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5140e2d1d029b 79.28.224.135 Italy

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POSERS
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ATI

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BY

NATHAN

HASKELL

DOLE

VOLUME

II

WITH

PORTRAITS

THOMAS

Y.

CROWELL

"

CO.

PUBLISHERS

CONTENTS.

VOL.

II.

PAGE

SCHUBERT
Louis

283 305 327 347

SPOHR

MEYERBEER
"

MENDELSSOHN

SCHUMANN FREDERIC
MIKHAIL
v

375
FRANCOIS

CHOPIN GLINKA

400
432
451

p
?.

IVANOVITCH
BERLIOZ LISZT

HECTOR FRANZ RICHARD

489
.

ff

WAGNER

...

517

SCHUBERT.
(1797-1828.)

VIENNA,
cruel

in

and

of this century, early years foster-mother to the capricious

the

was sons

of

Art. allowed
Bonn,

Mozart

came

to

her

from

Salzburg,
came

him
and

to

starve.

Beethoven

to

she and her from

she

deserting
She
was
was

him to die allowed him for Rossini. still her


more

in melancholy

tude, soli-

cruel

and

neglectful singer.
of

mother. He

Schubert
before unknown,
sorrow.

one

native-born
very the

died

his

time,

in the

plenitude victim
of

his

powers, and

unappreciated,

privation

Such
at it.

is the

natural

and

sentimental

way

of looking

There
The
career

is

truer

and
been

more

pity that is found knowledge

has

philosophical by Mozart's evoked

point

of view. disappointed

to be, if not

by

of

how

at least tempered misplaced, far he himself was responsible

for his disappointment.

Beethoven's
"The
"

seclusion
of in
not

from the

the

world

was

self-chosen.
of
tones

soothsayer
consolation

most inner"

world
countree."
own

found

that only

far his

And
was

Schubert's probably been


to
283

poverty
less
a

was

fault, but
it would

the

cause

of

suffering

than

have

person

of

finer

physical

284

SCHUBERT.

fibre.

What
for

he wasted him
"the

on common

strong

drink

would
of

have

procured

necessities

life," the
"one's

lack blood

of

which,
as

though

pitiable,

boil,"

Sir George
Burns

Schubert he had
"

is the marvellous

not need make indignantly Grove exclaims. Of peasant of music. origin

says, and

The

German
ennoblement singer,

As gift for singing. folk-song found in him


; through

W.

Miiller

its highest

finest

him,

native again, he
was

came

the

ancient

German genuine folk-song into life


the

purified
most at

and
ease

transfigured
among
was

by

art."
own

Like

Burns,

those
too

of his of

station

in

life;

like

Burns,

he

fond
of
mean sex,

gay

carousals. ance, appearfair


sex a

Unlike

Burns,

however,

being

personal
nor

he cared
care
"

little for the fair

did

the

for

him.

And

yet,

strangely
"

enough,

he
won

had
for him

nameless

earnest

personal friends.
Peter

charm

which

always

Franz

Schubert
at

was

born
of the

on

the Ked

last day Crab

of

January,
Rothen

1797,

the
one
was

house
of
a

the

(Zum
of
of

Krebseri),in
His

immediate

Vienna.
sterling

father

schoolmaster, Beethoven's family


of

suburbs poor, but


father, nineteen

character,
a

who, A

like

had children eight

married

cook.

patriarchal
a

blessed
grew

this and

subsequent

union,

but only

up.

Little is known
or

of the home-life
and

in the Schubert

hold, house-

of the influence
are no

character

of his mother. precocity


so

There
must

anecdotes
shown by

of the the

musical

which

have

been

gifted

child,

strangely

From his father's own placed. ful words regarding his youthdays, we know that at five he was prepared merely for school, at six he was the leader of his comrades, and

always

fond

of society.

FRANZ

SCHUBERT.

After

the

aquarell of
Dr.

of
G.

W.

A.

Rieder
in

(1796-1888).
Vienna.

Property

Granitsch

SCHUBERT.

