound effects for the film
were either foleyed or came from
sound effects libraries. We foleyed
to Yo" tapes at home with items
such as a dirt box for footsteps. a
handful of quarters for spurs.
chai rs for squeaks. etc.
Music was recorded on 4 chan
nel \4" tape and was performed by
Peter Lauritson. Dean Barnes and
Peter Corey.
Bigfoot's grunts and groans
were recorded at 7'h.I.P.S, and
then transferred at 3 . I.P.S. to
16mm /'o\ag. A V.S.O. was also
used in this process to get the tone
of Bigfoot's voice j ust righL
Dean Barnes was both the voice
of the gunfighter and BigfooL The
dubbing of the soundtrack or mix
was handled by David Cantu. who
mixed down from five edited tracks
and some Ii " rollins such as the
wind for presence.
Amusingly, our gunfighter. Gary
" Rat"" LeBouf could not twi rl a gun.
The sixshooter spins were handled
by Greg Gilger, not Gary. The
dose-ups of the Bigfoot hand. and
its corresponding gun pulls were
handled by Dean wasn't
easy pulling a one inch six-gun out
of a holster with a plastic glove
hand! By the way, _ found the
Bigfoot's gun in a dime store at
the end of ill key chain!
Dean Barnes
Manhattan Beach, Ca 90266
Address all cOTTespondence to:
C/NEM/'.GIC Filmmakers'
Forum. c/o O'Quinn Studios.
Inc., 475 ParkAoe. So., New Yorlc
NY 10016.
Due to the enormous volume of
mail received. the editor regrets
individual replies are impossible.
ClNEMAGIC # 13 15
Bonnie Borucki:
Kinetic Fantasies
veryone has day dreams and fan-
tasies. We all occasiooally forget
where we are and who v.oe are talk
ing to and sli p inside our minds for
a few moments as we indulge ourselves in a
personal vision. It's one of life'5 pleasures.
Very few people. however, share their fanta-
sies or give them visual form. That is the
role of the artist and the filmmaker. One
such artist is Bonnie Borucki.
Bonnie is a young filmm;,ker of excep-
tiona! talent. She brings her own personal
fantasies to life on the screen through the
limitless magic of animation. Animation is
hard work and it is at times tedious. but
animators like Bonnie never think of the
long hours spent at the animatioo table as
boring. They see the finished product in
their They revel in the opportun-
ity to express themselves artistically.
Bonnie grew up with a love for drawing.
When she was !lbout seventeen her inter-
ests broadened Md she began to explore
the possibilities that ani ma:ion held for
These frame blow-ups 01 Sw,n Creek Fantas, show Bonnie's artwork from the paper cut-out animated film The medium was watercolor .
16 ClNEMAG/C # 13
bringing her drawings to life. She experi
mented by first drllwing directly onto the
film-a te<:hnique flrsl employed by pio-
neer animator McLaren of the
Canadian Film Board. Drawing onto film is
the cheapest possible method of produc
ing animated movies because you can use
dear leader and you don' l have 10 spend
any money on expensille emulsion-coated
stock or processing. (For more info on this
type of anirTUltion see: Expen'mental Ani
malion. by Robert Russet and Cecile Starr,
published by Van Nostrand and Reinhold
Company. New York and; Animaling Films
Withoul a Camera, byJacques Bourgeois.
published by Sterling Publishing Co" New
York. Both books were reviewed in CINE
fIoAGIC -g.) After producing a few short
experimental films of this type Bonnie
decided to try her hand at paper cut-out
Bonnie's first attempt at paper cutout
animation resulted in a four minute fantasy
film entitled Swan Thefilm
took top honors (Grand Prize in the l6mm
category) at last year's CINEMAGICjSVA
Short Film Search. Basically, the film is a
dream sequence 01 a narciSSistic girllalting
into a creek ilInd changing into the
lIarious creatures that i nhebit the creek and
the surrounding meadow. The transforma
tions are a visual del ight and the audience is
left feeling that they halle shared an artist's
personal lIision. It took Bonnie two and a
half years to produce the four minute flight
of fancy. Two ofthef'ille finalist judges in the
1980 ONEMAGICj SVA Film Search were
Tim and Greg Hildebrandt-better known
as the Hil debrandt Brothers-the famous
fantasy artists who also make fantasy mms.
They had many words ol praise for Bon
nie's artistic talent and said they could really
appreciate all the fine work that Bonnie had
put into the film. All of the other j udges
agreed that Swan Creek Fantasy showed
an enormous amount of talent and dedi
" After two years of college in Ohio, I
came to San Francisco," Bonnie begins.
"By this time I had developed an avid inter
est in animation. One of my main reasons
for choosing San Francisco State Uniller
sity was financial -Califomia state schools
don't charge tuition to state residents. After
I established residency. the rest of my edu
cation was free-except for books and var'
ious lab fees tor the courses I took.
"When I got to San Francisco I noticed
that there was a lot of ani mation going on
out here-there were a lot of animators end
a lot to see. There were a 101 of opportuni
ties to learn animation at SF. state. They
provide access to the necessary equipment
to Interested students, so I jumped at the
opportunity and started worki ng. I got a job
as a camera assi:<;.l;:!nf i n IhP film depart
ment as part of a workstudy program. Bas
ically, a camera assistant loads the oxbeny
camera for other students and helps them
learn to use the oxbeny, calculate camera
moves and make sure that nothing goes
wrong that would spoil their fi lming efforts
or damage the equipment
" After I became involved in the anima
tion department I realized that they offered
more than just the courses they listed. After
\ took ;,It the animation courses I was still
able to continue to work through an inde
pendent study program. My job as a camera
assistant gave me more access to the
"Prior to actual production on Swan
CreekFantas!j.1 did the background paint
ings, sketched out the storyboards and did
a lot of studies in animal movement. I stu'
died Edward Muybrldge's bcoks on animal
mOllement.1 worked for a long time at mas

ClNEMAG1C 1113 17
STAR LOG Is the most popular science
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O'Quinn Studios
475 Park AvenueSoulh I
New York, N.Y. 10006
12 1ssues,S23 99 (one year) I
Enclosed $, ___ _
Please aIow SIX lei eoght weeks prooessing time
011'",,, )'OUr Ilrs! IS maIleO Make Cneck or
I mo;neyOrd8t payal)le to OOunl SIUCIio6. Inc. I

18 ClNEMAG/C' 13
tering the various phases in the movements Above and 0ppolite: More frame blowups
of different animals so that the movements from Bonnie's award winning film,
of the animals in the film would look
"The final shooting ratio on Swan Creek
Fantasy was about four to one. Some
scenes had to be shot over several times to
get them right A lot of the early footage was
experimentation. I shot the entire film over
about three times because I wanted to
avoid as much editing as possible. I shot in
contlnuity to gel around editlng the separ
ate scenes together.
Swan Creek Fantasy fealures an origi
nal musical score. The music augments
the mood set by the lIni mation. 11 is a slow,
free floating piece that helps create the
dreamlike feeling of the film. Because the
music was written by one of Bonnie's
friends especially for the film, there are no
1891.11 obstacles involved with theatrical use
of the soundtrack.
