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IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 12, No.

1, March 1997

79

UNIT SIZING AND CONTROL OF HYBRID WIND-SOLAR POWER SYSTEMS


Riad Chedid, Member IEEE Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering American University of Beirut, 850 Third Avenue, New York N.Y. 10022, IJSA
Abshxct- The aim ofthis paper is to provide the core of a CAn/CAA tool

Saifur Rahman, Senior Member IEEE Center for Energy and the Global Environment Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Blacksburg, VA 2406 1-011 I , USA
storage that minimizes the capital cost while maintaining the required loss of power supply probability. Finally, a computer package that assists planners to determine the optimal expansion plan of an autonomous generation system, is presented in [6]. This package takes into account the stochastic nature of meteorological conditiolis and load.

that can help designers detennine the optimal design of a hybrid wind-solar power system for either autonomous or grid-linked applications. The proposed analysis einploys linear programming techniques to minimize the average production cost of electricity while meeting the load requircinents in a reliable manner, and takes environmental factors into consideration both in the design and operation phases. While in autoiionious systems, the environmental credit gained as compared to diesel alternatives can be obtained through direct optimization, in grid-linked systems eiiiission is another variable to be minimized such that the use of renewable energy can be justified. A controller that monitors the operation of the autonornoudgrid-linkedsystem is designed. Such a colitloller dctei miles the energy available from each of the system components atid the environmental credit of the system. It then gives details relatcd to cost, uninet arid spilled energies, and battery charge and discharge losses.

I. Introduction
The increased interest in environmental issues has led recently to extensive research for ha~uessing renewable energy resc)urces. In [I] a linear programming (LP) model for the design of integrated renewable energy systems has been developed, and in [2] a similar LP model was used to arrive at an optimal mix of wind and photovoltaics for system design. In [3] a computer model RAPSODY that facilitates the design, sizing and operation of a remote area power supply is described. This software is capable of simulating the operation of systems that use various combinations of renewable energy sources taking into account the variability of the energy source, the capital cost, and the operating and maintenance costs of system components. In [4], a trade-off approach is used to design a stand alone power system under uncertain conditions. The authors d e h e several scenarios to account for variation in load growth, renewable resources and hardware availability; and use decision set analysis to an-ive at the optimal plan. A knowledge-based approach to design integrated renewable energy systems is presented in [5]; the authors use a databm and a search algorithm to find the combination of P V and wind energy conversion system ratings and the size of energy
96 S M 572-8 EC

In all of the above studies, either probabilistic techniques have been implemented, or optimal designs have been arrived at without taking into Consideration the operational characteristics of the proposed systems. The aim of this paper is to provide a deterministic analysis to produce the optimal design of a hybrid wind-solar power system for either autonomous or grid-linked applications. Such a power systetn is mainly composed of solar, wind and battery sets; and depending on the application, either diesel engines or a jqid option are considered for back-up purposes. The part related to autonomous applications has been reported U1 [7], and will be briefly introduced here for comparison purposes.
11. Problem Definition
The major concern in the design of an electric power system that utilizes renewable energy sources is the accurate selection of system components that can economically satisf) the load demand. While in autonomous systems, the environmental credit gained as compared to diesel alternatives can be obtained through direct optimization; in grid-linked systems, emission is another variable to be minimized for the use of renewable energy be justified. Hence, system's components are found subject to:

I. 2.

3.

minimizing the electricity production cost ($/KWh), ensuring that the load is served according to a certain reliability criteria, and minimizing the power purchased from the grid.

The cost fiinction is defined as [8]:


4

A paper recommended and approved by the IEEE Energy Development and Power Generation Committee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society for presentation at the 1996 IEEUPES Summer Meeting, July 28 - August 1, 1996, Denver, Colorado. Manuscript submitted August 28, 1995;made available for printing June 25, 1996.

f=(c
k= I

Ik-SPk+OA4 )Pk E,.N

where the index k is made to account for wind, solar, diesel generators or grid connection, and batteries.

