Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

217 tayangan

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- DAM Planning and Management
- CFRD Dam
- A Study on Concrete Faced Rockfill Dams
- CFRDGuide_1
- Earth and Rock Fill Dams.PDF
- Seismic Resistant Design Standard for Building Structures
- Dams
- Numerical Analysis of Large Earth and Rockfill Dams Deformations
- Variable-Order Finite Elements for Nonlinear, Fully Intrinsic Beam Equations
- Cfrd vs Rcc Dams
- Badenhorst - Design of Concrete-Faced Rockfill Dams.pdf
- Large Dams
- Concrete Dam by r s Varshney Mtech nitrr student
- Dams
- 9058096327
- Duncan and Chang 1970
- Engineering of Large Dams Ch1-12
- Design Manual for Small RCC Dams
- CVE471 Lecture Notes 4 - Spillways
- Cosmos 2006

Anda di halaman 1dari 34

2013,VOLUME6

CFRDWORLDisanindependentJOURNALofCFRDInternationalSociety.

ItissponsoredbyCFRDInternationalSocietyandHydrOuChina.

iCFRD.or g

CONTENTS

(No.1Feb. 2013)

MELDISUHATRIL Malaysia ROZAINAISMAIL Malaysia 1

GABRIELFRANCISCORAMREZORDAZ,ANASTACIOPREZRIVERA(Mexico) 14

22

28

30

ICFRD

No. 1, Feb

2013

ANFISbasedMultistagedDecisionAlgorithm forSeismicSafetyControlofConcreteFacedRockfillDams

* EHSANNOROOZINEJ ADFARSANGI

AZLANADNAN

MELDISUHATRIL

DepartmentofCivilEngineering,FacultyofEngineering,UniversityofMalaya(UM),KualaLumpur, Malaysia

ROZAINAISMAIL

FacultyofCivilEngineering,UniversityofTechnologyMara(UiTM),Selangor,Malaysia

Abstract Inthisstudy,weusedhybridintelligentsystemcalledNeuroFuzzytopredicttheseismicresponseofBakundam whichisthesecondtallestConcreteFacedRockfillDam (CFRD) intheworld.AtthefirststageBakundamhas beennumericallyanalyzedforitsnonlinearbehaviourunderearthquakeexcitationtogeneratenumericaldatato beusedinthetrainingoftheNeuroFuzzysystembymeansofNLFEM.Tothisendthedamhasbeensubjected toaLocalsyntheticexcitationsothatthegenerateddatacouldberichenoughforthetrainingofageneralNeuro Fuzzymodellerofthedamresponse.ANFISgivesusthecombinationofcomputationandlearningcapabilitiesof ANN and the human knowledge representation of FL, While ANN are lowlevel computational structures that performwelldealingwithrawdata,FLdealswithreasoningonahigherlevel,usinglinguisticinformationacquired fromdomainexperts.Theresultsobtainedinthisstudyprovethatthemethodhasbeensuccessfulregardingthe generalization capabilities of the trained NeuroFuzzymodeller where other earthquakes than those used in its traininghavebeenusedinitstestingandverification.OncetheNeuroFuzzymodelleristrained,itcanpredictthe responseofthedamtoanyearthquakewithouttheneedtobeupdated. Keywords :CFRD,ANN,FIS,NLFEA,NeuroFuzzymodeller

1.Introduction

Anearthquakeisproducedbythesuddenruptureor slipofageologicalfault.Faultsoccurattheintersectionof two segments of the earths crust. Peninsula Malaysia lies in the Eurasian Plate and also within the Indian Australian Plate. Geologically, small faults also exist in East Malaysia. Records have shown that we do sometimesexperiencessomeoffsettremorsoriginatingfromtheIndonesianzone.Thusthereisaneedforsome seismiccheckingtobeincorporatedinthedesignprocesssothatthestructureswouldberesistanttoearthquake. These days,theseismic verificationofstructures hasdramaticallyevolved.Malaysia issurrounded bycountries such as Indonesia and Philippine that has experienced many great earthquakes hence it would be unwise to totallyignoretheeffectsofearthquakesonstructuresinMalaysia [NoroozinejadE.andAdnan.A., 2011Adnan A.,2010Adnan.A.etal.,2005Adnan.A.etal.,2002].

1

*CorrespondingAuthor:EhsanNoroozinejadFarsangi

ICFRD

No. 1, Feb

2013

The behaviour of CFRDs subject to earthquakes is complicated because dams might experience cracking at places where the induced tensile stresses are higher than the tensile strength of concrete. Cracking and also material nonlinearity results in nonlinear behaviour whichis hysteretic too.The nonlinear hysteretic response of CFRDs can be modelled using any of the commercially available finite element analysis softwares or especial computer programs which have been developed for the modeling of this type of dams. Nonlinear analysis by conventional methods is time consuming though very helpful. Also when it is desired to provide a precise numericalmodelforthenonlinear behaviourofadam,it isnecessarytoidentifytheparametersofthe material. Tothisend,itisrequiredtocollectdataontherealresponseofthedamandthentrytodeterminetheparameters of the material to be used in the computer programs, so that the simulated response to be as close to the observed response as possible. The material model obtained from the identification is often approximate and hencetheanalysisbasedonthemodelwillnotbepreciseeither[NoroozinejadE.andAdnan.A.,2011AdnanA., 2010]. Deterministic andstatisticalmethodshavebeenused todevelop models topredict thenonlinearstructural behaviour of the dams [ICOLD., 2003]. The hybrid method, which is a combination of the two fundamental methods, has also been applied to forecast behaviour [Perner F and Obernhuber P., 2010]. The deterministic modellingrequiressolvingdifferentialequationsforwhichclosedformsolutionsmaybedifficultorimpossibleto obtain [SzostakChrzanowskiA.etal., 2005].Therefore,numericalmethods,such as thefiniteelementmethod, are used. The advantages of statistical methods, such as multiple linear regressions (MLR), are simplicity of formulation and speed of execution. In the MLR model,it is possible to identify the contribution ofeach loading action to the structural response [Mata J., 2011]. In order to correlate the dam behaviour with the intrinsic parametersofthedam,suchasstructuresize,boundaryconditionsandelasticproperties,structuralidentification techniquesareapplied toanalysethecollected measures,[DeSortisA.andPaolianiP.,2007Fedele R. etal., 2005ArditoR.etal.,2004]. The dam deformation under the seismic excitations is a typical example of nonlinear behaviour [Cao M. et al., 2009,BayrakT.,2007].SystemidentificationofconcreteandconcretefacedRockfilldamscanbecategorisedas oneofthemostsignificantaspectsofdamengineering,[KarimiI.etal.,2010].Identificationandpredictionofthe damdeformationarecomplextasksforwhichnonparametricmodelsareoftenused.[GlalE.etal.,2010]used linearARX(autoregressivewithexogenousinputs)modelcalculatedfroma3Dfiniteelementmodeltoassessthe impact of horizontal displacements in the dam. The displacement of one or several points of the dam is a nonlinearfunctionofhydrostaticpressure,temperatureandotherunexpectedunknowncauses.Inthelastdecade, soft computing techniques have been extensively applied for complex time series prediction. Neural network modelling and identification are effectivetools forapproximation ofuncertain nonlinear dynamic systems.Feed forward and recurrent neural networks have been widely studied in nonlinear systems identification [Chen CH., 2005GuptaPandSinhaNK.,1999YazdizadehA.andKhorasaniK.,2002YuW.andLiX.,2001GaoY.and ErMJ.NARMAX,2005YuW.,2004]. In recent years, TakagiSugeno fuzzy systems, as a class of fuzzy models, have been applied as nonlinear system identifiers [Abdelazim T. and Malik OP., 2005 Banakar A. and Fazle Azeem M., 2011]. The Takagi Sugeno fuzzy model provides satisfactory results in describing behaviour of complex and uncertain systems. [Babuka R. and Verbruggen H., 2003] showed an overview of neurofuzzy modelling methods for nonlinear systemidentification. ANFIS (Adoptive Neuro Fuzzy Interface System) is based on fuzzy inference system which also has been successfully applied to solve many problems. The ANFIS, first introduced by [Jang JSR., 1993], as a universal approximator and as such is capable of approximating any real continuous function on a compact set to any degree of accuracy [Jang JSR., 1997]. In hydrology field, [Nayak P.C. et al., 2004] presents the application of