285
father
"

"

In his eighth

year,"
of
to
to take

the

continues, and

I taught

him
along

the

rudiments enough him

violin play

playing,
easy

brought

him

far I sent

duets lessons who

tolerably
of
Mr.

well.

Then

singing

Michael
many had

Holzer, times,
such
a

the
with

parish
tears

choir-master,

declared
never

in his eyes, that


'If I wanted
to

he
put

before

pupil.

that he said he, 'I found I really gave him no instruction, but simply him and looked at him in silent amazement.'

him/

new anything knew it already.

fore beSo with

talked
"

His calling,

oldest
gave

brother him

Ignaz,

who

followed playing;

his but
these
a

father's
as

lessons he

in piano
soon

Sir

George
teachers.

Grove What
Mozart, !

says,
a

outstripped he had
not

simple

pity

that

father
a

like

Leopold

capable
He
was

of guiding

genius
came

lisped
no

in
one

wisely such for the numbers, dared


he
wrote correct

tous porten-

numbers
the songs

; but

there

who

and
ten

other

compositions old.
the
a
"

which has

before

he

was

years

He

harmony Holzer, who

in his heard

little finger,"
him
extemporize

exclaimed
on

delighted
that

theme
was

he gave
years

him.
and
or

When
was

he

eleven
for the

eight

examined choir-boys

Konvikt, Imperial

months old he school for educating


The other

the

for

the

Chapel.
lad in his
a

seeing candidates, suit of homespun, sport of him


; but

the

fat awkward

light gray
and

took
they the

him

for

miller's
of their

son,

repented
other

made impertinence him

when
and
tunes

Salieri his

and

examiners
out

called
the

up,

clear, pure he had


of

voice already

rang

; for

been
where

well-known first soprano in the


he

in

parish the

church
solos

Lichtental,

had

also played

violin
"

required
"

in the
was soon

service. exchanged for the

The

miller's

suit

gold-

286

SCHUBERT.

laced uniform A boys' school in those of the Konvi'kt. days even the uniform was was not a paradise, when decorated Schubert's with gold lace. earliest known
letter to his brother
gives
a

Ferdinand,
picture
of

dated the
:
"

November

24, 1812,

serio-comic

hardships

endured

by

the lads of the Imperial


"

Chapel

You

know like

from
a

would

to eat
one

experience biscuit and


to wait

that
a

oftentimes

fellow

couple

when
from
a

has

for eight
a

of apples, especially and a half hours


.
.

wretched supper. Nolens he adds, I must have a change." And volens" he beseeches his brother him to send kreutzers two
"

mediocre

dinner

till

month,

on

the
one

principle
to

that poor.

he

who

hath

two

coats

should His those


was

give father
were

the

could

spare
spent.

him

only two

groschen,

and

quickly
and

unheated

icy-cold.

In winter the practice-room In spite of cold and hunger

flourished. the love of music and other discomforts, There Schubert an was was admitted. orchestra, into which The leader of the band, an older lad named

Joseph
who boy
was

von

Spaun,
so

"turned

round

the

first day
*

to
a

see

playing

in spectacles,
great

cleverly, and found it to be r The Franz Schubert/ named Spaun


was

small came betwo


to

friends, and

generous

enough
was

provide himself
He

Schubert
to buy.

with

music-paper,

which

he

too poor

thus

orchestral

with the acquainted During a formance perworks of the great composers. he declared Symphony G-minor of Mozart's
a

had

chance

to

become

he

could

hear
was

the

angels

singing.

His

reverence

for

Beethoven

deeply

the school, when some deal, he shook a great

after he entered do one said that he could already " I somehis head and exclaimed,

ingrained.

Soon

SCHUBERT.