0885-8969/97/$10.00 0 1996 IEEE

80 The proposed analysis is composed of three modules, iiaiiiely, the preprocessor, the optimization tool and the control module. To meet the above objectives, the user should have data on load demand, solar and wind resources averaged over several years as well as economic and technical data. Such irlformatioil is analyzed and brought to the required format through the preprocessor. The selection of system components will be achieved via the optimization module and then the whole design will be tested in the control module through which tlie size of the storage will be determined as well as the environmental credit of the system Foithis a chronological set of hourly load and resource data is assumed to be available. Detailed analysis and a case study will be presented in the following sections. 111. Optimization Coeficients

or a solar panel; hence, it might be necessary to purchase additional diesel generators before the life span of the project comes to an end. If adis the initial cost in $KW, the present worth of all the initial investments is:
(7)

where L, is the life-time of diesel generators and x, is the number of times where diesel generators are purchased. Tlie salvage value of the diesel generator is assumed to decrease linearly fi-oin a,($KW) if the generator operates for zero years, to S, ($/KW) if the generator operates along its life-time Ld. If the project life comes to an end before the diesel generators have reached the end of their life span, then the diesel sets could be sold at SI,, ($/KW), which is a value greater than S,:
S
pd

A. Wind Turbine
The design vmable of the wind tm bine is the total I otoi ai ea, Aw, m m2. Given a, the mtial cost ($/in2) of tlie wind tuibine, the first term of equation (1) becomes a , 4 , With a salvage value of Sw($/in2), tlie total salvage value would be Sw Aw and the present worth 1s
SI,
=

= (-).yenrs+ad
Ld

'd-'d

(8)

where 'years' indicates tlie number of years of operation between the installation of the last diesel set and the end of the project life span. The present worth of all the salvage values is found by:
Xd-l

Sw Aw facl

(2)

Sp3=Sd.Rd.
x-1

1i j %.L lij N (-) d + S .Rd.(-)


'

l+r

pd

l+r

(9)

where f a c l = ( l + ~ ) ~ / ( l + r )and ~ , 'J' and 'r' aie the iilfjatioii and interest rate respctively Finally, with a yearly operation and i~iaiiiteiiancecost (( )M) of aoMw($/m2/year), the total yearly operation and maintenance cost would be a,,,.Aw, and the present woitli of all tlie yearly costs would be.
(

Tlie yearly OM cost can be divided into two parts. Labor and parts cost (a .,,),$/KWh), and fuel cost (a,,,,$/KWh). The present woitli of tlie total yearly OM cost is:
CL Mcn+aoc,).R,.total number

of hours.fac2

(1 0 )

)MI,, = CI omAw.fac2
1 +es

(3)

where,
(1 + e # - (1 +es) f a e 2 = ~ --. ( 1 ( ) y = l (1 +.y (r-4
N

D. Grid Connection
If gi id is available, then utilizing renewable energy sources can only be justified on the basis that reduction in utility emissions is dew able This awai eness takes the form of a utility management program for promoting for environmentally friendly technologies On the customer side, the use of renewable energy niay become attiactive if in the future, customers would have to pay not only for the cost of generating the power they use, but a l w for it5 transniission, distIibution and the indirect cost of envii onniental cleanup and health effects[9] The design variable in this case is the rating of the substation R, (KW), which makes tlie connection with the hybrid power system Given ag,the initial cost ($/KW), tlie total capital cost becomes a& With ablly defining the cost of pui chased electricity ($/kWh), the yearly costs would be.
O M , = ~ ~ ~ , ~ ~ , . R number ~ . ( t o t aof l hours) + 12aDc.Rg

I +r

) for

r=es

(4)

and fac2=N if i-=es. Here 'es' is the escalation rate.

B. Solar Puriels
The design variable here is the total solar panels' area, As, in i d . With an initial cost of a,($/111*), the total initial investment would be a&. The salvage value would be %.As, where Ss is the selling price per m2, and the present worth of the selling price would be:
S,,,=Ss.As.fac1

(5)

With a yearly OM cost of aoMs ($/ni'/yeai-), the total yearly OM cost would be a,,,As with a global present worth of
OM,,= CI ,,.As.fac:!