"Peter Healy composed the music and
was the main musician on the soundtrack,"
Bonnie continues. "He played the two flutes
that carry the melody. One of the flutes is an
Austrian clay flute and the other is a Japa
nese flute. Peter also played piano and the
African thumb piano. Dennis Hussey played
backup guitar.
" We recorded the soundtrack directly
onto mag (full coat) tape In a studio lit
school. The studio is setup speclfically for
recording film soundtrocks. The musicians
can watch the film as they are recording the
music. They watch the film through a
soundproof booth to cut out the noise of
the projector. I used three music trocks and
one sound effects track.
Bonnie cUfTenUy teaches an animation
workshop every Sunday for young bay area
filmmakers. The nonprofit organization thai
runs the work5hop was founded about flve
years ago by Herman Berlant and is dedi ,
cated to teaching aspiring filmmakers to
use film in conjunction with poetry, The
workshop itself has been in existlllnce for
about a year and a half. Participants pay a
three dollar lab fee each time they attend.
The young people who attend range in age
from about eight years to mid teens. Each
session lasts about three hours.
Bonnie Is also involved in two ten minute
promotional productions at the present
tlme. One is for the Sierra Club and the
other is for the YMCA. She is designing the
graphics and titles for both projects, as well
as handling other responsibilitles.
" In the future r d like to get into shooting
live action." Bonnie reveals. ' 'I'd like to
incorporate live actior: and animation. but
not in the usual way. I want to explore the
way people relate to one another and con
duct interviews with various groups and
types of people, then use animation to iIIus'
trate their opinions and dreams. I don' t
think I'd use live action and animation in the
same shot but rather cut back and forth
between the live action interviews and the
animated illustrations of what my subjects
are talking about"
Bonnie is the only woman who entered
the CINEfoIAGIC/ SVA Short Film Search
last year, Although she doesn't consider
herself different from her male counter
parts in the animation field. she recognizes
that the field is dominated (by sheer num'
bers) by males.
" I think that there's a real womens' film
making movement in San Francisco," Bon
nie conti nues. " II's important because more
women are getting irwotved and expressi ng
themselves through film. When I first be-
came interested i n filmmaking I noticed
that there were more male instructors and
even more male students, but I think that
things have changed and now the ratio-at
least in San about even.
Bonnie's film was recently exhibited at
the Castro Theatre in San Francisco as part
ofilie Bay Area Filmmakers' Festival. Eight
different animators were feawred.
" The festival was a lot of fun," Bonnie
relates. "The Castro Theatre really helps
promote independent filmmakers. They
also hold the Internaticnal Film Festival, so
they can really help new talent find an
Bonnie's plans for the future are to con
tinue to make films and explore the differ
ent avenues for self expression that film
making offers. She is currentJyenrolled in a
master's program at San Francisco State
called "Educational Technologies." The
program involves using aU types of media
1:IS eduCllItionlll tools. Her rT'I<)i n interest is in
film, although she also wants to experiment
with video. She is also currently trying to
help organize San Francisco area anima-
tors to form a cooperative group, with the
hope that thei r combined resources will be
enough to establish an animation facility
that all involved can share.
Bonnie Borucki is an artist with talentand
determination. Her dedication is evidenced
by her i nvolvement 'Nih the animation work
shop for young filmmakers in the San
Franci5CO tJdy <2Tt:CI. <:IIlU l1y fi:K1 Uldlsht:
labored for more than twoyears to produce
a four minute film-an av.ard winning film.
It takes that kind of dedication and deter
mination to bring your fantasies to life on
the silver screen so that others may share
them and beenriched by them. She sets an
example that is worth follOwing. (Jf

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ClNMAG/C #13 19
Creating Spectacular
UFO Effects
Light up your skies with UFO "light ships, "
ave you ever wondered how you
could add fantastic UFO effects
to your next "encounter" film?
My friends CIre I are produCing i!I
shalt Supera film that c<llI:; fUI <I Illeeting
between extraterrestrials and humans and I
wanted to design a method for filming
UFOs similar in appearance to the ones
seen in Encounler.>.
In researching many books and photos
on the film, I realized thaI the ships seen in
the film are "light ships:' ln otherwolds. the
UFOs are equipped with external lighting
which Is bright enough to effectively block
out the 'body of the craft - giving a soft
and airy look to the ships. With this fact In
mind, I set out to photograph my own
UFOs by manipulating light instead of
building models (thus cutting down on
labor and costs.)
The procedure is simple and all you need
is a 1ightboJ<; a 35mm reflex camerll or a
movie camera and a little imagination.
As the name impllei, a light box is
nothing more than a box which concen
trates light through a piece of artWork for
To construct your own, use hea..y card
20 CINEft1AGIC 1113
Left to right : The backgrOlJnd plate of New
York bay; the UFO matte is backlit with
colored eels behind It; the composite.
board cut into 15 square pieces (you1I
l1eed six pieces in aU). Tape four of the cut
pieces together with masking tape, forming
a box with open ends. On each of the other
15 pieces, lay out n 12 circle on one (for
the photo reflector, use the reflector as your
guide) and an II " square on the second
piece. for placement of the UFO matte. Cut
out the two pieces and tape them to the
open ends to complete the light box con
struction. Thefinal step is totape the reflec
tor to the round hole on the end of the box
(see figure II I .)
The UFO Matte
The mattes needed for shooting lire cut
out of black constructIon paper. Cut the
paper \ '. larger than the hole in the light box
front and lay out your UFO design on the
construction paper with pencil. Cut out the
design with a sharp XActo knife.
When designing theUFO shape. thinkof
the design as a series 0( ind;v;dual cut-outs
that when lighted from behind will belnd
together to form the UFO shape. Think of
the matte as a stendl for light With this in
mind, you can make your designs as sim
pie or exotic as you like (depending on the
overall effect you need.)
After your UFO shape has been cut out
, .
, .
, '
... ,"
of the construction paper, cut out a pfece of
tracing paper slightly largerthan the cutout
and tape it to the rear of the matte. This will
help diffuse the light and eliminate any hot
:spot:s In your photogr&ph:s. If you wont to
add color to the matte (or just for coloring a
certain section) gelatin filters work best
Tape the gel to the matte from behind as
you did with the tracing paper (see figure
Photographing the UFO Malte
After you have cut out your mattes (I like
to work up a series of different designs)
tape the matte to the front of the light box.
Set the box on a table and 5et up your
camera on a tripod.
I've found thal when shooting originals.
Kodachrome 64 slide film works best. With
an exposure of 1/15 second at f22 you'll
have ill good starting point but){)UJJ have to
experiment with the camera settings to get
the effects you are looking for. This also
gives you the opportunity to experiment
with overl!Xposure and ef
feets. I've elways been surprised about the
results each shooting. Someof the shots
that I thought wouldnt come out look great
One helpful hint when shooting: Keep
records. It makes experimentation easier
and more accurate. This also enables you
to reproduce the effects again and again.
As for the best type of lens to use, rve
found that lenses in the 100/ 150mm range
work best for this type of photography. If
you don't have a lens in this range, tIy
up lenses over your normal lens.
