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Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure

Highway No. 2 Tupper 4 lane Upgrade


Project No. 36845 and 36846

Structures Conceptual Design Report


Prepared for: R.F. Binnie and Associates Ltd. 103-7382 Winston St. Burnaby, B.C. V5A 2G9

Prepared by: CWMM Consulting Engineers Ltd. 200 - 1854 Kirschner Road Kelowna, B.C. V1Y 4N6 Tel: 250-868-2308 Fax: 250-868-2374 Contact: Donald D. Bergman, P.Eng. Email: dbergman@cwmm.ca

Job No. K3952

July 6, 2012

CWMM CONSULTING ENGINEERS LTD.

Ministry of Transportation
Highway No. 2 Tupper 4 Lane Upgrade

Table of Contents
1.0 GENERAL ............................................................................................................ 1 1.1 Introduction ................................................................................................ 1 1.2 Design Criteria ........................................................................................... 1 1.2.1 General Design Criteria ................................................................... 1 1.2.2 Site Specific Criteria ........................................................................ 2 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ..................................................... 2 2.1 General ...................................................................................................... 2 2.2 Factors Influencing Structure Type ............................................................ 3 2.2.1 Environmental Impact ...................................................................... 3 2.2.2 Hydrotechnical Issues ...................................................................... 4 2.2.3 Geotechnical Issues ........................................................................ 4 2.2.4 Constructability and Schedule ......................................................... 4 2.2.5 Maintenance .................................................................................... 5 RECOMMENDED CONCEPTS ............................................................................ 5 3.1 General ...................................................................................................... 5 3.2 Structure Details ........................................................................................ 6 3.2.1 Four Mile Creek at Station 111+52 .................................................. 6 3.2.2 Tupper Culvert Channel at Station 139+40 ..................................... 7 3.2.3 Tupper Creek Bridge Widening at Station 140+43 .......................... 7

2.0

3.0

Appendix A -

Conceptual Design Option Drawings and Cost Estimates

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Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure


Highway No. 2, Tupper 4 Lane Upgrade Structures Conceptual Design Report Page 1

1.0 1.1

GENERAL Introduction

The BC Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure Project No. 36845 and 36846 identified as Highway No. 2, Tupper 4 Lane Upgrade, will improve safety and traffic flow along this stretch of highway. The proposed length of the upgrade is approximately 5.2 kilometres, starting at km 1.5 from the Alberta border. There are three separate structures that will be affected within the project extents Tupper Creek Bridge No. 7144 at km 3.0, Little Tupper Culvert No. 6465, and Four Mile Creek Culvert No. 6466 at km 5.9. There are a number of other smaller diameter culverts within the project limits that are less that 3.0m diameter, and therefore are not considered as structures. These include a 2.6m diameter culvert located directly adjacent to the Little Tupper Culvert No. 6465. The firm of CWMM Consulting Engineers Ltd. as a member of R.F. Binnies highway design team, is responsible for carrying out Conceptual and Detailed Design on the above noted structures. This report summarizes the conceptual phase and presents the preferred arrangement for the three noted sites, considering environmental and hydrotechnical requirements, costs and constructability, and geotechnical issues. The overall project conceptual design presents three alignment options; Option 1 widening on both sides, Option 2 widening on west side, and Option 3 widening on east side. For highway design and environmental reasons, it is understood that widening on both sides is preferred, hence this Structures Conceptual Design Report is generally focused on the Option 1 alignment. 1.2 Design Criteria

1.2.1 General Design Criteria Design shall be to the current Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code CAN/CSA S6-06, including CAN/CSA S6S1-10, and the Ministrys Supplement to CSA S6-06. Design shall be by a Professional Engineer registered in BC. Design of the structures will be based on the current Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code CAN/CSA S6-06, including CAN/CSA S6S1-10, and the Ministrys Supplement to CSA S6-06, with reference as applicable to the climatic information in the 2005 National Building Code of Canada. Where applicable, design for the new works will also incorporate the requirements of the various BC MoT documents, including the Bridge Standards and Procedures Manual, the Standard Specifications for Highway Construction, the Major Works Construction Agreement, the Proprietary Structure Design Process, and the B.C. Supplement to TAC Geometric Design Guide, as well as the Geometric Design Guide for Canadian Roads.

