Anda di halaman 1dari 318

ADA cellworks

Louder than words..

INTRODUCTION TO GSM

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

INTRODUCTION TO GSM
INTRODUCTION The Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) is a set of recommendations and specifications for a digital cellular telephone network (known as a Public Land Mobile Network, or PLMN). These recommendations ensure the compatibility of equipment from different GSM manufacturers, and interconnectivity between different administrations, including operation across international boundaries. GSM networks are digital and can cater for high system capacities. They are consistent with the world-wide digitization of the telephone network, and are an extension of the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), using a digital radio interface between the cellular network and the mobile subscriber equipment.

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

INTRODUCTION TO GSM
CELLULAR TELEPHONY A cellular telephone system links mobile subscribers into the public telephone system or to another cellular subscriber. Information between the mobile unit and the cellular network uses radio communication. Hence the subscriber is able to move around and become fully mobile. The service area in which mobile communication is to be provided is divided into regions called cells. Each cell has the equipment to transmit and receive calls from any subscriber located within the borders of its radio coverage area.

Radio Cell Mobile subscriber

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

INTRODUCTION TO GSM
GSM FREQUENCIES GSM systems use radio frequencies between 890-915 MHz for receive and between 935-960 MHz for transmit. RF carriers are spaced every 200 kHz, allowing a total of 124 carriers for use. An RF carrier is a pair of radio frequencies, one used in each direction. Transmit and receive frequencies are always separated by 45 MHz.
UPLINK FREQUENCIES DOWNLINK FREQUENCIES

890

915

935

960

UPLINK AND DOWNLINK FREQUENCY SEPARATED BY 45MHZ

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

INTRODUCTION TO GSM
Extended GSM (EGSM) EGSM has 10MHz of bandwidth on both transmit and receive. Receive bandwidth is from 880 MHz to 890 MHz. Transmit bandwidth is from 925 MHz to 935 MHz. Total RF carriers in EGSM is 50.

UPLINK FREQUENCIES

DOWNLINK FREQUENCIES

880

890

915

925

935

960

UPLINK AND DOWNLINK FREQUENCY SEPARATED BY 45MHZ

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

INTRODUCTION TO GSM
DCS1800 FREQUENCIES DCS1800 systems use radio frequencies between 1710-1785 MHz for receive and between 1805-1880 MHz for transmit. RF carriers are spaced every 200 kHz, allowing a total of 373 carriers. There is a 100 kHz guard band between 1710.0 MHz and 1710.1 MHz and between 1784.9 MHz and 1785.0 MHz for receive, and between 1805.0 MHz and 1805.1 MHz and between 1879.9 MHz and 1880.0 MHz for transmit. Transmit and receive frequencies are always separated by 95 MHz.
UPLINK FREQUENCIES DOWNLINK FREQUENCIES

1710 MHz

1785 MHz

1805 MHz

1880 MHz

UPLINK AND DOWNLINK FREQUENCY SEPARATED BY 95MHZ

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

FEATURES OF GSM

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

FEATURES OF GSM
INCREASED CAPACITY The GSM system provides a greater subscriber capacity than analogue systems. GSM allows 25 kHz per user, that is, eight conversations per 200 kHz channel pair (a pair comprising one transmit channel and one receive channel). Digital channel coding and the modulation used makes the signal resistant to interference from cells where the same frequencies are re-used (co-channel interference); a Carrier to Interference Ratio (C/I) level of 12 dB is achieved, as opposed to the 18 dB typical with analogue cellular. This allows increased geographic reuse by permitting a reduction in the number of cells in the reuse pattern.

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

FEATURES OF GSM
AUDIO QUALITY Digital transmission of speech and high performance digital signal processors provide good quality speech transmission. Since GSM is a digital technology, the signals passed over a digital air interface can be protected against errors by using better error detection and correction techniques. In regions of interference or noise-limited operation the speech quality is noticeably better than analogue.

USE OF STANDARDISED OPEN INTERFACES Standard interfaces such as C7 and X25 are used throughout the system. Hence different manufacturers can be selected for different parts of the PLMN. There is a high flexibilty in where the Network components are situated.

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

FEATURES OF GSM
IMPROVED SECURITY AND CONFIDENTIALITY GSM offers high speech and data confidentiality. Subscriber authentication can be performed by the system to check if a subscriber is a valid subscriber or not. The GSM system provides for high degree of confidentiality for the subscriber. Calls are encoded and ciphered when sent over air. The mobile equipment can be identified independently from the mobile subscriber. The mobile has a identity number hard coded into it when it is manufactured. This number is stored in a standard database and whenever a call is made the equipment can be checked to see if it has been reported stolen.

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

FEATURES OF GSM
CLEANER HANDOVERS GSM uses Mobile assisted handover techique. The mobile itself carries out the signal strength and quality measurement of its server and signal strength measurement of its neighbors. This data is passed on the Network which then uses sophisticated algorithms to determine the need of handover.

SUBSCRIBER IDENTIFICATION In a GSM system the mobile equipment and the subscriber are identified separately. The subscriber is identified by means of a smart card known as a SIM. This enables the subscriber to use different mobile equipment while retaining the same subscriber number.

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

FEATURES OF GSM
ENHANCED RANGE OF SERVICES Speech services for normal telephony. Short Message Service for point ot point transmission of text message. Cell broadcast for transmission of text message from the cell to all MS in its coverage area. Message like traffic information or advertising can be transmitted. Fax and data services are provided. Data rates available are 2.4 Kb/s, 4.8 Kb/s and 9.6 Kb/s. Supplementary services like number identification , call barring, call forwarding, charging display etc can be provided.

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

FEATURES OF GSM
FREQUENCY REUSE There are total 124 carriers in GSM ( additional 50 carriers are available if EGSM band is used). Each carrier has 8 timeslots and if 7 can be used for traffic then a maximum of 868 ( 124 X 7 ) calls can be made. This is not enough and hence frequencies have to be reused. The same RF carrier can be used for many conversations in several different cells at the same time.

The radio carriers available are allocated according to a regular pattern which repeats over the whole coverage area. The pattern to be used depends on traffic requirement and spectrum availability. Some typical repeat patterns are 4/12, 7/21 etc.

2 1 4 3

5
6

7
2 1

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

WHAT IS OPTIMISATION???

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Optimization Process
Start / Sign NDA

Collection of required inputs - Drive test data - OMC data - Customer complaints - Others

Analysis of inputs data - Neighbor lists - Coverage / interference - Database strategy - Capacity - Quality - Dimensioning

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Optimization Process
Framing or recommendations Field team Rework & Modify

No

Recommendation review(internal)

Yes Customer presentation / Full documentation Rework & Modify

No

Customer approval Yes Change Control process / Implementation

Verification & Documentation

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Operator perspective

Set up time RxLevel Handover

Call success rate

Call success rate Call Drop rate Cell congestion Cell interference Handover

35 % 13 % 13 % 9% 9%

Rx Level
Set up time
Cell interference

9%
12 %

Call drop rate

Cell congestion

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Customer perspective
Call set up time Call Drops No connection Coverage (outdoor)

Coverage Outdoor Coverage Indoor Speech Quality No Connection

42 % 26 % 7% 12 % 3% 10 %

Speech Quality Coverage (Indoor)

Call Drops Call setup time

Important to decide KPIs covering customer perspective


ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

KPI Definitions

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Indicators Coverage

Signal Strength -outdoors

In building, In-Car penetration signal levels Uplink Voice Quality Downlink Voice Quality Call Drops Cell Power control

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Indicators Capacity
Erlangs per Cell TCH success

TCH assignment failures


TCH Drop calls TCH Blocking Cell congestion Congestion Relief Usage BHCA against rated MSC limit mErl/subs. against rated MSC limit

SMS/subs. Against MSC limit


MM values(HO,LU,Paging) against limits Overload : Voice/Signalling/Processor

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Indicators Quality
RxLev Handovers Call Drops Call Success Rate Call set up success rate TCH success

TCH assignment failures


TCH Drop calls SDCCH traffic blocking SDCCH drop calls SDCCH Success rates PSTN availability and quality

Call completion rate


Call set up time Voice quality(MOS) RxQual Echo

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Drive Tests

Objective
Competitor Benchmarking Identification of weak areas for own network / Competitor Map handover boundaries (in case of Optimization) Review neighbor definitions

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Drive Test Sample Signal Level Plot

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Drive Test Sample Signal Quality Plot

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Drive Test - Guidelines

Drive test routes chosen have a great impact on the Performance measurement and the following are the guidelines suggested for this drive test exercise: A short call shall have a 90 second call duration, with 30 seconds lapse in time between each short call. A long call shall have duration of one hour, with a one-minute lapse in time between each long call. A minimum of 8000 calls combined, are suggested to allow for a reasonable evaluation of the entire Network (Assuming a major Metro). Based on the data gathered in short calls, Areas for Long call drive tests should be identified & tested.

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Drive Test - Guidelines


Drive test for important areas to be carried out during Busy Hour
Busy hour i.e. the 60 minutes span with the maximum average traffic in Erlang over the target area. The average traffic over the target area is equal to the total traffic in Erlang carried by all Sectors included in the area divided by the number of Sectors in the area

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Drive Test Guidelines


Drive test duration for the area type will be typically equivalent to N / 3 Hours, where N is the no. of sites in the area. The following are the rules of thumb to be kept in mind while choosing the Drive Test Routes:
Adequate crossings of handover boundaries Intensive drive of most of the roads & bylanes of the service area Problem areas should be drive tested in the Busy hours

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Drive Test - Report


Executive summary consisting of:
Network Performance Metrics Based on weightage for KPIs decided with customer Network Quality comparison with main competitor Call Setup performance Network Quality performance consisting of
Accessibility: No. of successful call starts / Number of Call attempts Reliability: No. of calls that did not drop / No. of successful call starts Voice Quality: In terms of RxQual, SQI (TEMS), FER

KPIs with description

Blocked call performance Handover performance

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Drive Test Report


Definitions:
Total Call Attempts = Blocked Calls + Access Failures + Dropped Calls + Calls Terminating with Normal Treatment; A Blocked Call is a call rejected on the Air Interface or terminated before its normal completion because of lack of resource in the BSS or the NSS Network An Access Failure is a situation where a call is terminated without being rejected, before it has reached its normal completion, without being a Dropped Call; and A Dropped Call is a situation originating from a failed handover without re-establishment or a radio link time out at any stage of the call.

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Drive Test - Report


Plots per Drive Test basis containing (for customer network & main competitor): RxLev RxQual Events
Handover No service Access Failure Dropped Calls

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Analysis - Typical Setup Failure Causes - Distribution

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Analysis - Typical Dropped Call Causes Distribution

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Setting Targets

Quality is not a destination, it is an Attitude

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Network Audit - Recommendations

Recommendations on Coverage Optimization Recommendation on Capacity Optimization Recommendation on BSS parameter settings
Neighbor lists Handover Idle Mode Power Control etc. Traffic patterns Signaling network

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Network Audit - Recommendations

Frequency Plan
Efficient use of spectrum Requirement forecast

Requirements for In-building solutions Optimization recommendations for Inbuilding solutions

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Network Audit Issues


Recommendations need to be completely documented with technical justification A change control & logging process needs to be setup All changes need to be verified after implementation

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Important processes for Optimization


Coverage Optimization Frequency Plan SDCCH Dimensioning Capacity Optimization Control of Handover locations Traffic Management
HCS IUO Network initiated Handovers Coverage Optimization

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Important parameters for Optimization


BSS Parameter settings
Handover Neighbor List Power Control (U/L & D/L) Idle Mode behavior

Vendor specific features


Single BCCH Directed retry Congestion relief etc.

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

LETS START OPTIMISATION

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Troubleshooting

Blocked Calls Poor Quality and Drop calls Abnormal Handovers Interference Termination Failures

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Blocked Call

Troubleshooting

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Blocked Calls
Blocked Calls can occur due to : Access Failures SDCCH Congestion SDCCH Drop TCH Congestion

Trouble shooting cause : Use Layer 3 messages to analyze the cause Decode System Information Type 3 messages. Note the parameter , max_retransmission ; CCCH CONF and BS_AG_BLKS_RES

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

The best way of analyzing blocked calls, to identify the cause, is from a Layer III protocol log. * Paging Failure A paging message always originates from the MSC and is sent to all the BSCs in the Location Area of the MS to be paged. The BSC will then calculate the Paging group of the MS and send a Paging Command to the BTSs controlling the Location Area of the MS. On the air interface there are two cases of Paging Failure, either the Mobile receives no Paging message or it receives a Paging message, but is not able to respond (not able to send a RACH) which could be due errors in the Paging message. * Access Failure Irrespective of the purpose, for any communication required with the network, a mobile sends a Channel Request (for SDCCH) on a RACH and waits for some time for a response which should come from the BTS on an AGCH. A mobile will do several retransmission of RACHs (predefined) and if it still does not get a response, it goes back to idle mode and preferably does a cell reselection. At this stage we call it an Access Failure. * SDCCH Blocked Once a mobile has sent a Channel Request on a RACH , it expects a response from the BTS on the AGCH. This should be an Immediate Assignment Command to an SDCCH. If an Immediate Assignment Reject comes instead , then this is SDCCH blocking. * TCH Blocked After the completion of call set-up signaling, a mobile expects an Assignment Command to a TCH so that speech can commence. If no Assignment occurs for a specific period and the Mobile has to return to idle mode, then it is due to TCH congestion.

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Blocked Call Analysis - L3 messages


1 Channel Request RACH . : RACH max_retrans NO RESPONSE FROM N/W ACCESS FAILURE ! 3 Channel Request Imm Assignment Service Request Signalling : Signalling NO TCH ASSIGNMENT Mobile Returns To Idle TCH BLOCKED !

2 Channel Request RACH Imm Assign Reject SDCCH BLOCKED !

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Blocked Call - Cause troubleshooting

Access Failures
- CCCH Overload at the Base Station
- Uplink Interference at the Base Station - Low Rxlev at the Base Station - Base Station TRX decoder malfunctioning - Downlink Low Rxlev ( Coverage Hole ) - Downlink Interference - Excess Cell Range

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Access Failure - Troubleshooting


Access Failure - Uplink Problem

Causes:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. AGCH Overload at Base Station RACH Collisions MS out of Range Poor Uplink quality BTS Receiver Problem

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Access Failure - Troubleshooting


AGCH Overloading - Root Cause Analysis
If Multiple Immediate Assignment Extended Messages are seen, problem could be AGCH overloading OR RACH Collisions/Non-detection If max_retrans and Tx-Integer are set to a lower value, problem could be more towards RACH Collisions/ Non-detection If set high, then possibility of overloading is high!! Check for CCCH_CONF and BS_AG_BLKS_RES. If less blocks are reserved , problem is overloading. Analyze the OMC data for the same period for the following stats: - No of Deletions - No of Successful RACHs - RACH Busy counts - No of RACHs with invalid establishment cause

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Access Failure - Troubleshooting


RACH Collisions/ Max Range - Root Cause Analysis
Max_Retrans and Tx-Integer set low - RACH Collisions Possible

Check for Distance from Base Station -- Plot a map for BCH ARFCN -- Export the Channel Request and CellID Label -- Import the Site IDs Raster Images on the Map -- Calculate distance between Channel Request and BTS -- Compare this distance with the Max_Distance_Allowed set for thjs cell. -- Note: Max_Dist_Allowed is a BSC paramter ( not on Air ) -- If the MS distance is more than max_distance then problem with Max Range
If both the above conditions dont meet, then problem is Non-Detection

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Access Failure - Troubleshooting


RACH Non-Detection - Root Cause Analysis
Downlink is fine !!! Parameters are well set for RACH control !!! Problem could be Uplink Quality / Base Station Analyze the following OMC Data -- No of Invalid RACHs -- Interference on Idle Channel -- SDCCH RF Loss / TCH RF Loss If Interference and RF Losses are above normal, problem is Uplink Interference. If RF Losses are high, but interference is low , problem is Uplink level

Uplink level poor indicates Link imbalance.


If all above conditions are satisfactory and still No of Invalid RACHs high, problem could

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Access Failure - Troubleshooting


Downlink
RACH Non-Detection

Fine Analyze OMC Data

No of Invalid RACHs High


Yes
BTS TRX BTS Testing Abis Monitoring

Interference on Idle Channels High


No
Uplink Imbalance

SDCCH/TCH RF Losses
Uplink Intrfer Yes

No

Yes

High
No

UL-Interference Test
No
Problem Found

Link Imbalance Test

Yes

Identify Cause Troubleshoot

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Now let us go a step further in understanding the most probable causes behind call block problems. * Access Failures It could simply be caused by coverage holes . Interference could however play an important role. Uplink interference on a serving cell can result in RACH rejections and hence no AGCH assignments. Improper channel distribution between AGCH and PCH (paging channel) can result in RACH/AGCH overloading. Paging Failures can be impacted by BCH pollution (cochannel and adjacent channel interference). * SDCCH Blocked Heavy Traffic and excessive Location Updates can result in congestion of SDCCH resources. Interference can block the channels , so though resources are available they may not be able to be used. * TCH Blocked Heavy Traffic is the main cause of TCH congestion. The TCH can also be blocked due to continuous interference in the uplink. Solutions to access failures would be to ensure continuous coverage and optimization of CCCH configuration parameters . For TCH and SDCCH congestion, the hot spots need to be identified and load sharing techniques implemented. Some techniques that have been used successfully involve adjusting cell powers to vary the coverage and therefore the location where mobiles will handover from one cell to the next. Interference management is essential for optimum network performance. Location updates can be optimized by independent drive tests on the ALL BCH carriers. The delta is measured of each BCH with the current serving BCH and the Reselect Hysteresis parameters adjusted appropriately.