Work with the room lights off and posi .
tion the camera close enough to fiJi the
frame with a good size image. If you can't fill
the frame enough to have the UFO sur
rounded by black, you may have to paint
the front of the light box flat black.
Try shooting with Soft, Cross Star, Fog or
Colored filters singly or in combination to
achieve different visual effects.
FUming the UFO
One of the best WiX'fS to film the UFO
slides is by double exposure using a varia'
tion of front projection and backwinding.
The scene can be filmed in a variety of
ways (limited only by your imagination) but
you must plan out its movements before
hand. A good storyboard can show the
UFO flying over a group of buildings or
hovering over your own home.
Say you want to film the UFO flying over
your neighborhood. SEt upyour camera on
a tripod and (following your storyboards)
film the scene. If the UFO will be passing
overhead, film the action as if the UFO is
actually overhead and you are following it
across the scene. This gives you the basic
action that will make the UFO seem to " fly"
across the scene when the shot is finally
composited. Remember to keep dear of
obstructions (high trees, tall buildings) that
might interfere with the UFO as it passes
from one side of the frame to the other.
Afteryour scene is filmed, you must then
set up the camera for the second (UFO)
exposure. For this Important second expo'
sure, you must first backwind the film to the
beginning of the scene. For a complete
explanation of backwinding, see CINE
MAGIC "I . Set up (I slide projector <lnd
your camera so the UFO c<ln be projected
(on <I white bo<lrd) and filmed in the area
already planned out on your storyboards.
With the room lights off, film the scene with
the UFO projected on the board and posi
tioned in the area (see figure "3.) At this
point you can experiment with the position
of the slide projector for different effects or
you can move it as you the scene.
You can also film the UFO matte directly
onto your movie fi lm without having to
photograph from a 35mm slide. To do this,
film the UFO matte with your movie camera
instead of a 35mm SLR and backwihd to
shoot the live action. Position is critical, 50
storyboard carefully and follow the story
board faithfully. You can shoot the live
action before or after (see figure "4.)
You may want to experiment with other
systems or you can already have a system
that you have i n mind for superimposing
images on your films. Whichever method
you use, with a little imagination your film
will come alive with the UFO images you
can add to your next encounter film (JI
Figure "1
Paint front flat black
F "'2 black
f cutout
" UFO."
Figl.lTe "'3
C Movie Camera
heavy cardboard
masking tape
metal ruler
ExActo knife
traci ng paper
Black construction paper
12" photo reflector
60w softlight bulb
gelatin filters
35mm reflex camera
reflex movie camera
Figure "'4
--- nJll 01111 J I
C , Slide Projector ." 'I'

table top
light box
ClNEMAGfC # 13 21
Making Spaceship Intel'iol's
o spaceship stJould be without ill
command deck. I've tried to de
sign realistic spacecraft with one
or more portnole windows to
reveal the oftenneglected "inner world"
inside the hull. Building a ship's interior
requires no more skill than making a
detailed exterior. The basic idea is to plan
ahead so that ship lind interiors are con-
structed together.
Depending on what kind of ship I want. 1
use one of two methods for creating cabin
decks. The first method is to actually build a
miniature "set," complete with internal light
Ing and crew figures. Since my ships are
usually small, measuring only five to twelve
Inches long, I make 21 single large window In
the front part of the hull for the tiny com
ml'lnrl clerk The second kind of interior is
reserved for subminiature windows that
measure less than 1,4 inch in height. This
second method makes my small ships look
very big on camera. The following proce
dures wi ll explain both methods.
In planning interior \'eiws. the model
maker turns Into a "set designer." Draw
sketches as you plan your ship to show
where each window will be placed and what
elements you want inside. Keep it simple or
your ship will look like a Aoating green
After you' ve got something on paper. gO
buy a 1/ 72 scale model helicopter kit (such
as an Airfix AI/oulle two-seater.) The Airlix
kit Is suggested because you get super
detailed crewmen along with a lot of strange
parts to use for computer arrangements.
While you' re at the hobby store pick up
some fiber optics at the railroad secUon.
where they may be labeled as indicator sig '
nal accessories. I've purchased two 30 ft
rolls of 20 mil and 40 mil size for $2.50
each, enough for a daten spaceships. If
your hobby store doesn': carry fiber optics.
use the Edmund $cientlfic supply catalog
22 ClNEMAGIC '/3
Top: A spaceship With a scratch built Intenor. Note the interior light ing from fiber optics
and grainol .wheat bulbs. Above: Some of the materials needed for creatmg the inte'
riors i nclude model parts, pamt. Xacto knife and fiber optiCS.
(101 E. Gloucester Pike, Banington, NJ.).
Also purchase about six tiny light bulbs.
These bulbs have long wires attached and
are about the size of a grain of rice. These
lights will be powered by an AC adapter so
get a Radio Shack 9 VDC (9 voh) trans
former (Cal No, 0360017 or similar).
You'll also need some transparent color
plastic, such as the kind used for report
covers, Covers cost about 25 cents at an
office supply store and come in a wide var '
iety of colors. I usually use a red and a blue
type. Agdill. Uu;: two 8'11" J( 1'" sheets will
last a long time.
If you' re starting from scratch, you'l l need
a tube of a Super,Glue adhesive, scissors,
needle-nose pliers, metal "aluminum"' tape,
black plastic tape, e jeweller's saw or small
coping saw. XActo knife and an XActo or
Dremel drill with 1/16" bit A variety of
enamel paints are needed for painting the
crewmen and parts. Any modelmaker
would have.all this stuff on hand. and any
thing not listed can be found inscrapboxes.
If your base model is from aki t,lsugsest
enlarging the existing windows. With more
window area, the interior will be easier to
photograph. As with scratchbuilding. win
dows are made byfirst drawing them on the
panel with a soft pencil or dry marker. Use a
sharp XActo knife to carefully scribe the
window lines. Sever!!l p e ! ! t passes should
allow you to slice the window clear. In lIou
bl esome areas use needJe.nose pJiers to
" chew" the excess plastic out. Trim and
smooth all edges.
Now a matching cabin shell must be
made. For a base I use a clear plastic box
::.. 10 Near

-? III ill/II
JI ';::JJ
Lamp Series Circuit
made from throwaway containers for G rum .
bacher "HypJar" brand acrylic paint tubes.
These packages are strong, easy to cut and
glue together easily.
If I plan an interior to fit a straight section
of the hull , I cut the front of the box straight
also. A curved hull requires a dose fit for
glueing, so I use a piece of stiff paper to
trace the shape for a pattern. When the
paper exactly fits the contour of the inner
wall, I then scribe the box and cut the plastic
to match.
l'build the interior unit first, then attach it
to the ship, That way I don't have to tty to
reopen the box for corrections inside. even
as you build your i nterior, constantly fe-
check the "look" by fitting it into the 'Window
Once I've cut the box halves, ! glue in
crew figures and control structures and any
doorways. I also cut some squares of color
acetate and glue them to the outside of the
box's dear sidewalls. Remember not to fill
the wall insides with plastic parts. Instead,
let plenty of color show 101 the gaps between
parts. The colored light will help create vis
ual depth and brighten the whole interior
for film exposures. For Ilny piece that is to
be a computer or display terminal, I drill
three or four holes for holding the fiber
optics. I fit the end of an eightinch strand
into each tiny hole and then bundle the
strands together with a bit of black tape.