C. Diesel Gerrerutors
The design variable here is the capacity R, in KW. The life- time of a diesel engine L, is usually shoi-ter than that of a wind turbine

If regulations allow a utility to buy power from private


suppliers, tlien equation (1 1) should modified as follows:
C)M~=(CIb,,y.I~~-arell.Rercerr).(total number of hours) + 12aDc.R,

81

The above equation has a present worth of


OM,,,=( )Ms.fac2

of the whole system at that point (see section VI).

V. Controller Design
While average load demand and supply patterns are used at the design stage, the system is subject to fluctuating wind speeds and solar insolation as well as to varying load demand during operation. Hence, a controller is essential to determine how inuch energy is available from each component and how much to use of each. At the end of the operation period, the controller gives full information regarding the status of the system such as cost, energy available from each unit, environmental credit, uninet and spilled energies, and battery charge and discharge losses.

E. Storage Batteries
The design variable in the case of storage batteries is their size R, in KWh. As in the case of diesel generators, the life-time of a battery (Lb) is expected to be less than that of the wholc project. Hence batteries of sizes R, are to be purchased at regular intervals of L,. The total present worth of the capital investments on batteries (with k=4 in (I)) is given by:

where xb is the number of times battei ies should be purchased during the project life-time and a bIS the capital cost ($/KWi) The salvage value of the batteries is assumed negligible. With an operation and maintenance cost of aoMB ($/KWldyear), the present worth of the total yearly cost would be:

A . Operntironpolicies. Case I Autonoinom System


The operation policy of the proposed system implies that the available energy from the wind turbines and solar panels in each subperiod be used first, and excess energy to be stored in batteries. If the renewable energy is not sufficient to supply the load in a given subperiod, two control policies are implemented to iill the void. In control policy I (CPI), energy is first drawn from the storage system. If this is not enough, the diesel generators should provide the remaining portion of the load. In control policy 2 (CP2), if the load cannot be met by the renewable supply, energy is drawn first from the diesel engines and, if possible, the batteries supply the remaining part of the demand. The main difference between the two approaches is that in C1' I , the storage system acts as a fuel saver since batteries are used before the diesel engines. This is done at the expense of having batteries that are already discharged in periods where diesel engines are not sufficient to supply the load. Hence the unniet load is expected to be smaller in CP2 but fuel costs are higher. In sorne subperiods, all of the available supply is not sufficient to serve the load; in such a case, the difference between the deiiiand and tlie available energy is shed and an underflow cost is incuned. Case 2 . Grid-Liiked Systetn

IV.Load Constraints
The load must be satisfied according to a certain rcliability criteria. Hence, for an autonomous system,
ew(i).Aw+es(i).As+duration.R,+ x.RI> -(I -EENS) Load(i) (1 6 ) ew(i).Aw+es(i).As-tduration.R,+x.Ri, ILoad(i) ( I 7)

where, EENS is the expected energy not served, i is the period, x is the fraction of the battery capacity expected to discharge in each period, and ew and es are the wind and solar energy produced per m2 respectively. ew and es are calculated based on the monthly averaged wind speed and solar iiradiance input data [7]. For a grid-linked system, the teiiii R, shuuld be replaced by R,. Additional constraints to be imposed are:
0 < Aw <&,ax 0 i As c A,,,, 01 R b
(18)

Or Rg CR,,,~ (for grid linked-systems)

01 R d & ,

(for autonomous systems)

It is to be noted that although the I ) r o b h formulation for both autonomous and grid-liilked systems is identical, the procedure of obtaining tlie optimal design differs substantially in the case of a grid-lmked system, because it is the minimization of both cost and grid energy demand which is of conceiii here. However, these two objectives cannot be achieved simultaneously because t h y conflict with each other. Therefore a trade-off curve of cost versus energy demanded from grid is required for unit sizing. The choice of :in operating point on the trade-off curve depends on the environmental credit it oEers and on the operational characteristics

The control strategy for grid-linked systems is similar to the one discussed in case I above in the sense that renewable energy must he exploited first and excess energy should be stored in b:ltteries, However, if there is still excess energy _.then, the latter should be sold to the grid. Real spilled energy is the energy that cannot go to the grid because of the rating limit of the electric substation. If the renewable energy is not sufficient to supply the load in a given subperiod, then the two control policies discussed in case 1 are applied but with the grid now replacing tlie diesel engines. It is to be mentioned that the concept of fuel saving in CP 1 as discussed in case I , leads to the concept of grid energy deniand saving in case 2. Hence better conditions for the environment are guaranteed.