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Blocked Call Analysis


SDCCH Congestion Cause Location Updates to be analysed with OMC statistics first. If high, determine the source to target cell ratio Drive around the suspected area in the Idle Mode Configure Delta LAC < > Constant 0 alarms Optimize Location Updates Interference Analyze OMC statistics on Idle Channel Interference Carry out Uplink Interference Measurements using Viper Heavy Traffic Verify from OMC statistics SDCCH Congestion Carry Call Setup Time measurements Optimize set up time if high, else modify channel configuration

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Blocked Call
TCH Blocked - Causes Interference -- Verify Idle Channel Interference reports from OMC -- If suspected, carry out uplink interference measurements Heavy Traffic -- Verify the TCH Holding time and no of attempts statistics from OMC -- During low traffic hours, Activate Cell barring in the cell -- Carry out Time slot testing , by setting Ignore Cell Barring. Solutions To Blocked Calls Optimize coverage Optimize Cell loading Interference management Channel configurations Optimize neighbors

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Blocked Call - Interference


Base Station Measures Uplink Interference on Idle Timeslots At regular intervals, categorizes Timeslots into Interference Bands. There are Five Interference Bands. Each Interference Band has a range of interference level. Example : Interference Band 1 = -110 to -100 dbm Interference Band 2 = - 99 to -90 dbm Interference Band 3 = - 89 to -75 dbm Interference Band 4 = - 75 to -60 dbm Interference Band 5 = -59 dbm and above

Network will assign Timeslots starting from lower band Interference Band 5 Timeslots are considered as BLOCKED OMC reports Hourly average statistics for each timeslot.

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Timeslot - Testing
Activate Cell Barring from OMC. Remove this cell from the neighbor list of other cells. Get the cell configuration ARFCNs and Timeslots configured for TCH.

For BCH carrier select the Timeslot and carry out the Testing
For TCH Carriers: Block the BCH Timeslots from OMC Carry out Timeslot testing. If more than 1 TCH Carrier is activated, block all others .

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Congestion Relief - Redirection


Most of the manufacturers now provide this feature
Channel Request

Immd Assign
MM/CC Signaling ALL TCHs Busy

Assign Command

BSC
Assignment Request

MSC

Allocates a Free TCH

*** Some of the systems may also do handover existing calls to strong neighbors and assign TCH for this call from the same cell

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Congestion Relief - Redirection


Role of Drive Testing

OMC statistics may not reveal the actual congestion in a cell. Drive Testing may be required in the Peak traffic hours to estimate how many times this happens. Drive Testing may also be required to optimize the neighbor list for effectiveness of this feature.

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Dropped Call Troubleshooting

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Call drops are identified through SACCH messages. A Radio Link Failure Counter value is broadcast on the BCH. The counter value may vary from network to network. At the establishment of a dedicated channel, the counter is set to the broadcast value (which will be the maximum allowable for the connection). The mobile decrements the counter by 1 for every FER (unrecoverable block of data) detected on the SACCH and increases the counter by 2 for every data block that is correctly received (up to the initial maximum value). If this counter reaches zero, a radio link failure is declared by the mobile and it returns back to the idle mode. If the counter reaches zero when the mobile is on a SDCCH then it is an SDCCH Drop. If it happens on a TCH, it is a TCH drop.

Sometimes an attempted handover, which may in itself have been an attempt to prevent a drop, can result in a dropped call.
When the quality drops, a mobile is usually commanded to perform a handover. Sometimes however, when it attempts to handover, it finds that the target cell is not suitable. When this happens it jumps back to the old cell and sends a Handover Failure message to the old cell. At this stage, if the handover was attempted at the survival threshold, the call may get dropped anyway. If on the other hand the thresholds were somewhat higher, the network can attempt another handover.

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Drop Calls Analysis


1 Channel Request Imm Assignment Service Request Signalling : Signalling RLT = 0 ; DROPS SDCCH DROP ! 2 Channel Request Imm Assignment Service Request SDCCH Signalling : Speech TCH RLT = 0 ; DROPS TCH DROP !

SDCCH / TCH Handover Command Hand Access Handover Failure HANDOVER FAILURE DROP !

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Dropped Call Analysis


SDCCH Drops - Causes
Coverage Interference & Multipath BTS performance

Solutions to Dropped Calls


Optimize Coverage Interference Management Optimize neighbors Optimize handover parameters Effective Frequency Hopping Use of DTX & Power control

TCH Drops - Causes


Coverage Interference & Multipath BTS performance Pre-emption

Handover Failure - Causes


Threshold parameters Missing neighbors

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

We will examine the potential causes behind call drops and some solutions to combat them. * Coverage Poor non-contiguous coverage will reduce C/N and hence will reduce the Ec/No and will result into call drops. * Interference This is one of the major causes of dropped calls. Interference could be co-channel, adjacent channel or external. Under certain severe cell interference conditions, the call will be dropped before a handover can be initiated.. Multipath interference can also add to the problems. Strong signal reflections result in time dispersion issues resulting in a large coherence bandwidth.

* Network initiated drops Certain network features, like preemption, can kill an ordinary call to provide connection to an emergency class subscriber.
A handover is the key to survival from dropping calls. But if there are problems in the Handover process itself, then this will not avoid a drop. Dropped calls can be effectively reduced by improving coverage, detecting and reducing interference, setting appropriate Handover Margins , thresholds for handovers and the correct selection of neighbors. Use of DTX and dynamic downlink power control will also reduce average interference which should lead to some improvements.

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Drop Call - Troubleshooting


Troubleshoot Link Imbalance UL-Interference

DROP CALL
YES

Handover Attempted ? Handover Failed ?

RLT=0
YES

No

L3 Message Analysis Troubleshoot Multipath/ Co-Channel/ BSIC decode


Area of concern

Uplink Problem !!! Coverage Hole !!!

No

RxQual > 4
YES

YES

Rx_Lev < -95 No TCH=BCH


YES

Pri/Int <= 9

YES

Optimize Neighbors/ Coverage

No ** C/IAb <= -9 No
YES

No
C/IAa <= -9 No
YES

Co-Channel / Multipath Interference!!

Adjacent Channel Interference!!


Troubleshoot Source Cell Using BCH Analyzer

No

Multipath

No

TCH -Pri/Int <= 9


YES

** If TCH is Hopping, then all causes needs to be verified further, before concluding on the root cause and optimizing.

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

SDCCH Drop - Coverage SDCCH Drop - Co- Channel Interference SDCCH Drop - Adjacent Channel Interference SDCCH Drop - Uplink Problem TCH Drop - Coverage TCH Drop - Co-Channel Interference TCH Drop - Adjacent Channel Interference TCH Drop - Uplink Problem Handover Failure

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Poor Quality
Poor Speech Quality could be due to Patchy Coverage ( holes) No Target cell for Handover Echo , Audio holes, Voice Clipping Interference ---: Co-channel Adjacent channel External Multipath Noise

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Speech Quality Parameters


RxQUAL : Measured on the midamble. Indicates poor speech quality due to radio interface impairments FER : Measured on the basis of BFI ( Ping -Pong effect on speech ) Preferred under Frequency Hopping situation

Echo and distortion : Generally caused by the Transmission and switching system.
Audio holes : Blank period of speech, due to malfunctioning of Transcoder boards or PCM circuits. Voice Clipping : Occurs due to improper implementation of DTX. Mean Opinion Score (MOS) : ITU standard for estimating speech quality.

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Speech Quality Parameters


Mean Opinion Score
Criteria for Voice Quality : A set value x at which y percent of customers rate the voice quality at Circuit Merits(CM) 4 - 5.

MOS 5 4 3 2 1

Quality Scale Excellent ( speech perfectly understandable) Good ( speech easily understandable, some noise) Fair ( speech understandable with a slight effort, occasional repetitions needed) Poor ( speech understandable only with considerable effort, frequent repetitions needed) Unsatisfactory ( speech not understandable)

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Speech Quality - Estimation


Speech BAD BAD BAD BAD BAD GOOD CLIPPING CLIPPING ECHO RxQual HIGH HIGH LOW LOW GOOD HIGH LOW LOW LOW FER LOW HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH LOW HIGH LOW LOW FH NO NO NO YES YES YES YES YES Y/N DTX NO NO NO NO NO NO YES YES Y/N Reason Air Interface Impairments Severe Air Interface Impairments Transmission and Switching system , Transcoder Air Interface Impairments Transmission and Switching system , Transcoder Hopping Implementation Hopping Implementation and VAD VAD Transmission and Switching system , Transcoder

MOS up to a certain extent can easily estimated by configuring an algorithm using the Alarms in the HP E74XX systems for the following elements, an example of subset of which is illustrated above - RxQual Full and Sub - RxLev Full and Sub - FER and RLT - L3 Measurement Report - L3 Handover specfic messages

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Speech Quality - Troubleshooting


Troubleshoot Link Imbalance UL-Interference

Poor Quality
Patchy Quality Multipath High Probability with Hopping ON

MOS < 4
No DTX_DL ON

YES

RxQual> 6
YES

No

Hopping ON
YES YES

No

Transmission/ Switching Systems Transcoder

Uplink Problem !!!

No FER > 1%
YES YES

FER > 2%

No
Troubleshoot Multipath/ Co-Channel/ BSIC decode

A
Area of concern

Coverage Hole !!!

Rx_Lev < -95 No TCH=BCH


YES

Pri/Int <= 9

YES

Co-Channel Interference!!

Optimize Neighbors/ Coverage

No ** C/IAb <= -9
YES

No
C/IAa <= -9
YES

B
YES

No No TCH -Pri/Int <= 9


YES

Adjacent Channel Interference!!

RLT going down No

B
Troubleshoot Source Cell Using BCH Analyzer

** If TCH is in Hopping, then all interference causes needs to be verified further, before concluding on the root cause and optimizing.

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Troubleshooting Poor Speech Quality


Method 1 : Post Processing

Create the Following PLAN Wizards in Export


Quality-PHONEDATA Rx_Lev Rx_Qual FER RLT current Value Timing Advance Tx Level ARFCN ( BCH and TCH) Serving Cell Information -- CellID
Quality-Cell Information Interference Co-Channel Interference -- Channel -- Primary/Interferer -- Primary BSIC -- Secondary BSIC -- Textual Meas Status -- Numeric Meas Status -- Fading Adjacent Channel Interf -- AdjA Channel -- AdjA N/N-1 -- AdjA N/N+1 -- AdjB Channel -- AdB N/N-1 -- AdjB N/N+1 ARFCN

Serving Cell Information -- CellID -- BSIC Neighbor Cell Measurements Neighbor Meas Count() Timeslot ARFCN

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Filtered Spots- RxQual > 4

Bad Spot 1

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Troubleshooting - Bad Spot 1

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Which is this CELL ??

Select QualPhoneData Layer. Check on Labels

Select Labels
Select CellID. Display it on the MAP

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Which is the cell ? 47450 !!

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Did the Call Drop ???

Create RLT.tab Query for RLT < 8 Import as Label Layer

RLT = 0 , DROP CALL !!

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Conclusion
BAD Spot 1 has poor quality and Call Drop This spot is covered by Cell 47450 Poor Coverage. Level below -97 dbm But Call should not Drop The other Problem is Interference. Mobile is Hopping on 99 and 84 99 is also the BCH. Co-Channel on BCH is very high. 50% of the time quality will be poor. But Poor Quality is consistent. Channel 84 is also suffering from Interference. No Adjacent Channel on 84 and 99 This means there is Co-Channel on 84 also. It could also be multipath issue on 84. WHY NO HANDOVER

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Troubleshooting Handover Problems

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Troubleshooting - No Handover
Weak Neighbors - Reported by Phone Create a Handover PLAN Total Attempted Calls Total Dropped Calls Total Blocked Calls RxQual Full RxLeve Full RLT Current Value ARFCN Neighbor Cell Measurements RR Message Phone State Sequency Number

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Analyzing - No Handover

No Neighbor( very weak)

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Missing Neighbors
Real Time

BCH Analyzer : TOP N = 7 Configure an Alarm for Missing Neighbor Subset BCH TOP N not-subset Value ARFCN

Frequency Reuse
'B' NET

CH 35 BSIC 16

'B' NET 'A' NET

CH 35 BSIC 21
'A' NET

'B' NET

CH 88 BSIC 53

CH 40 BSIC 15
'B' NET 'B' NET 'B' NET

CH 98 BSIC
57

PHONE REPORTS
CH 27 35 40 25 RxQual 1 RxLev -80 -85 -83 -95

CH 29 BSIC
'A' NET 22

CH 25
BSIC 17

CH 27 BSIC
23

CH 72 BSIC 75

Channel 29 is not in the neighbour list !

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Missing Neighbor is a very critical problem in optimizing GSM neighbors. Missing Neighbor as such doesnt means that there is no neighbor. We define neighbors to a cell based on the geography, I.e which base stations are nearby. In certain cases we may also use the Planning Tools to predict neighbors. It is such not desirable to use excessive neighbors also, since this reduces the samples collected per neighbor. Since Mobile has to look for each neighbor in one TDMA frame, and we have 104 frames for measurement. This means if we define 32 neighbors , the number of samples per neighbor will be only 3-4, which means the authenticity of Handovers will not be there. So we need to define appropriate neighbors only. In certain cases the neighbors we define may not be able to cope up with traffic or at certain significant patches of the cell, these neighbors signals would be weak and may result into no handovers or handover failures. So in such kind of problem spots , we should be see the possibility that signals from any other cell is coming or not, so that we can define that as a neighbor. So how do we find such missing neighbors.

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Troubleshooting - Handover Parameter Settings


Decide the Target Cell for handover in the Trouble Spot Filter the Handover.txt file on Handover Attempts ( before AND after numbers) Filter again on Neighbor ARFCN = Target Cell ARFCN Create another column as HO_Margin , with Delta for Neighbor_Level to RxLev Plot this on the MAP and see wether Handover Margin can be reduced to improve quality OR increased to avoid Ping-Pong effects If handover margin settings are proper, and still handover is not occurring then it could be a problem with Handover decision and processing parameters at the BSC.

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Interference Measurements and Troubleshooting

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Types of Interference
We already know .
Co-Channel BCH - BCH TCH - BCH BCH - TCH TCH - TCH Adjacent Channel Interference BCH - BCH TCH - BCH BCH - TCH TCH - TCH

Multipath

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

TroubleShooting

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Uplink Problems

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Locating Uplink quality Bad Spots

RX_Level is near P_Con Threshold Ms Tx Level is max ( 5)

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Locating Uplink Bad Quality Spots.

Trend shows: High receive level And High Ms Tx Levels in this area.

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Locating Uplink Bad Quality Spots


At some areas for low signal level ( < -88), MS at full power In another area for high signal level ( -75 to -85 ) , MS full power MS Tx Level is controlled by the network. Network will ask MS to increase power if Uplink level is poor or Quality is poor.

Link Imbalance will result into low uplink level even if DL Level is good. Then MS will be at high power in all those spots where level is good. BUT THIS IS NOT THE CASE !!! ( as seen from two spots)
This means this is a problem of Uplink quality being poor at good level. This can happen due to UPLINK INTERFERENCE. This interference seems to be burst in nature !!!!

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Troubleshooting - Uplink Interference


Uplink Interference can be due to: Mobiles in reuse and adjacent channel cells Spurs and Intermods from base stations External sources Interference due to Mobiles will be bursty and intermittent. The behavior and its effect on quality will be time dependent. More interference during heavy traffic hours. Interference from external sources can be continous or also time dependent if the source is not continously ON.

Uplink Interference measurement needs long term monitoring , collection of data, processing the data and estimating the probability of interference , and also estimating the source.

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Termination Failures Troubleshooting

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Troubleshooting - Termination Failures

Termination Failures could be due to: Paging Problems with Network No response to page from MS Blocking of Resources If Paging Success Rate = 100 %, but still the caller reports termination failures, then this Blocking.
If Paging Success Rate < 100 % ,then this could be : - Paging Problems with Network Or - No response to page from MS

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Troubleshooting-Termination Failures

Verify and Isolate the problem as: Interference Excessive Cell Reselection Excessive Location Updates None of above indicates Network Problem ( no paging)

Excessive Cell Reselection and Location Updates can occur due to Interference ( Downlink signaling Counter reaches 0) BCH Pollution Overlapping of Location Areas. Carry out protocol analysis on Abis and A Interface to isolate network problem further

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Cell Optimization

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Optimization
Cell Loading

C 3

C 2

C 1

Cells C1 and C2 are reporting Blocking Cell C3 is added to cater for capacity Still C1 and C2 report blocking. Why ?????