Eventually the strand cable will be looped
around the cabin and the free end an
chon",d to an available light bulb. Again,
keep the computers simple or you'll have
too many cables to deal with.
After the interior of the box is finished r
attach the light bulbs to the outsidewalls in
front of the color squares. To do this, cut a
2"" x W' pieceof'metar tape. which is very
strong and quite rigid as a lamp support.
Fold the tape midway around the lamp
wires just short of the glass bulb. Dont wrap
the bulb. just damp the wires. Tape the
lamp support" to the cabin sidewalls. ["ve
found that allowing a "computer' part to
block the lamp itself prevents a visual "hot
spot' in the film exposure. The blocking
part can be drilled previously with hole pat
terns to simulate a computer read-out. Note
the lamp is not in contact '.vith any plastic,
butis held by the tape "support"' about 14"
from the color fil ters, You don't want any
contact to melt the plastic and ruin your
Next carefully connect the lamp wires
endto-end so that you form a series circuit.
I suggest that your lamp circuit be con-
nected to a 9-volt connector cap ratherthan
simply spliced to the transformer cord. In
this way you can easily connect the power
cable through hidden ports for filming
without revealing the dangling cable.
Glue the cabin into the window slot, and
your interior is finished. If the H!Jhthulbs
cause the surrounding hull to glow softly on
the outside, then use black paint or metal
tape to mask the thin plastic. If any seam
lines show, seal with extra tape.
The second method of making interiors
Is reserved for ultraminiature windows. All
you need to do is shoot a 35mm Ekta
chrome slide of your original interior. Close-
uplens adapters will let you get a good
full-frame shot. After the film is processed,
cut the interior area free and tape it to the
previously masked inner wall of the ship in
front of the window slot. Make a same-size
light diffuser out of frosted plastic (made
from a dispenser cup or plasti c milk carton.
Even folded tracing paper will serve.) Tape
a lamp behind the diffuser as described
earlier to make a support. The "back
lighting of the slide will enable you to pho
tograph It eastly, along WIth a good portion
of the ships exterior detail.
By creative use of interiors, the audience
gets a good sense of the ships sizeto scale.
In addition. no amount of hull detail causes
your audience to say in surprise, "Hey,
theres people in that shipf' (Jf
ClNEMAGIC # 13 23

Attack of the Bemlnlesl A relce of devil women called Bern
inies make their way through the galaxy, destroying everything
in their path. Now, they have rellched E.!!rth! Can they be
stopped? Producer/Director/Editor: Mark Sawyer. Cut-outs:
Mark Sawyer and Brian Etynrl. Writer: Brian Etynrl. Sound edi
tor lind animation: Mark Sawyer. FX include: over 250 eut
outs. Super-S. color, soll'ld. Running time: 6 minutes. (!>'\ark
1515 Festival , Houston, TX 77062.)
Time Star. Can Major Jones <!loci Major Tim Jackson save the
Time Star? Or will Star Wilson i!lnd the Leader blow it up?
Producers: Ian Hill, David Shusdock and Robert Roper. Direc-
tor/Script: Ian Hill. Cast: Bryan Dunn, Robert Roper, Ian Hill
and David Shusdock. FX include: lasers end miniatures.
Super-S, color. Running time: About 30 minutes. (AFP Films.
clo Ian Hill, 20 Field Rd" Cos Cob, CT 06807.)
Butterflies Don' t Ole. A collection
u r d siltteen
year old girl the powers to feel the deep
emOlions and pai n of an unknown five
year old boy who lives nearly a hundred
miles away. Ni!llure and the unknown
pli!lYs terrifying tricks on those who
come in contact with their lives. Pro-
ducer: Kip Hanks Productions. Direc
tor/ Screenplay/ FX: Kip Hanks. Cast:
Toyya Perry, Craig Palmer, Shawna
Clemmer. liz Hobby. lJwane Adkins.
Loretta Lunsford. SuperB, color. sound.
Running lime: approximately 30 min
utes (Kip Hanks, 7405 La Qui nta Rd ..
Pensacola, FL 32506.)
The Secret of the City. From his first day on the job.
super private eye. Caine Barrington. knew that he had alot
ahead of him. Maybe even more than he expected. This first
ociventure hilS Ciline solving il murder mystel)'; fighting a pair
of demons; dueling a hitman: enlisting the aid of a psychic:
battling tt horde of clones; and meeting the Devil in the bowels
of hell. Producer: LB. Films. Director/ Screenplay: Don Smith,
Jr. Cast: Don Smith, Jr.. Kyle Ray. Carl Luthjohan, Julie Reist ,
Larry Lathrop, Jenny Smith. Dave Martin, Mike luthjohn. Mark
Colley. Terri Reist, Margaret Ray. SuperB. color. silent, music
soundtrack. Running time: 90 minutes (LB. FILMS c/ o Don
Smith, Jr .. 405 No. Frori:. Dowagiac. MI. 49(47)
Ufe of .. Psychopathic Killer, A small community is terro-
rized by a killer who murders innocent victims-mainly child
ren on their way home from schooL Producer: Splink Produc
tions. Director/Writer/FX: David Grate. Cast: Mike Fiu and
Dan Grate. FX include: blood and animation. Super-S, color.
silent (David Grate, 10320 Beverly. Overland Park. KS
Sedor J. The stOI)' of an alien found guilty of murder on
Edith. His senten(:e i5 life imprisonmem on the spo<:eship,
ESA in the third sector of space. No live actors-all characters
are animated day. Producer: John Carter Studtos. Direc-
tor/ FX: John Carter. FX include: stop motion of clay charac
ters, mattes, miniature sets and spaceships and laser blasts.
Super'S, color. silent Running time: 9-15 minutes. (John Car
ter, 613 South 12th St.. QUincy,IL 62301.)
24 C/NEMAGIC # 13
As trOfUtuL Science fiction adventure. Producer/ Direc
tor/FX: Kirk Brady. FX include: full scale spacecraft interior
sets, custom made spacesuits and alien makeup. SlJperB,
color. sync sound. In production. (Kirk Brady, 3411 Ellsworth
Rd .. Richmond. VA 23235.)
Night Cries. A maniae terrorizes a small town and lllipes out
a family-along with a dozen other people-while police
commissioner and a very coroner try to solve the
murders. Producer/ Director/ Writer/ FX: Chris SoIazar. fX
include: explosions. lots and lots of gore and blood (thanks to
ClNEl'-\AGIC #2). and several gun blaSls-inciuding a shotgun
blast to a human head. Super' S, color, sound on separate
cassette. Running time: approximenely 30 minutes. \Falcon
Film co .. c/o Chris Salazar. 2740 E. Indianapolis. Fresno, CA
The Seventh D.,-, 19B7, World War Three-which was
bacteriological-has just ended. In less than six days 99% of
Earth's population has been annihilated. This is the stol)' of
one of it's last survivors. The main purpose of the movie is to
give a realistic view of how and why this war came to be. Pro-
ducer/ Director/ Writer: Marc Tessier. Cameramen: Marc Tess
ier, l'-\aurice Gagne. Ughting: Francois Rouleau. FX: Marc
Tessier. Cast: Michel Robitaille. Sylvie Masse. and Francois
Rouleau. Supera. color, silent (Les Productions Amalgame 8,
54() 1 DB Ave., Drummondville. Quebec. Canada.)