ICFRD

No. 1, Feb

2013

ANFIStohydrologictimeseriesmodeling,andisillustratedbyanapplicationtomodeltheriverflowofBaitarani RiverinOrissastate,India.ANFISwasusedtoconstructaRiverflowforecastingsystemin[FiratM.andGngr M.,2007],andtheRiverGreatMenderesofTurkeywaschosenasacasestudyinthatpaper.[MousaviS.J.etal., 2007]appliedANFISandfuzzyregressionmethodtoinferoperatingrulesforreservoiroperations.[AbolpourB.et al.,2007]presentsANFISmethodtosimulateoptimizingallocationofscarcewaterresourcesinIran.[ChangL.C. and Chang F.J., 2002] presented a new approach to improve realtime reservoir operation. The approach combinestwomajorprocedures:thegeneticalgorithm(GA)andANFIS.In2006,Changalsodealtwithpredicting water levelproblem in reservoir,only to selectdifferentinputvariablesand no tide considering[Chang F.J. and Chang Y.T.,2006]. It demonstrates that the ANFIS can be applied successfully and provide high accuracy and reliability for infrastructures response forecasting. But as can be seen from the previous researches, there has beennostudyontheapplicationofANFISontheseismicresponsebehaviourofinfrastructuresespeciallydams, tothisendtheauthorsdecidedtoimplementthistechniquesfortheseismicsafetycontrolofCFRDs. In the presentwork,the ANFIS is usedfor structuralidentification ofthe Bakun dam which is thesecond tallest ConcreteFacedRockfillDam(CFRD)intheworldandlocatedineastMalaysia. Theobjectiveofthisstudyisto develop a Neurofuzzy identification model for the dam crest and midheight displacements prediction and to demonstrateitsapplicationtoidentifyingcomplexnonlinearrelationshipsbetweentheinputandoutputvariables. TheproposedapproachbasedontheANFISidentificationcanbeaveryhelpfultoolformodellingoftimevarying behaviourofengineeringstructures. 1.1.Importanceofthestudy There are many reasons for Malaysia to worry about earthquake. New revelations indicate Malaysia is moving closertowardstherumblezone.Malaysiaisinchingclosertorumblezonesandwillnotbeimmunetoearthquake forever.Yearafteryear,neighboringtectonicplatesinchtowardsfromalldirectionsandonmountingbecausethe Australian, Eurasian and Philippine plates around Malaysia are moving. Recent research indicated that Peninsular Malaysia does lie on faults but have been known to be nonactive faults. Malaysia is located in low seismic activity area but the active earthquake fault line through the centre of Sumatera just lies 350 km from peninsular[AdnanA.,2010Adnan.A.etal.,2005]. Sabah, which experienced the highest earthquake magnitude recoded with 4.8 Richter in the last century occurred about 90 KM from Miri, Sarawak have cause several building crack. The plates are moving closer toward and shift a few centimeters was recorded after the incidents have been reported [Ismail R. et al., 2011 Adnan.A.etal.,2002].

Fig.1.

ICFRD

No. 1, Feb

2013

2.CaseStudy

In this study, the nonlinear response of the Bakun dam under a local earthquake excitation has been modeled numerically. Malaysia undertakes to construct one of the largest CRFD dams in the world the Bakun dam(seeFig.2forthegeographicallocation).Thedam,whichisthelargestinSoutheastAsia,is207mhighand crest length of 750m with an installed capacity of 2400 Mega Watt (MW), and a lifespan of 500 years. The minimumand maximumoperating levelsare195and 228mabove sea level(asl).Theimpoundmentofthe dam willinundate69,640haofforestecosystem,anarealargerthanthesizeofSingapore.Theprojectisestimatedto costRM6billion($1US=RM3.1,RM=RinggitMalaysia).

3.NonLinearFiniteElementanalysisofBakundam

The mathematical model of the dam in point is based on a 3D finite element (FE) discretization (Figure 3), consistingof1367brickelements(eachonewith20nodesandquadraticinterpolations)and48wedgeelements (with 15 nodes and quadratic interpolations).The dam was subjected to different ground excitations which includedalocalsynthetic,KobeandElCentroearthquakes.Responseofthedamcrestandmidheightconsisting ofthetimehistoryofitsacceleration,velocityanddisplacementwasrecordedthroughoutthetime.

Fig.3. FiniteElementmodelofBakundam

Figure 4 shows the time history and Fourier Amplitude Spectra of the local synthetic earthquake used in the trainingofNeurofuzzymodeller.

DominantFrequency: 17.81 Hz

ICFRD

No. 1, Feb

2013

3.1.Constitutivemodels

3.1.1.CloughDuncanmodel TheCloughDuncanmodel[CloughGW.etal.,1997]isoften used for the soilstructure interface. This model only describesthetangentialstressdisplacementrelationshipasfollows:

(3.1)

kst,isdescribedusingthefollowingequation:

1

.

(3.2)

Wherek0,n,Rf

3.1.2.Modifiedidealmodel

ThemodifiedidealElastoplasticitymodelhasadifferentformulationonthetangentialstiffness,asshownin thefollowingequation,withconsideringtheeffectofnormalstress:

< =

(3.3)

= 0,

inthefiniteelementmodelingprocedure,Clough Duncanmodelisimplemented.

4.FuzzyInferenceSystem

EbrahimMamdaniofLondon University[MamdaniE.H.,1974]followedLotfi Zadehsfuzzy theory and appliedit to control steam engine and boiler combination in 1975. He used a set of fuzzy rules supplied by experienced humanoperators. SomecalledthisaMamdanimethodorMamdanistylefuzzyinference.Itusuallyconsistsoffoursteps: Step1:Fuzzification First of all, transform the crisp inputs into fuzzysets,and determine the degree to which these inputs belong to eachoftheappropriatefuzzysets.Themembershipfunctionisthewaythatwedeterminehowfuzzytheyare. Step2:Fuzzyrulebase

ICFRD

No. 1, Feb

2013

Fuzzyrulebaseiswherethesystemstoresallinformationandknowledgeinvolvingwiththeproposedproblem.A typicalruleofSugenosmodelmightbewrittenas:

Wherexandyareinputsandzisacrispfunctionintheconsequent.

(4.1)

x 1 x 2

Fuzzification

Inference Engine

Defuzzification

Fuzzyrulebase

Fig.5. FuzzyInter faceSystem

z=f(x,y)=px+qy+r

(4.2)

Iftherearetwoinputvariables,theruleswillbe:

IfxisA1andyisB1Thenf1=p1x+q1y+r1

(4.3)

IfxisA2andyisB2Thenf2=p2x+q2y+r2

(4.4)

(a)

ICFRD

No. 1, Feb

2013

ThefollowingdescriptiondetailscalculatingprocedureofANFISlayerbylayer:

Layer1: Layer1isinputandfuzzificationlayerasstep1inlastsection. Layer2: Layer 2 is the rule layer. A rule neuron receives inputs from the respective fuzzification neurons and calculates the firing strength of the rule it represents. The symbol neuroniinLayer2isobtainedas: O2, Layer3: Layer3isthenormalizationlayer.ThecapitalletterNontheneurondenotesnormalization.Eachneuronin this layer calculates the normalized firing strength of a given rule. Thus, the output of neuron i in Layer 3 is determinedas: O3,i=w = Layer4: Thislayeristhedefuzzificationlayer.Adefuzzificationneuroncalculatestheweightedconsequentvalueof agivenruleas:

, i = 1,2

(4.5)

(4.6)

O 4,i =

Layer5:

),

= 1,2

(4.7)

Thislayerisdesignedtocalculatethesummationofoutputsofalldefuzzificationneuronsinformerlayer.

O 5,i =

= 1,2

(4.8)

5.SimulationResultsandDiscussion

The major objective of the study presented in this paper is to construct ANFIS models to predict the crest and midheight displacements of a CFRD. The selection of an appropriate set of input variables during the ANFIS development is important for modeling. In the previous researches [Rankovic V. et al., 2012], the hydrostatic pressureandthethermalloadhavebeenthemaincomponentstobetakenintoaccountwhenmodelingthedam displacement, but in this study as the deformations caused by earthquakes are our main concern, the seismic record and the dams seismic responses are entered in our simulation as well. The hydrostatic load can be accurately modelledonthe basisofthereservoir waterlevel.Description ofthethermalloadrequires a detailed knowledgeofthetemperaturevaluesatseveralpointsofthestructure[DeSortisA.andPaolianiP.,2007].This levelofknowledgeisusuallynotavailable.Then,thethermalloadcanberepresentedbytheparameterd.While suggestingthemodelforthehorizontaldisplacementsofanarchdam,[DemirkayaS.,2010]chosethefollowing input variables: the water level of the reservoir, the values of the thermometer embedded in the upstream and downstreamfaceandinthemiddleofthedamandtheairtemperature. The dam displacement is a typical example of timevarying behaviour. In this study, two ANFIS models with feedback loops have been developed for computing the crest and midheight displacements. The inputs of the model are u1= January 1st, u2=h where h is the water level, and the history of response and excitation which are Yi =displacement,Yi= velocity and Xi= earth acceleration atcurrenttimesteps,Xi1andXi+1for theprevious

ICFRD

No. 1, Feb

2013

( + ) 1 = [ ( ) , ( ) , (

),

( ),

"(

1)

,X"

( ) ,

"(

+ 1)]

(5.1)

) ,y ( 1 k ( k 2) , y 3)

parameter d and the history of response and excitation at time steps (i1) , (i) and (i+1). The effects of the hydrostatic pressure and thermal load on the dam displacements are taken into account in two ways: explicitly through the parameters d and h as inputs and implicitly through the measured values of the displacement as inputs into the model. Therefore, the impact of each variable on the model output cannot be considered separately.

Thetimeeffectisincorporatedintothemodelbyincludingthemeasured valuesofthedisplacementatprevious time steps as inputs into the model. These measured values depend not only on variations of the hydrostatic pressure and temperature, but also on other causes including degradation of material properties during the previousandcurrentearthquakeevents.

Selection of parameters for the training process and their impact on the ANFIS have been addressed in the literature [Rankovic V. et al., 2012 Jang JSR., 1993]. The initial step size is defined to 0.01. The step size decreaserateis0.95andthestepsizeincreaserateis1.05.FuzzypartitioningoftheinputvariablesoftheANFIS isrealizedbyselectionofthetwoprimaryfuzzysets.