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Optimizing - Cell Loading


More Traffic could be persuaded towards C3 by : Increasing the Power Output of C3 BTS Tilting Antennas towards Hot spots in C1 and/or C2 Applying Reselect Offsets to certain less loaded neighbor cells

With this approach more MS's will camp on or do cell reselection to C3, thus reduce load in C1 & C2. These issues are very common to fast growing networks, because new cells when are planned , we don't know the HOT SPOTS. In most cases , new cells investment could also be minimized by understand the RF environment and optimizing cell loading.

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Optimizing - New Cell Site Location & Antenna Tilts


New cell sites in the earlier phase of the network are implemented to enhance coverage. Coverage enhancements takes priority over areas of predicted traffic Once coverage objectives are met, cell expansion takes place purely on the basis of traffic. New BTS are sited near to the cells which are generating blocking conditions. The objective behind new cell site investment is to take the load from the existing congested cells and hence increase revenue. An existing congested cell would be covering an area of 1 sqKm. Traffic in this area would be concentrated in small patches known as HOT SPOTS. Network Planner always intends to optimize the cell site location or the antenna tilts to target on some of the Hot spots . But the question is do we precisely know where are the Hot spots ???

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Optimizing - Cell Reselections


Mobile Monitors the Neighbor cells BCCH Carriers and decodes SCH of the neighbors in the idle mode. The list of the BCCH ARFCNs which the mobiles will monitor in the idle mode is broadcasted in the System Information Type 2 Message . More the neighbors , less the samples taken by the mobile per neighbor to the calculate the value of C1. More neighbors of good and near to equal power levels will result into excessive reselections. Excessive reselections can result into missing of paging messages Solution to this problem would be to adjust power levels of base stations. Adjusting power levels most of the time either effects coverage or enhances interference, since the terrain is not flat. To optimize cell reselections, the best possible solutions are: Optimizing the BA list Implement C2 Reselections

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Optimizing - Neighbor lists


Maximum 32 neighbor Less samples, averaged reported value not authentic Results in Ping-Pong effect of Handovers Neighbor list must be optimized

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Mobile in the dedicated mode measures the BCH of the neighbor cells. The list of BCH to be measured is informed to the Mobile in the System Information Type 5 message which can have maximum 32 neighbors BCHs Mobile has to report the measurements of the neighbors to the network , every 480ms which corresponds to 104 TDMA frames. Mobile will take several samples of the neighbors, average it and then send the report as one value of Rxlev of the neighbor, with a minimum requirement of measuring at least 1 neighbor in 1 TDMA Frame. So , more the BCHs in the neighbor list, less will be the number of samples. If the Mobile just meets the minimum requirement, then for a neighbor list of 32, only 3 - 4 samples per neighbor will be available and 12-13 samples per neighbor with a list of 8 neighbors If the samples collected are less, then average value reported will not be authentic, and can result into Ping-Pong effect of handovers. So, the Neighbor list must be optimized with the minimum best possible neighbors

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Optimizing -Handover Traffic

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

As shown above, Cell B is a cell which is reporting Blocking due to heavy traffic. Cell B on OMC analysis is found to have traffic generated due to call setups within the cell , as well as handovers, since it covers a major highway with heavy mobility traffic coming from Cell A. Instead of implementing an excess TRX or a new cell to resolve this issue, we can optimize this problem, we can optimize the neigbbor lists, so as to drag the Mobiles coming from A to handover to cells other than B, unless B is the only candidate for handover. We can drive through the area between Cell A and Cell B and mark the spots where handover occurs. Look for the continuity between BCHs. This will indicate to us, which are the strong BCHs other than Cell B which could be potential targets for handovers and with what handover margins, so in case we dont get an alternative for a certain patch which is above the handover margin threshold, we can reduce the handover margin .

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Optimizing - Handover Margin


Handover Margin is value set for all cells, which will allow mobiles to handover to the cell, only when this cells power budget balance exceeds the source cells power budget balance by this value. Handover Margins main objective is to avoid ping-pong effects of handovers on cell periphery, when the power levels of two cells are near to equal , so due to multipath and mobility, this will result into frequent handovers between these two cells. Setting this value low, will result into fast handover to the target cell, which may result in improvement in quality. Setting this to high value will delay the handover to the target cell, and ensure that when handover takes place, the probability of the mobile going back to the source cell is very low for some significant period. Two examples of use of this parameter are illustrated ( next page)

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Optimizing - Handover Margin


Adjacent Channel Interference Reduction

Tight Re-use patterns can permit the use of Adjacent ARFCN in adjacent cell. This should not pose an problem if Handover margin is set appropriately low.
C/Ia = -1 db C/Ia = -6 db C/Ia = -9 db

C1
A B C

C2

If Handover Margin is set to 6 dB, Handover will occur from C1 to C2 at spot B itself

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Optimizing - Handover Margin


Multipath solutions

Antenna Tilts Using Directional Antenna's Shifting the BTS site

Handover Parameters

C3
Reduce HO_margin Increase HO_margin

C2
Reduce HO_margin

C1
H

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Optimizing - Handover Margin


Selecting an appropriate value of handover margin is essential to ensure good quality communication . Handover margin set for a cell is applicable to all calls going on in the cells, to which this cell is a neighbor.

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Optimization for Interference


After drive test - Co-Channel benchmarking, we know which

cells are generating severe co-channel problem We also know by decoding BSIC , the interefering source Following processes could be adopted to optimize interference ---- Power Control ---- Antenna Tilts ---- Frequency Reallocations ---- Transmitter Tests ---- Mobile dispatch inspection ---- Space Diversity ---- Frequency Hopping /DTX

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

In order to optimize interference the cells which are generating high level of interference should be located from the OMC Performance Database. It is essential to locate the source of interference whether it is external or internal. If it is internal then it could be due to multipath, adjacent, co-channel, inter-modulation or spurious. This can be located by analyzing the spectrum. There are various methods involved in optimizing interference. Appropriate Power Control of the interfering entities could be done. For Co-channel Interference problems, Tilting of antenna could be done with proper coverage aspects, for adjacent channel analysis should be done to locate if any adjacent channel is allocated to the neighbors , If it is then frequency allocation could help with this. It is very essential to carry out Transmitter and Mobile tests for Power v/s time output spectrum and intermodulation products, generally a mobile should be tested for these basic tests before being dispatched. In the Uplink Space Diversity is the worldwide adopted method for reducing the effect of Multipath fading, where as in the downlink it is the mobiles equalizer which has to do this job. One very relevant solution to interference is frequency hopping where the mobile constantly changes frequency for every burst which reduces the effect of interference. Implementation of DTX.DRX also reduces average interference.

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Co-Channel Optimization

Static Power Control

Antenna Tilting
Trade Off with EC/No

Frequency Reallocation
Implementing Features like Dynamic Power Control, DTX and Frequency Hopping

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Antenna Tilts
M
A 50m

x
6 km 1 km

Point x is having problem of C/I from Cell M Estimate the C/I improvement required at Point x. Refer to the Antenna Vertical Pattern, and calculate the tilting angle required Example : To get an improvement of 3 dB , a tilt of 10 degrees is required. Tilting of Antenna in certain cases may reduce coverage also. Tilting of Antenna should be done after proper study.

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

PARAMETER OPTIMISATION

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Introduction to Parameter Planning

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Module Objectives
At the end of the module, the participant will be able to: Sketch a BSS Managed Object Hierarchy Look up the parameters at each level, in a parameter dictionary Identify parameter value ranges and default settings Describe the use and benefits of a Background Database

Find the changes to objects, parameters, and MML commands, that occur with each BSS software release
Outline how the progression of a call through various phases, is influenced by the parameter settings for each MO class Distinguish between the signalling in Idle mode and Dedicated mode

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Managed Object Hierarchy

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

A BSC Level Parameter

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Example of a BCF Level Parameter

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Example of a BTS Level Parameter

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Typical Parameter in the BSS and NSS RNW Par. Dictionary

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Example of Summary of Changes

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

MOC Call Phases


MS BTS BSC
Phase 1 : Paging, initial MS
CH. REQUEST (RACH) IMMEDIATE ASSIGN(AGCH) SERVICE REQUEST (SDCCH) AUTHENTICATION (SDCCH) CIPHERING MODE (SDCCH) TMSI REALLOCATION (SDCCH) SETUP (SDCCH) ASSIGNMENT (SDCCH-FACCH) CH.RELEASE ALERTING & CONNECT (FACCH) CONN. ACK. and MEASUREMENT DISCONNECT & RELEASE (FACCH)

Phase 2 : MM signalling Phase 8 : Ciphering Phase 2 : MM signalling Phase 3 : Basic assignment Phase 4 : Release Phase 2 : MM signalling Phase 15 : Conversation Phase 4 : Release

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Trade-off Between Location Update & Paging Traffic


signalling traffic

function of user mobility

function of user density, cell size, call arrival rate ...

Paging

LocUp

optimum number of cells in Loc. area

# of cells in Loc. area

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Handover Types

Intracell Intercell Inter-BSC inter-MSC inter- PLMN

same cell, other carrier or timeslot between cells (normal case) between BSC areas between MSC areas (only when roaming)

intracell intercell

inter-BSC

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Radio Channel Configurations

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Burst Period

0 f

0 s

TDMA frame = 4.615 ms = BURST PERIOD

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Radio Timeslots & Frames


Hyperframe = 2048 Superframes

Superframe = 26x51 or 51x26 Multiframes

TCH 26 Multiframe = 120 ms 0 1 2

51 Multiframe = 235 ms 0 1 2 49 50

SIGN.

24 25

0 TDMA frame = 4.615 ms

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

GSM Logical Channels


LOGICAL LOGICAL CHANNELS CHANNELS

COMMON COMMON CHANNELS CHANNELS

DEDICATED DEDICATED CHANNELS CHANNELS

BROADCAST BROADCAST CHANNELS CHANNELS

COMMON COMMON CONTROL CONTROL CHANNELS CHANNELS

DEDICATED DEDICATED CONTROL CONTROL CHANNELS CHANNELS

TRAFFIC TRAFFIC CHANNELS CHANNELS

FCCH FCCH

SCH SCH

BCCH BCCH

SDCCH SDCCH

SACCH SACCH

FACCH FACCH

PCH PCH

RACH RACH

AGCH AGCH

TCH/F TCH/F

TCH/H TCH/H

TCH/EFR TCH/EFR

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

GSM Logical Channels


FCCH - Frequency Correction CHannel
Downlink channel used to enable MS in finding the slot alignment for demodulating SCH burst (also allows for frequency correction).

SCH - Synchronisation CHannel


Downlink channel which provides MS will all the necessary information needed for synchronisation (always follows FCCH burst, 8 BPs later, on same frequency). Also carries BTS identification information.

BCCH - Broadcast Control CHannel


Downlink channel used to transmit cell specific information to all MSs within a cell coverage area, at regular intervals, e.g. frequencies used in a cell & ncells, channel combination, paging groups, etc. (must be ubiquitous coverage).

PCH - Paging CHannel


Dowlink channel used to send paging messages to MSs (MTC)

AGCH - Access Grant CHannel


Downlink channel used by network to allocate a dedicated control channel to an MS. ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

GSM Logical Channels


RACH - Random Access CHannel
Uplink Channel used by MS to request a dedicated control channel.

SDCCH - Standalone Dedicated Control CHannel


Bi-directional channel used for system signalling, e.g. call set-up, location updates, SMS.

SACCH - Slow Associated Control CHannel


Bi-directional (low rate) channel used to transport signalling data (two messages per sec ~ 1 every 480ms) such as measurement reports for handover process. RLT is also based on decoding SACCH.

FACCH - Fast Associated Control CHannel


Bi-directional channel used to transport urgent signalling messages, e.g. command a handover, authenticate a subscriber, etc.

TCH (F/H) - Traffic CHannel


Bi-directional channel used to carry user speech or data - can be either full rate or half rate.

CBCH - Cell Broadcast CHannel


Downlink channel used only for general (non point-to-point) short message information. ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Configuration of Signalling Channels


Combined Configuration

ts0=bcch + sdcch/4 + pch + agch

Non-combined Configuration

ts0=bcch + pch + agch

ts1=sdcch/8

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Combined CCCH + SDCCH/4 Multiframe


Downlink
51 TDMA frames = 235 ms

f sbb b b c c c c f sc f c cccc cc f s t f t t t t t t t f st f t t t t t t t f ss f ss ss ss s i
1. 2. 3. 4.

Uplink

f sr r r r r r r r r frrrr rr rrrr frr r r tt t t t t fttrrtt tt t t t t r r s sss sss 0 CHANNELS: f then s = FCCH then SCH ssss = SACCH c = CCCH b = BCCH t = SDCCH r = RACH i=idle 50

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

BCCH/CCCH Multiframe
Downlink

51 TDMA frames = 235 ms

f c c c c c c c f sc f c c c c c c c f sc f c c c c c c c f sc f c ccc cc c i f sbb b b c c c c f sc Uplink frr rrrr rr rr frrrrrrrrrr frr rr rrrrrr frr rr r rrr rrrrrr rrrrrrr

0
CHANNELS: f = FCCH s = SCH b = BCCH r = RACH i=idle c = CCCH = PCH/AGCH

50

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

SDCCH/8 Multiframe

Downlink

51 TDMA frames = 235 ms

fttttttttt t fttt ttt ttts f s s ss ss ss s s f s ss ssi i i tt ttt tttttt tt


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Uplink ft tt t tt t tt t fttt t tt t ttt fttttttt t s s s ss s s s s s s s f i iitt t tt tt t 0 CHANNELS: t = SDCCH/8 s = SACCH/8 i=idle 50

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Full Rate Traffic Channel (TCH) Multiframe

Downlink and Uplink


26 TDMA frames = 120 ms

ft t t t t t t t t t f tt i t t t t t t t t t t t t s

25

CHANNELS:

t = TCH

s = SACCH

i=idle

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Half Rate Traffic Channel (TCH) Multiframe

Downlink and Uplink


26 TDMA frames = 120 ms

t t 0

t t

t t

t t

t t

t t

st t

t t

t t

t t

t t

t t

25

CHANNELS:

t = TCH

s = SACCH

i=idle

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Paging Procedure
Paging messages sent on PCH which MS continually listens to (TSL0 on BCCH TRX) Limited to geographical sub-group of BSCs using LACs Paging sub-groups are used to save MS battery-life since MS only needs to listen to its own sub-channel and not to the entire PCH MS can be paged using IMSI or TMSI (determines number of MSs that can be paged per message (IMSI = 2 MSs : TMSI = 4 MSs) Split between PCH and AGCH determined by numberOfBlocksForAccessGrant and the type of channel configuration used (i.e. combined or non-combined)
Combined Blocks for PCH & AGCH No. Blocks Res AGCH 3 0-2 3-1 Non Combined 9 0-7 9-2

PCH can be used for AGCH if no paging messages are to be sent, but AGCH can not be used for PCH

No. Blocks Res PCH

Three types of paging messages (type 1, 2 and 3) depending on no. of MSs paged

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Paging Capacity
Combined BCCH / SDCCH (MBCCHC) Configuration
BTS MS

One Block Reserved for AGCH => 2 Blocks for Paging_Request PCH Paged MS per Paging_Request Message : From BTS 3MS 2 to 4 (average 3) Average 2 Pages per MS 3 Pages/Blocks * 2 Blocks = 6 Pages every 512 Paging_Request frame Multiframe ( 235 ms. ) 2 Pages / Paged MS => 3 Paged MS every 235 ms. ( ( 3600 * 1000 ) / 235 ) * 3 = 45.957 Paged MS per Hour. In the worst case all Transactions are Mobile Capacity of PCH calculated for a Location Area Terminating All Cells in Location Area get the same PCH Load

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Non-Combined & Combined Multiframes


BCCH + CCCH (Non-Combined)
51 TDMA frames = 235 ms

f c c cc cc c f sc f c c c c c c c f sc f c c c c c c c f sc f ccccccc i f sbb bb c c c c f sc

BCCH + SDCCH/4 (Combined) 1 2 3


f c c c c c c c f s tf t t t t t t t f s tf t t t t t t t f s s f sssssss i f sbb bb c c c c f sc

CHANNELS: RACH i=idle

f then s = FCCH then SCH ssss = SACCH c = CCCH

b = BCCH t = SDCCH

r=

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

RACH Controlling

1 RACH (Re)transmission during the window 0 TDMA-frames window = numberOfSlotsSpreadTrans (3 ... 12, 14, 16, 20, 25, 32, 50) Number of retransmissions = maxNumberRetransmission (1, 2, 4, 7) 0

=> Total time for RACH = maxNumberRetransmission * numberOfSLotsSpreadTrans

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

CCCH Configuration 1 (2)


numberOfBlocksForAccessGrant Parameter

Pages always had to have priority in CCCH blocks no matter what the numberOfBlocksForAccessGrant setting was. Now, if numberOfBlocksForAccessGrant =0 then AGCH messages have priority over PCH messages. If numberOfBlocksForAccessGrant <> 0 then PCH messages have priority over AGCH messages .