Neatness Counts: An alien lands on the moon and finds
aU the equipment and trash that the astronauts left Producer
/Director/Screenplay/ Jeff Bloomer. Story by Jean Martin. FX
includes: Ball and socket latex animation model. Double
exposures and matts. Running time: approximately 5 minutes.
Super 8. (Jeff Bloomer, 10359 Grafton Rd .. Carleton, Mich.
The Ceres InddenL Concerns the efforts of Ron Miller, a
lone space freighter captain traversing the asteroid belt trying
to discover what happe1ed to his brother who was lost there
three years earlier without a trace. He finds more than he
expected! Producer/Director/ FX: Dave Williams. Writer: Robin
Wilson and Dave Williams. Cast: Carl Taraskus, Mike Davis,
Steve Dolezar, Carol Davis. Terry Bloom, Ken Kleinschroth.
Karen Rubolin. Kurt Stroemel and Carol Gross. FX include:
extensive use of miniatures. mattes, lasertype beams. anima
tion and more. In Production. SuperS. color. sound. Running
time: 2030 minutes. Completion by end of summer SI.
(Dave Williams, 9 West Lake Dr., Taunton Lakes, Marlton, NJ
Polyester. A film being "sort of like Father Knows Best
gone berserk. A suburban comedy about alcoholism, divorce.
and drug abuse." Writer/ Producer/ Director: John Waters.
Executi\le Producers: Robert Shaye and Michael White. Asso-
ciate Producer: Sara Risher. Production Manager: Pat Moran.
Art DirectorlSet Designer: Vincent Peranio. Editor: Charles
Roggero. Cast: Tab Hunter Di vine, Edith Massey. David
Samson, Mary Garlington, Ken King. Mink Stole, Joni Ruth
White, Stiv Bators and George Stover, FX include: gun blanks
(by David Donoho) and blood sqUibs. 35mm, color. sync
sound. Scoring for Spring 19S1 release. (New Line Cinema.
S53 Broadway, New York. New York 10003.)
My Pet VolkswagolL What do you get when you cross a
dog with a car? A smashed dog? No, you get a puppywagon.
This film is about a strange pet and it's owner's adventures.
Producer/Director/Writer: Doug Drieling. FX include: anima
tion, radio control, pyrotechnics, spaceship and house minia
tures, force field FX. Super'S, color. Running time: 20 minutes.
(Douglas Drieling 9207 New Harrison Rd. Bradford, OH
Robot Zombies From Pluto. A satirical view of filmmak
ing techniques by young filmmakers. Zombies invi.'Jde a card-
board cut out of Columbus Ohio. only to find true horror. Pro-
ducer/DirectorlScreenplay: Alan Hale. FX include: animation,
model s. bolts from laser pistol. blood, gore. and oller nasty
treats. SuperS. In production. to be completed for
CINEJIIAGlC Film Fest. Running time: 7Y.! minutes. (Alan Hale.
239 Jackson, Columbus, Ohio 43206.)
Psychic ConOlct. The occupants of a distant space station
are stalked by a murdering psychic. After many a grisley
murder, a crew member, who also has a strong psychic ability,
must face the killer, but are her powers strong enough? Direc
tor.'Writer/FX: Mike Neal. A Neal Production. Cast: Teresa
Neal and Company. FX include: Extensive makeup and set
designs (both full scale and minitures). lasers, blood, titles
(nonlithographic), transporter effects and explosions. SuperS,
color, sound on separate cassette. Running time: approxi
mately 5 minutes. In production. (Neal Productions, 363 E.
North Street, Dunkirk, IN 47336.)
Terror of the Tubes. Comedy. Two
drifters. a disillusioned college student
and a punk rocker. stumble upon the
terrifying truth behind the Nielson televi
sion ratings. Producer: Plague Produc
tions. Writer/Director: Joe Williams.
Cast: Mickey Connelly. Jim Doughten,
Jackie Gillespie, Bev McCabe, Jim
Radler, Michael Radler, Kristen Ramagli,
Ma..lreen Ramagli. Brian Roemer. Brian
Williams and Joe Williams. FX include:
laser and electric bolt FX. Super'S, color,
sound. Running time: 2().25 minutes.
(Plague Productions, c/o Joe Williams,
915 Broadway. Westville, NJ 08093.)
Sector 4. A small county is invaded from outer space by a
warrior race of super aliens. Producer: Falcon Studios. Direc
tor: Rick &inks. FX: Rick Banks and Judy Vires. Cast : Judy
Vires. Pam Vires, Kathrine Vires. Earl Vires, Tonya Vires, Sherry
Vires. Golden Vires, Fitch Vires. Kim Vires, Tracy Vires, Conly
Duane Vires, Ed Banks, and Johnny and Irene Spincer. FX
include: lasers. disintegrater beams, shotgun effect5, cosmic
dogfights, computer targeting and titling, explosions, and a
variety of electronic effects. Super-8, color, sound. Running
time: 15-1S minutes. In preproduction. (Rick Banks, Star Rt I,
Jackson, KY 41339.)
FUm not yet titled. An Experimental film working with
prehistoric creatures. FX include: Tabletop animation with ball
and socket animation models. 16 mm., si lent. (Jeff Bloomer,
10359 Grafton Rd., Carleton, Mich. 48117.) (If
CJNEMAG/C Jt 13 25
Whether the i\ }<"> or lin. Ih<' 1x..,1 ":II I
kC'Cp the blovd fUllmng 1\ 10 fcud I \I\(,()
i"m" wilh k 'h;;", I
at film, III J'(Oj!.T;"'\.', illl<.""'ic,,,
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our daslilit'd '<'1:liol'. 'i,\\ hi 1(1 ,'Ollf trk'nd, or
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New York. New York too16
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. ,
26 c/NEMAG/C" 13
New Starlog Fllm Available
For Your School Group!
"S II'lTIOOs Birthday Fantasy: a l5-mi nute. 16mm movie hlls just been
completed. and prints are available for loan to film classes, science netion
cl ubsor any organization consisting of 250r more regular members.1Oe
fil m combines live-action intercut with five different animation sequences
arx:! features a music score by notable composers illCluding Wagner,
Strauss, Strllvinsky and John Williams. A $15.00 fee in advance is reqUired
to cover oneway postage, insurance and packing costs. If interested, write
to the .!Iddress below wlth date of screening and information about your
group (including the number of members).
Hi, ClneMagidansl
David HiBch
"Stanog's Birthday fantasy"
4 75 Park Ave.. Sooth
New York. NY 10016
want to add a personal footnote to the notice above. because [thinkthisnew movie
wi ll be especially interesting to readers of this magazine.