287
after Beethoven do

times

have
?
"

such

dreams,

but

who

can

anything
It
seems

strange
a

that

so

little

care

was

taken

to give

Schubert
musical have

thorough

composition.
him lessons
more

in the foundations of grounding is said to The director, Eucziszka, in harmony,


he

given

but

soon

found
that he

that he
saw

his pupil had


got

knew

than
the

did, and

declared

it

"

from

dear

God."
:
"

Salieri, when
He
can

the boy's He is
a

capacity,
genius.

exclaimed He

do

everything operas,

composes

songs,

masses,

string-quartets,
It
was

in fact, anything
:

you

like." he finished 28, 1813,


a

true

between
fantasia

May-Day,
for

1810, when
and

his when

four-hand

piano,

October
he had

he finished
overture,

his first symphony,


seven

composed
many

quintet

string-quartets,
a

and
of

other

instrumental

pieces, besides

quantity

vocal

sitions. compo-

Music in the

occupied

him

so

wholly

that

after his first year

school, his general geography, Italian,


were were

studies, comprising writing,

history,
Latin,

poetry,

mathematics, drawing, French,


of his

and

neglected.
by the
as

Many of

compositions

played
as

pupils by

the

Konvikt;
composers,
; his

and
were

his

quartets,
on

well

those

other

practised brothers taking


'cello, and he

Sundays

and

holidays

at home

the first and

second

violin, his father quick

the
to

His the viola. ear was detect the slightest false note, and he would " Herr be Vater, there must a modest smile,

himself

say with
some

take mis-

there." He also

occasionally

had

chance
or

to hear

an

opera various

by

Weigl,

Cherubini,
during
these and

Bo'ieldieu, years,

Gluck.

At

concerts

Beethoven's

masterpieces,

the

Fifth,

Sixth,

Seventh

Symphonies,

and

other

288

SCHUBERT.

All such privileges were given. eagerly fuel his for to But seized, and added composition. zeal to think that Beethoven at that time he seemed united " too much the tragic and the comic, the agreeable and works,
were

the repulsive, harlequin." a

him

petty, the holiest and Mozart," he calls "Mozart, as in his diary, was his favorite, and exercised a deeper the

heroic

and the immortal

influence When

his compositions. he his voice changed


on
on

might

have

the school
to pass
so, a

the Merveldt

certain

scholarship, had He did not examination.


during

stayed on in he consented
choose
summer

to do
vacation.

studying since it involved It is interesting to know


warmly cherished in the

the

that Schubert's

was

orchestra
a

number

school, that the stillcontinued to play his compositions, he made during of the friends whom

memory Konvikt

and that his five

they reached years' stay, afterwards, when positions of influence, always stood by him in calling public attention to his works.

It speaks

volumes at the Konvikt,

for the quality of Schubert's education his father's that in order to become

at the obliged to study several months then was of St. Anna, and even given he should have only the preparatory classes ! Why ery, drudgto be utter sure taken up with a work that was is not known. His brother thought to that it was
secure

assistant he was Normal School

his exemption from Possibly service in the army. it was his ability to earn because his father doubted livelihood by music. He
was
a nervous,

irritable teacher,

and

sometimes

severely boxed the ears of the stupid or mischievous little girls under him, that their fathers interfered. Indeed, one is said to have led to his resignasuch scene tion
so

of the position.

SCHUnERT.

289
had

The

three music, of

years
"

of drudgery

been

prolific in wonderful

list of upwards
sort and

of four In 1815
some

hundred
he wrote them

compositions one

every

kind.
;

hundred

and

thirty-seven
most

songs

of

his most

characteristic,
of August

of them

immortal.

On

the fifteenth them

he wrote

eight.

Once

written
that

he threw they
were

even aside, and The "Erlkonig

forgot
"

sometimes
on

his.

was

written

the spur

of the moment, He

Schubert
the
was same
no

having evening

justseen
the

Goethe's

ballad.

took

it

to the Konvikt,

to try it

over,

for there
very well

piano
; the not

at

house;

but

it

was

not

received
were

extraordinary

harmonies

and

its originality

understood.
mass

His

first

was
on

and

first performed
ten ;

composed Sunday,

for the

Parish

Church,
It
was

October

16, 1814.

repeated conducted Holzer

days
his

later at the Augustine

Church.
the

Franz
organ.