Thus capacity can be dynamically shared between PCH and AGCH resulting in better throughput for PCH, especially for combined-BCCH

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

CCCH Configuration 2 (2)


Number of Multiframes Between Paging

# of 51 TDMA frame multiframes (2..9) between transmissions of Paging_Request messages to mobiles of the same paging group # of paging groups = (# of CCCH blocks - numberOfBlocksForAccessGrant )* noOMultiframesBetweenPaging Page / group every (2 ... 9) * 235 ms = 0.47 ... 2.115 s Mobile Station calculates its Paging Group based on IMSI and on the Number of Paging Groups Affects of the # of the Paging Groups
Battery Consumption of the Mobile Station Speed of Call Setups

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

SDCCH Capacity

SDCCH used in

Call Establishment Location updates Short Message Service (SMS) Queuing (at call set-up)

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

SDCCH Capacity
Example 1 - Call Establishment & Location Updates included
Call Establishment 2 TRXs / Cell ~ 8,11 Erl / Cell (1% Blocking probability) 1,5 min / Subs / BH = 25 mErl. / Subs 8,11 Erl / Cell /25 mErl / Subs = 325 Subs / Cell Authentication and Ciphering = 7 sec = 1,94 mErl / Call (SDCCH reservation time)
=> 325 Calls / Cell * 1,94 mErl / Call = 0.6305 Erl / Cell (SDCCH)

Location Update Location Updates once in 60 minutes ( parameter timerPeriodicUpdateMS ) 325 Subs / Cell SDCCH reservation time for Location Update = 7 sec = 1,94 mErl
=> 325 Calls / Cell * 1,94 mErl / Call = 0.6305 Erl / Cell (SDCCH)

Call Establishment and Location Update together


0,632 Erl + 0,632 Erl = 1,261 Erl / Cell With 1% Blocking Probability ( Erlang B table ) => 5 SDCCH / Cell

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Erlang B Table

Chs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

SD Channels

1% 0 .0 1 0 .1 5 0 .4 6 0 .8 7 1 .3 6 1 .9 1 2 .5 0 3 .1 3 3 .7 8 4 .4 6 5 .1 6 5 .8 8 6 .6 1 7 .3 5 8 .1 1 8 .8 8 9 .6 5 1 0 .4 0 1 1 .2 0 1 2 .0 0

2% 0 .0 2 0 .2 2 0 .6 0 1 .0 9 1 .6 6 2 .2 8 2 .9 4 3 .6 3 4 .3 4 5 .0 8 5 .8 4 6 .6 1 7 .4 0 8 .2 0 9 .0 1 9 .8 3 1 0 .7 0 1 1 .5 0 1 2 .3 0 1 3 .2 0

3% 0 .0 3 0 .2 8 0 .7 2 1 .2 6 1 .8 8 2 .5 4 3 .2 5 3 .9 9 4 .7 5 5 .5 3 6 .3 3 7 .1 4 7 .9 7 8 .8 0 9 .6 5 1 0 .5 0 1 1 .4 0 1 2 .2 0 1 3 .1 0 1 4 .0 0

5 % Chs 0 .0 5 21 0 .3 8 22 0 .9 0 23 1 .5 2 24 2 .2 2 25 2 .9 6 26 3 .7 5 27 4 .5 4 28 5 .3 7 29 6 .2 2 30 7 .0 8 31 7 .9 5 32 8 .8 3 33 9 .7 3 34 1 0 .6 0 35 1 1 .5 0 36 1 2 .5 0 37 1 3 .4 0 38 1 4 .3 0 39 1 5 .2 0 40

1% 1 2 .8 0 1 3 .7 0 1 4 .5 0 1 5 .3 0 1 6 .1 0 1 7 .0 0 1 7 .8 0 1 8 .6 0 1 9 .5 0 2 0 .3 0 2 1 .2 0 2 2 .0 0 2 2 .9 0 2 3 .8 0 2 4 .6 0 2 5 .5 0 2 6 .4 0 2 7 .3 0 2 8 .1 0 2 9 .0 0

2% 1 4 .0 0 1 4 .9 0 1 5 .8 0 1 6 .6 0 1 7 .5 0 1 8 .4 0 1 9 .3 0 2 0 .2 0 2 1 .0 0 2 1 .9 0 2 2 .8 0 2 3 .7 0 2 4 .6 0 2 5 .5 0 2 6 .4 0 2 7 .3 0 2 8 .3 0 2 9 .2 0 3 0 .1 0 3 1 .0 0

3% 1 4 .9 0 1 5 .8 0 1 6 .7 0 1 7 .6 0 1 8 .5 0 1 9 .4 0 2 0 .3 0 2 1 .2 0 2 2 .1 0 2 3 .1 0 2 4 .0 0 2 4 .9 0 2 5 .8 0 2 6 .8 0 2 7 .7 0 2 8 .6 0 2 9 .6 0 3 0 .5 0 3 1 .5 0 3 2 .4 0

5% 1 6 .2 0 1 7 .1 0 1 8 .1 0 1 9 .0 0 2 0 .0 0 2 0 .9 0 2 1 .9 0 2 2 .9 0 2 3 .8 0 2 4 .8 0 2 5 .8 0 2 6 .7 0 2 7 .7 0 2 8 .7 0 2 9 .7 0 3 0 .7 0 3 1 .6 0 3 2 .6 0 3 3 .6 0 3 4 .6 0

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

SDCCH Capacity
Example 2 - Call Establishment & Location Updates included

Call Establishment

2 TRXs / Cell ~ 8,11 Erl / Cell (1% Blocking probability) 1,5 min / Subs / BH = 25 mErl. / Subs 8,11 Erl / Cell /25 mErl. / Subs = 325 Subs / Cell Authentication and Ciphering = 7 sec = 1,94 mErl / Call (SDCCH reservation time)

=> 325 Calls / Cell * 1,94 mErl / Call = 0,6305 Erl / Cell (SDCCH)

Location Update
Location Updates once in 120 minutes ( parameter timerPeriodicUpdateMS ) 325 Subs / Cell SDCCH reservation time for Location Update = 7 sec = 1,94 mErl
=> 325 Calls / Cell * 1,94 mErl / Call * 1/2 = 0,31525 Erl / Cell (SDCCH)

Call Establishment and Location Update together


0,6305 Erl/Cell + 0,31525 Erl/Cell = 0,94575 Erl/Cell (SDCCH) With 1% Blocking Probability (Erlang B table) => ~ 5 SDCCH / Cell

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

SDCCH Capacity
Example 3 - Call Establishment, Location Updates & SMS Call Establishment
2 TRXs / Cell ~ 8,11 Erl / Cell (1% Blocking probability) 1,5 min / Subs / BH = 25 mErl. / Subs 8,11 Erl / Cell /25 mErl. / Subs = 325 Subs / Cell Authentication and Ciphering = 7 sec = 1,94 mErl / Call (SDCCH reservation time) => 325 Calls / Cell * 1,94 mErl / Call = 0,6305 Erl / Cell (SDCCH)

Location Update
Location Updates once in 120 minutes ( parameter timerPeriodicUpdateMS ) 325 Subs / Cell SDCCH reservation time for Location Update = 7 sec = 1,94 mErl => 325 Calls / Cell * 1,94 mErl / Call * 1/2 = 0,31525 Erl / Cell (SDCCH)

SMS
SMS traffic estimation 1.0 mErl / subscriber => 325 Calls / Cell * 1 mErl / Call = 0,325 Erl / Cell (SDCCH)

Call Establishment, Location Update and SMS together


0,6305 Erl/Cell + 0,31525 Erl/Cell + 0,325 Erl/Call = 1,27075Erl/Cell (SDCCH) With 1% Blocking Probability ( Erlang B table ) => ~ 5 SDCCH / Cell

Separated channel structure is needed in this case

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Parameters Related to Signalling


Parameters Value

numberOfBlocksForAccessGrant (AG) 0 ... 7 (if BCCH/CCCH used)(non-combined) 1 ... 7 (if CBCH used on SDCCH/8) 0 ... 2 (if combined BCCH/SDCCH used) noOfMultiframesBetweenPaging (MFR) 2 ... 9 maxNumberRetransmission (RET) 1, 2, 4, 7 numberOfSlotsSpreadTrans (SLO) 3 ... 12, 14, 16, 20, 25, 32, 50

newEstabCausesSupport (NECI) pagingAnsOnFacch (EPF) emerCallOnFacch (EEF) ordinaryCallOnFacch (EOF) restablishCallOnFacch (ERF)

Y/N (FACCH setup allowed) Y/N Y/N Y/N Y/N

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Idle Mode Operation

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Module Objectives
At the end of the module, the participant will be able to:

List functions of the MS during idle mode


Explain the parameters used for PLMN and cell selection State the purpose of location updates and the associated parameters

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Contents
1. IDLE Mode tasks overview

2. IDs and ID Codes, Frequencies


3. PLMN selection 4. Cell selection and cell reselection C1 Cell (Re)-Selection Criterion C2 Re-Selection Criterion 5. Location Area Management Location Updates Timer for Periodic Location Updates 6. IMSI Attach/Detach

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Idle Mode Operation

When? When the MS is switched ON? When there is no dedicated connection? Why? To camp on the best suitable cell

Idle Mode Tasks PLMN selection


Cell selection & re-selection Location updates

Why to camp on a specific cell?


For MS to receive system info from the NW on DL For MS to be able to initiate a call whenever needed For the NW to be able to locate the MS when there is a MT call/SMS

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

ID's and ID Codes


Parameter LAI (locationAreaId) Value

MCC (Mobile Country Code) MNC (Mobile Network Code) LAC (Location Area Code)
BSIC (bsIdentityCode) NCC (Network Colour Code) BCC (BTS Colour Code) CI (cell-ID)

0 999 0 99
0 65535

07 07 0 65535

TSC (trainingSequenceCode)
CGI (Cell Global Identity)

07
MCC + MNC + LAC + CI

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Base Station Identity Code (BSIC)


BSIC is a combination of NCC and BCC Reported in Measurement Results to BSC Can be listed in Hex or Decimal
NCC (0...7) 2 16 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 BCC (0...7) 2 2 x x x x x x x x

4 32 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

U 8 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

4 4 x x x x x x x x

U U x x x x x x x x

Range 0-7 8 - 15 16 - 23 24 - 31 32 - 39 40 - 47 48 - 55 56 - 63

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

PLMN Selection
Two Modes
Automatic - utilises a list of PLMNs in priority order. Highest priority (available and allowable) PLMN is selected Manual - MS indicates to user which PLMNs are available

Three Types of Lists


Preferred Found Forbidden Parameter plmnpermitted Value 0 ... 7

NOTE This parameter is confusing. Its not used for network selection. Its used AFTER a network has been selected so that measurements from only one PLMN are reported

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Base Station Colour Code


f1 f2 bcc = 1 f1 f3 f1 bcc = 3 LAC 3 bcc = 2

Location Area Code


MCC = Country e.g Finland MNC = Operator LAC 1 = Helsinki LAC 2

LAC 4 BSC BTS BTS BTS 1 2 n

Neighbour list of f3: f1 f2 ...

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Frequencies

Parameter initialFrequency bCCHAllocation-ID bCCHAllocationList

Value

1..124 & 975..1023, 0; 512..885 GSM900;1800 (FREQ TR

1 ... 255 1 ... 124 in GSM (max. 32 freq. for all bands)

idleStateBCCHAllocation

0 (BCCH list is taken from the adjacent cell) 1 ... 255 (number of the BCCH list used)

measurementBCCHAllocation

ADJ (BCCH frequency list taken from adj. cell) IDLE (active MS uses same list as MS in IDLE mod

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Use of Cell Barring for Test Measurements


Cell Barred
GPS-satelite

Existing Layer Barred, No New Microcell Layer Barred, Yes

N MS/X 5.24

Easy to test new Microcells with NMS/X 5.24 with Nokia 2110 Mobile

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Cell Selection in Idle Mode


Two methods for selecting a cell:
Normal cell selection (a) - MS has no prior knowledge of which RF channels are BCCH Stored list cell selection - optional (b) - MS uses list of BCCH carriers used by PLMN If no suitable cell is found using method (b) then (a) is tried.

What constitutes a 'suitable' cell:


Cell is in the selected PLMN Cell is not barred It is not in a forbidden location area for national roaming C1 >0 (range -99..0..+99) If there is no normal priority cell then low priority cell

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Cell (Re-)Selection in Idle Mode


Using C1 Criterion

Radio Criteria
Averaging 3-5 s. C1 = (A - Max(B,0)) Decision 5s. A = Received Level Average - p1 B = p2 - Maximum RF Output Power of the Mobile Station p1 = rxLevelAccessMin (Min. received level at the MS required for access to the system) (RXP BTS -110..-105 -47 dBm) p2 = msTxPowerMaxCCH (Max. Tx power level an MS may use when accessing the system) (TXP BTS GSM900 5..33..43/2 33; GSM1800 0..30/2 30 dBm)

Parameter rxLevelAccessMin msTxPowerMaxCCH GSM900)

Value -110 ... -47 dBm 'RXP' (BTS) 0 30 dBm GSM1800 (5 43 dBm 'TXP' (BTS) cellworks ADA
Louder than words..

Cell Re-selection (C1)


MS Moving
LA1 LA2 1 A A B C 2 2 BC

A = 4 dB
B = 6 dB C = 8 dB 1

Parameter cellReselectHysteresis

Value 0 14 dB def 4dB (HYS) (BTS) 2dB steps MML

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Cell Re-selection in Idle Mode


Using C2 Re-Selection Criterion (PH 2 MS)

MS will calculate the C1 and C2 for the serving cell, every 5 s MS will calculate the C1 and C2 for the six best neighbour cells, every 5s

Cell re-selection is needed if


Path Loss criterion C1 < 0 for cell camped on ,for more than 5 seconds. There is DL signalling failure The cell camped on has become barred. There is a better cell in terms of C2 criterion A random access attempt is still unsuccessful after maxNumberRetransmission repetitions.

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Cell Re-selection with C2 (1/3)


C1,C2
macrocell microcell

C1=C2

C2<PT<C2

time

BCCH

fast moving mobile


BCCH

slow moving mobile

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Cell Re-selection with C2 (2/3)


Equation & Parameters

C1 + cellReselectOffset - temporaryOffset*H(penaltyTime-T) < 640 C2 = C1 - cellReselectOffset .. = 640

<= penaltyTime <= penaltyTime

1 when T < = penaltyTime


H(x) = 0 when T > penaltyTime

Parameter
cellReselectParamInd cellReselectOffset penaltyTime temporaryOffset

Value
Y/N 0 ... 126 dB 20 ... 640 sec 0 ... 70 dB

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Cell Re-selection with C2 (3/3)


Example
GSM900 cellReselectOffset 0
C1 "A"=30 C1 "B"=25 C1 "C"=5 C1 "D"=50 temporaryOffset penaltyTime Microcell 900

GSM1800GSM900micro 20 0 20 30 40 30

0 0

C2 = C1 + cellReselectOffset - temporaryOffset*H(penaltyTime-T) C2 "A"=30 + 0 serving cell H(x) = 0 C2 "B"=25 +20-30 * H(20-T) C2 "C"=5 + 0 - 0 * H(0-T) Macrocell 1800 Macrocell 900 C2 "D"=50+0-30*H(40-T)

Time T: between 0 and 19 seconds C2 "A"=30 C2 "B"=15 C2 "C"=5 C2 "D"=20

Time T: between 20 and 39 seconds C2 "A"=30 C2 "B"=45 C2 "C"=5 C2 "D"=20

Time T: greater than 40 seconds C2 "A"=30 C2 "B"=45 C2 "C"=5 C2 "D"=50

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Location Updates
H L R

V L R

M ( S o C l d )
M o b ADA cellworks Louder than words..

Location Update Procedure


MS BSS MSC VLR HLR

LOCATION UPDATE REQUEST

REQUEST SUBSCRIBER ID

SEND SUBSCRIBER ID REQUEST SUBSCRIBER INFO

SEND SUBSCRIBER INFO AUTHENTICATION

AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE ALL OK - HLR UPDATE

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Trade-off between Location Update and Paging Traffic


signalling traffic

function of user mobility

function of user density, cell size, call arrival rate ...

Paging

LocUp

optimum number of cells in Loc. area

# of cells in Loc. area

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Location Updates
MS => MSC / VLR Mobile Station switched ON
IMSI Attach / Detach Same Location Area => No Location Update Different Location Area => Location Update

Change of the Location Area


Location Area under the same MSC / VLR Location Area under another MSC / VLR => HLR will be updated

Service is rejected (MS unknown in VLR) Time-Periodic LU (MS -> MSC/VLR)


Parameter timerPeriodicUpdateMS dictionary! allowIMSIAttachDetach Value 0.0 ... 25.5 hrs (PER)(BTS) see note in Yes/No (ATT)(BTS)

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Normal Cell Selection


Search all the RF channels, take samples during 3-5 s and calculate averages. And put them in ascending order with respect to signal level. Then tune to the strongest RF channel.

Search for the frequency correction burst in that carrier in order to verify if it is a BCCH carrier No Yes Try to synchronize to the carrier and read the BCCH data

Tune to the next highest RF channel which is not tried before

Is it a BCCH carrier?