The movie was produced by SF Film Productions. a branch of the STARLOG
family of enterprises, and is meant as a birthday present to science fiction fllns on the
occasion of the 5th anniversary of STARLOG. It is a flight of fantasy, featuring members
of our staff. shot entirely In our Mtllllldtti::Hi om .... !;:::;, wilh a film crew of young
The movie required special weapons, models, props and set decoration that will be
interesting to SFfans and students offilm. The animation was shot on a computerized
Oxberry stand and involved some tricky effects usi ng multiple techniques far beyond
the uSUlil. One complex shot required six camera passes (six different exposures)
combined into a 3<kecond sequence of action.
The story is simple and is intended to pay tribute to the films and creators 'Nho have
inspired SF fans and to leave everyone with a "high' feeling of youthful fun.
During the next few months, CINE.MJ\GIC will be featuring articles derived from our
work on this moyje-includi ng step.bystep explanations of how certain spe<:ial effects
shots were created and tips on scripting and storyboarding. Obviously. these artlcles
wiU mean much more to you if you have seen the movie 00 which they are based.
With our ClNEMAGIC Short Fi lm Search 1982 coming up this fall , this is also an
excellent opportunity to see a film that squeezes a lot 0{ action i nto the IS-minute
contest li mit. Perhaps this movie will inspire you and your friends and set your minds to
working on some creative Ideas of your own.
"Starlog's Birthday Fantasy" is educational for film students, and I urge you to
consider pl.!l nning a screening for your class or club or school group or .!Issembly
There's onlyso much we can tell you about fantastic filmmaking in the pages of this
magazine. After ali , it' s hard to discuss movies with printed words and still pictures. Here
is a ra re opportunity to see (and enjoy) a Ilyj ng demonstration of what ONEMAGIC is all
about-inventive techniques, long hours and hard work. lind above all iYl imagination
that takes flight and attempts to carry an audience with It.
Kerry O'Quinn/Publisher
Building a Dual Voltage Regulated
Power Supply
Programmable Power Supply
" 220 1(<'

120 ",,,"C

efore I get started on my first ani
cle, r d like to take a quick oppor
tunity to acknowledge a few
people who were responsible for
my getting involved with ClNEMAG1C mag-
azine. First of all. rd like to thank Paul and
Angie Lowe of Lake Central High-s theatre
department, for giving me the opporturuty
to design and implement electronic SPl!Cial
effects for their perforrr.ances. Also, I have
to include Bill Lac (the Wiz) and Wally Lowe
(no relation to Paul and Angie) for bringing
to my attention STARLOG and CINE
MAGIC, and opening up an exCiting new
outlet for my projects. Included in this list
are also Carl Waters and Greg Walters of
my local Radio Shack store lind Mr. Hy
Siegal and Mr. Patrick lee of Radio Shack
in fort Worth for their assistance. And of
course, I want to thank Kerry' O'Quinn and
David Hutchison of ST ARlOG/ CINEMAG
IC for giving me the opportunity of sharing
with you a way to add another dimension to
your creative skills and talents.
The heart of any electronic device Is the
power supply, and with the growth of the
integrated circuit chip, the possibilities for
adding special effects toyour film i!lre more
within reach than ever before, Because of
this i!ldvanced techllOlogy, it" s i!llot easierto
build a new addition to your bag of special
effect goodies. and to be able to do it at a
reasonable cost. It would cost considerably
more if you had to buy the separate parts
that make up some of the circuits inside
one of these chips. Whatever you do, don't
let the words "integrated circuit" scare you
aWi!ly. All it really means is that they've taken
a complete circuit and "integrated" it into a
By Chris E. Stevens
/' ,
" c_" =
I "
'- 0:
'" 3341\ 52 Bft 0,
C, "-

little convenient package, saving space,
construction time and money.
The power supply that wil! supply the
"life" of your projects is one that I've modi
fied from the Engineers Notebook supp-
lied by Radio ShKk. This one uses fewer
parts. and helps to cut the costs of building
such a project. allowi'l9 fOf more flex
ibility where it might be needed for projects
that will require a dual power supply. Since
the layout is already completed, all you
have to do is make a printed circuit board.
get the Ilnd put it together. This is a lot
easier than you think. As far as making a
printed circuit board, after the first one,
you'll be an expert in IlO time flat.
The Basic Circuit Board
The way that I go about making a PC
(printed ci rcuit ) board might seem a little
unorthod01l, but It gives me a good copy
every time. Whenever I find a circuit in a
magazine I want to make, the first thing I do
is get a photo copy of the boi!Ird layout.
This way I don't have to cut up the maga'
zine to get the layout transferred to the
copper dad board. After you get the copy of
the layout. take a pair of tin snips and cut a
piece of the board to size, The 1m snips will
let you cut a board a lot faster than a saw.
and ifU give ill more accurate cut.
Take the copy of the and tape it to
the copper side of the board Almost always,
copies of ill board layout are from the
copper side. Make sure that you cut out
your layout leaving an extra half inch or so
around the edges sothat you can fold these
over and tape your copy to the board (rom
the back Then take a center punch (a nail
" '"
will do) and every place you see a little
round dot. make a punch mark in the
board. Just tap it hard enough to put a little
pockmark in the copper.
After you've "punched the dots:' the next
step is to drill the holes. A number 55 wi re
drill is the best size for most part lead wires,
and a 1/161nch dri ll bit is ok for the heavier
wires like the a.c. power cord and trans
former leads. Then the most usual size for
the corner mounting holes is about l/Bth
to 3/16 of an Inch. The reason for drilling
the holes first is thot when you paint
circuit onto the board, it's a lot easier to
connect the dots as opposed to painting
the circuit first and trying to keep the loca
t ion of the parts where they belong and true
to scale,
Etching t he Board
To put the circuitry on the board isn't as
complicated as it sounds. T""Ie idea is to
paint the board where the "wires" will run to
the parts, The paint protects the copper
from the etchant, and will not be eaten away
when the PC board is exposed to the acid.
The best thing to use for painting the board
is an enamel and a fine point brush, As long
i!lS there's a thick ellOugh layer of paint on
the board, the aci d will make a clean etch
and the circuitry will not be eaten away In
the thin spots. If you have any doubt. after
the paint "sets" you can touch up the thin
spots. If you have an KActo knife, you can
scrape away any excess, correct any errors
and touch up the circuit where it might have
accidentally run together. The next step is
to put the board in the etchant. The board
will etch a lot faster if you floot it on top of
ClNEMAG1C *" 13 27
the solution with the copper side face down.
Follow the directions on the bottle of the
elehant for the best results.
About the Circuit
After the board ;s etched, double check
to see if there CITe any places where you let
the circuitry come together. If so, YOLI c./In
take the X-Acto and CUi away the copper
plate where things ran together.
When you install the parts, remember,
you're working from the bottom of the
board; things will be reversed whenyou put
the parts on the top side. Take the extra
ti me to make sure that the polarities and the
dire<:tion oJ the parts are CQfrect. This is
especially important with respect to the ICs.
To make a good solder connection, you
have to heat the part and the copper circuit
<!It the same time. Use an iron for your sol-
dering. and not much more t.1an 30 watts
maximum. Anything much hotter will
cause you to burn the copper right off the
board. A .. cold" solder joint will look grainy
and a good joint will look smooth and shiny.