brother

Ferdinand

led the

it is supposed in love sang


"

choir, and Therese Schubert may for a short


the soprano part ; and

played G-rob
"

with whom been time have


father

Schubert's

was

so

octave
as

that he presented the composer with a fiveSalieri was piano. present, and claimed Schubert proud
"

his pupil,

relation which

Beethoven

also gladly

acknowledged. A number to wretchof operas, composed unfortunately ed librettos, fell in this same Some are of them period. fragmentary, now to the ravages of a servant-girl, owing
who,

year, revolutionary better fuel wherewith to light her

in

that

1848,

could

find

no

fires than

those

cious pre-

but neglected scores. Salieri is said to have given him lessons, but to many have advised him to avoid Goethe and Schiller's poems. He was to follow his own It was wise enough counsels.

290
Goethe,

SCHUBERT.

through

especially,

that

he

was

inspired

to

the

lyrical flights ; and yet, strange to say, Goethe did not appreciate He the honor. neither expressed pleasure at the immortal alliance, nor even acknowledged
highest the
was

Fifteen receipt of them. years too late, the famous Madame


to the gray-haired

it afterward, when Schroder-Devrient he suddenly awoke

sang

old

man,
"

and

to the beauty

of the "Erlkdnig music, and confessed that he saw its completeness, thus sung when which before had escaped him. In 1816 a government school of music was established

in connection with the new Schubert Trieste. near

Normal

Institute

at Laybach,

director, which carried little over dollars. a hundred

applied with it a
He

for

the

position

of

to salary amounting it, nor failed to secure

did he
hold

ever,

in spite of several

any

whether, training wholly

public place. in fact, he was


to

efforts and applications, It may be reasonably doubted qualified such


a

by

temperament His any

or was

succeed He private.
He
was

in any
was

charge.

life

not

master

upon

ment. instru-

teaching composer, pure and simple ; even few irksome to him, and his pupils were music was and far between. In the autumn the of this same year, having forsworn
a

duty

of grounding

infants find him

in the lodging

alphabet, student of " Fortunate

we

birth, named gentle is he who finds a true


summer.

man of the Germysteries in town with a young Franz Schober. von


friend," wrote
was was

Schubert
true
to
saw

in his diary that friend.


Knowing

Schober
songs,

that anxious he

Schubert's

he

the composer's make he was how hampered they should

and acquaintance, by his drudgeries, How happy

when

live together.

that proposed be he was, may

SCHUBERT.

291
him
never

judged
Ignaz, from

from
was

letter also
a

written teacher,

to

by

his

brother
loose

who

and

broke

the toils

"

"You
in
a

fortunate golden express

man!
freedom

How ;
can

you

are

to

be envied!
musical
are so

You genius

live
free

sweet
can

give
as

your please,

rein,

your the

thoughts
us are

you

loved,
many

admired,
wretched youth, and

idolized, while beasts


and,

rest of

devoted,

like
a

of burden,

to

all the

brutalities
to

of
a

pack

of wild

moreover,

must

be
a

subservient
priest."

thankless

public,

under

the thumb

of

stupid

Another gloomy

of

Schubert's

friends of whom

was

the

eccentric,
wrote
:
"

poet, Mayrhover,
"

Bauernfeld
;

Sickly
Held

was

he, peevish- tempered gay companions,

aloof from

Busied
Found
Earnest

only with his studies, in whist his recreation.


were even

his features,

stony;

Never Both

laughed

or

jested.
behavior
us

his learning

and

With

respect filled all Little speech he made,

blackguards.
meaning

but

Weighted

all the words

he uttered.

Only

music

could
from

enchant his stony

him dulness;
were

Sometimes
And
when

Schubert's

songs
more

given,

Then

his nature

grew

cheerful."