82

B. Diesel Generator Control


Each generator has in addition to the rating Pg,,,,,, a minilnuin allowable loading Pglllin to ensm'e the coi+ect engine operating temperature. On the other hand, tlie efficiency of diesel engines varies with the fraction of the rating at which they are operating. This dependence is taken into consideration by calculating the cost rate for each engine 'i' as [ 1 11:

VI. Results and Discussion A. IJnit Sizing.The proposed techniques are applied to a location in Lebanon where the load is defined as 800KW from the 5-th to the 9-th months, and 550KW for the rest of the year. The hourly wind speeds vary between 2.96 and 5.63 d s and the hourly solar irradiance vary between 0 and 0.7 KW/m2. The values of the parameters involved in this case study are given in Appendix I. Riming the optimization routine gives well defined results for the autonomous system. However, for the grid-linked system, it is the task ofthe designer to choose an option near the knee of the tradeoff curve sliown in Fig. 1 such that the EENS is not exceeded. This c i n e was geiierated under restrictions on space available for solar and wind units, and limited storage (4000m' for wind units, 1 OOO0iii2for solar units and 1OOOKWh for storage). Under such restrictions, the options located in the upper part of the knee of the curve are not appropriate because they do not satisfy the requirement in EENS which is set at 5%.

Cr(i>=a(i)+b(i).Pg(i)+c(i).Pg'(i)

(19)

where a(;), b(i), c(i) are coeficients that should be available from the engine's specifications, and Pg(i) is tlie power output level of the generator.

A variable called average production cost (apc) is defined for each generator 'i' as follows.

The above equation is used to identify which generator has a cheaper operation so that diesel engines are committed starting with those having smallest apc. Diesel engines are allowed to operate in one of two possible modes

Results of optunization for both systems are shown in Table 1. Had tlie load been satisfied only by diesel engines or through a grid connection, tlie required capacity would have been 760 KW. Therefore, the use of renewable energy has resulted in 50.26% savings i n diesel capacity and 44.7% savings in grid capacity. The emission savings are calculated based on the emission rates given Mode 0: the generators are never allowed to be shut-down; if not in [ 131 for oil type utilities, mid in [ 141 for diesel fuel. Although the needed, they should be kept on hot reserve. This mode is costs sliown in tllis table do not iiiclude the emission cost, as is the applicable when the generators have high starting costs rendering ciment pi-actice in many countries, we anticipate that the real cost uneconoinical the slid down process, or when their minimum of electricity should be calculated according to the following down and start-up times are relatively large (umeliable operation). procedure. Calculate through a chronological analysis the In this case, even if no power is taken from the generators, a hot consumption of electric energy associated with the grid (or diesel reserve cost will be incurred equals to a(;) ($Amur) for each generators) and find the cost due to CO,, NO, and SO, emissions. generator 5'. The cost ofthe latter vary from country to country. For example in tlie TJSA some estimates show these to be 1.78 centsKWh for Mode 1 : the generators are allowed to be shut down when no CO2,0.80 centsKWh for SO,, and 1.66 centsKWh for NO, [ 1.51. power is needed from them. This is peimissible only when the By adding the emission cost to tlie operation cost of the system mininiuni down and up tinies are negligible with respect to the concerned, the actual cost of producing lKWh can then be length of the considered subpeiiod. C)peratioii under mode 1 causes obtained by running the optimization routine as described'in this additional start-up costs accounting for extra fuel. paper. Finally, it can be seen from Table 1 that optimization suggests that no storage is necessary in the design phase for both systems. However to cater for the fluctuations in both the input energy and the load, storage is introduced by running the controller Ena gy fi-om battenes is needed whenevei the I enewable energy is with batteries of different capacities for a day having maximum ~m.fEclent to supply the load (CP I), oi when both the ienewable possible load under worst possible weather conditions. The battery system and diesel generaturs (or gild i n tlie case of g~~d-lii&cd size which is consistent with constraints (1 7- 18) is selected. systems) fail to meet the total demand (CP2) On the other hand, energy is stored whenever tlie supply from the I enewable <y\teiii H. Controller rmnning. 111 this section we show the hourly exceeds the load demand (CPI and CP2), and when the diesel operation ofthe controller over a sununer day (see Appendix I for engines are capable of chai ging the batteries (c'P2) (No battery a listing of the necessary inputs) charging will be done from the grid i n eithei CP I or CP2) The maximum allowable enei gy taken or added to the battei le\ is How by Hour Er1ei-pResults.for the Grid-Linked System. Figs 2usually 10% of RI,per hour [ 3 ] The conti oller specifies tlie amount the energy demand under both control policies The unmet load ofenagy stored or dischmged by the battcries and the storage level eneigy iuider both policies is shown in Fig 4 From Figs 2-4, it can at each subpei iod It also identifies the charging and discharging he noticed that the system performance IS highly affected by the losses of the batteries