Thepredictionperformancesofthesoftcomputingmodelswereevaluatedusingthecorrelationcoefficient(r),the meanabsoluteerror(MAE)andthemeansquareerror(MSE):

( ( ) )( ( ) )

=

( ( ) ) ( ( ) )

(5.2)

MAE=

| y

(k )

| y(k)

(5.3)

ICFRD

No. 1, Feb

2013

MSE=

(y

( k )

y(k))

(5.4)

Where ym and y denote the model output and the measured value, respectively

and

denote their

averagevalues,respectively,andNrepresentsthenumberofobservations.SmallerMAEandMSEvaluesensure betterperformance.The NARX model[Sjberg J. et al.,1995]assumes thatthe observations are sampled with thesamefrequency.Inour simulation,thetrainingdatasetwascomplete.Manytechniquesfortheestimationof missing data can be applied even if the training data set is not complete [Nelwamondo FV., 2009]. In the case whenthemodelisusedandthereisnomeasureddisplacementvaluey(ki),theestimatedvalueym(ki)canbe used. Thethreemost common usemembership functions are triangular,trapezoid and bellshaped.Itcould notto be foundoutwhichmembershipfunctionisthemostappropriateforthismodeluntiltheyaretried[WangA.P.etal. 2008]. The performance criteria of different membership functions (see MF Type in Table 1) were compared to eachother.FromTable1,itisshowedthatallofthemodelswithdifferentMFssimulatedsimilarlyintrainingsets, especially in MSE (only an interval of 0.008 between maximum and minimum). That means that these ANFIS modelssimulatedwell.Itisapparentthattheerrorsarehigherinvalidationsets,andperformsdiverselyinvarious MFs.ThetriangularMFdisplaysthebestresultswithahigherrandalowerMAEandMSE.Regardlessofalittle bit higherMAE andMSEin trainingsets,the trapezoid MFalsohasexcellentresultsin validationsets.Broadly, wecansaythattheseANFISmodelspredictcrestandmidheightdisplacementsintermsofearthquakeloadings verywell.

Tr aining MAE

MSE

Validation MAE

MSE

In our study, the proposed Neurofuzzy identification model shows efficiency in forecasting the crest and mid height displacements, and it is in accordance with results of other authors. The prediction performances of the ANFISidentificationmodelstrainedandtestedwith338datasampleswhichwereobtainedby3DNLFEA.Inthe training process, the ANFIS 236 samples were used. For the first ANFIS model, the coefficient of correlation values for the best training and test sets were 0.969 and 0.897, respectively. The bestcorrelation coefficientof 0.971forthetrainingand0.901forthetestsetwereobtainedforthesecondANFISmodel.Thedecreaseinthe measurement frequency yields models with a slightly higher coefficientofcorrelation values for the training set, butaslightlylowercoefficientofcorrelationvaluesforthevalidationset.

ICFRD

No. 1, Feb

2013

10

ICFRD

No. 1, Feb

2013

WhentheANFISmodeliscomparedwiththe FEMmodelasin Figs. 811itisseenthattheANFISmodelisas good as the FEM model. The physicsbased model of FEM represents our best understanding of the physical process. In this model, the relations among the input and output variables are welldefined. Therefore it has universal applicability. Using this model, it is possible to obtain spatial and temporal variations of the state variablesoverthedomain ofinterestunderdifferentvaluesofthemodelparameters.Suchinformationmightbe essential,especially for investigating any undesired cases that mighthappen and be detrimentalto dam safety. On the other hand, the FEM model can be more effective when extensive data in the domain of interest is available. However,inpracticalsituationssatisfyingallthedataneedsofacomprehensiveFEMisseldomavailabledueto timeandbudgetaryconstraints.Forexample,inthiscasestudy,nodatawasavailableonthespatialdistribution of hydraulic parameters of the geological formation and the drainage outflow. Furthermore, there is always a problem of convergence and instability in the numerical solution of the highly nonlinear differentialequations of thephysicsbasedmodel. The ANFIS is a much simpler model, which has an ability to recognize the pattern between input and output variables when provided with sufficientmeasured field data. It should be, however, noted thatANFIS is a data driven black box model which does not reveal any explicit relation between input and output variables, thus it does not provide much insightinto understanding the physical problem. Furthermore,although ANFIS has very successfulinterpolationcapability,itlackstheextrapolationabilityforthecasesforwhichitisnottrained.

6.Conclusions

Thepredictionofthefuturedamdisplacementsisachallengingproblemindamengineering.Thebehaviourofa dam is a nonlinear function of earthquake loadings, hydrostatic pressure, temperature and other unexpected unknown causes such as the result of time effects. This paper studies identification of nonlinear structural behaviourusingtheANFIS.ComparisonbetweenthemodelleddisplacementvaluesobtainedbytheANFISand the NLFEA shows that Neurofuzzy identification can be an effective tool for the approximation of uncertain nonlinearstructuralbehaviourofthe CFRDs.Theperformancesofthesoftcomputingmodelsweretestedusing correlationcoefficients,themeanabsoluteerrorandthemeansquareerror. One of the benefits of this approach is that once the Neurofuzzy modeller is trained, it can be used in the analysisdirectlytoreplacetheintegrationmethodsandthuscansignificantlyreducethetimerequiredforanalysis. HoweverthemethodrequiresaconsiderabletimeforthetrainingoftheNeurofuzzymodeller.Itisexpectedthat themethodcanbeextendedforapplicationtothedynamicanalysisofstressandstraininsidethedamstoo. The main limitation of this approach lies in the fact that it does not directly consider mechanical properties and possibledamage.Additionalanalysisintheformofnondestructivetests(staticalanddynamical),computational mechanicalmodelingandinverseanalysisarealsorequired.

References

Abdelazim T, Malik OP. [2005] Identification of nonlinear systems by TakagiSugeno fuzzy logic gray box modelingforrealtimecontrol.ControlEngPract13(12):148998. AbolpourB.,JavanM.,KaramouzM.,[2007]WaterallocationimprovementinriverbasinusingAdaptiveNeural FuzzyReinforcementLearningapproach,AppliedSoftComputing,Vol.7:1,pp.265285. Adnan. A., Hendriyawan., and Irsyam, Masyhur, [2002] The Effect Of The Latest Sumatra Earthquake To MalaysianPeninsularMalaysianJournalofCivilEngineering,14(2).pp.1425.

11

ICFRD

No. 1, Feb

2013

Adnan.A.,Hendriyawan.,Marto.A.andIrsyam.M.,[2005]SeismicHazardAssessmentForPeninsularMalaysia UsingGumbelDistributionMethod,JurnalTeknologi,Vol42(B).Page5773. Adnan, A. [2010] Backpropagation neural network in building damage forecasting due to earthquake in Malaysia.2ndInternationalConferenceonEngineering&ICT,Melaka,Malaysia. Adnan,Azlan[2010]Structuralearthquakeanalysisanddesign.MSSA,Kuching,Sarawak,Malaysia. Ardito R, Bartalotta P, Ceriani L, Maier G. [2004] Diagnostic inverse analysis of concrete dams with statical excitation.JMechBehavMater15(6):3819. Babuka R, Verbruggen H. [2003] Neurofuzzy methods for nonlinear system identification. Ann Rev Control27(1):7385. Banakar A, Fazle Azeem M. [2011] Parameter identification of TSK neurofuzzy models. Fuzzy Sets Syst. doi:10.1016/j.fss.2011.05.003. BayrakT.[2007]ModelingtherelationshipbetweenwaterlevelandverticaldisplacementsontheYamulaDam, Turkey.NatHazardsEarthSystSci7(2):28997. Cao M, Qiao P, Ren Q.[2009] Improved hybrid wavelet neural network methodology for timevarying behavior predictionofengineeringstructures.NeuralComputAppl18(7):82132. Chang L.C., Chang F.J., [2002] Intelligent control for modeling of realtime reservoir operation, Hydrological Processes,Vol.15,pp.16211634. Chang F.J. and Chang Y.T., [2006] Adaptive neurofuzzy inference system for prediction of water level in reservoir,AdvancesinWaterResources,Vol.29:1,pp.110. Chen CH. [2005] Structural identification from field measurement data using a neural network. Smart Mater Struct14(3):S10415. Demirkaya S. [2010] Deformation analysis of an arch dam using ANFIS. In: Reiterer A, Egly U, Heinert M, Riedel B, editors. Proceedings of the second international workshop on application of artificial intelligence and innovationsinengineeringgeodesy.Braunschweig,Germanyp.2131. DeSortisA,PaolianiP.[2007]Statisticalanalysisandstructuralidentificationinconcretedammonitoring.Eng Struct29(1):11020. EhsanNoroozinejadFarsangiProf.Dr.AzlanAdnan, [2011]DamSafetyControlby UsingArtificialIntelligence andNonLinearFEA,AustralianJournalofBasicandAppliedScience,5(8):292306. FedeleR,MaierG,MillerB.[2005]Identificationofelasticstiffnessandlocalstressesinconcretedamsbyinsitu testsandneuralnetworks.StructInfrastructEng1(3):16580. FiratM.,GngrM.,[2007]Riverflowestimationusingadaptiveneurofuzzyinferencesystem,Mathematicsand ComputersinSimulation,Vol.75,pp.8796. Gao Y, Er MJ. NARMAX [2005] time series model prediction: feedforward and recurrent fuzzy neural network approaches.FuzzySetsSyst150(2):33150.

damagetodams.IntJDamMech.doi:10.1177/1056789510369333. Gupta P, Sinha NK. [1999]An improved approachfor nonlinear system identification using neuralnetworks.J FranklinInst336(4):72134. ICOLD. [2003] Methods ofanalysis for the prediction and the verification ofdam behaviour,Tech.Rep. Swiss CommitteeonDams. Ismail R. , Adnan A., Ibrahim A., [2011] "Vulnerability of Public Buildings in Sabah Subjected to Earthquake by Finite Element Modelling" Procedia Engineering, Volume 20, Pages 5460, 2nd International Building Control Conference.

