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Subnetting Guide Subnetting Example you were given the IP address 192.1.2.0, three bits borrowed.

Bits borrowed is used for the subnetter to identify the total number of usable subnets and usable hosts that will later be assigned to different interfaces and workstations in a given network. Solution: The basic formula for usable subnet and host is as follows 2b 2 = usable subnets 2n 2 = usable hosts where: b is the number of bits borrowed n is the number of bits remaining Net Net 192. 1. Net 2. Host [11100000 ]

23 = 8 2 = 6 usable subnets 25 = 32 2 = 30 usable hosts This means that from the given IP add we can create 6 sub networks and 30 usable hosts per subnet. No. Subnet ID 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 192.1.2.0 192.1.2.32 192.1.2.64 192.1.2.96 192.1.2.128 192.1.2.160 192.1.2.192 192.1.2.224 Usable Hosts 192.1.2.1 192.1.2.30 192.1.2.33 192.1.2.62 192.1.2.65 192.1.2.94 192.1.2.97 192.1.2.126 192.1.2.129 192.1.2.158 192.1.2.161 192.1.2.190 192.1.2.193 192.1.2.222 192.1.2.225 192.1.2.254 Broadcast Address 192.1.2.31 192.1.2.63 192.1.2.95 192.1.2.127 192.1.2.159 192.1.2.191 192.1.2.223 192.1.2.255

Usable subnets

How we get the subnet ID relies on the number of hosts. In our computation for usable hosts, 2n 2, we remove two from the result because these two addresses are reserved for the subnet ID or network address and the broadcast address for the particular subnet. In our first usable subnet 192.1.2.32 is the network address, 192.1.2.63 is the broadcast address and 192.1.2.33 192.1.2.62 is the range of the usable host per subnet. If we try to count the addresses: 192.1.2.32 192.1.2.33 192.1.2.62 192.1.2.63 Total 1 address 30 addresses 1 address 32 addresses

But sometimes subnetting is so confusing. If we already know the basics of subnetting, it is advisable to identify all network address first. Example: 192.1.2.0 3 bits borrowed. Follow these steps: 1. Convert the octet of the host part into binary. The bits borrowed are represented by 1s and the remaining bits by 0s. 192.1.2. [ 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 ] 2. Apply the corresponding decimal conversion for each bit. [1
128

1
64

1
32

0
16

0
8

0
4

0
2

0]
1

3. From left, choose the last bit of 1, notice that the corresponding decimal conversion of it is 32. [1
128

1
64

1
32

0
16

0
8

0
4

0
2

0]
1

So it means that our network address counts by 32. From there it is easier to identify the broadcast address and the range of the usable hosts. see subnetting in page 1.
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Tricky huh? Maybe you were asking right now how about in class A or B? is it applicable? Lets try it again using a class B address. Given 171.3.0.0 5 bits borrowed 25 2 = 30 usable subnets 211 2 = 2046 usable hosts What we normally do in this case is to divide the usable hosts by 255 to get the division of the addresses. 2046 / 255 = 8 Lets try the shortcut [1
128

1
64

1
32

1
16

1
8

0
4

0
2

0]
1

Network 171.3.8.0 171.3.16.0 171.3.24.0

Range 171.3.8.1 171.3.15.254 171.3.16.1 171.3.24.254 171.3.24.1 171.3.31.254

Broadcast 171.3.15.255 171.3.24.255 171.3.31.255

Let us prove if the total range per subnet is equal to 2046 Range: 171.3.8.1 171.3.15.254 171.3.8.1 171.3.8.255 171.3.9.0 171.3.9.255 171.3.10.0 171.3.10.255 171.3.11.0 - 171.3.11.255 171.3.12.0 - 171.3.12.255 171.3.13.0 - 171.3.13.255 171.3.14.0 - 171.3.14.255 171.3.15.0 171.3.15.254 Total 255 addresses 256 addresses 256 addresses 256 addresses 256 addresses 256 addresses 256 addresses 255 addresses 2046 usable hosts

Another example 171.3.0.0 10 bits borrowed 210 2 = 1022 26 2 = 62 [1


128

usable subnets usable hosts 1


16

1
64

1
32

1
8

1
4

1
2

1]
1

Third octet (Hosts) Fourth octet (Hosts)

[1
128

1
64

0
32

0
16

0
8

0
4

0
2

0]
1

Network 171.3.0.0 171.3.0.64 171.3.0.128

Range 171.3.0.1 171.3.0.62 171.3.0.65 171.3.0.126 171.3.0.129 171.3.0.190

Broadcast 171.3.0.63 171.3.0.127 171.3.0.191

Let us prove if the total range per subnet is equal to 62 Range: 171.3.0.1 171.3.0.62 171.3.0.1 171.3.0.62 Total Usable Subnets When a Network Administrator of a company buys an IP address, he is only given one address. For example, if the company has a very large network, he may be given a Class A IP. If medium sized Class B and if small network Class C. it is then the responsibility of the IT Department of the company to subnet the given IP depending on the companies needs. How to decide on how many bits borrowed The number of bits borrowed must be decided before subnetting. Its result must satisfy the network needs of the company. What we have to consider mainly is the number of networks. If you only have 5 networks, you will be given a Class C address. You may borrow a minimum of 3 bits because if
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62 addresses 62 usable hosts

we compute using the formula 23 2 = 6 usable subnets. Of course 6 subnets can already support 5 networks. Higher bits can also be borrowed if the network is predicted to increase in a period of time.

So why do we have to subtract 2? This is because if we consider the network as a whole, the first address is assigned as the network address and the last is as broadcast address. Usable Hosts In our earlier discussion about subnetting the usable hosts is derived from the formula 2n 2, where n is the number of bits remaining. We subtract 2 to assign them as subnetwork address and broadcast address.