83
Table 1
Optimization Results Autonomous system Wind, mz Solm,mz Battery,KWh Diesel, KW Grid, KW CO,, Kg/yew NO, Kg/yew SO,, Kg/year Cost, $/KWh 4000 10000 0 378 0.244~10~ 0.297~10' 3.36~10' 0.1574 Grid-linkedsystem 1846 10000 0 420 2.29~10~ 5.8~10' 14.92~10' 0.1016
i 400

300
w

200
100

0
-1 00
4

12 lime, t!i
+
) c

16

20

24

+Load

Grid
Wind

I -

Battery

state of the solar insolation. In fact, the energy drawn from the wind turbine is almost constant throughout the day; however, the energy from the solar PV system reaches zero at nights and peaks at noon. Hence, some unniet energy is encountered during nights while some energy is being spilled and therefore sold back to utility during mid-days (see Fig.5). The uuunet energy encountered in CP I (Fig.4) is reduced i n CP2 because, in the latter case, the grid would meet the load before the storage batteries, and when a shortage is encountered, batteries will be able to supply more energy (The m e t energy is 162.5KWh in CPI and 128.26 KWh in 0 2 ) . As a result, the grid energy in CP I, shown in Fig.6, is lower and hence less pollution is envisaged (For the day under consideration, the extra savings in emissions due to CPI are 26.7Kg in CO,, 0.0684Kg in NO, and 0.174Kg in SC)J.
4

4 Solar

Fig.:! Hourly Operation Under CP1

12
Time, Hr

16

20

24

H o w By Hour Diesel Cost.for the Ai~tononious ,(;ysteirr. Fig.7 illustrates the diesel operational costs incutred during the day in the two control policies CP 1 aid CP2. It is noticed that less energy is being drawn from the diesel engines while operating wider CP 1 and hence less hiel price is being paid, and less enviroiiniental daniage is encountered (For the day under consideration, the extra savings in emissions due to CP 1 are 32.07Kg in Cbz, 0.44Kg in SO2 and 0.039Kg in NOX). This is because batteries back-up the renewable system before the diesel engines. The daily fie1 costs sum up to $544.26 under CP 1 and $556. I under CP2. The start-up costs, shown in Fig.8, sun up to $5 16 for both CP I and (21'2.

--t

Load

Grid

e - Battery

--t Solor

--r Wind

Fig.3 Hourly Operation LJnder CP2

60
50
c

40

9 30
w C

20
10
0.55-

12
Time, Hr

16

20

24

0.3 -

>
5
0

$ 0.25020.150.1

IEZICP~ RCP~
Fig.4 Llnniet Energy [Jnder CP1 and CP2

' 100 ' 200 ' 300 ' 400 ' 500 ' 600 Grid Power. KW

VII. Conclusions
'

o'os'O

700

'

'

Fig 1 . Trade-off Curve of Cost Versus Grid Power

This paper has presented a technique to design and analyze a hybrid wind-solar power system for either autonomous or p d linked applications This technique uses linear programming principles to reduce the cost of electricity while meeting the load