PC Board layout
(bottom, foil-side View)
Shown actual size
If you' re mounting your project in a
cabinet. you'lI find it easier to solder the
leads on the board tirst. installing the
switches, fuseholders and other things. and
then soldering the leads to them. Also
make sure that the PC board is insul ated
.. ,
Here's a lisl of tools I fi nd most helpful:
X-Aclo Kni fe
30 Walt Soldering Iron (penci l type)
Solder Wick (sol der remover)
Assorted drill bits, plus a #55 size wire dri ll bil
Drill, either electric or hand type
Tin snips
Assorted screwdrrvers. lIat blade. and Philips types
Small needle nose plierss
Wire cutter/strippers
Small adjustable wrench
Sandpaper and steel wool.
Hardware Project Box 1-#270-252
Hardware A.C, Line Cord 1-#278-2155
S-l S.P.S,T. Switch H1275-011
F-l 1/ 2 Amp 3AG fuse 1-#270-1271
F-l luseholder 1-#270-364
L-t indicator light"' Ht272-1501
l-1 PC board 1-#276-1567
L-, Etchant 1-#276-1535
T-, 117V. pn, 24V Sec ..
300 rna. transformer 1-#273-1306
C-' capacitor, 3,300 mfd, at 35VDC 1-#272-1021
C-2 .01 mId. diSC ceramic capaci tor 1-#272-131
0-1 br idge reclifier IC 1-#276-1161
VA-l LM317T vcllage regul ator 1-#277-1778
R-l 220 K ohm resistor" 1-/1271-049
R-3 220 Ohm resistor 1-#271-015
A-4 33 K ohm resistor 1-#271-030
A-5 100 ohm resistor 1-#271-012
R-6 330 ohm resistor 1-#271-017
R-7 470 ohm resistor 1-#271-019
A-l1,12 Ikohmresistor'" 1-#271-023
R-9 2.2 K ohm resistor 1-#271-027
R-1O 3,3 K ohm resistor '-#271-016
28 ClNEMAG/C #/3
S-2 6 position rotary switch 1-#275-1306
0-1 NPN transistor ,-#AS-2009
a-I transistor sockets' 1-#276-540
0-1 TO 220 mounting kit 1-#276-1373
0-' IC socket' 1-11276-1995
0-1 connector 1-#274-661
0-' heal Sink' 1-11276-1363
0-1 heal sink compound' 1-It276-1372
0-1 control knob ,-#274 407
'No! needed to make the project work
"When using an Idicator lamp With a
buill-in limiting resistor, put a jumper
wire i n, in place of R-'
'''For a single output power supply.
you can eliminate these parts. You can still
drill the holes for possible later use.
from the metel chessis. I've found that the
domed sink washers mllke good spacers
and you can get them at most any hardware
store. Again double check your work before
you plug it In. If everything checks out, give
it a shot. Plug It in and tum it on.
About the Circuit
The power supply is a programlTl3ble,
variable voltage dual output unit (How's
that for a mouthful?) What all this really
means is that with a twitch of a switch, (S2)
you can select any voltage from 1.2 volts up
to 18 volts out. Also since some ICs will
require a positive and negative voltage, it
has II center tap. or aniftdal ground output
as well. The center tap will be either positive
or negative with respect tothe normcM posi
tive and negative output connectors, and
will also be at Y.! the output voltage. For
instance, in the 18 volt position, the center
tap will be at plus or minus 9 volts out (see
the schematic drawing). It may seem like a
lot of added effort and especially if
you're on a tight budget. but the added
flexibility will prove to be really handy later
on when we get into future projects.
While we're on the subj ect of future pro-
jects, what I'd like to tackle next is the
SN76488 complex sound generator Ie that
Radio Shack puts out. DorI 't let the word
"complex" throw you, it's just used as an
explanation of the sounds it makes. This
linle goodie will let you <!Idd phaser fire and
a whole lot of other sounds to your scHi
flicks and tapes.
Important Tips
Here's a few hints to make the construc
tion of your proj@cteasier.Afteryoudrillthe
holes in the board. take II file or sandpaper
(about a -220 grit) and deburr both sides
of the board. And, before you paint the
board, take fine steel wool and polish the
board to remove old layers of oxide and dirt..
This also gives the paint II better surface to
stick to. After the board is finished etching.
you've drilled the holes in the board, paint the copper side where the "wires" will
run to the plH!'" Thf!! pllin! protects the copper from the echant.
rinse it In running water at least t'NO minutes Soak the PC board (copper side down) in the echant. I use Archer brand echant.
to stop the chemiclil etchant. Then scrub available at Radio Shack. Fo low the directions on the bottle for best results.
the paint off with steel wool pad
while under running water, ITI3king sure
that you remove all of the paint. After it
dries, polish it dovm with the steel wool
again to bring up a good shine. This will
give you a good clean soldering surface.
Most ICs can take about 260 degrees for
about {iue seconds befole the chip is heat
damaged. Let the IC cool before you solder
the next lead and so on. Also keep lIlI the
leads on the parts as short as possible. To
keep the space requirements down, I usu
ally mount the resistors upright.
Any Questions?
I'd like to hear from you with your results
from this project, as well as .!!Iny ideas for
future projects that you'd like to see. Also if
you have any questions that I might be able
to answer, let me know. I can be reached
through Cinemagic, O'Quinn Studios, Inc.,
475 Park Avenue South, New York, N.Y. The completed dual voltage, regulated power supply. The PC board is mounted in
10016. (Jf a project bo)( with all wires. resistors. controls and other parts in place.
c/NEMAGIC N 13 29
Hollywood Soundtracks
laurie Johnson conducts the
London Studio Symphony Or-
chestra in this long-awaited re-
cording of the complete Bernard
Herrmann score to the 1959
Alfred Hitchcock thriller starring
Cary Grant, Eva Marie Saint and
James Mason. Incredibl e
dynamics In this digital stereo
- perionnance
Newly recorded, this spectacular
score by Erich Wolfgang
KOlngold is complete In this
deluxe album. The classiC 1942
fTIO>'le drama, starring Ronald
Reagan. Is an emotional power-
house. CtJarles Gerhardt con-
ducts this e:>:cihng stereo digital
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Prolile Joe Ritter I CITY

Kodak's, "The world of Animation,"
is an authoritative guide for anyone
who Is interested in making animated
films. It is jam-packed with rips on
every aspect of film production and
animation technique. This indepth
guide book was prepared by Kodak
especially for the animator whO wants
to make professlonal-QU/llity animated
films on a MODEST BUDGET.
"The World of Animation"
33 pages of complete olueprints for
building your own animation stand.
A guide to all the Kodak films
available for animation and when to
use chem!!!
A "how-co" guide for achieving all
the major animation techniques!!!
How to f ind work with a producer!!!
How to break Into the bUSiness!! !
. 152 pages- fUll color through-out!!!