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Highway No. 2, Tupper 4 Lane Upgrade Structures Conceptual Design Report Page 2

The design service life of the structures will be 75 years, with a corrosion design requirement of 100 years for new structures. The design live load will be based on the BCL-625 truck loading or the comparable BCL-625 lane loading. 1.2.2 Site Specific Criteria The project is located in Seismic Performance Zone 1 where detailed seismic analysis is not required, including the foundations and abutments. For bridge structures the main seismic requirements will be provisions of adequate seat lengths for the superstructure and provisions of adequate connections between the superstructure and the substructure to resist seismic forces. The Bridge Standards and Procedures Manual indicates the maximum transport weight limit for bridge stringers to be the standard 64 tonnes, resulting in permissible girder piece weights of approximately 43 tonnes. Discussions with Rapid-Span Structures Ltd. indicate that larger stringers can be shipped, up to approximately 56 tonnes, with the appropriate overload permits. A 50mm thick future wearing surface in concrete or asphalt has been allowed for in the conceptual design of all structure options. The proposed highway cross section width of 22 metres clear between barriers is to be maintained over the structures. Bridge barriers are the standard New Jersey type castin-place bridge parapet, with a galvanized parapet railing meeting the height requirements for a bicycle railing, per MoT standards. Barrier railings/parapets are designed to satisfy the required PL-2 Performance level. For buried CSP structures, conventional CRB highway barriers will be continuous over the structure. DWB Consulting Services Ltd. are be providing hydrotechnical and environmental design for the project. Preliminary environmental recommendations have been put forth by way of email correspondence, and a Preliminary Hydrotechnical Design Brief, dated April 22, 2012, was received on April 25, then amended and re-issued on April 26, 2012. The Preliminary Hydrotechnical Design Brief was further amended and reissued on June 15, 2012. AMEC - Environment & Infrastructure will be carrying out the geotechnical investigations at the sites, and will carry out geotechnical design concurrently with the bridge and detailed highway design. To date some preliminary geotechnical information and basic design parameters have been provided by way of email and telephone correspondence.

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Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure


Highway No. 2, Tupper 4 Lane Upgrade Structures Conceptual Design Report Page 3

2.0 2.1

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS General

The existing bolted multi-plate culverts at Four Mile Creek and the Tupper culvert channel are generally considered to be in good to fair condition with some localized areas of deterioration as noted in our SPCSP Structures Condition Report, however given their age of approximately 50 years, there can be no assurance or expectation that they would be able to continue functioning throughout the full 75 year design life of this project. In addition, both of these structures are undesirable from an environmental and hydraulics perspective, therefore replacement appears to be necessary. The existing bridge structure at Tupper Creek is only a few years old and is in very good condition, so widening it to accommodate the proposed four lane template is the obvious and logical solution. The existing conditions at the Four Mile and Tupper culvert channel sites are quite similar, and there are a number of clear span bridge structure types that have been considered, as well as an open bottom arch type structure. For bridge options these short to medium length single span structures are best suited to simple beam type superstructure components, such as prestressed concrete box stringers, prestressed concrete I-stringers, and steel plate stringers. Brief consideration was given to more complex superstructure systems, such as cast-in-place concrete girders, trapezoidal concrete box girders, trapezoidal steel box girders, and steel tied arch construction. These were eliminated as viable options as the structure size and site conditions do not warrant the higher costs and constructability issues associated with these systems. At the Tupper Creek Bridge site the use of prestressed concrete box stringers to widen the existing bridge is the most logical and economical solution, by adding onto the existing structure with the same components as the original construction. 2.2 Factors Influencing Structure Type

2.2.1 Environmental Impact While early discussions considered leaving the existing culverts in place, with the necessary modifications for the widened roadway, environmental recommendations highly favour the replacement of the culverts with either clear span bridge structures or open bottom arch structures at both the Four Mile site, and the Tupper culvert channel site. There are a number of reasons for this recommendation including, the provision of fish passage and improved habitat, and less restrictive environmental permitting requirements. The area is noted as being heavily impacted by beaver activity, and the recommendations indicate that clear span bridge structures will provide the best beaver dam deterrent. It is recommended that wildlife crossings be introduced into the project design where feasible, and beneath clear span bridge structures a flat bench can be incorporated into the embankment slope, adjacent to the stream for this purpose.
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Highway No. 2, Tupper 4 Lane Upgrade Structures Conceptual Design Report Page 4