84

IT
140

120-

3
y

100-

;80C

>-

60-

Oi
20

1
Time,

Hr

(mcPImcP2

Fig 5 Spilled Energy LJiider CPl and CP2


450

1
24
I

Time, Hr

j m C P 1 a c P 2

Fig.8 Stat-up Diesel Cost under CP1 and CP2

- The use of renewable energy offers substantial environmental credit when compared to diesel or grid altematives. The level of penetration of renewables in grid-linked systems depends on systems reliability which should be strictly satisfied,

- The envirc~ilmental credit of both systems can be improved in the


operation phase tl~rough appropriate control policies. In this study, CP 1 was found to be suitable for both systems.
Time, Hr

1Fig.6 Grid Power Under CPl nnd CP2


45

- The proposed analysis allows the user to study the interaction ainong eeononuc, operational and environmental factors and hence it offers a useful tool for the design and analysis of hybrid solarwind power systems.
VIII. Aclcnowledgment

-1

:L
351
IO

\I

I/

Fig 7 Diesel Operating Cost Under CPI and CP2

- Time,

12

16

20

Hr

CP1

CP2

1
24

Tlus research was partly done during tbe summer visit made by the first author to Virginia Tech The financial support of the URB at the American IJniversity of Beirut is gratefully acknowledged.

IX.References
[ 1l.R. Ramakuniar, P Sudhakara Shetty and K. Shenayi, A Linear PIogiaminiiig Approach to the Design of Integrated Renewable Energy Systems for Developing Count! ies IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion,

EC-01, 1986, p p 18-24. [Z] A.13.P Swift arid M R Holder, Designof Hybrid Energy Systems, 7411

requirements in a reliable manner. A controller that monitors the operation ofthe autonoInaus/grid-liIlked systeiiis is designed Such a controller determines the energy available fiom each of the system components and the environrnental credit of the system. It then gives details related to cost, uimet and spilled energies, and battery losses. From the results obtained above, the following conclusions can be made.

ASME Wind Symposium, New York, 1988 [3]. A.R Musgrove, TheOptimmtion of Hybrid Wind Energy Conversion Systems T Jsing the Dynamic Prograinming Model RAPSODY, Inteiiiational Jouinal of Energy Research, Vol 12, 1988, pp.447-457. [4] E S Ciavanidou and A.G Bakirtzis, Design of a Stand Alone System With Renewable Energy Resources IJsing Trade-off Methods, IEEE Trans 011 Energy Conveision, Vo1.7, No. 1, 1992, pp.42-48. [ 5 ] R Raniakuinar, I. Abouzahr and K Ashenayi, A Knowledge-Based Appioach to The Design of Integrated Renewable Energy Systems.IEEE Tians on Energy Conversion, Vol7, No.4, pp. 648-1555, 1992. [ 6 ] . J. Kabouris and G.C Contaxis, Autonomous System Expansion Elanning Considering Renewable Energy Sources-A Computer Package E E E Tians. on Eiieigy Conversion, Vol7, No 3, 1992, pp 374-380

85

[7]. R. Chedid and Y. Saliba, 'Optimization atid Control of Autonomous RenewableEnergy Systems'. To be published in the International Journal of Energy Research. 1995. [8]. L. Bussey and T. Eschenbach, 'The Economic Analysis ofhdustrial Projects', 2nd Edition, Prentice-hall Inc., New Jersey, 1992. [9]. S. Rahman and B.D Kroposki, Thotovoltaics an Deniand Side ManagementPerfonnance Analysis at a UniversityBuilding', IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion, Vo1.8, N0.3,1993 pp. 491-497. [lo]. J. McGowan and J. Manwell, 'WindlDiesel Energy Systems: Review of Design Options And Recent Developments', Solar Energy, Vol 4 1, No.6, pp.561-575,1988 [ 1I]. W. Stevenson, Elements of Power System Analysis, 4-th ed., McGrawhill, 1982. [ 121C.D Owens,'Cheap Electricity With Autonomous Solar Cell Systems'. Energy Policy, V01.21,No.ll, pp.1085-1092, 1993. [ 131.EPRI, Customer Systems Division, Technical Brief, 1989. [ 141. R. Ramanathati and L.S Ganesh, 'A Multiobjective Programming Approach to Energy Resource Allocation Problems', Internatioiial Jouriial ofEiiergy Research, Vo1.17, 1993, pp.105-119. [ 151.Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Opportunitiesfrom Title IVof the Clean Air Act. IJS Environmental Protection Agency, Feb. ,1994 [ 161.EPRI, 'Electricity from Sun and Wind'. Perspectivesand Activities of the EPRI Solar Power Program, 1991.