12

ICFRD

No. 1, Feb

2013

Jang JSR. [1993] ANFIS: adaptivenetworkbased fuzzy inference system. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybern23(3):66585. Jang JSR, Sun CT, Mizutani E. [1997] Neurofuzzy and soft computing: a computational approach to learning andmachineintelligence.NJ:PrenticeHall. KarimiI,KhajiN,AhmadiMT,MirzayeeM.[2010]Systemidentification ofconcretegravity damsusingartificial neuralnetworksbasedonahybridfiniteelementboundaryelementapproach.EngStruct32(11):358391. Mamdani E.H., [1974] Application of fuzzy Algorithms for Control of Simple Dynamic Plants, Proc. IEE, Vol.121:12,pp.15851588. Mata J. [2011] Interpretation of concrete dam behaviour with artificial neural network and multiple linear regressionmodels.EngStruct33(3):90310. Mousavi S.J., Ponnambalam K.,Karray F., [2007] Inferring operating rules for reservoir operations using fuzzy regressionandANFIS,FuzzySetsandSystems,Vol.158,pp.10641082. Nayak P.C., Sudheer K.P., Rangan D.M., Ramasastri K.S., [2004] A neurofuzzy computing technique for modelinghydrologicaltimeseries,JournalofHydrology,Vol.291,pp.5266. Nelwamondo FV, Golding D, Marwala TA. [2009] dynamic programming approach to missing data estimation usingneuralnetworks.InformScidoi:10.1016/j.ins.2009.10.008. PernerF,ObernhuberP.[2010]Analysisofarchdamdeformations.FrontArchitCivEngChina4(1):1028. RankovicV.,GrujovicN.,DivacD.,MilivojevicN.,NovakovicA.,[2012]Modellingofdambehaviourbasedon neurofuzzyidentificationEngineeringStructures35107113. SjbergJ,ZhangQ,LjungL,BenvenisteA,DeylonB,GlorennecP,etal.[1995]Nonlinearblackboxmodelingin systemidentification:aunifiedoverview.Automatica31(12):1691724. SzostakChrzanowski A, Chrzanowski A, Massira M. [2005] Use of deformation monitoring results in solving geomechanicalproblemscasestudies.EngGeol79(12):312. WangA.P.,LiaoH.L.,ChangT.H.[2008]AdaptiveNeurofuzzyInferenceSystemonDownstreamWaterLevel Forecasting,FifthInternationalConferenceonFuzzySystemsandKnowledgeDiscovery,IEEE. Yazdizadeh A, Khorasani K. [2002] Adaptive time delay neural network structures for nonlinear system identification.Neurocomputing47(14):20740. YuW,LiX.[2001]Somenewresultsonsystemidentificationwithdynamicneuralnetworks.IEEETransNeural Netw12(2):4127. Yu W. [2004]Nonlinear system identification using discretetime recurrentneuralnetworks with stable learning algorithms.InformSci158:13147.

13

ICFRD

No. 1, Feb

2013

LAYESCAHYDROELECTRICPROJECT TREATMENTOFANUNSTABLEZONEATTHELEFTBANK

GABRIELFRANCISCORAMREZORDAZ ANASTACIOPREZRIVERA ICAConstruccinPesada Mexico

During excavation of the diversion tunnels at La Yesca hydroelectric project geologic conditions were exposed that posed a risk in its continuity and feasibility therefore demanding an important instrumentation campaign to identify the mechanism of the geologic fault known as Colapso that allowed the implementation of immediate solutions for its stabilization during the construction stage and the arrival at acceptable safety factors for the operationoftheproject.

1. INTRODUCTION

La Yesca hydroelectric project constitutes part of the Santiago River Hydrologic System it is located along the namesakeriverata distanceof105 km to the NW ofthe townofHostotipaquillo,State ofJalisco,between the operatinghydroelectricpowerstationsofSantaRosaandElCajn,anditspurposeistoexploitthewatercourse forpowergenerationthroughtwogeneratingunitswithindividualcapacityof375MW. Themainstructuresarefounddistributedinbothriverbankstheleftbankcontainsthediversionworksandthe spillway whereas the generation works are found at the right bank and in between the embankment dam is locatedwithaheightof208.50m,rankingitasthesecondhighestdamintheworldofitstype. Its construction was carried out between years 2007 and 2012 with an intensive work schedule that allowed diversion of the river in the month of March, during the dry season of 2009, enabling the initiation of other importantstagessuchastheimpoundmentworks. The site is constituted by volcanic rocks from the Cenozoic that include andesites and diabasic dykes and it is partiallycoveredbytuffs,brecciatyperhyoliteignimbrites,alluvialterraces,lacustrineandpumicedeposits,talus depositsandalluvium(fig.1).

14

ICFRD

No. 1, Feb

2013

Fig.1 Geologicprofileoftheleftbank

Thestructuralgeologyconsidersacharacteristicfaultinginblocksanditistheresultofoneorseveralstagesof distensiontectonics,withpositioningofintrusivebodies,wherelateralshiftingmovementsalsooccur

2. DETECTION,STUDYANDINSTRUMENTATIONOFTHELEFTBANK

Attheslopesoftheentranceportalofthediversiontunnels,fourbarextensometerswereinstalledtobe ableto register since March 2008 atypical displacements that accentuated in the course of the excavation works and evenmorewiththebeginningoftherainyseasonofthatsameyear. The problem worsened when important cracks developed in the shotcrete at the various berms and after identifying a failure surface at the excavation for road 6MI that evidenced signs of displacement and it was therefore necessary to install a large amount of instruments (inclinometers, joint gages, piezometers and topographicreferences)forthepurposeofdelimitingthemovingmassandthedepthofthefailurezonesoasto beabletocalculatethevolumeoftheunstablematerialtoimplementgeotechnicalsolutions. In addition, automated equipment (GPSbased monitoring system, fig. 2) was installed to allow identification in realtimeofimportantdisplacementsbutkeepingsafetyconditionsforthepersonnelworkinginsidethediversion tunnels.

Fig.2 Instrumentationinstalled(manualandautomated)

Manual measuring instruments and precision topographic surveys were actually very valuable to retrieve informationwhileboringsweredrilledtoanaveragedepthof100mforthepurposeofinstallinginclinometersand piezometers(fig.3).

15

ICFRD

No. 1, Feb

2013

Fig.3 Generalviewoftheleftbank

3.ENGINEERING,PLANNINGANDEXECUTIONOFWORKS

Important effects were identified on the structures located at the left bank that resulted in major changes in the designoftheplinth,theembankment,thewaterproofingbarrierandthespillwayworks. BasedonthestudyanddimensioningofthegeologicphenomenonoftheColapsoFault,andtakingintoaccount the identification and determination of the magnitude of the displacements induced by the unstable block with volume of 2.5 million cubic meters (fig. 4), that compelled the temporary suspension of the works for the excavation of the diversion tunnels, a remediation plan was devised to start preparing the engineering of the worksthatwasvalidatedbythetechnicalstaffconstitutedbydomesticandinternationalconsultants,eachofthe worksandstructurestobebuiltrepresentingamajorchallengetheneedtoarrestprogressofthedisplacements throughanintensiveworkschedulesupportedbyagreatcapacityofresponseofthehumanassetsoftheproject.

16

ICFRD

No. 1, Feb

2013

Fig.4 Viewfromupstreamoftheentranceportaltothediversiontunnels

4.Stabilizationworksduringtheconstructionstage

4.1Removalandexcavationofmaterial One of the first actions implemented was the reduction of the weight of the upper part of the unstable block through the excavation and removal of a volume of 770,000 m3 equivalent to 1,540,000 t, therefore reducing approximately 30%ofthe total weightofthe unstableblock being this activity carried outin three stagesduring thestabilizationperiod(fig.5).ThefirststagewasexecutedfromthesecondhalfofJunetotheendofJuly2008, thenextstagebetweenthethirdweekofNovember2008andthethirdweekofJanuary2009,andthelaststage covered from the second week of February to the third week of May 2009. This action proved its efficiency by registering an important decrease in the magnitude and speed of the displacements since its implementation. Furthermore,sincerockexcavationswereinvolved,blastingactivitieswereperformedcontrollingtheloadfactors and monitoring the particle velocity therefore preventing with this excessive vibrations to occur that could affect thedisplacementsoftheunstableblock.

Fig.5 GeneralviewMaterialremovalandconcretedeadblock

4.2Removalofmaterial.ToppartoftheConcreteblock 4.2.1Concreteblockattheentranceportalsofthediversiontunnels

17

ICFRD

No. 1, Feb

2013

Anotherimportantdecisionandactiontakeninvolvedtheconstructionofaconcreteblockatthelowerpartofthe hillside at the entrance to the diversion tunnels that, because of its location, acted as a buttress to balance the failuremechanism oftheColapsoFault,containing a volumeof110,000m3equivalenttoa weightof242,000t that represent 5% of the weight ofthe unstable mass it was built between the second halfof July and the first weekofDecember2008byimplementingstronglogisticstorespondtheurgentneedtoarrestthedisplacements and deformations of the unstable block, mobilizing additional equipment for processing the aggregates for concrete with strength fc = 200 kg/cm2, additional concrete mixing plants so as not to compromise the construction schedule of the other structures of the project, and concrete hauling and pumping equipment with whichaproductionrateof2000m3perdaywasreached. 4.2.2Falsetunnels,rockfillandconcretesleeves Complementary works were requiredthat implied construction of80m longfalsetunnels (fig.6) basedon steel frames and hydraulic concrete, starting at the concrete monolith, upon which a fill of 250,000 m3 was placed usingrockfillmaterialthatbecauseoftheirlocationcontributedwithaweightof500,000ttothestabilizationofthe ColapsoFaultmechanism.