Is it a correct PLMN ? Yes Is the cell barred? No Is C1>0 Yes Camp on the cell

No

Yes

No

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

BSS Protocols & Signalling Capacity


BSSPAR S10.5 Module 04

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Module Objectives

At the end of the module, the participant will be able to: State the procedures and the phases of a basic call List five examples of signalling messages that are sent between BSS and MS Describe the signalling phases in MOC and MTC Discuss the signalling exchange that takes place during a Location Update Explain the differences between Network-initiated and MS-initiated Disconnect Describe the Handover protocols used between BSS and MS Show how to determine the required signalling capacity of each type of link in the BSS Discuss the benefits of implementing High Capacity Signalling Links in the A-interface

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Call Phases

Overall Call Success Rate

Call Setup Success Rate

Call Completion Rate

SDCCH Blocking (system) and SDCCH call Blocking

SDCCH Success Rate

TCH Blocking (system)


and TCH Call Blocking

get service

get SDCCH

establish SDCCH connection

get TCH

establish TCH connection

call phase

release phase

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Call Phase Types


PHASE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 PHASE_NAME Paging MM signalling Basic assignment Release FACCH assignment SMS establishment (TCH) SMS establishment (SDCCH) Ciphering External handover (source) Internal handover intra (source) Internal handover inter (source) External handover (target) Internal handover Intra (target) Internal handover inter (target) Conversation (TCH)

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Call Phases for MTC


MS BTS BSC
Phase 1 : Paging, initial MS

CH. REQUEST (RACH) IMMEDIATE ASSIGN(AGCH) SERVICE REQUEST (SDCCH) AUTHENTICATION (SDCCH) CIPHERING MODE (SDCCH) TMSI REALLOCATION (SDCCH) SETUP (SDCCH) ASSIGNMENT (SDCCH-FACCH) CH.RELEASE ALERTING & CONNECT (FACCH) CONN. ACK. and MEASUREMENT DISCONNECT & RELEASE (FACCH)

Phase 2 : MM signalling Phase 8 : Ciphering Phase 2 : MM signalling Phase 3 : Basic assignment Phase 4 : Release Phase 2 : MM signalling Phase 15 : Conversation Phase 4 : Release

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Mobile Originating Call


MS
CHAN REQ (RACH) IMM ASSIGN (AGCH) CM SERV REQ (SDCCH)

NETWORK

Immediate assignment

Service Request
AUTH REQ (SDCCH) AUTH RES (SDCCH)

Authentication

CIPH MOD CMD (SDCCH) CIPH MOD COM (SDCCH)

Ciphering Mode Setting

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Mobile Originating Call, cont.


MS
SETUP (FACCH) CALL PROC (SDCCH) ASSIGN CMD (SDCCH) ASSIGN COM (FACCH) ALERT (FACCH)

NETWORK

Call Initiation

Assignment of Traffic Channel

Call Confirmation CONNECT (FACCH) CONNECT ACK (FACCH)

Call Accepted

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Mobile Originating Call, cont.

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Mobile Terminating Call


MS
PAG REQ (PCH) CHAN REQ (RACH) IMM ASSIGN (AGCH) PAG RES (SDCCH) Service Request AUTH REQ (SDCCH) AUTH RES (SDCCH) CIPH MOD CMD (SDCCH) CIPH MOD COM (SDCCH) Authentication

NETWORK

Immediate assignment

Ciphering Mode Setting

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Mobile Terminating Call, cont.


MS
SETUP (FACCH) CALL CONF (SDCCH) ASSIGN CMD (SDCCH) ASSIGN COM (FACCH) ALERT (FACCH)

NETWORK

Call Initiation

Assignment of Traffic Channel

Call Confirmation CONNECT (FACCH) CONNECT ACK (FACCH)

Call Accepted

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Location Update
MS
CHAN REQ (RACH) IMM ASSIGN (AGCH) LOC UPD REQ (SDCCH) Service Request AUTH REQ (SDCCH) AUTH RES (SDCCH) CIPH MOD CMD (SDCCH) CIPH MOD COM (SDCCH) LOC UPD ACC (SDCCH) TMSI REAL COM (SDCCH) CHAN REL (SDCCH) Channel Release Authentication

NETWORK
Immediate assignment

Ciphering Mode Setting

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Disconnect - Network Initiated


MS NETWORK

DISCONNECT (FACCH) REL (FACCH) REL COM (FACCH)

Call Clearing

CHAN REL Release

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Disconnect - MS Initiated
Disconnect, MS Initiated MS NETWORK

DISCONNECT (FACCH) REL (FACCH) REL COM (FACCH)

Call Clearing

CHAN REL Release

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Inter MSC Handover


New Cell / BTS

Air

BTS

BSC

TC

MSC

VLR

BTS

BSC

TC

MSC

VLR

Old Cell / BTS

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Handover - Synchronized
MS NETWORK

ACTIVE CALL HANDO CMD Old Channel, Old Cell

HANDO ACC HANDO ACC HANDO ACC HANDO ACC


HANDO COM ACTIVE CALL

New Channel, New Cell

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Handover - Non Synchronized


MS NETWORK

ACTIVE CALL Old Channel, Old Cell HANDO CMD HANDO ACC . HANDO ACC PHYS INFO Ny1 PHYS INFO HANDO COM New Channel, New Cell

T 3124

Parameter maxNumberOfRepetition ( 5 35 )

ACTIVE CALL

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Handover Failure
MS NETWORK

ACTIVE CALL HANDOVER CMD

Old Channel, Old Cell

Timer T3124 expiry or Radio Link Failure HANDOVER FAIL

New Channel, New Cell

Old Channel, Old Cell

ACTIVE CALL

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Link Capacity per BCSU


High Capacity BSC2i: 64 kbit/s CCS7 link 128 kbit/s CCS7 link 4 32 64 112 256 kbit/s CCS7 link 4 32 64 112

Maximum Number of CCS7 4 links Maximum Number of BCFSIG 32 LapD links Maximum Number of TRXSIG 64 LapD links Maximum number of LapD 124 links (BCFSIG+TRXSIG+ISDN +ET-LapD)

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Radio Resource Management

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Module Objectives
At the end of this module, the participant will be able to: Explain the traffic channel allocation process during call set up and handover, and name the parameters used in this process Discuss the frequency hopping techniques: baseband hopping, RF hopping, and Freeform RF hopping State the parameters associated with frequency hopping Name the parameters associated with dynamic hotspot algorithm List the parameters associated with the directed retry procedure Explain the mechanisms used for queuing of call setup and handovers and the purpose of associated parameters

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Traffic Channel Allocation (1/3)


The request includes the type and other requirements ( or recommendations) for the requested resource: tells what kind of resource it needs. Incall set-up MS informs network of its capabilities in set-up message In case of TCH: The channel rate TCH/F TCH/H Dual Rate Multi Rate The speech codecs Normal Full rate Normal Half rate Enhanced Full rate Three types of RTSL can be configured in a TRX: permanent FR permanent HR dual rate

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Traffic Channel Allocation (2/3)

When only a preferred TCH rate information comes with the request the BSC determines the type of the TCH resource to be allocated based on the following:

the A interface circuit that the MSC has allocated for the call the given list of preferred speech codecs by MS the speech codecs support of the BTS the TCH configuration on the BTS the resource situation in the BTS

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Traffic Channel Allocation (3/3)


efficiency of the search procedure
cellLoadForChannelSearch (BTS level) BSC level using LoadRateForChannelSearch, if cellLoadForChannelSearch=0 below threshold rotation bt TRXs and TSLs in a TRX above threshold speech and single slot data allocated in small gaps and at ends of TRX in order to keep larger TSL groups free for HSCSD multislot services uniform use of the available resources availability of different channel types. arrangements for multislot and single slot connections (consecutive slots needed in HSCD) The intra-cell HO is a special case ; In non-Hopping case a channel from an other TRX is searched. In RF Hopping case , a channel from an other hopping group (MA list) is searched.

Parameters cellLoadForChannelSearch LoadRateForChannelSearch

Value 0 ... 100% 0 100%

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Idle Channel Interference


The BTS measures and reports on the uplink interference of the radio channels which
have been idle during the whole measurement period. Idle TCHs are classified into five interference classes RR Management algorithm assigns a channel from the lowest possible interference class

BO5 -47 BO4 -90 BO3 -95 BO2 -100 BO1 -105 BO0 -110 Parameters interference AveragingProcess boundary 1-4 (boundary0/5 fixed)

rxLevUL = -75 dBm

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Value

1 ... 32 SACCH -110 ... -47 (dBm)

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Calculation of maximum acceptable Interference level (1/2)


1. Call set-up and intra-cell HO (when OptimumRxLevUL = <not used>)
MAX_INTF_LEV =RXLEV_UL + (MsTxPwrMax - MS_TXPWR ) - CNThreshold

2. When OptimumRxLevUL = <used>


MAX_INTF_LEV = MAX{MIN[RXLEV_UL + (MsTxPwrMax - MS_TXPWR ),OptimumRXLevUL], RXLEV_UL-(MS_TXPWR-MsTxPwrMin)} - CNThreshold

Parameters CNThreshold RxLevBalance OptimumRXLevUL MsPwrOptLevel

Value 0 63 dB (0 not active) 0 20 dB -109-47/N (TRX level) -110-47/N (cell level)

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Calculation of maximum acceptable Interference level (2/2)

1. Inter-cell Handover (when MsPwrOptLevel = < not used>)


MAX_INTF_LEV=RXLEV_DL - RxLevBalance CNThreshold

2. Inter-cell handover (when MsPwrOptLevel = <used>)


MAX_INTF_LEV (UL) = MAX{ MIN[AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n)-RxLevBalance , MsPwrOptLevel(n)], (AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n)-RxLevBalance) - (MsTxPwrMax(n) MsTxPwrMin(n)) } CNThreshold(n)

The parameter MsPwrOptLevel(n) indicates the optimum UL RF signal level on a channel in the adjacent cell after a handover.

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Traffic Channel Selection


Inter-cell HO example

BO5 -47
BO4 -90 BO3 -95 BO2 -100 BO1 -105 BO0 -110

rxLevUL = -75 dBm

The BSC or MSC can have 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7


interference level requirements respectively. If there are no interference level requirements in the TCH request, all levels are examined starting from the best level. However low interference requirement is a secondary requirement.

RXLEV_DL= -70dBm RxLevBalance = 5 dB C/N Ratio required = 20 dB Interference Level = -70dBm - 5dB - 20dB = -95dBm => TSL from boundary 1 or 0 is preferred

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Traffic Channel Selection


Network Doctor Example - Script 213

Indicates the number of idle TSLs in each interference band

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

TRX Prioritisation in TCH Allocation

The advantages of using the BCCH carrier for call set up:
It would not increase interference in the network BCCH channels are planned to be the least interfered one

The advantage of using the TCH TRX for call set up:
The hopping gain

It is possible to set priority between the TCH TRXs and BCCH TRX.
Parameters TrxPriorityInTCHAllocation Value 0 2 where 0 = no preference 1 =BCCH preferred 2 =Away from BCCH

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

FACCH Call Set-Up (Optional)

When an idle SDCCH is not available for the request


BSC tries to allocate a TCH for signalling instead of an SDCCH. After the signalling is finished the channel mode is modified as TCH and the call continues on the same channel.

Parameters pagingAnsOnFACCH restablishOnFACCH Y/N

Value Y/N

emerCallOnFACCH
ordinaryCallOnFACCH

Y/N

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Y/N

Preferred BCCH TRX


Fault Situation
Recovery system returns BCCH automatically to its original TRX after fault has been eliminated Supports the usage of TRXs with different output power in the same cell Can be activated cell by cell Before restoration Forced Handover is used to avoid cutting calls TRX-1 Faulty, Original Configuration After BCCH Recovery Preferred BCCH TRX-1 TRX-2 BCCH, SDCCH/8, 6xTCHs 8xTCHs 8xTCHs TRX-1 Repaired, After BCCH Restoration BCCH, SDCCH/8, 6xTCHs 8xTCHs

BCCH, SDCCH/8, 6xTCHs

Preferred BCCH mark can not be set to floating TRX BSC can automatically return BCCH to original BCCH TRX, but BSC can not return original traffic channel configuration, if BSC has changed it earlier If user locks BCCH TRX, then the BSC does not perform BCCH recovery If BSC reconfigures E-RACH to TRX having preferred BCCH mark, that TRX is last choice for BCCH E-RACH recovery is not possible in fault cancel if BSC has to move BCCH to preferred BCCH TRX

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Frequency Hopping
Principles

Frequency

Call is transmitted through several frequencies in order to average the interference (interference diversity) minimise the impact of fading (frequency diversity)

F1 F2 F3

Time

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Baseband (BB) Hopping


RTSL 0 TRX-1 B TRX-2 TRX-3 TRX-4 Time slot 0 of TRX-2,-3,-4 hop over f2,f3,f4.
TRXs are fixed-frequency - the switching is done at baseband in BBFH
Number of frequencies = number of TRXs, highest hopping gain only in large configurations

7 f1 f2 f3 f4 B = BCCH timeslot. It does not hop. Time slots 1...7 of all TRXs hop over (f1,f2,f3,f4).

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Parameters

General Parameters btsIsHopping BB (BaseBand Hopping) CA = Cell Allocation RF (Radio Frequency Hopping) MA = Mobile Allocation MAIO = Mobile Allocation Index Offset N (No Hopping)
HSN = Hopping Sequence Number

Baseband Hopping hoppingSequenceNumber1 (HSN1) (TS 0) 0 ... 63 (0 = cyclic, 1 ... 63 = pseudorandom)


0 TRX 1 TRX 2 TRX 3 B 1 2 7 TS f1 f2 f3 f4

hoppingSequenceNumber2 (HSN2) (TS 1 ... 7) TRX 4 0 ... 63 (0 = cyclic, 1 ... 63 = pseudorandom) HSN1 HSN2

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Synthesised (RF) Hopping

TRX-1

B = BCCH timeslot. TRX does not hop. Non-BCCH TRXs are hopping over the MA-list (f1,f2,f3,...,fn) attached to the cell.

f1, f2, f3, fn TRX-2

....

f1, f2, f3, fn

TRXs (except BCCH) frequency hop


Each TRX can hop over many frequencies - improved hopping gain

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Parameters
RF (Synthesized Hopping) (from Talk-Family BTS onward) mobileAllocationList (MA) (E)GSM: 1..124 and 975..1023 GSM 1800: 512..885 GSM 1900: 512..810 Note! Max. 63 Frequencies
0 1 2 7 TS f1

TRX 1

TRX 4

HSN1

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

MAL(f3,f4..fn)

mobileAllocationId 512 885TRX 2 usedMobileAllocation 512 885 hoppingSequenceNumber1 (HSN1) TRX 3 0 63 (0 = cyclic, 1 ... 63 = pseudorandom)

Parameters
RF Hopping (Site based MAIO allocation)
MAIO HSN offset
(sector 1)

MAIO TRX-1 TRX-2 BCCH TCH TCH TCH

0 1 2 3 4

f1

BTS-1

3 TRX-3 TRX-4

TRX-5
(sector 2)

BCCH
TCH TCH TCH BCCH TCH TCH

f2

TRX-6 3

BTS-2

3
TRX-7 TRX-8 TRX-9

5
6 7 8 f3

f4 f5 f6 f7 f8 f9 f10 f11 f12

(sector 3)

BTS-3

TRX-10 6 3 TRX-11

TRX-12

TCH

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Mobile Allocation Index Offset


Benefits of Flexible MAIO Management

One MA list per site

One MA list can contain a continuous band


No risk of co-channel nor adjacent channel being used simultaneously within a site Single MA/HSN possible -> only BCCH frequency planning More/tighter reuse possible e.g. RF-FH (1/1) and thus more capacity can be achieved

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Parameters
Flexible MAIO Management
Allows More Flexible RF Hopping enables Frequency Sharing i.e. sharing an MA list between the sectors at same site longer MA lists possible minimised interference New MAIO Step Parameter (BSS7) When used together with MAIO offset, no successive MAIOs will be allocated for TCHs sharing the same MA list Parameters MaioStep UnderlayMaioStep Value 1..62 1..62

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Parameters
Single MA/HSN per Site - with MAIO Step
MA = f1, f2, f3, f4,....

HSN same for all sectors

MA list can include adjacent frequencies

Sector
1 1

HSN MAIO Offset MAIO step TRX


TRX-1 N

MAIO, same for all RTSLs within the TRX


BCCH, not hopping

Band allocation: BCCH Hopping Freq's

TRX-2 TRX-3 TRX-4

0
2 4 BCCH, not hopping

2 2 N

TRX-5

TRX-6 TRX-7 TRX-8

6
8 10

3
3 N

TRX-9

BCCH, not hopping

12

TRX-10 TRX-11 TRX-12

12
14 16

No co-channels or adjacent channels used simultaneously if number of frequencies > 2*number of TRXs

Operator can set the lowest MAIOs for the cells

Operator can also set the MAIO step size

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Parameters
RF-FH with reuse '1/1'using fractional loading
MAIO Offset Band allocation: BCCH Hopping frequencies MAIO Offset + Step Band allocation: BCCH Hopping Freq's

MA list

MA list

MA list and BCCH need planning MA list possibly shorter -> reduced gain

No need for MA list planning BCCH frequencies planned as usual

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Frequency Plan Changing

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Directed Retry (DR)


DR used to avoid the loss of a call in call-setup if the accessed cell is congested
When no TCH is available in serving cell, TCH can be allocated in an adjacent cell (SDCCH TCH HO) Mobile Originated (MOC) and Mobile Terminated (MTC) Calls TCH Target cell entry based on DR Method; SDCCH Method 0 - RxLevAccessMin Method 1 - drThreshold congested Imperative Handover (only equation 1) Candidates ranked based on radio properties. Steps through candidates (if congested) until MaxTimeLimitDR expires Queuing can take place in source cell, not in target cell.