From an environmental impact perspective, the replacement of the existing culverts with clear span bridges appears to be the best solution at both sites, with open bottom arch structures being less desirable, but a considerable improvement over the existing conditions. It appears that the open bottom arch structures would provide the desired improvements in the fish habitat, but would not address the wildlife crossing issue, nor be as effective at deterring problematic beaver dam building activity. The proposed widening of the existing Tupper Creek Bridge will have minimal impact on the environment, as the existing creek channel does not require modification. 2.2.2 Hydrotechnical Issues The required clearance above the Q200 design elevation has not been finalized at this conceptual stage but is thought to be a minimum of 1.5 metres, although there is some indication that 2.0 metre clearance may be required to meet navigable waters requirements. Due to the high levels of beaver activity in the area, it appears to be desirable to provide the maximum clearance that can be reasonably achieved, in order to prevent the accumulation of debris. The Preliminary Hydrotechnical Design Brief (June 15, 2012) indicates that the existing culvert crossings at Four Mile Creek and the Tupper culvert channel do not meet the capacity of a Q200 design storm, and therefore must be replaced with larger capacity systems. The Design Brief discussion focuses on culvert replacement with either clear span bridge structures or open bottom arch structures, with preference towards bridge structures. The two Tupper Creek crossings act as one system in terms of flood levels, so a significant increase in the capacity at the Tupper culvert channel is necessary in order to reduce the current Q200 design elevation to an acceptable level. For clearance reasons the installation of a bridge structure is greatly preferred, however, an open bottom arch will reduce the Q200 design elevation enough to allow approximately 0.76m clearance at the widened existing bridge, which may be considered adequate but does not meet Ministry standards. At the Four Mile Creek site it is our understanding that the Q200 clearance requirements are satisfied with either a bridge or open bottom arch, but that a bridge is preferable due to presence of beavers. The excavation for the new creek channels at the existing culvert sites is assumed to be perpendicular to the highway for the bridge structure concepts. If the detailed hydrotechnical or environmental design requires a channel to be aligned on a skew relative to the highway, then the new bridge structure can be set on the same skew angle. For the open bottom arch options we are showing the new structures aligned with the existing culverts. At all three sites the channel banks will be armoured with the appropriate class of riprap
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Highway No. 2, Tupper 4 Lane Upgrade Structures Conceptual Design Report Page 5

keyed into the bank at the toe, similar to the conditions at the existing bridge. 2.2.3 Geotechnical Issues Although the geotechnical investigation has not been completed at this point in time, the use of driven steel pipe piles is considered to be necessary for support of the substructure elements at all three sites, based on the known conditions at the existing Tupper Creek Bridge. The preliminary information indicates that permanent cut / fill slopes in the vicinity of bridge structures must not be steeper than 2H:1V. If the detailed geotechnical design allows for steeper slopes, there is a possibility that the conceptual bridge lengths could be reduced slightly, from those presented. The geotechnical engineer has indicated that temporary cut slopes of 1.5H:1V may be allowed during construction. 2.2.4 Constructability and Schedule As noted previously the overall project preferred option maintains the existing centerline of highway, and is widened on both sides. The construction of the crossing structures will likely be staged, and although the details of traffic flow requirements are not known at this time, it is obviously desirable to choose structure types that can be constructed relatively quickly in order to reduce the impact on traffic. Further, construction methods and staging that will allow for the passage of vehicles without requiring major detour construction will be desirable from a cost perspective. At both of the culvert replacement sites the excavation required to construct the piled foundations for an open bottom arch structure will be very large, due to the much lower elevation of the arch foundations as compared to bridge foundations. As a result, the bottomless arch structures will therefore likely require the construction of a detour road and bridge offline, on the west side of the highway. For the clear span bridge structures at both sites, it appears that two way traffic could likely be accommodated by building a temporary lane to the west of the existing shoulder, then constructing the east half of the bridge. Approximately 40% of the channel excavation and culvert removal could be accomplished concurrently with the east half construction. Once completed traffic could be moved to the bridge, and the remainder of the excavation, culvert removal, and bridge construction could be completed. Bridge substructure components and construction methods are essentially the same regardless of the superstructure type selected, and there will be little difference in the time to construct. Depending on the type of superstructure, the time to construct varies considerably with the formed cast-in-place deck on individual stringer types requiring the longest time. These include both steel plate stringers and prestressed concrete Istringers. Prestressed concrete box stringers will have a clear advantage over the other options in terms of the length of construction time, as once the stringers are in place the deck is nearly completed.