Fig.6 Falsetunnels

18

ICFRD

No. 1, Feb

2013

Fig.7 Stabilizationworks

5.Impactsonotherstructures

Themagnitudeoftheunstablerockmassalsoaffectedthestructuresforthegatesofprovisionalclosingandthat for the final closing required for river handling, as well as the retaining and spillway works, and readjustments weremadetotheoriginalconceptforrivercontrolduringthefinalclosureofthediversiontunnelstostartfillingof thereservoirasaresult,theprovisionalclosingplugswererelocatedfromtheiroriginalpositiontothefrontofthe 110,000m3concreteblocksoastomoveawaytheseelementsfromtheunstablemass. Inthecaseofthefinalclosureshaft,itsexecutionwascancelledthereforemodifyingtherivercontrolprocedure. Anotherstructurethatsufferedimportantchangesinitsoriginalengineeringwastheembankmentthatrestedvery close to the boundary of the unstable mass and it was decided to make a turn of 14 degrees in its axis, maintainingfixedtheabutmentoftherightbankandrotatingtheaxistowarddownstreamthereforepreventingthe embankmentfoundation and theplinth tobesupported by the unstableblock.The spillway workswas theother major structure thatsustained importantadjustments in its originaldesign thatreferred principally to shifting the controlstructuretowarddownstreaminordertoachieveanalignmentofthegatezonewiththenewdamaxisas wellasrotation ofitsaxisby30 degrees.Theembankmentrotationalsoaffected thewaterproofingplane andit becamenecessarytoreadjustimportantlythealignmentofeachofthegalleriesofthisbankaswellasthedeep cutoffanddrainagewall.

Fig.8 Graphicvariationofdisplacements(nosemencionaeneltexto)

19

ICFRD

No. 1, Feb

2013

6.Stabilizationworksfortheoperationalstage

Since the first analyses of the Colapso Fault system, for purposes of stabilization of the unstable mass consideration was given to the conditions likely to exist during the operation of the hydroelectric power plant, becausethestabilityconditionsoftheblockareexpectedtovaryduringfirstfillingofthereservoir,mainlydueto wettingofthefailuresurfaceandtothereductionofthecontributionmadebythecounterweightapplied(monolith andcofferdam)whenbecomingsubmerged,includingtherevisionofthemostcriticalandunfavorableconditions inthecaseofoccurrence ofarapiddrawdownofthereservoir whateverthereason,makingitevenpossiblefor the displacements of the unstable block to be reactivated new engineering studies were made to define, for a stagesubsequenttoconstruction,themeasuresandactionsrequiredduringtheoperation. 6.1Shearresistingshafts An unprecedented solution in the construction of dams in Mexico was devised, consisting in the construction of sixsecantshearresistingshafts(7,8,910,11,12)withvariablediametersandaheightof90m,excavatedfrom elevation480.00msnm(metersabovemeansealevel)anduntilreachingelevation390.00msnm(fig.9),witha high degree of difficulty because these shafts run through the unstable zone, cross the Colapso Fault and becomeembeddedintotheblockthatevidencednomovements.

Fig.9 Shearresistingshafts

To improve the stability conditions inside the unstable mass, consolidation treatments were made prior to the excavationoftheraisesandbankingofeachshaft.Theprocedureconsistedinexcavatinganauxiliarytunnelat thelower partofthehillsidethatreachesthelowestelevation ofeachshaft through whichthe excavation works fortheraisesweremadeanditwasusedtoremovethemuckfromexcavationsandbanking.Uponcompletionof the excavation of each shaft according to the sequence established, they were filled with fluid concrete with strength fc=200 kg/cm2 reinforced with steel mesh at a rate of 40 kg/m3 in this concrete, classified as mass concrete,icewasaddedtoreachatemperatureof20Cduringitsplacement. 6.2Concretesleevesandanchorplug As part of the reinforcement of the diversion tunnels, 1m thick linings were built along both diversion tunnels, between stations Km 0+ 055.00 and 0 +119.00 (64 linear meters) oftunnel1 and from Km 0 + 054.95 to 0 + 104.00 (49.05 linear meters) of tunnel 2, benefitting from the dry season of river control during which only one tunnelremained operating tohandle the flowrate,initiallythroughtunnel1 afterloweringthe gate oftunnel2to allowconstructionofthesleeveinsidethelatter,andtheotherwayaroundforplacementoftheliningattunnel1 divertingtheriverthroughtunnel2.

20

ICFRD

No. 1, Feb

2013

Inaddition,toincreasesafetyalongthediversiontunnelswhensubjectedtoaneventualdisplacementthatcould happen during operation of the power station, it has been contemplated to build anchor plugs with hydraulic concrete offc=250kg/cm2andhigh strength reinforcingsteelwith fy=8450 kg/cm2 aswellastofillthe tunnels betweenstationsKm0+020.00and0+170.00(190linearmeters)oftunnel1andfromKm0+075.00to0+ 219.50(144.50linearmeters)oftunnel2,leavingasectionofthegalleryfromwhichtheworksofcontactinjection, consolidationanddrainagecutoffwallarecarriedout. Ontheotherhand,anextensivemonitoringsystemhasbeenimplementedfortheoperatingstagebyinstallingat the various structures submersible sensors to measure displacements, the pore pressure at the fault and the stresses inside the concrete of the shearresisting shafts. This system is basically constituted by five inclinometers placed in situ, 10 assemblies of vibratingstring piezometers, four bartype vibratingstring extensometers, 12 rosettes of strain gages, 10 pressure cells, three vibratingstring joint gages and five thermocouples, as well as by the installation at the diversion tunnels of 64 platetype vibratingstring extensometers and eight electric piezometers. These sensors will be incorporated into the Automated data AcquisitionSystemusingclose to 80,500mofsignalcableforthe purpose ofcollecting information inrealtime relatedtothebehavioroftheunstablezoneevenbelowthereservoirlevel. Inprojectswherelargevolumeexcavationsaremadeintheopenorinundergroundworks,itbecomesimportant toestablishaspartoftheintegralplanningandduringtheconstructionprocessesconsiderationsandfacilitiesto install, measure and protect the instrumentation with constant adjustments to the geological conditions of each siteandincorporatingaspartoftheworkcyclestobeexecutedtheinstallationoftheinstruments,thereforebeing possible to learn through the registries of the measurements atypical situations of displacements, porewater pressures and stresses so as to be able, in the case of them being associated to geologic faults, to develop preventive actions that guarantee safety conditionstothe personnelto pursue the works,applyinggeotechnical treatments the provide the stability and achieving the expected safety factors suitable to the service expected fromeachofthestructures.

21

ICFRD

No. 1, Feb

2013

DesignofGongboxiaConcreteFaceRockfillDam

XiongWen (HydrOuChina)

1.General

GongboxiahydropowerstationislocatedonthemainstreamoftheYellowRiver,ontheborderbetweenXunhua Sala Autonomous County and Hualong Hui Autonomous County in Qinghai province, 25km away from Xunhua countyand153kmtoXiningcity. ItisalargescaleClassI(1)project,mainlyforpowergeneration,aswellasirrigationandwatersupplypurposes. Thecatchmentareaabovedamsiteis143619km2,meanannualrunoffof226108m3,reservoirnormalstorage level at EL.2005.00m,and dead waterlevel at EL.2002.00m, design and check flood levelatEL.2005.00m and EL.2008.28m respectively. The reservoir is a daily regulation reservoir, with a total storage capacity of 6.3108 m3andaregulatingstorageof7.5107m3.Theinstalledcapacityis1500MW,firmoutputof492MW,andmean annualgenerationcapacityof5.14TWh. Theprojectiscomposedofdam,headracesystemanddischargestructure.Basedontopographicandgeological conditions,andforconvienentconstructionandoperation,theprojectisarrangedas:riverbedCFRD,headrace system onthe rightbank(including approachchannel,concretedam typepowerintake,openpenstock,surface powerhouse and 330kV switchyard), floodrelief tunnels on both banks, and left spillway, face slab seepage control system on right bank and irrigation intakes on left and right banks after several alternatives were compared. TheprojectcommencedonAugust8,2001.Thediversiontunnelworksstartedon1July,2000,andtheriverbed was closed on 18 March, 2002. The first unit was commissioned on September 20, 2004, and the project was completedbytheendof2006. ThedamfoundationstartedexcavationonAugust15,2001,anddamplacementstartedonAugust1,2002.The damwasplaceduptoEL.2005.50m(bottomofsurgewall)onOctober22,2003.Placementofconcretefaceslab startedon15March,2004andcompletedon3June,2004.Thereservoirimpoundingstartedon8August,2004.