Time

minTimeLimitDR
Assignment Request

DR not allowed : improves the reliability of the measurements of adjacent cells and gives the queuing process time DR allowed

maxTimeLimitDR

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Directed Retry parameters


Parameters drInUse MinTimeLimitDR MaxTimeLimitDR drMethod drThreshold

Value
Yes / No 0 14 sec. 1 15 sec. 0: (Improvement not in use) 1: (Threshold evaluation method) -47 -110 dBm

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Directed Retry

m acro cell DR DR congestion m icro cells


ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

congestion

Intelligent Directed Retry

Based on Directed Retry : Target Cell selection depends on Classmark of the MS or MS Priority Adjacent Cell Type Subscribers Classified in GSM or MCN Based on Classmark ( bitmap in BSC associates classmarks to GSM / MCN ) Based on MS Priority ( bitmap in BSC associates MS Priorities to GSM / MCN ) Criterion defined in the BSC DR and IDR enabled / disabled independently on cell basis. macro cell (GSM cell) IDR micro cells congestion (MCN cells) MCN subscriber No TCH Available on Accessed Cell
GSM or MCN subscriber ? MCN => IDR in Use in the Cell ? Yes => Directed Retry Only to MCN Cells No => Reject Call GSM => DR in Use in the Cell ? Yes => Directed Retry (any Cell) No => Reject Call

Parameters IdrUsed CellType AdjCellType

Value Yes/No GSM / MCN GSM / MCN


macro cell (GSM cell) DR
congestion GSM subscriber micro cells (MCN cells)

NOKIA TELECOMMUNICATIONS

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Queuing of Radio Resources


Used to avoid rejecting call set-up or HO attempt by waiting for the release of a suitable TCH Queuing Environment queuing is a BTS specific procedure (controlled by the BSC) each BTS has a queue of its own individual queue parameters and queue management for each BTS call attempts and handovers in the same queue the maximum queue length is relative to the number of traffic channels the maximum queuing time can be set individually for both queue types the queuing can be de-activated by setting queuing time or queue length to zero different priorities according to queue type (call/HO) and/or MS priority

Entering the queue: The queue is entered when there is no traffic channels available of requested kind and if
queuing is allowed in the BTS queuing enabled in the assignment request from MSC queue is not full (of higher or equal priority requests)

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Queuing of Radio Resources


Prioritisation: The placement in the queue is determined by: queue type (priority) call set-up handover attempt (non-urgent) urgent handover attempt MS Priority level in the PIE element of Assignment Request or Handover Request time of entering the queue

Allocation of TCH When a TCH is released (in either channel release or TSL/TRX lock) the queue is checked from top to bottom in order to find a queuer whose requirements match with the released channel If a suitable queued call is found the TCH is allocated to the queued call and the queue is re-organised

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Queuing of Radio Resources


Leaving the Queue A queuer is removed from the queue when
No suitable channel is released within queuing time limit => timer expires Higher priority subscriber (queue type and/or MS priority) replaces a lower priority queued entry when the queue is full The queuing TRX/TSL is blocked (call release)

Queue size is reduced due to removing TRXs

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Queuing of Radio Resources


Queuing reserves SDCCH
SDCCH occupation for call setup 7 seconds. If maximum queuing time for calls is 10 s => in case of queuing 50-60 % more load on SDCCH / call attempt!! (2 TRXs cell) with Combined BCCH / SDCCH If maximum queue is 50 % of TRX x 8 = 8 queuing positions If there are 4 call attempts in queue, SDCCHs are fully booked no space for short messages or for location updates on SDCCH

cell is fully overloaded!!

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Queuing of Radio Resources


Queuing and Handover Internal inter cell Handover
Ranked list is produced by the Handover algorithm and passed to RR management Maximum sixteen cells as alternative target cells The best candidate with free traffic channel is selected If all BTSs in the list are congested

queuing possibility is checked in the candidates according to ranking External inter cell Handover
The BTS identified by the MSC in a HANDOVER_REQUEST message is used as queuing target

Averaging and processing for HO continues during queuing The timers for hoPeriodPBGT or hoPeriodUmbrella are stopped during queuing

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Queuing of Radio Resources


Queuing and Directed Retry (DR)

Directed retry and queuing are parallel procedures When the queuing and DR processes are both active for a call;
If MaxTimelImitDR expires without any DR attempt, the queuing will be terminated even if the queuing timer(s) have not elapsed If a TCH is released in the serving cell during the period when DR is not allowed/allowed, DR process is terminated

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Queuing of Radio Resources


Queuing Parameters
Parameters maxQueueLength timeLimitCall timeLimitHandover msPriorityUsedInQueuing queuePriorityUsed queuingPriorityCall queuingPriorityHandover queuingPriorityNonUrgentHO

Values
0 ... 100 % 0 ... 15 (s) 0 ... 10 (s) Yes / No Yes / No 1 ... 14 1 ... 14 1 14

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Dropped Call Control


Radio Link Timeout Call re-establishment In case of a Radio Link Failure (radioLinkTimeout) within 20 seconds. Measurements averaged over 5 seconds for serving Cell BCCH adjacent Cell BCCHs Strongest is considered BCCH data decoded (cell selection param.) If: C1 greater than 0, Cell not barred Cell belong to selected PLMN, Call re-establishment allowed Call re-establishment attempted

A counter is initialised at the value of the radioLinkTimeout


When SACCH is not correctly received Counter decremented by 1 When SACCH correctly received Counter incremented by 2 When counter reaches 0 call is released Same behaviour UL and DL

Parameters radioLinkTimeout callReestablishmentAllowed

Values 4 ... 64 SACCH Yes/No

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Radio Link Timeout

Indoor
Elevator

Outdoor

Tunnel (short)
5. floor

MS MS 1. floor

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Call Re-establishment

Outdoor

radioLinkTimeout (default) = 20 (SACCH)


BTS B Tunnel (long) BTS A

MS

Unsuccessful Handover=> use Call Re-Establishment

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

The Decision Threshold Table

TRAFFIC TYPE IDLE TCHS 1 2 3 . . . Q 1 10 20 30 . . . XQ1 2 5 10 20 . . . XQ2 ...

Xij

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Handover Control & Adjacencies


BSSPAR S10.5 Module 08

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Module Objectives
At the end of this module, the participant will be able to: List ten types of handovers, in the order in which they are prioritised. State the parameters defining the minimum intervals between handovers and between handover attempts. Discuss the target cell evaluation process. Explain the parameters associated with power budget handovers. Name the parameters used to control umbrella handovers. List the parameters associated with MS speed detection and handovers. Discuss the mechanism and parameters for handover due to signal level or quality. State the various types of imperative handovers and their associated parameters. Explain the Advanced Multilayer Handling (AMH) concept and parameters.

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Contents (1 of 2)
1. Module Objectives 2. Introduction to the Handover Process 3. Handover Decisions

4. Handover Timers
5. Target Cell Evaluation Process 6. Radio Resource Handovers
Power Budget (PBGT) Umbrella, & Combined Umbrella - PBGT MS Speed (FMMS & MS_SPEED_DETECTION) Quality & Level (RXQUAL & RXLEV)

7. Imperative Handovers
MS-BTS Distance
Rapid Field Drop (RFD) Enhanced Rapid Field Drop (ERFD)

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Contents (2 of 2)
8. Traffic Reason Handovers

9. Load Control between layers: AMH


10. Direct Access to Desired Layer/Band (DADL/B) 11. Handover Parameter List 12. Adjacent Cell Parameter List 13. Practical Examples of Handovers 14. Handover Control Exercise 15. Handover & Power Control Exercise

16. Key Learning Points


17. Review Questions

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Overview
Why are handovers needed?

Call continuity moves in

- to ensure a call can be maintained as an MS


geographical location, from the coverage area

of one cell to another Call quality - to ensure that if an MS moves into an area of poor quality or poor coverage, the call can be moved from the serving cell to a neighbouring cell (with better quality) without dropping the call Traffic Reasons - to ensure that the traffic within the network is optimally distributed between the different layers or bands of a network

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Handover Causes
Uplink Quality Downlink Quality Uplink Level Downlink Level AV_RXQUAL_UL_H O AV_RXQUAL_DL_H O AV_RXLEV_UL_H O AV_RXLEV_DL_HO

QUALITY & INTERFERENCE


LEVEL MS SPEED

THRESHOLD COMPARISON

MS Speed
Timing Advance

AV_MS_SPEED
AV_RANGE_H O DISTANCE RAPID FIELD DROP

Adjacent Cells

AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) CHANNEL ADMINISTRATION DIRECTED RETRY

IMPERATIVE HO

Others causes; - Intelligent Underlay/Overlay (IUO) - Traffic Reason Handover (TRHO) - Direct Access to Desired Layer/Band (DADL/B)
POWER BUDGET UMBRELLA PERIODIC CHECKS

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Handover Priorities
If 2 or more Handover (& PC) criteria are satisfied simultaneously, the following priority list is used in determining which process is performed: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Uplink and downlink Interference Uplink quality e.g if downlink quality & Downlink quality slow moving mobile Uplink level criteria were satisfied Downlink level simultaneously Distance HO with cause Enhanced (RFD) downlink quality Rapid Field Drop (RFD) performed Slow moving MS Better cell i.e. Periodic check (Power Budget HO or Umbrella HO)

11. PC: Lower quality/level thresholds (UL/DL) 12. PC: Upper quality/level thresholds (UL/DL)

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Handover Timers
Minimum time between consecutive handovers related to the same connections
minIntBetweenHoReq (MIH)(HOC)

Minimum time between handover attempts after a failure


minIntBetweenUnsuccHoAttempt (MIU)(HOC) Applied differently in Intercell / Intracell handovers

Additional Guard Periods are used for Back-handovers


Quality Distance Traffic reason Interference Value 0 ... 30 sec 0 ... 30 sec

Parameter minIntBetweenUnsuccHoAttempt (MIU)(HOC) minIntBetweenHoReq (MIH)(HOC)

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Handover Failure Timer


Reversion to old channel OR no radio resource available minIntBetweenUnsuccHoAttempt applied only to intra-cell handover attempts Other failure cases (BSS failures) minIntBetweenUnsuccHoAttempt (MIU) applied to all types of handover attempts Reversion to old channel ( 1 + NUMBER_OF_HO_FAIL ) * minIntBetweenUnsuccHoAttempt (MIU) applied to handover attempts to the same target cell No Radio Resource Available

minIntBetweenUnsuccHoAttempt applied to handover attempts to the same target cells ( all those in the list )
Other Failure Cases minIntBetweenUnsuccHoAttempt applied to all types of handover attempts

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Guard Period for Back-Handover


After a HO due to quality (UL/DL) and interference (UL/DL): a Power Budget HO back is not allowed during GUARD_TIME = 2 * hoPeriodPBGT (HPP)(HOC) an Umbrella HO back is not allowed during GUARD_TIME = 2 * hoPeriodUmbrella (HPU)(HOC) After an inter-cell HO due to MS-BS distance: a HO back to the source cell is not allowed during GUARD_TIME = 20sec + minIntBetweenHOReq (MIH)(HOC) After a Traffic Reason HO: Power Budget HO & Umbrella HO back to the source, not allowed during

GUARD_TIME = 20sec + minIntBetweenHOReq (MIH)(HOC)


Repetitive Intra Cell HO not allowed during GUARD_TIME = 4 * minIntBetweenUnsuccHoAttempt (MIU)(HOC)

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Threshold Comparison Process


The Handover process may be triggered
Threshold comparison: Quality Level Distance Load Periodic checks: Power budget Umbrella
Averaged value obtained from measurement averaging process by: using hoAveragingQualDL IF AV_RXQUAL_DL_HO < hoThresholdsQualDL THEN Downlink Quality HO is performed

IF EnablePowerBudgetHO = Yes THEN PBGT comparison performed every hoPeriodPBGT seconds

Threshold level based on nx & px

Target Cell Evaluation Process

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Handover Decision Algorithm


In all Handover cases

AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > rxLevMinCell(n) + Max (0, A) A = msTxPwrMax(n) - P P = depending on MS Classmark For imperative handovers only Eq. 1 has to be satisfied Except for Umbrella Handover
1. 1.

AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > hoLevelUmbrella(n)

The additional condition 2. PBGT > hoMarginPBGT(n) where PBGT = ((msTxPwrMax - msTxPwrMax(n))-(AV_RXLEV_DL_HO AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n)) - (btsTxPwrMax - BTS_TXPWR)) 2.

PBGT > hoMarginLev/Qual(n) where PBGT = (AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) - AV_RXLEV_DL_HO)-(btsTxPwrMax BTS_TXPWR) (Note: enableHoMarginLevQual must = Yes) - for RxLev & RxQual handovers

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Cell Preference Based on Load Conditions


Best candidates to RR Management: intra BSC HO max 16 cells under the same BSC as the source cell inter BSC HO numberOfPreferredCells (NPC)(BSC) Only for Adjacent Cells of the same BSC (intra-BSC) analysis

Load check of Candidates by btsLoadThreshold (BLT)(BTS) (0..100%)

1. If overloaded priority decreased by hoLoadFactor (OF)(ADJC) (0..7)

2.

Comparison of Candidates' priorities (hoPriorityLevel (PRI)(A) (0..7)) If there are two or more Adjacent cells with equal priorities 3. -> Ranking based on radio properties (RxLev)

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Target Cell Evaluation


Load Evaluation Example
Case 1: All cells have equal priority Cell Rx_Level 1. Load hoLoadFactor 2. Priority New Priority 3. Rx_Level => cell list a -75 overl. 1 3 2 -75 c , a ,b b -80 overl. 1 3 2 -80 c -83 n.overl. 1. 1 3 2. 3 Case 2: One cell with higher priority cell Rx_Level Load hoLoadFactor Priority New Priority a -75 n./overl. 2 4 4/2 -75 b -80 n.overl. 1 3 3 c -83 n.overl. 1 3 3

3. Rx_Level => cell list => cell list

-80/-80 -83

a,b,c (if cell a is not overloaded) b,c,a

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

C/I Based HO Candidate Evaluation


Designed to estimate the level of the potential interference for each handover candidate (used during the target cell evaluation process) The purpose is to direct the mobile station to a cell which can provide a minimum interference service at the current location of the MS OPTIONAL - Enabled using O&M parameter ciEstMethod (HOC) on a cell-by-cell basis Parameter Each Adjacent Cell can have Value up to 5 "reference cells"
Real source of interference or just reference ciEstMethod (HOC) AVE (Average taking method) MAX (Maximum taking method) NONE (C/I estimation not used)

LAC1-5 (ADJC) CI1-5 (ADJC) L1-5 (ADJC) W1-5 (ADJC)

Location area code of reference cell 1-5 0 ... 65535 Cell identification of reference cell 1-5 0 ... 65535 Level adjustment for reference cell 1-5 - 63 ... 63 dB C/I estimation weight parameter for reference cell 1-5 0 ... 10

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

C/I Calculation
C/I is calculated for the handover candidates
Averaged over the reference cells (Average) By taking the worst interferer (Maximum)
priorityAdjStepforBand1 priorityAdjStepforBand2 . priorityAdjStepforBand6 priorityAdjStepforBand7 >= LowerC/ILimit1 >= LowerC/ILimit2 . >= LowerC/ILimit6 >= LowerC/ILimit7

C/I is compared to 7 user-defined -8 Eliminates the Adjacent Cell from the bands candidates list
Priority of the Cell is incremented by Parameter Value the quantity associated with the band lowerCIlimit (L1-L6)(HOC) L1 (Lower C/I limit for band 1) -128 ... 127 dB L2 (Lower C/I limit for band 2) -128 ... 127 dB L6 (Lower C/I limit for band 6) -128 ... 127 dB priorityAdjStepforBand1 (P1-P7)(HOC) P1 (Priority adj. for band 1) P2 (Priority adj. for band 2) P6 (Priority adj. for band 6) -8 ... 7 -8 ... 7 -8 ... 7

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

C/I Modified Cell Priority

C/I estimates used to:


Remove any HO candidates whose predicted C/I is below acceptable level Increase priority rating of cells with good C/I Reduce priority rating of cells with bad C/I

Modified cell priority equation:

PRIORITY(n) = hoPriorityLevel(n) - hoLoadFactor(n) + CI_Priority_Factor(n)


Applies to all handover cases that use priority levels (e.g. PBGT, RxLev, RxQual, Umbrella) but not imperative handovers (e.g. DR, RFD, distance)

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Radio Resource Handovers


A handover is considered as a Radio Resource Handover if the cause is one of the following reasons: Level (uplink / downlink)

Quality (uplink / downlink)


Interference (uplink / downlink) Power budget

Umbrella

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Handover Thresholds
When the BSC receives measurement results from the BTS it always compares each of the processed results (averages) with the relevant thresholds: hoThresholdsLevDL/UL hoThresholdsQualDL/UL hoThresholdsInterferenceDL/UL msSpeedThresholdNx/Px (STN)/(STP)(HOC)(ZEHO)(1..32)(6)/(3) OPTIONAL - FMMS in Macrocell, lower & upper speed thresholds, Nx, Px

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Power Budget Handover (1/3)


Process & Parameters Trigger Periodic Check - hoPeriodPBGT (HPP)(HOC) Candidate Selection Equation 1 & 2 used Priority and Load considered When used in association with Umbrella HO (& AdjCellLayer (ACL)(ADJC)), PBGT handovers are only between cells of the SAME layer Parameter hoPeriodPBGT (HPP)(HOC) enablePwrBudgetHandover (EPB)(HOC) rxLevMinCell(n) (SL)(ADJC) msTxPwrMax(n) (PMAX1 & PMAX2)(ADJC) hoMarginPBGT(n) (PMRG)(ADJC) Range 1 ... 63 (SACCH) Y/N -110 -47 dBm 5 43 & 0 36 dBm -24 63 dB

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Power Budget Handover (2/3)


Flowchart for Handover Algorithm

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Power Budget Handover (3/3)


Example
Equations 1 and 2 are used Serving Cell: AV_RXLEV_DL_HO = -90 dBm msTxPwrMax = 33 dBm (= 2W) btsTxPwrMax = 42 dBm (= 16 W) BTS_TX_PWR = 42 dBm = (16 W) hoMarginPBGT(n) = 6 dB Best Adjacent Cell: AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) = -80 dBm rxLevMinCell(n) = -99 dBm msTxPwrMax(n) = 33 dBm (= 2W) btsTxPwrMax = 42 dBm (= 16 W)

1.

AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > rxLevMinCell(n) + Max (0, msTxPwrMax(n) - msTxPwrMax) -80 dBm > -99 dBm + (33 dBm - 33 dBm) = -99 dBm

2.

PBGT = ((msTxPwrMax- msTxPwrMax(n)) - (AV_RXLEV_DL_HO-AV_RXLEV_NCELL - (btsTxPwrMax - BTS_TXPWR) PBGT = ((33dBm-33dBm)-(-90 - -80)-(42dBm-42dBm) = 10 dB 10 dB > 6 dB OK !!!!

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Umbrella Handover

Used in multi-layer/band networks (better for bands - no speed criterion) Typically used in association with PBGT (Combined PBGT/Umbrella feature) Trigger Periodic Check (hoPeriodUmbrella) (HPU)(HOC) Candidate Selection Equation 1' used Consistency between MS classmark and target cell power constraints Priority and Load Considered
Value

Parameter

enableUmbrellaHandover (EUM)(HOC) hoPeriodUmbrella (HPU)(HOC) hoLevelUmbrella (AUCL)(ADJC) dcsMicrocellThreshold (DMIC)(BSC) 1900) dcsMacrocellThreshold (DMAC)(BSC) 1900)

Y/N 0 63 (SACCH) -110 -47 dBm 0..36 & 0..33 dBm (GSM1800 & 0..36 & 0..33 dBm (GSM1800 &

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Handover Comparison

Max power capability of MS >= gsmMacrocellThreshold

HO allowed only to a power macrocell ( MS_TXPWR_MAX(n) >= gsmMicrocellThreshold < Max capability of MS < gsmMacrocellThreshold
gsmMacrocellThreshold )
HO only to middle size cell ( gsmMicrocellThreshold < MS_TXPWR_MAX(n) < gsmMacrocellThreshold )

Max power capability of MS <= gsm MicrocellThreshold HO allowed only to microcell ( MS_TXPWR_MAX(n) <= gsmMicrocellThreshold )

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Umbrella Handover Algorithm

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Umbrella Handover Example


Example - Priority microcells hoLevelUmbrella macro macro = -47 dBm (prevents Umbrella HOs between adjacent macrocells) hoLevelUmbrella macro micro = -85 dBm hoThresholdLevDL = -90 dBm GSM MS class 4 (33 dBm) gsmMacrocellThreshold = 33 dBm gsmMicrocellThreshold = 33 dBm msTxPwrMax(n) = 33 dBm Umbrella Handover down to micro layer hoLevelUmbrella = -85dBm A PBGT Handover between SAME layer cells 1800 Macro

1800 Micro

RR Handover out of micros

-85 dBm
-90 dBm B Umbrella Handover

Handover due to Level

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Combined Umbrella & Power Budget


When enablePowerBudgetHo = Yes &

enableUmbrellaHo = Yes (HOC)


Power Budget Handover to cells of the same layer Umbrella Handover to cells of different layer

Based on
gsmMacrocellThreshold, gsmMicrocellThreshold (BSC) UMB msTxPwrMax, msTxPwrMax(n) (BTS, ADJC) RR PBGT MS classmark
macrocells
umbrella HO radio reason HO power budget HO

PBGT,RR UMB,RR PBGT,RR microcells UMB,RR

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Adjacent Cell Layer Parameter


Three layers visible to serving cell (relative to
serving cell) Used in target cell evaluation for;
Fast moving MS handling in macro cell HOs based on MS speed (BSS6) Combined umbrella and power budget
Parameter

adjCellLayer (ACL)(ADJC)

UPPER layer (e.g. 900 macro) SAME layer (serving layer) LOWER layer (micro) N (not in use)

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

MS Speed Based Handovers


Mobile distribution in multi-layer networks based on speed of mobile Slow moving MS lower layer (micro) cells Fast moving MS upper layer (macro) cells Two proprietary Nokia features; Fast Moving Mobile Support (FMMS) Estimation of MS speed based on duration of stay in target cell used to move MSs from UPPER (macro) to LOWER (micro) cells MS_SPEED_DETECTION Measurement of MS speed based on zero-crossing detection process Used to move slow MS from macro micro & fast MS from micro macro

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Fast and Slow Moving MS

Combination of Fast Moving MS Handling (BSC) and MS Speed Detection (BTS


macrocell with RF hopping

fast MSs

BTS

BSC

BSS6/MS speed

BSS5/Fast MS

Adjacent cell measurements meas_res HO&PC algorithm BTS Crossing rate algorithm

slow MSs

microcell(s) no RF hopping

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Fast Moving Mobile Support (FMMS)


Process

FMMS used in macrocell layer to 'estimate' the speed of a mobile based on measurement reports on adjacent microcells
Macro cells parameters for each adjacent micro cell: Counter for each adjacent micro cell +2 measurement and over rxLevMinCell -1 no meas. or bad level fastMovingThreshold(FMT) 0..255 rxLevMinCell (SL)(ADJC) Target cell selection based on adjacent hoLevelUmbrella (AUCL)(ADJC) cell RX_LEVEL and on hoLevelUmbrella

macrocells hoLevelUmbrella = -85 dBm (AUCL)(ADJC) time t HO FMT Counter FMT Threshold = 40 (FMT)(ADJC) FMMS HO initiated

microcells time t

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

MS Speed Detection Processing


3
BSC averages speed indications using msSpeedAveraging BSC ignores indications if; AV_MS_SPEED UL DTx used during SACCH MS changing power during SACCH

BTS Adjacent cell measurements BSC

AV_MS_SPEED is compared with thresholds; LowerSpeedLimit (slow MS) UpperSpeedLimit (fast MS) to direct MS to appropriate layer (cell priorities used)

BTS 2 1
BTS 'measures' MS speed based on zero cross rate algorithm providing call is on non-hopping TCH (no SDCCH) MS_SPEED_DETECTION not suitable for use with frequency hopping networks BTS sends MS speed measurements to BSC every SACCH period (~480ms)

Candidate Selection Fast-moving to upper / Slowmoving to lower layer adjacent cells Equation 1' used Priority ADA cellworks considered Louder than words..

FMMS & MS Speed Detection Parameters


Parameter adjCellLayer (ACL)(ADJC) hoLevelUmbrella (AUCL)(ADJC) FastMovingThreshold (FMT)(ADJC) Value N / Same / Upper / Lower -110 ... -47 dBm FMMS 0 255 (SACCH frames)

msSpeedAveraging (MSA)(HOC) lowerSpeedLimit (LSL)(HOC) 2km/h) upperSpeedLimit (USL)(HOC)


2km/h)

1 ... 32 (SACCH frames) 0 255 (1 step 0 255 (1 step 1 32 1 32 N / Same / Upper / Lower -110 ... -47 dBm

msSpeedThresholdNx (STN)(HOC) msSpeedThresholdPx (STP)(HOC) adjCellLayer (ACL)(ADJC) hoLevelUmbrella (AUCL)(ADJC)

MS Speed Detection

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

FMMS & MS_SPEED_DETECTION


Flowchart for Handover Algorithm

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Handover due to Quality (1/3)


Process

Trigger
Threshold Comparison (hoThresholdsQualUL/DL with px/nx) (QUR/QDR)(HOC)

Candidate Selection
Equation 1 used Equation 2 used if enableHoMarginLevQual = N (MRGS)(ADJC) Equation 2' used if enableHoMarginLevQual = Y Priority and Load Considered
Value 07 1 32 1 32 -110 -47 dBm 5 43 & 0 36 dBm -24 24 dB

Parameter hoThresholdQualUL/DL (QUR/QDR)(HOC) px (QUP/QDP) nx (QUN/QDN)

rxLevMinCell(n) (SL)(ADJC) msTxPwrMax(n) (PMAX1 & PMAX2)(ADJC) hoMarginQual(n) (QMRG)(ADJC)

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Handover due to Quality (2/3)


Flowchart for Handover Algorithm

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Handover due to Quality (3/3)


Example

Equations 1 and 2 are used if parameter enableHoMarginLevQual is set Yes (MRGS)(ADJ hoMarginQual = 0 dB (QMRG)(ADJC)
Trigger for Handover HO due to Quality A 2 dB B Cell B is selected as potential candidate for HO due to Quality since 2 dB > 0 dB

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Handover due to Level (1/3)


Process

Trigger
Threshold Comparison (hoThresholdsLevUL/DL with px/nx) (LUR/LDR)(HOC)

Candidate Selection
Equation 1 used Equation 2 used if enableHoMarginLevQual = N (MRGS)(ADJC) Equation 2' used if enableHoMarginLevQual = Y Priority and Load Considered Parameter Value
hoThresholdLevUL/DL (LUR/LDR)(HOC) px (LUP/LDP) nx (LUN/LDN) rxLevMinCell(n) (SL)(ADJC) msTxPwrMax(n) (PMAX1 & PMAX2)(ADJC) hoMarginLev(n) (LMRG)(ADJC) -110 -47 dBm 1 32 1 32 -110 -47 dBm 5 43 & 0 36 dBm -24 24 dB

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Handover due to Level (3/3)


Example

Equations 1 and 2 are used if parameter enableHoMarginLevQual is set Yes (MRGS)(ADJC hoMarginLev = 4dB (LMRG)(ADJC)
Trigger for Handover due to Level Cell A (RxLev) Threshold defined by; hoThresholdLevUL/D L = -92 / -95 dBm (LUR/LDR)(HOC)

2 dB
Cell B

Cell B is not selected as candidate for HO due to level, since 2dB < 4 dB

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Handover due to Level (2/3)


Flowchart for Handover Algorithm

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Handover due to Interference (1/4)


Process

Trigger:
Threshold Comparison for Quality (hoThresholdsQualUL/DL with px/nx) Threshold Comparison for Level (hoThresholdsInterferenceUL/DL with px/nx)

Candidate Selection
Priority for InterCell / Intracell HO selected at BSC independently for UL / DL Priority InterCell HO Quality HO if any candidate If not IntraCell HO Priority IntraCell HO Parameter Value hoThresholdInterferenceUL/DL (IUR/IDR)(HOC) -110 -47 dBm px (IUP/IDP) 1 32 nx (IUN/IDN) 1 32 enableIntraHoInterfUL/DL (EIC/EIH)(HOC) Y/N hoPreferenceOrderInterfUL/DL (HUL/HDL)(BSC) INTER / INTRA

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Handover due to Interference (4/4)


Example

Equations 1 and 2 are used if parameter enableHandoverMarginLevQual is set Yes (MRGS)( hoThresholdQualDL =5 (QDR)(HOC) hoThresholdInterferenceDL = -85 dBm (HOC) Field strength higher than threshold hoPreferenceOrderInterfDL = intra (HDL)(BSC) (AV_RXLEV_DL_HO >
hoThresholdsInterferenceDL Bad quality (AV_RXQUAL_DL hoThresholdsQualDL Handover due to DL interference intra cell handover !! Trigger for Handover due to Interference

Cell A Threshold (Interference Lev) -85 dBm Cell B

RXLEV
0

RXQUAL
5

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Handover due to Interference (2/4)


Flowchart for Handover Algorithm (1)

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Handover due to Interference (3/4)


Flowchart for Handover Algorithm (2)
A

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

8. Imperative Handovers

Handovers considered to be imperative:


Handover due to Distance Order to empty a cell (from O&M) Directed Retry and IDR Rapid Field Drop (RFD) Enhanced Rapid Field Drop (ERFD)

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

MS-BTS Distance Handover


Distance Process Distance Process ---> msDistanceBehaviour (0,1..60,255) (DISB) (in BSC) 0 : Release immediately 1 - 60 : Release after certain time 1 - 60 s, try handover during that time 255 : No release, only imperative Handover attempt Parameter enableMsDistanceProcess (EMS)(HOC) msDistanceHoThresholdParam (MSR)(HOC) px (MSP) nx (MSN) msDistanceBehaviour (DISB)(BSC) Value Y/N 0 63 1 32 1 32 0, 1 60, 255

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Rapid Field Drop Parameters


Trigger
Threshold Comparison (HoThresholdRapidLevUl (px)

Rx_Lev_UL (Not averaged / Only UL) Candidate Selection


Only Chained adjacent cell Equation 1 only / no priority

Serving Cell

Chained Cell

Multi-Layered Network
Parameter Value

hoThresholdLevUL (forRapidFieldDrop)(RPD)(HOC) -110 ... -47 dBm [hoThresholdRapidLevU1N 0 ... 32] chainedAdjacentCell (CHAIN)(ADJC) Y/N

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Rapid Field Drop Example

Example hoThresholdRapidLevUL(RPD) = - 93 dBm hoThresholdRapidLevUlN (px) = 2 chainedAdjacentCell = Yes Serving Cell

MS Serving Cell

Chained Cell

-93 dBm 1st Rapid Field Drop Handover

.
. 2nd

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Rapid Field Drop (RFD)


Flowchart for Handover Algorithm

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Enhanced Rapid Field Drop (ERFD)


Scenarios for Fast & Slow MSs

Signal Level

A MS moves away from cell site, the signal is dropping gradually

A MS turns a corner, the signal drops rapidly

Figure 7 Signal Strength of a Fast Moving MS

Time

Signal Level

MS moves away from cell site, the signal is dropping gradually MS turns a corner, the signal drops faster than moving in straight line

Figure 8 Signal Strength of a Slow Moving MS

Time

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

ERFD Basics
An Enhanced Rapid Field Drop is detected when the uplink receive signal level falls
by a defined level over a set period of time. (Note: ERFD does not use a threshold like RFD) On detection of an ERFD, the averaging window for neighbour cells, and the number of zero results allowed in a measurement report, are modified in order to speed up the monitoring of neighbour cells The ModifiedAveWinNcell (ERAW)(HOC) and ModifiedNOZ (ERZ)(HOC) parameters are modified over the period ErfdOver (ERD)(HOC) If a Handover with cause RR is requested during ErfdOver, an ERFD Handover is initiated using the Handover Target Cell Candidate list for that handover cause Note: An ERFD Handover does not use 'Chained Cells' for target cell evaluation process
If Handover with RR cause is not detected during ErfdOver, ERFD Handover is

stopped

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

ERFD Parameters
In case of DDE (Deep Dropping Edge), the averaging window sizes and power budget period are reduced level downlink window size level uplink window size adjacent cell averaging window size handover period power budget
Parameter erfdEnabled (ERFD)(HOC) Value DIS, UL, DL, or UDL (OPTIONAL feature)

ddeThresholdsLev (ERT)(HOC) 0 63 dB Nx (ERN) 1 32 Px (ERP) 1 32 ddeWindow (ERMW)(HOC) 1 32 SACCH modifiedAveWinNcell (ERAW) 1 32 modifiedNOZ (ERZ)(HOC) 1 32 erfdOver (ERD)(HOC) 0 64 sec

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

ERFD Detection
ERFD Detection

Handover

25dB > 20dB DdeThreshold


Serving cell Ncell #1
ERFD HO

hoThresholdLevXL
XL = DL or UL
DdeWindow = 2 n(1):p(1)

ErfdOver

ERFD HO initiated to Ncell #1

-60 -60 -61 -63 -83 -87 averagingWindowSizeAdjCell = 4

-89 -91 -94 -89 -89

modifiedAveWinNcell = 2

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

ERFD Example

ddeWindow (ERMW)(HOC) = 3 SACCH (n = 3) ddeThresholdsLev (ERT)(HOC) = 10, px = 2 & nx =3

the BSC compares the most recent measurement sample 8 (multiframe k) with the measurement sample 5 (multiframe k-n)
Sample Signal level 1 -71 dBm 2 -68 dBm 3 -70 dBm 4 -71 dBm 5 -69 dBm 6 -70 dBm 7 -75 dBm 8 -83 dBm

DDE_LEVEL = RXLEV(k- ddeWindow) RXLEV(k) = -69 dBm (83 dBm) = 14 dB ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

ERFD Flowchart

Handover

Another name for ERFD Handover

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

MSC Controlled Traffic Reason Handover

MSC request Traffic reason handover

Target cell evaluation: AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > RxLevMinCell(n) + MAX(0, Pa) AND AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > TrhoTargetLevel(n) + MAX(0, Pa) where Pa = MsTxPwrMaxCell(n) - P P = maximum power of MS

Interval between handovers and handover attempts: Power budget and umbrella handovers back to the source cell are not allowed during the quard time: GUARD_TIME = 20 sec + MinIntBetweenHoReq

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

BSC Initiated Traffic Reason Handover

Handover

+0 dB +4dB

+6 dB

1. AV_RXLEV_NCELL (n) > TRHO_TARGET_LEVEL (n) + Max (0, (MS_TXPWR_MAX_CELL (n) - P)) 2. PBGT (n) > AmhTrhoPbgtMargin and PBGT (n) < HOMarginPBGT

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Practical Example of Handover


Practical Examples
1. Adjacent Channel in Adjacent Cell C Ia - 9 dB In practice after -6 dB -> interferencies + quality goes down to 4-5 hoMarginLev < -6 dB -> Ping-Pong !! A
x x

2. Cell with Very Large Coverage Area MS switched off in cell A and transferred to area of cell X

20 km MS switched on in new place -> MS tries first old channel + neighbourgs MS camped on cell A which is not in neighbourg list of cell X -> do not listen BCCH of cell X -> no HOs to cell X !!!