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Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure


Highway No. 2, Tupper 4 Lane Upgrade Structures Conceptual Design Report Page 6

At the existing bridge site the traffic will remain on the bridge, shifted to one side as one opposite side is widened, then moved over and the remainder of the widening will be completed. There will likely need to be a relatively short temporary retaining wall constructed to support the roadway adjacent to the first phase abutment excavations, possibly utilizing battered lock-blocks. 2.2.5 Maintenance In general, bridge structures without deck joints incur less maintenance than those that utilize deck joints, and for these single span structures deck joints could be eliminated regardless of the superstructure type chosen. Bridge stringers with exposed bottom flanges tend to collect debris and attract nesting birds which can be a maintenance item, and in this regard the prestressed concrete box stringers have an advantage. Open bottom arch structures generally have very low maintenance requirements. 3.0 3.1 CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OPTIONS General

Of the bridge superstructure options that were considered, the prestressed concrete box stringers are most favourable due to the streamlined construction. There should also be some economy of scale by selecting similar structure types for all three locations, and the concrete box stringers are clearly the obvious choice for widening the existing bridge. Proprietary structural plate corrugated steel arch structures are also considered as options for the Four Mile and Tupper culvert channel sites. In determining costs, representative data from other past projects have been incorporated as applicable, including the existing Tupper Creek Bridge which was constructed in 2008. The prestressed concrete box stringers for the existing bridge widening and the new proposed bridges can be sourced from several suppliers, the closest being located in Edmonton AB. Preliminary cost data for the proprietary arch structures was obtained from Atlantic Industries Ltd., and these products can be sourced from other suppliers. The conceptual drawings and conceptual cost estimates are appended to this report. It should be noted that these conceptual cost estimates for the arch structures do not include any materials above one metre beneath finished highway grade. For direct cost comparison between arch options and bridge options the cost of the roadway aggregates, asphalt, and concrete roadside barriers over a given bridge length will need to be added to the corresponding arch cost estimate.

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Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure


Highway No. 2, Tupper 4 Lane Upgrade Structures Conceptual Design Report Page 7

3.2

Four Mile Creek at Station 111+52

3.2.1 Bridge Structure Details Currently Four Mile Creek traverses Highway No. 2 through a non-embedded 3.2m diameter multi-plate culvert, with the inlet invert located at approximately 7 metres below the highway elevation. The culvert lies at approximately a 3 degree skew relative to the highway centerline. The proposed new bridge will be a single span structure positioned approximately centred over the centerline of the culvert, and have an overall length of 30 metres. The bridge abutments consist of a single row of cantilever steel pipe piles topped with a concrete cap, which will incorporate 90 degree return wing walls to retain the roadway fills. The superstructure elements are 1100mm deep prestressed concrete box stringers, with a composite 150mm thick (nominal) reinforced concrete deck slab. The elastomeric bearings will be fixed at both ends, and will incorporate galvanized steel dowels for fixity and to provide lateral restraint. We have made allowance under dead loads for a future 50mm thick asphalt overlay and membrane, however these are not assumed to be installed at this time. The estimated construction cost for the structure is $2,610,000, and includes the channel excavation and riprap embankment protection, and the traffic management costs for the bridge construction. Refer to drawing C-S1 for the general arrangement of the proposed bridge structure. 3.2.2 Arch Structure Details The proposed new structure is a high profile arch with a bottom span dimension of 6.045m, a total rise of 4.445m, and an end area of 26.41 square metres. The overall horizontal length of the arch is 56m The arch foundations consist of a single row of driven steel pipe piles topped with a concrete pile cap. The estimated construction cost for the structure is $2,349,000 and includes all items up to one metre beneath finished grade, including channel excavation, riprap embankment/foundation protection, and the traffic management costs. Refer to drawing C-S1A for the general arrangement of the proposed arch structure.