----.... _------
I The world of Animation
I c I 0 O'Oulnn Studios OEPT. C13
I 475 Park Avenue SOuth
New York. NY 10016
I $7.95 per copy, add $1 .25 for postage and
handling each 153.25 for Foreign P&H)
I EnclosedS Icheckormoneyorder I
I drawn to OQulnn Studios, Inc.l I
I ar< I
1._-----------_ ..
32 ClNEMAGfC It 13
Handbook of AolmatJon Tech
niques. By Eli L Levitan. Van Nostrand
Reinhold Co., New York. 9" x ! 1". 318
pages, 24.95.
Animation has the magical power of
giving life to creatures that dont exist.
Whether the animated character is drawn
or dimensional. the ani mator breathes life
into it and creates the circumstances that
it must endure. it is a wonderful form of
artistic expression because, unlike static
art it can totally engross the viewer and
involve him in an ongoing action.
Naturally. there are many young artists
who yearn to use animation as a medium
of expression. This requires more than an
ability to draw or even crete a beautiful
dimensional stopmotion m:xlel. Anima-
tion requires a great deal of planning and
a profi ciency at the techniques involved in
making an inanimate object or a pile of
drawings "move" reali stically and appear
to be alive. A good book on the subject is
a valuable aid.
Ell Levitans Handbook of Animation
is very helpful to the beginning animator.
Mr. Levitan has been an animator for over
forty years, so he speaks with considera
ble experience. Hes learned all the short-
cuts and most efficient methods that save
both time and money. and he shares
them with his reader in his well written
and i nformative handbook. His work in
animation has been honored with several
Clios-whi ch are the equivalent of an
Oscar for television commercials-and he
has also been honored with the Outstand-
ing Achievement Award from the direc
tors of the Fi lm Festival.
Virtually everything you'll need to know
to create fluid. technically excellent, lip
synced cel animation is inch.;ded in this
wonderful handbook. Illustrations stress
every important point. Youlleam how to
prepare exposure sheets; create effective
lip syncronization (the mouth shapes for
the various vowels and consonants are
well illustrated;) become familiar with all
the components of the animation stand
(the professional Oxberry type:) and
much more.
Stop-motion animation is not covered
in depth in the Handbook of Animation
Techniques. but many aspects covered
apply to both cel and stop-motion (sound-
track analysis. etc.) Stopmotien anima-
tors should find the handbook valuable,
for even though greater bodies of infor-
mation on stopmotion can be found
elsewhere, they almost certainly neglect
certain vital aspects covered by Mr. Levi-
tan. Even if stop-motion is your 'bag."
youre sure to enjoy and be informed by
this wonderful book. Besides. it may
inspIre you to put your dinosaurs on the
shelf for a while and give cel animation a
try, The H,mdbook of Animation Tech-
niques is for everyone who loves
M.otlon PIcture Camera Tech-
niques. By David W. Samuelson. Focal
Press. distributed by Butterworths.
Woburn, MA. 5" x 8'/.0" , 200 pages.
Most amateur filmmakers have a lot to
learn about camera and production tech-
niques. Even the most talented and com
petent amateur cinematographers can
use a few pointers, Motion Picl ure
Camera Techniques, by David Samuel-
son. is a good source of vital i nformation
and helpful hints for filmmakers. One of
Focal Press' Media Manual series of text
books, it deserves the attention of serious
amateur filmmakers and film students
who want to expand thei r body of know-
ledge on the subject of motion pIcture
production, About a hundred different
aspects of filming are covered in the typi-
cal Media Manual method, which is a very
effective method indeed. Eoch subject is
generally allotted a two page spread in the
book. The left page is a written explana-
tion of the technique or procedure, and
the right page is a series of drawings and
diagrams that illustrate the text. No par-
J O'-'r--'i
Accessory for f ilming from a 16mm frame.
Man holding camera on the ground for stability, Art is courtesy of Butterwort h's.
ti cular subject is covered in great depth.
although in many cases great depth is not
required and the text and illustrations
should give the reader a sufficient under
standing of the subject. Certai n subjects.
however, will require further reading. The
range of subjects covered goes from a
discussion of helicopter mounts to a brief
coverage of the traveling matte process to
an e)(planation of the uses of gaffers tape.
All the information is very useful, even if
you have no immediate plans of renting a
helicopter or filming a coronary bypass
operati on. What you do know can't hurt
you-what you don't know can.
Let's face it - you want to be a profes
sional fi lmmaker. You're hardly al one in
that ambition. You' re going to have to
compete with thousands of other (many
very talented) young people for a relative
handful of jobs i n i n the theatrical film
i ndustry. If you want to direct your own
films. there really are only a handful of
people who make it. Don't dispair, you
can be one of them- but you better be
very good and you better be ready. Leam
all you can about filmmaking. Make films.
That's the best way to learn. Read as
much as you can about everf aspect of
motion pict ure production- thats the
only way to learn about certai n aspects of
filmmaki ng that you can't afford to prac'
tice as an amateur. That way. when you
get a job with some production company.
you'll be able to impress people with your
knowledge and people won't have to
stand over you and explain things that
they assumed you knew when they hired
you. As in any other competitive field. it' s
si nk or swim. Books like MoUnn Picture.
Camera Techniques can teach you a few
strokes and help you keep your head
above water in the lucky event that you
are given (really, it' s never a handout) the
opportunity to prove you have what it takes
to make it. (Ttl
Unless boo --k'-'-C-'l
available through your local bookstore.
Books not currently in stock can be spe.
cially ordered for you by your local
________ _
For as little as S 15.00, you can reach all your speCIal effects fans
DEADLINE: For CI NEMAGIC 1114 m our oU;ce by July 81h For CINE
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For info send SASE to O-L St Udio, 925 El m St,
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ClNEMAGIC # /3 33
The Saturn Machine
OU can create the rings of Saturn
for your next outer space epic by
using II simple technique called
"streak photography." The tech
nique can be created with either a still
camera or a movie camera with a time
ellposure facility. It presents another intrigu'
ing opportunity to use the method of over
,ding the time exposure meter on Y.Ou
camera that A. Sharples describes in his
article on slit scan in this issue. The tech
nique was used by Doug Trumbull for
Silent Running.
The ring creCltt'd by d tinlt::
sure setting. A narrow, striped strip cI paper
is rotated around the "planet" ball . The time
exposure causes a blurred streak that is a
perfect circle which appears to float in
space. The camera can be adjusted at any
angle and the ring will have the proper
perspective. I used a still 35mm relex
camera for the photos you see here. but II
movie camera can also be used. Stills can
be used as background plates or you can
shoo both It spaceship model and the
ringed "p!ltnet" simultaneously (provided
you Mve a rigid support to hold your model
still for the time exposure.) I used a 2
second exposure for these photos, but test
will you I:I"'V1Uvril:ltf;.'
times for any special lighting that you may
require. Good Filming! (Jf
Above: The "Saturn machine" is easy t o make, ine)lpensive and produces a good effect.
34 CINMAG/C # 13


" ' ' ' ' ' ' ' f : : E ~ ~ [ : : Slow
(4 RPM)
/ Paper
A diagram of the "Saturn machine." The base IS made from a spray pamt
can plastic cap and t he "planet" is a 10" Inflated rubber ball.
ClNEMAGIC .., 13 35
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