It

was

hearted
of
the

companionship curious Schubert, fond of practical

between

the

light-

jokes and
was

all sorts
to

buffooneries
"

(his
"

favorite
a

amusement

sing
the

Erlkonig

through whose

fine-toothed
was so

comb

!) and

misanthropic
set
more

poet

career

pathetic. music,
even

bert Schuelse lived

than

had

they

been

fifty of his forgotten. wholly

to poems The two

292
together for
describes
"It
was
:
"

SCHUBERT.

some

time in quarters

which House the

Mayrhover

thus

in
from

gloomy tooth

street.

and

room

had

suffered

sunken,
;
a

of time; the light cut off by piano,


a

the

played-out

the

which, with never pass from my memory." Still a third of Schubert's Michael Vogl,
a

room,

small the hours that

someroof was what great building opposite bookcase such was


"

we

spent

there,

can

new

friends

was

Johann

singer of the Vienna opera-house. Spaun, his early friend of the Konvikt, claims to have introduced them, and tells how the awkward, retiring,
tenor

Schubert blushing the famous met and " bow haughty and singer with a clumsy few disconnected, stammering words."

and

rather
a

scrape, and

into the room, Vogl, perfectly at his ease, came which He littered with music. was picked up some of the he took Then, when them through. songs and hummed his departure, he slapped Schubert on the back, arid said : " in you, but you are too little of a There is something You squander your player, too little of a charlatan. to anything." beautiful thoughts without bringing them Nevertheless, he
came

back, and
was a man

soon

found

himself ment; refine-

under

real value to the composer; to all the of great houses and as he had the entree best songs, it was Vienna, and sang many of Schubert's in society. Vogl, not long before they were well known
were

their spell. his hints

He

of culture

and

of

in his diary, speaks


"utterances

of them

as

"

truly

divine

tions," inspirafications exempli-

of

musical

clairvoyance,"

"words

Vogl

"speech, poetry in tones," phrases: in harmony," "thoughts clad in music." into the very spirit of how to enter understood
of

the

SCHUBERT.

293
his brother
nand Ferdi-

Schubert's
:
"

songs. way

The

latter wrote

The

the way something

in which

in which Yogi for the moment

sings and
we seem

I accompany,
to

be

one,

is

In 1817

quite new Rossini's


was

Schubert
wrote
a

in the experience of these people." introduced into Vienna ; music was fun inclined to make even of it, and
"

travesty

decidedly his Sixth

" Tancredi of the influenced his compositions,

overture,
as

but

it

Symphony.

Perhaps

it

was

may be noted in due to Rossini's


the

all-conquering popularity that the quantity, but not fell off during this and quality, of his compositions

the

succeeding year. How he lived friendship

during

this time

is not

known.

His

not broken, but the arrival with Schober was him of his lodgings. He of Schober's brother deprived had no pupils, and the only money that so far he had

earned

by his music
a

was

only

about

twenty

dollars by
some

the sale of

cantata

written

and

performed

years

before. of 1818 Schubert became in the family of Count Johann Esterhazy. in Vienna, and a gave him a winter home
In the
summer

music-teacher This position


summer

home

at Zelesz

on

the Waag,
that

for each whole Baron

lesson
was

and an he gave

honorarium the
three

gulden The children.

of two

family
von

Schubert's member Haydn's


things,
writes god." He

musical, and the great baritone singer, Schonstein, sang who afterwards many of frequent a songs great applause, was with

of

their

home

concerts,

at

which

they
and

sang

"Seasons,"
including his friend

Mozart's

"Requiem,"

works Schober

by that

Schubert
he

himself,
composing

other for he

is

"

like

doubtless

yearned

for the

freedom

and

independ-

294
ence

SCHUBERT.

life, and in September he writes of his humbler that " not a soul there has again, declaring mournfully any feeling for true art, unless the Countess be an exception. " So I am alone," he adds, with my beloved, and
must

hide

her

in my

room, me

in my

piano, in my
on

breast.
it

Although

this often makes


more."

sad,

the other hand,

all the elevates me Sir George Grove


at home

inclines to think
quarters

that

he

was

more

in the servants7
was

than

in the Countess's

salon. He He

there, perhaps, treated with more consideration. " The cook is rather jolly writes : ; the ladies'
pretty, often quite good old soul ; the butler my rival. better suited for the horses than for housemaid very

maid

is thirty ; the

a social ; the nurse The two grooms are The Count is rather rough ; the Countess haughty, us. I yet with a kind heart ; the Countesses nice girls. am good friends with all these people."
...