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Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure


Highway No. 2, Tupper 4 Lane Upgrade Structures Conceptual Design Report Page 8

3.3

Tupper Culvert Channel at Station 139+40

3.3.1 Bridge Structure Details Currently this channel of Tupper Creek traverses Highway No. 2 through a nonembedded 3.2m diameter multi-plate culvert, with the inlet invert located at approximately 6.5 metres below the existing highway elevation. A 2.6m diameter culvert is located alongside with the inlet invert approximately 1.7 metres higher than the larger culvert. The culverts lies at approximately a 5 degree skew relative to the highway centerline. The proposed new bridge will be a single span structure positioned approximately centred over the centerline of the 3.2m diameter culvert, and have an overall length of 33 metres. The bridge abutments consist of a single row of cantilever steel pipe piles topped with a concrete cap, which will incorporate 90 degree return wing walls to retain the roadway fills. The superstructure elements are 1300mm deep prestressed concrete box stringers, with a composite 150mm thick (nominal) reinforced concrete deck slab. The elastomeric bearings will be fixed at both ends, and will incorporate galvanized steel dowels for fixity and to provide lateral restraint. We have made allowance under dead loads for a future 50mm thick asphalt overlay and membrane, however these are not assumed to be installed at this time. The estimated construction cost for the structure is $2,912,000, and includes the channel excavation and embankment protection, and the traffic management costs for the bridge construction. Refer to drawing C-S2 for the general arrangement of the proposed bridge structure. 3.3.2 Arch Structure Details The proposed new structure is a low profile arch with a bottom span dimension of 11.680m, a total rise of 4.800m, and an end area of 45.51 square metres. The overall horizontal length of the arch is 52.2m. The draft Preliminary Hydrotechnical Design Brief recommended a structure with significantly less end area, but subsequent discussions with the hydraulics engineer led to the structure being revised to the current cross sectional dimensions. The arch foundations consist of a single row of driven steel pipe piles topped with a concrete pile cap. The estimated construction cost for the structure is $2,579,000 and includes all items up to one metre beneath finished grade, including channel excavation, riprap embankment/foundation protection, and the traffic management costs. Refer to drawing C-S2A for the general arrangement of the proposed arch structure.

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Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure


Highway No. 2, Tupper 4 Lane Upgrade Structures Conceptual Design Report Page 9

3.4

Tupper Creek Bridge Widening at Station 140+43

The existing bridge is a single span structure with a 22.6 metre overall length, comprised of 800mm deep prestressed concrete box stringers, a 100mm thick unreinforced concrete slab on top of the boxes, overlain with 75mm of asphalt. The existing abutments consist of a cast-in-place concrete footing and abutment wall, bearing on staggered 406mm diameter steel pipe piles. The new abutments will be constructed with driven steel pipe piles supporting the concrete footings, abutment walls, and wing walls. 800mm deep prestressed concrete box stringers will bear on elastomeric bearing pads, and a concrete slab with asphalt topping will cover the box stringers, all similar to the existing structure. There will be some variation on the extent of demolition required at the interface between the existing and new components, as well as the outer edge details, depending on the final alignment chosen. With the preferred centerline widening the existing bridge parapets and wing walls will be removed on both sides, whereas with the west side widening they only need to be removed on one side. The estimated construction cost for the widening of this structure is $1,348,500, and includes the embankment protection, the traffic management costs for the bridge construction, and the demolition of the existing bridge parapets and wing walls on both sides. Refer to drawing C-S3 for the general arrangement of the proposed structure. 4.0 RECOMMENDATIONS

The initial proposal to retain the existing multi-plate culverts at Four Mile Creek and the Tupper culvert channel does not appear to be acceptable for reasons of longevity as well as hydraulics and environmental issues, so these structures must be replaced. The installation of clear span bridge structures at both sites is preferred over the open bottom arch option by both environmental and hydrological recommendations, and the bridge options appear to be better suited to staged construction and accommodation of traffic, due to the prohibitively large excavations required for open bottom arch construction. It is possible that the structures may be able to be made shorter with consideration of steepened fill slopes (ie, steeper than 2:1) if deemed acceptable from a geotechnical perspective, thus reducing costs. For the widened bridge structure at Tupper Creek, the box stringer superstructure mimicking the existing bridge is the obvious and preferred solution. As noted, the Q200 clearance is found to be inadequate based on the bottomless arch structure concept at the Tupper culvert channel, however a bridge structure at this location appears to alleviate this issue.
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Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure


Highway No. 2, Tupper 4 Lane Upgrade Structures Conceptual Design Report Page 10

Upon considering all of the factors that influence the recommended structure type for these crossings, we believe that a clear span bridge utilizing prestressed concrete box stringers will provide a cost effective solution that can be constructed relatively quickly, and will best satisfy the environmental concerns of the local stakeholders.

Report Submitted by: CWMM Consulting Engineers Ltd.

Per:

Don D. Bergman, M.Eng., P.Eng., Principal

CWMM CONSULTING ENGINEERS LTD.