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Handover Control Exercise


Quality
0 1

Level Ho

No Action Needed

HoThresholdQualUL/DL

HoThresholdQualUL/DL HoThresholdInterferenceUL/DL

Quality Ho
6

Interference Ho

RxLevMinCell(n) HoThresholdLevUL/DL RxLevAccMin

Thresholds
7
-98 -96 -94 -92 -90 -88 -86 -84 -82 -80 -78 -76 -74 -72 -70 -68 -66 -64 -62 -60 -58 -56 -54 -52 -110 -108 -106 -104 -102 -100 -50

dBm

HoThresholdInterferenceUL/DL

Quality Ho Interference Ho Level Ho No action needed

Actions

HoThresholdLevUL/DL RxlevAccMin RxlevAccMin(n)

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Handover & Power Control Exercise


Quality
0

PcUpperThresholdQualUL/DL

Level Ho

No Action Needed

Decrease Power

PcLowerThresholdQualUL/DL

Increase Power HoThresholdQualUL/DL


4

HoThresholdQualUL/DL HoThresholdInterferenceUL/DL PcUpperThresholdQualUL/DL PcUpperThresholdLevUL/DL RxLevMinCell(n) PcLowerThresholdQualUL/DL HoThresholdLevUL/DL PcLowerThresholdLevUL/DL RxLevAccMin

Quality Ho
6

Interference Ho

Thresholds
7
-98 -96 -94 -92 -90 -88 -86 -84 -82 -80 -78 -76 -74 -72 -70 -68 -66 -64 -62 -60 -58 -56 -54 -52 -110 -108 -106 -104 -102 -100 -50

dBm

PcUpperThresholdLevUL/DL HoThresholdInterferenceUL/DL PcLowerThresholdLevUL/DL

Power decrease Power increase Quality Ho Interference Ho Level Ho No action needed

Actions

HoThresholdLevUL/DL RxlevAccMin RxlevAccMin(n)

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Handover Causes
Network Doctor Example

Handover Causes

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Power Control

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Module Objectives

At the end of the module, the participant will be able to: State the purpose and the important considerations for power control in GSM networks List the steps involved in the power control process. Explain the difference between fixed and variable powerchange step-size Discuss the Power Control Algorithms that are used to increase or decrease the MS or BTS transmit power, based on received signal levels and quality Name the parameters that are used for Power Control

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Reasons and Strategy


REASONS Optimize Uplink and Downlink QOS decrease interference Decrease power consumption of the Mobile

STRATEGY Handled by the BSC Enough margin against Rayleigh fading HO has always higher priority than POC Controlled by interval Increase and decrease act independently (can be fixed or variable step size) BTS and MS apply Power Control independently BCCH TRX doesn't use Power Control DL/UL Power Control can be disabled Initial POC level used by MS in new cell after HO, is determined by BSC (default is max permitted level, MsTXPwrMaxCell Optionally POC/HOC processes can optimise the initial RF power in case of intra BSC HO

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Overview (1/2)
MS + BTS Measurements
EnaFastAveCallSetup EnaFastAvePC EnaFastAveHO

Averaging

ho/pc_Averaging_Lev/Qual_UL/DL WindowSize Weight msDistanceAveragingParameter BtsMeasAverage WIndowSize DTXMode

Power Control ?

Measurements MS Bookkeeping

Averaging
AveragingWindow SizeAdjCell AllAdjacentCellsAveraged NumberOfZeroResults

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Overview (2/2)
POWER CONTROL Uplink Quality Uplink Level Downlink Quality Downlink Level AV_RXQUAL_UL_PC AV_RXLEV_UL_PC AV_RXQUAL_DL_PC AV_RXLEV_DL_PC UPLINK THRESHOLD COMPARISON POWER CONTROL DOWNLINK

Separate Averaging Parameters For Handover and for Power Control

POC INTERVAL

Parameter powerControlInterval powerIncrStepSize powerRedStepSize powerControlEnabled

Value 0 30 sec 2, 4, 6 dB 2, 4 dB Y/N

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

POC Parameters
Parameter pcUpper/LowerThresholdsLevUL rxLevel px nx pcUpper/LowerThresholdsLevDL rxLevel px nx pcUpper/LowerThresholdsQualU L rxQual px nx pcUpper/LowerThresholdsQualD L rxQual px nx Value -110 ...-47 dBm 1 ... 32 1 ... 32 -110 ... -47 dBm 1 ... 32 1 ... 32

0 ... 7 1 ... 32 1 ... 32

0 ... 7 1 ... 32 1 ... 32

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Safety Region
LowerLEV UpperLEV

UpperQUAL

LowerQUAL

Applicable in both Downlink and Uplink Directions

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Ranges

Attenuations 30 dB Range Power Values System Dependent Range

Parameter bsTxPwrMax bsTxPwrMin minMsTxPower msTxPwrMax

Value 0 30 dB 0 30 dB 0 36 dBm 0 36 dBm

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

MS/BTS Power Increase Due to Signal Level


IF AV_RXLEV_UL/DL_PC <=PcLowerThresholdsLevUL/DL THEN MS/BTS power increase due to signal level

IF PowIncrStepSize RXLEV_UL/DL + 2 * <= PcLowerThresholdsLevUL/DL THEN PWR_INCR_STEP = PcLowerThresholdsLevUL/DL- RXLEV_UL/DL ELSE PWR_INCR_STEP = PowIncrStepSize

PowerControlIinterval

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

MS Power Increase Due to Signal Level


If RXLEV_UL+ 2*PowIncrStepSize PcLowerThresholdsLevUL

PWR_INCR_STEP = PcLowerThresholdsLevULRXLEV_UL
(Variable step size)

Power Control Triggered

Else
PWR_INCR_STEP = PowIncrStepSize

PcLowerThresholdsLevUL

RXLEV_UL is the current signal level measured by the BTS


RXLEV_UL <> AV_RXLEV_UL_PC ( used for threshold comparison)

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

BTS Power Increase Due to Signal Level


If RXLEV_DL + 2*PowIncrStepSize <= PcLowerThresholdsLevDL
PWR_INCR_STEP = PcLowerThresholdsLevDL RXLEV_DL (Variable step size)
Power Control Triggered

Else
PWR_INCR_STEP = PowIncrStepSize PcLowerThresholdsLevDL

RXLEV_DL is the current signal level measured by the MS RXLEV_DL <> AV_RXLEV_DL_PC (used for threshold comparison)

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

MS Power Increase Due to Signal Quality


Only variable step size Two different Algorithms Largest increase is considered
Based on Current Quality PWR_INCR_STEP = (1+MAX(0,Qa))*PowIncrStepSize where Qa = RXQUAL_UL - PcLowerThresholdsQualUL

Based on Current Level PWR_INCR_STEP = PcLowerThresholdsLevUL RXLEV_UL IF : RXLEV_UL + 2*PowIncrStepSize < = PcLowerThresholdsLevUL

LARGEST INCREASE

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

BTS Power Increase Due to Signal Quality


Only variable step size Two different Algorithms Largest increase is considered
Based on Current Quality
PWR_INCR_STEP = (1+MAX(0,Qa))*PowIncrStepSize where Qa = RXQUAL_DL - PcLowerThresholdsQualDL

LARGEST INCREASE
Based on Current Level PWR_INCR_STEP = PcLowerThresholdsLevDL RXLEV_DL IF : RXLEV_DL + 2*PowIncrStepSize <= PcLowerThresholdsLevDL

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

BTS Power Decrease Due to Signal Level

PcUpperThresholdsLevDL

if VariableDLStepUse = N
PWR_DECR_STEP = PowRedStepSize
Power Control Triggered

(no variable step size)

Parameter VariableDLStepUse

Value Y/N

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

BTS Power Decrease Due to Signal Level


If RXLEV_DL - 2*PowRedStepSize >=
PcUpperThresholdsLevDL PWR_DECR_STEP = MIN((RXLEV_DL PcUpperThresholdsLevDL),10) (Variable step size) Else PWR_DECR_STEP = PowRedStepSize RXLEV_DL is the current signal level measured by the MS RXLEV_DL <> AV_RXLEV_DL_PC ( used for threshold comparison )

If VariableDLStepUse = Y

PcUpperThresholdsLevDL

Power Control Triggered

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

BTS Power Decrease Due to Signal Quality


VariableDLStepUse =Y/N (S9 new feature) OptimumRxLevDL = -109-47 dBm/N If VariableDLStepUse = N PWR_DECR_STEP = PowRedStepSize variable step size) (no

The decrease in power does not take place if there is the possibility that it would trigger the threshold PcLowerThresholdsLevDL (the safety margin is 6dB)

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

BTS Power Decrease Due to Signal Quality

Two different Algorithms


Based on whether OptimumRxLevDL is used or not

If the resulting RXLEV_DL would get too close to PcLowerThresholdLevDL (as a result of the decrease) there could be a consecutive increase due to level which will lead to triggering the decrease again. To avoid this "ping pong" effect BSC makes sure before decreasing the power due to signal quality, that RXLEV_DL is at least 6 dB higher than the PcLowerThresholdLevDL.
6 dB Margin is in-built in BSC

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

BTS Power Decrease Due to Signal Quality


If VariableDLStepUse = Y and If OptimumRxLevDL = < not defined >

If RXLEV_DL - 2*PowRedStepSize >= PcUpperThresholdsLevDL PWR_DECR_STEP =MIN(( RXLEV_DL PcUpperThresholdsLevDL) ,10) (Variable step size) Else PWR_DECR_STEP = PowRedStepSize RXLEV_UL is the current signal level measured by the BTS

RXLEV_UL <> AV_RXLEV_UL_PC (used for threshold comparison)

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Power Decrease Step Calculation


If VariableDLStepUse = Y and If OptimumRxLevDL = defined
IF : optimumRxLevDL <> N

PWR_DECR_STEP =
MIN ((MIN{PwrDecrLimit, MAX[ MAX (0, RXLEV_DL OptimumRxLevDL), (PwrDecrFactor + MAX(0, Qa)) *PowRedStepSize]}),10) where Qa = PcUpperThresholdsQualDL - AV_RXQUAL_DL_PC

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

MS Power Decrease Due to Signal Level


If RXLEV_UL - 2*PowRedStepSize >= PcUpperThresholdsLevUL PWR_DECR_STEP = RXLEV_UL PcUpperThresholdsLevUL (Variable step size) Else PWR_DECR_STEP = PowRedStepSize RXLEV_UL is the current signal level measured by the BTS RXLEV_UL <> AV_RXLEV_UL_PC ( used for threshold comparison )
Power Control Triggered

PcUpperThresholdsLevUL

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

MS Power Decrease Due to Signal Quality

Two different Algorithms


Based on OptimumRxLevUL being used or not

if the resulting RXLEV_UL would get too close to PcLowerThresholdLevUL (as a result of the decrease) there could be a consecutive increase due to level which will lead to triggering the decrease again. To avoid this "ping pong" effect BSC makes sure before decreasing the power due to signal quality that RXLEV_UL is at least 6 dB higher than the PcLowerThresholdLevUL.
6 dB Margin is in-built in BSC

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

"Ping Pong" Effect


LowerLEV UpperLEV

UpperQUAL

LowerQUAL

Power decrement due to quality Power increment due to level

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

MS Power Decrease Due to Signal Quality


IF : optimumRxLevUL = N if RXLEV_UL - 2*PowRedStepSize >= PcUpperThresholdsLevUL PWR_DECR_STEP = RXLEV_UL PcUpperThresholdsLevUL (Variable step size)

else PWR_DECR_STEP = PowRedStepSize Same as in the MS Power decrease due to Signal Level, but Triggered by different condition (quality)

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

MS Power Decrease Due to Signal Quality


IF : optimumRxLevUL <> N

PWR_DECR_STEP =
16

AV_RXQUAL_UL_PC = 0 PwrDecrLimit = 10dB PwrDecrLimitBand1 : if AV_RXQUAL_UL_PC = 1

PwrDecrLimitBand2 : if AV_RXQUAL_UL_PC = 2

0
-99 -97 -95 -93 -91 -89 -87 -85 -83 -81 -79 -77 -75 -73 -71 -69 -67 -65 -109 -107 -105 -103 -101 -63

Pwr_Decr_Step

MIN[ PwrDecrLimit, MAX( MAX (0, RXLEV_UL 14 OptimumRxLevUL ), (PwrDecrFactor 12 + MAX(0, Qa)) *PowRedStepSize ) ] where Qa = PcUpperThresholdsQualUL - PcUpperThresholdQualUL = 1 10 AV_RXQUAL_UL_PC PwrDecrLimitBand0 : if

RxLev_UL

B = Max ( 0 , RXLEV_UL - OptimumRxLevUL )

C = (PwrDecrFactor + Max(0,Qa)) *PwrRedStepSize

Min(Max(B;C) , PwrDecrLimit)

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

MS Power Optimization
Call Set-up Normally MS accesses the TCH with the maximum Tx Power allowed in the cell: msTxPwrMax When power optimization is employed
MS_TXPWR_ OPT = MsTxPwrMax - MAX ( 0, (RXLEV_UL OptimumRxLevUL) )

Parameter OptimumRxLevUL must be defined for each TRX in the cell. If there are different values defined for different TRXs then maximum Parameter Value value is considered in the calculation. RXLEV_UL is measured during signalling phase OptimumRxLevUL -109 -47 / N dBm

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

MS Power Optimization
Intracell Handover
Normally MS uses the maximum Tx Power allowed in the target cell msTxPwrMax

When power optimization is employed


MS_TXPWR_ OPT = MsTxPwrMax - MAX( 0, (AV_RXLEV_UL_HO + (MsTxPwrMax - MS_TXPWR) - OptimumRxLevUL)

Parameter OptimumRxLevUL must be defined for each TRX in the cell. If different values then maximum is considered

Example: AV_RXLEV_UL_HO= -75 dBm OptimumRxLevUL= -80 dBm dBm) MS_TXPWR_MAX= 33 dBm MS_TXPWR = 33 dBm MS_TXPWR_OPT = 33 dBm -MAX( 0, -75 dBm+80 = 33 dBm -5 dB = 28 dBm

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

MS Power Optimization
Internal Intercell Handover
Normally MS uses the maximum Tx Power allowed in the target cell
msTxPwrMax

When power optimization is employed; MS_TXPWR_ OPT(n) = MsTxPwrMax(n) - MAX ( 0, (AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) MsPwrOptLevel) ) Parameter msPwrOptLevel is defined on a per adjacent cell basis Affects Uplink Either Uplink signal equals downlink signal Or Differences in UL / DL considered when defining msOptPwrLevel
Adjacent Cell DL Serving Cell DL

6 dB

msPwrOptLevel
Handover

Adjacent Cell UL

Parameter
msPwrOptLevel

Value
-110 -47/N dBm

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

Power Control - Thresholds & Actions


Uplink & Downlink
Quality
0

PcUpperThresholdQualUL/DL

No Action Needed

Decrease Power

PcLowerThresholdQualUL/DL

Increase Power
4

PcUpperThresholdQualUL/DL PcUpperThresholdLevUL/DL RxLevMinCell(n) PcLowerThresholdQualUL/DL


PcLowerThresholdLevUL/DL RxLevAccMin Power decrease Power increase

Thresholds

7
-98 -96 -94 -92 -90 -88 -86 -84 -82 -80 -78 -76 -74 -72 -70 -68 -66 -64 -62 -60 -58 -56 -54 -52 -110 -108 -106 -104 -102 -100 -50

dBm

PcUpperThresholdLevUL/DL

PcLowerThresholdLevUL/DL

Actions
No action needed
RxlevAccMin RxlevAccMin(n)

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..

ADA cellworks
Louder than words..