It has been

the is
was a

youngest

surmised daughter,

that

Schubert
von

Caroline

fell in love with Esterhazy. There

that once story, not well authenticated, when she dedicated teasing him because he had never any of
"

his works to her, he replied, do is consecrated to you ? "


was

Why
But

I, when all I the Countess Caroline should though

she wr'ote some of his best played the piano well (Schubert four-handed love which he felt pieces for her),any

only eleven

that

summer

of 1818, and

be ideal. would been ideal.


He
was a

But

his love

must

at

any

rate

have

little man,
arms,

not

much
such

over

rotund could

figure, fat
not master

and

five feet tall,with short fingers that he

pieces ; his of his own insignificant ; the beauty bad ; his nose was complexion even of his eyes hidden by the spectacles which he wore the technique

SCHUBERT.

295

in bed.
the

What
love

hope
of
a

have could such a peasant lovely Austrian countess

of winning

of

the

! of Esterhazy proud race He longed to get back to

"

beloved

Vienna,"

where,

as

he wrote him was


stepmother
"

dear and valuable to his brother, all that was It is interesting to know to be found. that his looked
"

motherly The

care

for his comfort. He her thanks him for sending pocket-handkerchiefs,


out

stockings,

and cravats. following winter

was

about forty dollars, Schubert He was without anxiety." loved by all the circle that gathered was at Schober's They or some rooms convenient coffee-house. called
"
"

friends. congenial with Hungary his earnings of money, plenty hundred florins, equivalent two alone were
"

spent Having

in gay companionship brought from back


for
to

July

him

"the

Tyrant,"

because
carry

he for

brenner
"Kanevas,"

fetch

he he

man joined them, any new when dialect, " Can asked, in his quaint Viennese always " " do anything ? " They Schwammerl called him

and because

HiittenJoseph made him ; they called him

or (toadstool)

"Bertl." in sham

They

were

they

indulged

practical jokesj they late at night.


Marvellous
man

fights ; they drank deep, and

rough howled

and

noisy;

played home staggered dual

and

contradiction!
amid these wild

Strange

nature

of

lovely songs born, as water-lilies, pure and white, grow from the were filth and ooze in a beer-garden once of the pond ! Thus Schubert that some picked up a volume of Shakspere
orgies what

Even

literary friend

had
met

laid

on

table.
He
I

The

song,
:

"

Hark

!
a

hark, the lark ! " lovely


melody
!"

his eye.
to
me

exclaimed
If only I

"

Such
some

has

come

had

music-paper

296

SCHUBERT.

A few staves were hastily drawn in pencil on the back are, and amid of a bill-of-f such incongruous surroundings one down. Yet jotted of the most perfect of songs was
music is the product of my genius and my poverty, and that which I have written in my greatest distress is what the world seems to like the best."

Schubert

exclaimed,

"My

He

was

lacking

shy, free from self-conceit,utterly in jealousy; he sometimes in his was what naturally
a

by cups, is shown friend Bauernfeld.


It
was

rather comical

incident told by his

late at night. Schubert had been drinking a of the theatres good deal, when two musicians from one into the beer-room, and spying the composer, dropped asked him
to compose

Schubert

for their special instruments. something leaped to his feet, drained a last glass

his hat over his ear, and drew up of punch, pushed one threateningly against the two men, was a of whom

head and shoulders taller : " he cried. " You are musicians, and Artists, you ? " of nothing else. One of you bites the brass mouthpiece stick, and the other puffs out his cheeks your wooden
"

over

his French
. . .

trade.
one

You,

Call that art ? That's a mere artists ! You are blowers and fiddlers,
am an

horn.

Schubert, Franz artist ! I, I am has knows who and names, everybody done great and beautiful things above your comprehension, beautiful ones : cantatas and and will do stillmore
and all. / Schubert, whom
For

quartets, operas and symphonies.


a

am

not

composer the stupid

of country

waltzes

as {Landler\,

merely it says in

paper, and as stupid fellows prate. I am Schubert, Franz Schubert, I would have you know, and if the word i art ' is spoken, it concerns me, and not you,

"

SCHUBERT.