2.CFRDdam 2.1Topographicandgeologicconditions

The Yellow River at dam site flows toward NE30~50, with a flat stream channel. When the river leve at EL.1900minmeanwaterperiod,thewatersurface40~60mwideand12~13mdeep.Theoverburdenintheriver bed is 5~13m thick. The valley is asymmetric. Rocky slope is below EL.1980.0m on the right bank, and above EL.1980.0m is sandy loam and gravel layer of Class IIIterrace.The slope gradientis 40~50above El.1940m, while below the slope is very steep. Except Class II terrace covered by drift bed rocks at EL.1930.0m and EL.1950.0m on the left bank,theothers are rocky slope, with an average gradientof30or so,and about10m highslopealongtheriverisfairlysteep.MainrockcharactersatdamsitearePreSinianSystemgneiss,quartz micaschist and quartzite Caledonian period granite Cretaceous system purple red sandstone Teritarysystem redgravelsandstone,Quaternarysystem Sandyloamandsandygravel.Basicearthquakeintensityis7degreeatdamsite,anddamisdesignedasperthe seismicintensityof8degree.

2.2Damlayout

EL.2010.00m,withamaximumheightof132.20m,acrestlengthof429.0mandwidthof10.0m.Thedamhasa

22

ICFRD

No. 1, Feb

2013

upstream slope of 1:1.4, and 1:1.5~1:1.3 for downstream slope, protected by dry laid stone masonry, and provisionofa10mwideZaccessroadtothedamcrest,withacompositedamslopeof1:1.79.Thedamcrest hasa5.8mhighL wallconnected withfaceslabsandthewallbottomisatEL.2005.5m.Duetonarrowvalley, thepowerintakeisneartorightabutmentandthespillwayisneartoleftabutment,therefore,50mand38mhigh cutoffwall wasprovidedattheconnection between rightabutment&station intakeandthe connectionbetween leftabutment&spillwayapproachchannelrespectivelytolinkupdamfaceslab(seeFig.1).

Fig.1LayoutofDam

3.DesignofCFRD

It describes new technology for design of dam zoning, face slab and plinth slab in combination with the characteristicsofGongboxiaCFRD. 3.1Damzoning 3.1.1`Principleofdammaterialzoning To meet the requirement of hydraulic transition between dam materials, cushion materal (2A) is semipervious and main rockfill (3B1) is pervious, in order to ensure fluent drainage of dam and the adjacent downstream materialagainstreversefiltrationprotectionfortheupstreamzone,andpreventinternalpipinganderosion. The upstream zone material of dam axis shall have a greater deformation modulus, which decreases from upstream to downstream so as to ensure the coordination and continuity of deformation between dam zonings afterimpoundmentandminimizetheinfluenceofdamdeformationonfaceslabtodecreasethepossibilityofface slabandwaterstopsystemdamage. Tomakefulluseofexcavatedmaterialfromstructures,foreconomicpurpose. 3.1.2 Zoningofdammaterials

23

ICFRD

No. 1, Feb

2013

Fig.2Typicalsectionofdam

Accordingtotheabovezoningprinciples,fromupstreamtodownstreamthedamiszonedasinclineloamblanket below upstream face slab (1A) and its weighted zone (1B), concrete face slab and cushion zone (2A), cushion

subzone, transition zone (3A), main rockfill zone (3B 1, 3B 2, 3B ) and downstream subrockfill zone (3C),asdetailedinthetypicalsectionofdam(Fig.2).

Main rockfill zone was primarily designed as 2 zonings, i.e 3B I (rockfill zone) and 3B

During construction, it was found by insitu trial embankment that less than 5mm grain content in excavated material as 3B I zone filling is greater than the design requirement of below 8%, mostly 20%, reaching 26% at maximum. Meanwhile, the field test indicated that permeability coefficient K is 103 in most cases, less than designvalue(Thedesignrequiresthatmainrockfillzoneshalldischargeseepagefluently,i.e.,freedrainage,and K value shall be controlled in the range of 101~102.),and equal to or less than the permeability coefficientof cushionmaterial(2A),ortransitionmaterial(3A),whichdiffersfromtheconceptofincreasingCFRDpermeability coefficient from cushion material (2A), transition material (3A) to main rockfill zone by grade, not meet the requirement of dam drainage. In view of the above conditions, to make full use of the excavated material, one highly pervious zone is added [to separate 3B I zone into 2 zones of 3B I1 (strong pervious zone, 5mm grain content is less than 8%, and permeability coefficient K is larger than 101cm/s) and 3B I2]. Hence, the main rockfillzoneincludes3zonesof3B 1,3B 2and3B

Dam placement volume is 4.39M m3 in total. Rock excavation of the project structures is 6.067M m3, in which highlyweatheredrockis3.782Mm3andweaklyweatheredrockis3.085Mm3.Bytest,caculationandanalysis, most of rocks excavated from structures can be used for dam filling. Therefore, in dam zoning design, prior considerationwasgiventoutilizetheexcavatedmaterialtoamaximum,andfinallytheexcavatedmaterialused fordamfillingaccountsfor2/3totalplacementvolume. 3.1.3Designofconcreteslabandplinth Faceslab Thethicknessoffaceslabisdeterminedast=0.3+0.003H,being0.3mforthethicknessoftop,and0.7forthe thicknessofbottomaftercalculation.Singlelayertwowayreinforcementisappliedandthereinforcementratein either way is 0.3% 0.4%. According to the result of 3D stress and strain calculation for the embankment, the scopeofcompressive jointinthe valleyisless andthe scopeoftensionjointonthe two banks islarger,sothe spacebetweenverticaljointsis12.0m.

24

ICFRD

No. 1, Feb

2013

Plinth Plinth wallsareprovidedattheleftandrightabutmentsofGongboxia dambesidesconventionalplinthsinother locations.Consideringdifferentactingheadsandfoundationlithology,theplinthsaredesignedtobe5.0m,6.0m, 7.5m and 9.0m in width,and0.5m,0.6mand0.7m inthickness.The singlewayordoublewayreinforcementis applied and the reinforcementrate in every way is 0.3%. Grouted (high strength mortar) dowels are installed in thefoundation,3.8mintobedrocks. Plinthwalls Considering the topographical and geological condition and composition of main structures, plinth walls are applied at both left and right banks, which is one salient feature of this project. The application of plinth walls makesthelayoutmorereasonableandcompact.Theplinthwallisanimportantpartofplinth,andthemaximum heightsoftheconcreteplinthwallsatleftandrightbanksare38mand50mrespectively. The plinth wall at left bank is located at right side of spillway (used as right guide wall of spillway), being a concrete gravity retaining wall and its crest elevation at 2010.0m. In the meantime, it serves as part of access roadfromcresttotheintaketowerofleftbankfloodreleasetunnelwhosetotallengthis50.0m.Thetopofwallis 8.0mwideaccordingtotherequirementoftransportation(includingthewidthofcantileverbracketsupport,1.5m). Thetwosidesof wallaretorsion faces,the leftsideof wallis gradually changed froma verticaltoan incline of 1:0.5 and the right side is gradually changed from an incline of 1:0.5 to a vertical. The right bank plinth wall is located at the left side of the power intake, being a concrete gravity retaining wall, its crest elevation at 2010.00m 1952.417m,andwhosetotallengthis84.99m.Accordingtotherequirementofstructure,thewalltop is 4.013.21m in width, and is an inclined slope of 1:1.5 along with the length direction. The height of wall is gradually reduced. The right side is vertical surface, and the left side is an incline of 1:0.6. The foundation elevation is at 1960.0m 1950.0m. One grouting and drainage gallery is provided within the wall, and the foundationistreatedbyconsolidationgroutingandcurtaingrouting. Theplinthwallwillbearlateralpressureofembankmentrockfillduringconstructionandthepressureofreservoir water. Additionally, larger deformation is not allowed to be caused so as to avoid destroying the waterstops for perimetricjointsbetweenfaceslabandplinthwallortearthegroutingcurtainunderplinthwalltosplit,whichwill influence the normal operation of face slab. Since plinth walls hare under complicated stresses, the outline structures should be considered as integral after the calculation, analysis and comparison of various schemes. The calculation result shows that the left and right walls both have less tensile stress zone (with the maximum valueof0.1MPa),thecompressivestressinwallisalsoless,andtheslidingstabilityofthewallshashighersafety margin.

4.Applicationofnewtechnology

4.1Slopestrengtheningtechnologybycurbwall Curb wallis anewtechnology forslope strengtheningforCFRD.Thecurb wallcanbeconstructedatthesame time offilling cushion materials, and the construction procedures such as chamfering dam face, compacting on inclinedslopeandslopeprotectioncanbeomitted.Therefore,theoverfillingofcushionmaterialscanbeavoided andthefillingspeedcanbeexpedited,andthecompactnessofcushionmaterialsonslopesurfacecanberaised. The erosion of cushion materials during construction can be alleviated and benefit the slope protection and temporarywaterretainingandfloodrelease. Bycollectingdataandanalysis,sitetestandverification,thestructureofcurbwallanditscontrolstandardareas follows: The upstream slope of curb wall has a slope gradient of 1:1.4, the same as that of the upstream slope of embankment. The width of top is taken as 10cm, the height of wall is the same as the thickness of laying materialsandtheinnerslopeofconcretecurbwallis8:1.