Saifur Rahman (IEEE S-7.5, M-78, SM-83) graduated from the Bangladesh IJniversity of Engineering and Technology in I973 with a B.Sc degree in Electrical Engineering. He obtained his M.S degree in Electrical Sciences from the State University of New York at Stony Brook in 1975. His Ph.D degree (1978) is in Electrical Engineering from the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

NOMENCLATURE
initial investment present worth of the salvage value of each component present worth of the operation and maintenance costs yearly energy demand life-time of the project. interest and inflation rates respectively solar panels' and wind rotor areas respectively diesel rating and battery capacity respectively cost rate for generator (i) average production cost for generator (i) CP 1,CP2 control policies 1 and 2 respectively ew, es wind and solar energy respectively aoc demand charge in $/(KW.niontli) asell electricity sold ($/kWh) Rexosss excess energy that cannot be stored in batteries a,, a, wind and solar initial costs respectively ad,a, diesel and grid initial costs respectively

Saifur Rahman has taught in the Department of Electrical Engineering, the Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, the Texas A&M University and the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University where he is a Full Professor. He also directs the Center for Energy and the Global Environment at VPI. His industrial experience includes work at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York, the Carolina Power and Light Company, and the Tokyo Electric Power Company, Japan. He is a member of the IEEE Power Engineering and Computer Societies. He serves on the System Planning and Deinand Side Management subcommittees, and the Load Forecasting and the Photovoltaics working groups of the IEEE Power Engineering Society. His areas of interest are demand side management, power system planning, alternative energy systems and environmental systems. He has authored more than 180 technical papers and reports in these areas.

Appendix I
Input Data for the Optimization and Control Routines 0.12
0 09

Efficiency of solar system Inflation or escalation rate Interest rate Project life span Battery life span Diesel life span Solar panel price Wind turbine price Battery price Diesel engine price Grid connection Solar panel salvage value Wind turbine salvage value Diesel engine salvage value Solar panels' OM costs Wind tu1bine' OM costs Batteries' OM costs Riitd Chedid was born in Lebanon in 1960. He received his M.S Grid energy charge degree (with distinction) in Electrical Engineering from Moscow Demand charge (grid) Power Engineering Institute i n 1986. In 1992 he obtained his 1 1 '1 D Diesel engines Maintenance in Electrical Engineering from the University of London, and the Fuel cost DIC from Imperial College of Science Tecluiology and Medicine, Batteiy eftkiency 1J.K. At present, Dr. Chedid is an Assistant Prof. at the Dcpart~nent Loss of load cost of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Arnerican IJniversity of Pgmax for diesel engines Beirut. His research interests include alternative energy systems, Pgmm for diesel engines Cost late constants for low qxed drives, finite element analysis of electric machinery and each generator neural networks applications in electrical engineering. Startup costs of diesels

0.12 20 years 5 years [ 101 8 years [3] 450$/m2 [ 12 (12$/Wp for 20 MJ/mZ/day 100$/m2 [ 121 (1$/Wp for 5 5 m/s speed) 1OO$/KWh I IO] SOO$/KWh [ 101
SOO$/KW 45$/ni2 10$/m2 80$/KW

4.3$/m2/year[ 161 2.5$/m2/year[ 3 ] IO$/KWh [3] 0.08$/KWh lS%/KW.month 0.023%/KWh 0.196 $KWh 0 78 0.8$/KWh[3] [200 100 100 100 3001 [40 20 20 20 751 a=[l.l 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.21 b=[0.125 0.122 0.122 0.122 0.131 c=[0.14 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.16]x103 [62 5 5 55 55 661