297
but
you
I will

worms

and write

never

insects, who want solo pieces for you, and I know them why,
"

the

gnawing foot of

worms

which
who

I would

crush

under
"

creeping, foot
"

feriam
I say dust!"
"

Sublime reaches the stars translate that ! yes, the stars, sidera vertice wriggle in the while you poor, puffing worms
a
man
"

"

The

men

outburst. the next

in utter stared at him Bauernfeld When went

amazement to

at

this
room

Schubert's
in few

he found morning, everything disorder, an inkstand overturned, and a


scratched

the

direst

aphorisms

down

on

paper.
out

Schubert
and

tumbled

to atone promised solos for the virtuosos. It must not be judged by this that he

shamefaced, of bed somewhat for his rudeness by writing the

was

an

habitual
of

sot.

His

habits

were

generally

regular;
or

his hours

A beautiful poem, arduous. Beethoven's C-sharp minor quartet, into paroxysms It of excitement.
labor touched
The

as such music him threw almost was

like

the

gushed rod: the fountains finer fibre in him hidden, but it was was
Moses'
to
"

by

rock forth. there, The

ready orgies simply

vibrate
which
were

in

with unison less culpable

all harmony.
at

that
not

time

"

were

those of good fellowship, Schubert's earnings at Zelesz


the next
summer

and
were

wanton.

him

to make

an

sufficient to allow into Upper excursion

with Vogl, who introduced him into the circle of his family and friends. letters dated at Steyr Several describe the delights of this excursion : the and Linz fascinating the music scenery, the jovialcomradeship, famous Schubert for his facility in was and dances. improvising
waltzes

Austria

by

the

hour

when

among

those

298
he knew whom lightning over
expression heard him
"
"

SCHUBERT.

well. the

His

keys.
a

stubbed little fingers flew like He with wonderful played


said
some

like

composer,"

one

who

the piano sing like a bird. and made In February, 1819, a song of Schubert's was sung for Two the first time in public. years later, after a semi" Erlkonig" a hundred of the copies public performance
"

were

subscribed
"

for, and

the

great

song

was

on no commission," and printed publisher In nine months to incur the risk. eight hundred were the entering wedge, and sold. This was

engraved being willing copies it was

followed

by

dedicated Count

succession of eighteen had been kind to men who


the Patriarch
was

in five numbers, to him : Salieri,

Dietrichstein, The

of Venice,
that

noblemen.
were now

success

so

great

and other the Diabellis

account. willing to publish others on their own Had Schubert been wise, or his friends looked out for He have been assured. his interests, his future might

foolishly sold

his first twelve

works

for

silver gulden ($400). One single song " " 1822 brought its publishers between The Wanderer he mortgaged of $13,000. Moreover, and 1861 upwards
" "

eight hundred in Opus Four

offered the position of organist to the distress of his to the Court Chapel ; but, much it knowing that his father, he refused erratic and to his success. habits would not conduce unsystematic
"

his future works in the About this time he was

same

short-sighted

way.

Absolute

freedom
than

Schubert

was of movement to the fish in the water

more

necessary
one

to

!" exclaims

of

his biographers.

Perhaps

also his attraction to the theatre But, poor write an opera. librettos he had ! He himself,
to

stood in his way. His great desire was fellow ! Such wretched

SCHUBERT.

299
that poetical musician his by a placard; and
was

whom
ever

Liszt
was," as

most called "the be inspired could to

judgment
Not
were case

the

merit

of poetry

most

nate. unfortusome

one

of his many

not

heard
"

with

with Schober

till years Alfonso and Estrella,"


at
"

operas after he

was

successful ; died. Such was during


"

the

begun

the
a

castle

of

Ochsenburg
countesses,

visit in where baronesses/'


a

company

with
and time

princess, two
music-loving
autumn

three

other

friends, he of 1821. This

spent
opera

lightfu dewas

in the

twenty-six resurrected by Liszt in Weimar, years later; but not until 1881, with a new libretto in place of the inane and stupid one written by Schober, did it meet with success when given at Karlsruhe. With this opera is connected a curious story concerning Schubert Schubert, like Spohr, could and Weber.
see
no

reason

for

Weber's

popularity.
one
"

He

declared melody.

that
"

"Euryanthe" The
'

not contained " FreischutzJ he said,

original
so

was

tender
in
'

sincere,

it charmed by its liveliness ; but is to be found." little sentiment heard

and anthe' Eury-

Weber

snob Schubert,
score

of his criticism, and exclaimed, learn something before he judgesme."