25

ICFRD

No. 1, Feb

2013

The compressive strength at 28th day should not be over 5MPa, and the 24 hour compressive strength index should be determined in principle of side wall would not collapse when cushion materials are vibrated and compacted. Theelasticmodulusshouldbecontrolledwithin5000 7000MPa,anditisbettertobelowerthan5000MPa. The density index should be controlled within 2.0 2.25t/m3, being close to the compact density as much as possible. Thepermeabilitycoefficientshouldbecontrolledbelow103cm/s,thatistosay,consistentwiththe permeability coefficientofcushionlayerthatissemipervious. The surface of curb wall is sprayed with one thin layer of emulsion asphalt in order to reduce the restraint to concretefaceslabandgoodforcrackingcontrol. The calculation and analysis show that, in the operation period, the compressive stress of curb wall along the slope direction is20MPa36MPa,the axialcompressivestress is22MPa~36 MPa, which are allhigherthan the compressivestrengthofwall.So,thecurbwallinoperationtimehasbeencrushed,anditspropertiesalmostare thesameasthoseofcushionmaterials.Theflexibilityoffaceslabis27.3cmincaseofbeingwithcurbwalland 28.1cm in case of being without curb wallrespectively. The tensile stress along the slope direction is 3.46MPa and3.52MParespectively,andcompressivestressis6.8MPaand7.1MParespectively.Thecalculatedvaluewith curbwallislessthanthatwithoutcurbwall,soitisthoughtthatcurbwallhasnoadverseeffectonthestressand strainoffaceslab.Thecurbwallwithreasonabledesignofoutlinewillnotinfluencethesafeoperationofslab. 4.2Onestageconstructionoffaceslab Theoriginaldesignwasthatfaceslabswouldbeconstructedintwostages.Thefirststageconcreteslabswould beconstructedwhenembankmentisfilledupto1956.0ma.s.l.andthesecondstageslabswouldbeconstructed whenembankmentisfilledupto2005.5ma.s.l.,asthisconstructioncouldenabletheembankmenttoretainwater during flood reason and also is prevailing in the world. But due to the particular flood release condition of Gongboxiainconstructionterm(thefloodinconstructiontermcanberegulatedbyLongyangxiaprojectupstream), so the inflow in flood season would be smaller and could be retained by the cofferdam, besides the fullsection fillingsimultaneouslyalsofacilitatetheonestagefaceslabconstruction.Additionally,consideringthereoccurred some problems in staged construction for other projects at home and abroad, (for example, the settlement of embankment may cause the emptiness at the top of firststage face slabs, and the upper embankment filling would impact the firststages face slabs), and construction term for dam is very tight because the river closure time was postponed for 4 months, so onestage construction of face slab can mitigate the influence of initial(including construction term)settlementofembankmentonface slabs,simplify construction procedureand expedite the process. The calculation and analysis demonstrate that the stress and flexibility of face slabs concretedinonestagewouldbelowerthanthoseoffaceslabsconcretedintwostages(theflexibilityisreduced from23.3cmto20.5cm,andthestressalongtheslopedirectionisreducedfrom10.04MPato6.32MPa),andthe stressandstrainconditionsarefundamentallysame,andthedisplacementofperimetricjointslightlydecreases. These demonstrate that onestage cast of face slabs is favorable for the dam safety. All parties efforts have madeit,thefaceslabswereconcretedinonestage,andthelengthreaches218mthatisthelongestrecordedin theworld. 4.3Constructionmethodofembankment The Gongboxia CFRD is originally designed to retain water in flood season, and the embankment cannot be constructed in fullsection but filled in stages. During construction, according to forecast flood and regulation of upstreamlargereservoir,theinflowfloodisreduced,andtheaimofretainingwateralloveryearbycofferdamis viable. The method of fullsection filling and evenly rising is adopted betimes so as to minimize the uneven settlement and adverse influence on face slabs. After calculation, the settlement of embankment by fullsection

26

ICFRD

No. 1, Feb

2013

filling is reduced from 137.3 cm ~140.9 cm to 99.69 cm ~103.6 cm compared with the temporary section of embankmentfilling. 4.4Aseismicdesign The analysis result of static and dynamic stress and deformation shows that the amplified times of earthquake reaction acceleration on the dam crest would reach 3.7, which means the dynamic reaction is larger and the upperpartofdownstreamdamslopemightcollapse.Therefore,thefollowingmeasuresareadoptedinthedesign ofembankment. Changethedistributionofdownstreamdamslopegradient,makeitappearas:threegrades,theupperisgentle andthelowerissteep,thegradientformosttopis1:1.5,forthemiddlepart,1:1.4andforthelowerpart,1:1.3,so astomitigatethedamageofearthquaketodamcrest. ThedownstreamslopeaboveEL.1980.00misprotectedbystonemasonry. Thetransitionalmaterials 3A areusedtoraisethestructuralstrengthofdamcrestaboveEL.1995m.Tiebars are preembedded withinembankment above 1980.00m and connected withstone masonry slopeprotection so astostrengthentheintegrityofdamcrestandincreasetheaseismicabilityofdamcrest.Thepreembeddedtie

5.Conclusions

Themonitoringdataindamconstructiontermshowsthatthe uneven settlementofembankmentis smaller,and thetotalsettlementtothetimeofimpoundmentdoesnotreachthe1%ofdamheight.Theobservationdataafter impoundmentshowsthatthesettlementanddeformationofembankmentareslowandeven.Theregularpattern isnormal,andthesettlementdeformationis only47.80m.Itisdemonstrated thatthedesignisreasonable,safe andsuccessful. In the design process, comprehensive considerations are given to the topographical and geological conditions, absorbing advanceddam design technology and experience athomeand abroad, suchas providingone highly perviouszone,reasonableaseismicmeasures,concreteextrudedcurb,plinthwallsatrightandleftsides,fulldam sectionplacing,continuousconstructionofconcretefaceslabinoneround,whichspedupconstructionprogress, assuredconstructionqualityandreducedprojectinvestment.Inaword,applicationoftheseadvancedtechnology andengineeringmeasuresmadegreatsuccessinGongboxiaprojectandthebenefitsarenoticeable. Themonitoringdataafterimpoundmentshowsthatthedamseepageflowisonly68L/s.Itdemonstratesthatthe designforslab,plinth,leftandrightplinthwallsandwaterstopsystemissafeandreasonable.

References

J.L.Justo,etal,TheUpstreamFacingofMartinGonzaloRockfillDam,Transactionsof16thCongressonLarge Dams,Vol.2,Q.61,R.47,1988. J.G.P.Barnes.ProgramminginAda.AddisonWesley,Wokingham,England,thirdedition,1989. Bofang Zhu, Priciples and Application of Finite Element Method, Beijing, Water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Press,1979(inChinese).

27

ICFRD

No. 1, Feb

2013

CFRD

WORLD,

(ISSN

19979185)

http://www.icfrd.org/index.php/cfrdworld

is

Journal

of International CFRDSociety(ICFRD)http://www.icfrd.org/index.php/abouticfrd,sponsoredby ICFRD and HydrOu China http://hydrou.icfrd.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&Itemid=271, the onlyoneinternationalmagazinefortheworldCFRDconstruction.Itmainlycarriesthetechnicaldocumentsand papers, and articles of CFRD construction, and the articles from water power, environmental protection, flood control and international tourism sections as well.

CFRDWORLDwillpublishthegoodachievementsofyoungandmiddleagedCFRDexpertswhohavemade

greatcontributiontotheworldCFRDconstructiononaselectivebasis. A. Requir ements 1. The applicants must have more than 10 years working experience in the CFRD field such as in design, construction, research , operation management or construction management or supervision,or consultation on CFRDsormaterialsorinstrumentationsforCFRDsoranyotherfieldsinvolvedinCFRDs 2. The applicants must take part personally in 2 100m CFRDs or more in design, construction, operation management or construction management or supervision, or consultation, etc incase with less than 5 years experinces 3.Presenttheconvincingproofstothe CFRDWORLD EditorialBoardhttp://www.icfrd.org/index.php/editorial board at cfrdworld@gmail.com 4. Send1or 2papersonCFRDswrittenbytheapplicanthim/herself 5. A Recommendation Letter should be sent to the Editorial Board at cfrdworld@gmail.com singed with Recommendations by ICFRD Deputy Secretary General http://www.icfrd.org/index.php/secretariat or Chairman of ICFRD http://www.icfrd.org/index.php/professionalcommission in the applicants country.(The applicantshouldinformtheEditorialBoardinadvanceifnoICFRDDeputySecretaryGeneralexistsinhis/her countryorregion). Two or more members of ICRRD or the CFRD WORLD Editorial Board can sign

28

ICFRD

No. 1, Feb

2013

1. Applicants shall send the CFRD Expert Applications with the achivements gained by him/her in the world CFRDconstructiontothe EditorialBoard. 2.Invite twoormore referrers towritetheir Recommendations jontlyonthe Recommendation Letter .

C.Appr oval 1. The application will be approved by the ICFRD Expert Committee http://www.icfrd.org/index.php/expert committee within15daysafterreceivinganapplication. 2. The applicant will receive an Acceptance or Nonacceptance as a Young and Middleaged CFRD Expert within20daysafterhe/shesendsouthis/herapplicationtothe EditorialBoard. 3.PublishtheachievementsandresumeoftheYoungandMiddleagedCFRDExpertwith2ormorepagesof publicationfreeofchargefor3issuesofCFRDWORLD.

