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Modeling the Motion Consider a weight attached to a spring that is suspended &om a horizontal bar as illustrated in the figure. When the object comes to rest we say it is at "equilibrium" whioh is labeled 0 on the vertical number line. If you give the weight a push, either up or down, it will start to move and the motion can be modeled by sine and cosine functions. The "stiffrress" of the spring and the mass of the object affect how far the object moves from the equilibrium position. The initial velocity and initial position also af[ect the motion of the spring. (We don't always start at the equilibrium position.)

of

a Spring

*_ ., Ar- \
_:,

lJc
tJ*

:.--

',{ sf,'
L'

"-;

If we neglect

any damping forces (air resistance etc.) then the motion of the spring can be modeled by

x(t1:Ilsin(ar)
o)

+ xo cos(a/)

where x(r) is the position of the object along the number line at time /. The other quantities are constants: ar is a constant that depends on the stiftess of the spring and the mass of the weight, vo is the initial velocity, and xo is the initial position of the object.

Model the motion of a weight on a spring:


Suppose a weight is set in motion from a position 3 centimeters below the equilibrium position and with a downward velocity of 4 centimeters per second. (Please note that the vertical number line used for position is "upside down". This is a convention from physics and it means that positions below equilibrium actually correspond to a positive value.) Assume that the spring stiffiress and mass of the weight mean that at = 2 for this system.

Part I 1) Write the function x(t)that gives the position of the weight as a function of time r in seconds. (Your frrnction should consist of a sine term and a cosine terrn.)

Xltr = sSini:i-')

K, = 3c09C2t) 2) Graph the separate sine and cosine components of your function from (1) on the same
set of axes. That is

Vr z

2giy1(>t)
and.

gaph r,

: b sin(arf )
a

x, = x0 cos(a;f) on the set of axes below.

(Sketch these graphs by hand and showtwo

full cycles.)

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3cos Cat)

(t,')

-7 tff ,)

(zzc-,

s)

({,*)
14, 1)

4B

,ilrf
rF
-*.

X,= 2Sincat\

3) Use a graphing calculator (or online graphing utility) to graph the entire firnction from part (1). Use the window settings indicated below. Sketch what you see on your

calculator display.

xmin:0

xscl: f, ynin: -5
ymax:5 yscl: I

xmax:Ztt 5

-l

4) Write an equation for your calculator graph in the form x(r) : I cos[B(/ - C)] . (Use the trace or maximum feature of your graphing utility to help you find values for A, B, and C. I expect to see decimal approximations for these values.)

Sgoiril:

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*
''T

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o.

tI

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ftnrp\ltr,tde = ?.6*

pnrccl
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,

) 5i\ fr - *a*:l\-

[-]-(l0,3.601

Ci4 1 d0)

5) How are the graphs from part 2) rclatedto the graph in part 3)? Are the values for period and amplitude the same or different? Why do you think we see these results?
Please write out your explanation using complete sentences.

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Part

II:

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1;.r!

{r

"'

lOtafiA n
filling in the blanks

6) Prove that the following is an identity (A is a positive constant) by

below.
As:rn Q sn(ax)

Acos { cos(arr) = A cos(afi

- d)

A stn fi srn(ott) + A cos $ cos(arf)

:
:

=,4tt:i{r"rit *$} : I [cos(arr) cos / + sin(arr) sin /]


Acos(att

Afsiii0sittt,r)1..

rt

co:,?cr,s

i'rriI

Factor

olt A
of

Commutative Properly

Addition
Commutative Property of

Multiplication
Difference identity for
cosine

Q)

Part

III:
+

Rewrite an expression of the form

flsin(ax)

Q cos(ar)

FG-71

ritr 1ott1

+Vcos dlcos(a/) in terms of a cosine tunction:

triI cz: Aeos1 + = j) "os|


l,

ct=Asin/+rirr4=f

IdftP =+

U1

v2

is the amplitude of the cosine function measured in radians.

ffid d, "phi", is called

the phase angle and is

|}

Example: Write 4sin3r+ 2cas3t in terms of a cosine function.

M
L

ft = \(.f+(q\"

4si.,3t +

?.cos3f

(3t

- \, \*)

ton / -* *=
\

)r

s a{5

/ -t"'ilt (.) x, \,
\
Roa'a^

",+(*-o.{

e-

'*d.r- )
firnction:
Acos(cot

7) Rewrite ybur firnction from part 1) in terms of a cosine

'

$) . Show

your work.

X[*] = ] tlr "y{1 +" B {r1

ia-i; I

A.Jr''i+' . fi3
fc{n
-

[, Tiir: i,'':o-6ri
..

S' *
- i

"/.{*':

=""

)Sit:[>t'l + i
Cos

toi[]t')

*ft

,_1-*(i.qq)

8) Compare your function from part 4) and part 7). What do you observe? Write a one or

two sentence explanation.

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ePorffolio Postins:

All Math 1060 students must post a copy of the mass-spring project in their General Education eporrfolio. The completed project should be scanned to a pdf file and posted in that form. The eportfolio must be linked to MyPage. Students must also include some reflective writing about the project in the ePorhfolio. The reflective writing should include a response to the following : Give some examples ofmass-spring systems important in everyday life. Describe why it would be important to understand the amplitude, period and frequency of these systems. Did this project change the way you think about how tigonometry can be applied to the real world? State what ideas changed and why. If this project did not change the way you think, write how this project gave further evidence to support your existing opinion about applying figonometry. Be specific.

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