29

ICFRD

No. 1, Feb

2013

1.Thr eeGor gesstudytour,3days

D1 VisitThreeGorgesProject (TGP)site,thebiggest hydropowerprojectintheworld. D2TheChinesedamexpertswhotookpartintheconstructionof theTGP presenttheirexperiencesbasedonthevisitors' requirements. D3TheChinesedamexpertswhotookpartintheconstructionof theTGPmakesometechnicalconsultation onthetechnicalproblemsputforwardbythevisitors

ThreeGorgesP roject

TheThreeGorgesProjectisthebiggestwaterconservancyprojecteverbuiltintheworld.Thedam siteissituatedatSandouping,YichangCity, China about38kmupstreamfromGezhoubaProject. Theprojectiscomposedofadam,twopowerstationsandnavigationfacilities.Thespillwaysectionis placedinthecenter,whilethepowerhousesarearrangedonitsbothsides.Thepermanentnavigation structuresarelocatedontheleftbankside Thedamisofaconcretegravitytype.Thetotallengthof thedamaxisisabout2,309meterswiththecrestelevationat185m Thereare14generatingsetsof hydroturbinegeneratorunitsinstalledintheleftpowerhousewhile12generating setsintheright. Thus,thereare26setsofturbinegeneratorunitsintotal 700MW foreach totaling18,200MWin installedcapacitythatwillproduce84.7TWhofelectricityoutputannually Thefirststage constructionlasts5yearsfrom1993to1997. Thesecondstageconstructionlasts6yearsfrom1998to 2003.Thethirdstageconstructionlasts6yearsfrom2003to2009. Aftertheprojectcompleted the totalstoragecapacityofthereservoiris39.3billionm withthenormalpoollevelat175m.Thetotal lengthofthedamaxisis2309.37meters.Thespillwaysection,whichislocatedinthemiddleofthe rivercourse,is483meterslongintotal.Itisthemostimportantprojectfunctioningasabackbonein floodcontrolsystemtoprotecttheareasinthemiddleandlowerreachesofYangtzeRiver. Witha 22.15billionmoffloodcontrolstoragecapacityofthereservoir,theJingjiangRiverSectionisable toraiseitsfloodcontrolcapabilityfromthepresent10yearfrequencytothe100year. Andthe660km longwaterwayfromYichangtoChongqingisobviouslyimproved,makingitpossiblefor10,000tons ofbargefleettosailupstreamdirectlytoChongqingnow. TheThreeGorgeDamsisthelargestdamintheworld,aswideastheGoldenGateBridgeandtwice astall,capableofgenerating18gigawattsofhydroelectricpower.

30

ICFRD

No. 1, Feb

2013

2.ShuibuyaCFRDstudytour ,3days

D1VisittheShuibuyaCFRDsite,thehighestbuiltintheworld. D2TheChineseCRRDexpertswhotookpartintheconstruction ofthedampresenttheirexperiences accordingtothevisitors' requirements. D3TheChineseCRRDexpertswhotookpartintheconstruction ofthedammakesometechnicalconsultation onthetechnical problemsputforwardbythevisitors.

TheShuibuyaCFRD

D1D2VisittheJiangpingheCFRDsite D3TheChineseCRRDexpertswho aretaking partinthe constructionoftheJiangpingheCFRDmakesometechnical consultation onthetechnicalproblemsputforwardbythe visitors.

TheJiangpingheCFRD

The Jiangpinghe Hydropower Station in China closed successfully on 20, Dec. 2008. The Station has a CFRD height of 219m, which is the 2nd highest of the same type in the world.

The station is located in Hefeng County, Ehshi Prefecture, Hubei Province, in China which is about 380 km away from the Shuibuya CFRD site. The dynamic total investme nt is 35 hundred million or more. The main purpose of the project is power generation and accompanies with miscellaneous functions such as flood control, tourism, navigation, and aquiculture. The total power of the station is 450,000kw with 2 vertical shaft mixed flow turbine-generator sets of 225,000 each, long term average annual energy of 963800000 kWh. The first generating unit will predict to be put into operation in the end of 2013 and completed in Dec. 2014. The normal reservoir level is 470m and the total reservoir capacity is 13.66 hundred million m .

3

31

ICFRD

No. 1, Feb

2013

D1VisittheGezhoubadam site D2TheChinesedam expertswho took partintheconstructionof theGezhoubaprojectandtheThreeGorgesprojectmake sometechnicalconsultation onthetechnical problemsputforwardbythevisitors.

GezhoubaHydropowerStation

ThestationisbuiltattheentrancetotheXilingGorge,andneartheThreeGorgesHydropowerPlantinthe downtownof YichnagCity,thefirsthydropowerstationinthetrunkoftheYangtzeRiver,withaninstalled capacityof2.73millionkw. TheGezhouba damisaconveyancesystemfortheThreeGorgesProject. TheProjectincludesthebarrage,thepowerplant,theshiplock,theflooddischargegates andthefishway, etc.ItisalsooneofthelargesthydropowerstationbuiltinChina.Theembankmentis2,561mlongand 70mhigh whichcontrolsadrainageareaof1,000,000km.With21generatingunits thehydropower stationgenerates13.8billionKWHayear.

32

- DAM Planning and ManagementDiunggah olehRoch battousai
- CFRD DamDiunggah olehVinodh Kumar Yalla
- A Study on Concrete Faced Rockfill DamsDiunggah olehAnonymous 87xpkIJ6CF
- CFRDGuide_1Diunggah olehpabulumzeng
- Earth and Rock Fill Dams.PDFDiunggah olehchakfarmer
- Seismic Resistant Design Standard for Building StructuresDiunggah olehKai Ho
- DamsDiunggah olehveenabalu20
- Numerical Analysis of Large Earth and Rockfill Dams DeformationsDiunggah olehsksibal
- Variable-Order Finite Elements for Nonlinear, Fully Intrinsic Beam EquationsDiunggah olehmeghatv
- Cfrd vs Rcc DamsDiunggah olehbinod2500
- Badenhorst - Design of Concrete-Faced Rockfill Dams.pdfDiunggah olehEdicson Alexander Alvarez Sanchez
- Large DamsDiunggah olehPeeyush Kumar
- Concrete Dam by r s Varshney Mtech nitrr studentDiunggah olehtram_bak
- DamsDiunggah olehScott Downs
- 9058096327Diunggah olehchenfs6724
- Duncan and Chang 1970Diunggah olehjoshlippert
- Engineering of Large Dams Ch1-12Diunggah olehMahmoud Breama
- Design Manual for Small RCC DamsDiunggah olehZeyk Onas
- CVE471 Lecture Notes 4 - SpillwaysDiunggah olehale hopeju2009
- Cosmos 2006Diunggah oleholasanyaa
- Hernandez Avila MiguelDiunggah olehJuan Carlos Dominguez
- A Differential Quadrature Finite Element MethodDiunggah olehMasood Pashang
- IntroductionDiunggah olehapi-3698788
- Integration of Finite Element Method with Runge – Kuta Solution AlgorithmDiunggah olehAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Book-Bars and BeamsDiunggah olehMohammed Abu Sufian
- 104589273 Hypermesh BasicsDiunggah olehanup_22988
- EC2 - Reinforced Concrete DesignDiunggah olehAndrei
- FEM IntroductionDiunggah olehBijendra Prajapati
- apowerpointpresentationonstaad-170826170842.pdfDiunggah olehSam Farizo
- Introduction AnsysDiunggah olehmaheshvarma123

- 23590627 Fatigue DesignDiunggah olehmeDC123
- Numerical Methods in Progressive Collapse Assessment of RC Framed Structures FEM vs. AEM (Botez, Et Al. 2014)Diunggah olehJose Manuel
- Numerical modelling of soil structures.pdfDiunggah olehMuhammad Auchar
- Sr Engineering AnalystDiunggah olehapi-77880487
- ChristophSchlensok_FinalPaperDiunggah olehDavid Turner
- Introduction to FEMDiunggah olehV.m. Rajan
- Final Modulhandbuch VGU Entwurf AktuellDiunggah olehNguHien
- Workshop Concept and Contents Mechanica Fundamentals and AdvancedDiunggah olehjosempinc
- 3905_engl_2012_11 KTADiunggah olehkartoon_38
- MTech Mechanical Syllabus 29.4.2017Diunggah olehsachinmagrawal2484
- The Interaction of Lamb Waves With DefectsDiunggah olehAshwini Pavankumar
- ST7201_FiniteElementMethodquestionbankDiunggah olehAshok Ammaiyappan
- Nx Assign Material PropertiesDiunggah olehbiondav
- Thesis Full ChetansomDiunggah olehDeepika Prabhu
- Advanced Numerical MethodsDiunggah olehRohit Gadekar
- Finite Element Analysis of a Composite Bridge DeckDiunggah olehwjzzen
- Final ReportDiunggah olehaljr_2801
- Engineering Fracture Mechanics Volume 74 Issue 1-2 2007 [Doi 10.1016_j.engfracmech.2006.01.015] J.M. Sancho; J. Planas; D.a. Cendón; E. Reyes; J.C. Gálvez -- An Embedded Crack Model for Finite ElemeDiunggah olehOthman Bouaziz
- Doctoral Thesis Sven MoellerDiunggah olehSenthil Nath
- MpCCI_8th_UserForumDiunggah olehPhạm Quốc Nghiệp
- How to Learn COMSOLDiunggah olehShivang Sharma
- A Comparative Study of Fatigue Behavior and Life Predictions of Forged Steel and PM Connecting RodsDiunggah olehalexcpm
- Analysis of Crank End of Connecting Rod Using Finite Element MethodDiunggah olehEditor IJRITCC
- FEM BrochureDiunggah olehsmanojaravind
- FEM exercisesDiunggah olehVenkatesh Sathya Harisyam
- Finite Element AnalysisDiunggah olehSathish Kumar
- Radial Lip SealsDiunggah olehjafar_ebadi
- Fem Report FinalDiunggah olehSube Singh Insan
- A Finite Element Coupling Model for Internal Stress Prediction During the Curing of Thick Epoxy CompositesDiunggah oleh3pher
- LessonsDiunggah olehالمهندس أبو أسامة