"

Let

the

of

"

that he knew prove something, " Alfonso and Estrella to Weber, who
to

took

the

glanced
puppies

through and

it, and said slightingly, "I !" the first operas are drowned
was

tell you,
beginning
and and

Such Schubert
masters

not

very

harmonious
and

but
two

was

good-natured
song
to

generous,

the

of romantic

some made Dresden.

attempt

parted have the

amicably,
new

Weber
at

opera

played

Another

bitter disappointment

came

in the

rejection

300
of his
a

SCHUBERT.

more

ambitious
pages of

three-act
beautiful

opera

"

Fierabras"

"

thousand

to a wretched his in months, shows letters signs of low spirits. He speaks of his brightest hopes to naught; broken beyond come of his health " the most repair ; of being unlucky, the most wretched in the world ; " he declares that he goes to sleep man to wake every night hoping never again.

music, He libretto.

written

in four

Schubert
songs

had

been

(dieSckone
hospital.
But

ill: indeed, several of his loveliest had been written in Mullerin

series)

the

in the

summer

of 1824

he

was

with
;

the Esterhazys

again, among
country with fascinating peasantry
was

the Hungarian

mountains

and the wholesome health. he While familiar with the of the Hungarian with He writes
so

life entirely restored his he became the Esterhazys melodies and


so

which

characteristic he reproduced before, second


where he

originality. much felt his isolation even


he had

more

than for
a
"

and time had

his regret that " deep enticed into the


single man with Yet we find him
composing
a

been

Hungarian
whom

land
a

not

to speak

enjoyingwalks

sensible word. Schonwith Baron

splendid piano pieces and songs for in the very bloom of life. now the young countesses May not the complaints which fill his letters be the outcome of that hopeless love for the Countess Caroline ?
stein, and It wasted in playing of money, friends, the Croesus for the benefit of his impecunious for instance, he fed and treated to concerts, as, whom infernally Paganini, Bauernfeld to hear "that taking
" "

reasonable. Kenewed health, plenty

seems

divine fiddler ; " evenings

at Bogner's

Cafe,
streams

on

the

ers' Sing-

Street, where

wine

flowed

in

j mornings

FRANZ

SCHUBERT
OF
A

IN

HUNGARY,
BAND AND

LISTENING TAKING

TO

THE OF

WEIRD
THE

MELODIES MUSIC.

GYPSY

NOTES

SCHUBERT.

301
ing inquirmonths
music,
ease one

devoted

to work

; letters from
; and

about

his terms

distant publishers finally five summer


mixture of

"in a delightful passed with Vogl friends, fine scenery, lovely weather,
and
comfort,"
"

and

of the

happiest

all this went of his life.

to make

absolute the year 1825

What

good
were

spirits he felt
more
numerous

may

be

judged from

his letters, which

than at any other time, and lengthy that summer full of odd rhymes conceits, as well as and quaint common sense. and sound vivid descriptions Early in 1826, in consequence of the death of Salieri, became Chapel the vice kapellmeistership of the Royal
"

vacant.

It bore

free
to

lodgings.

salary of a Schubert applied

thousand
for it.

gulden, and It was given liked


man,

Weigh but

Schubert
since

place,

said : it is given

"

I
to

should such
a

have

that I

worthy

ought He

to be content."

failed also to obtain the post of director at the Theatre, owing, as some Karnthnerthor say, to his obstinacy Schubert's great in refusing to alter his test-piece.
his best friends obstinacy, which even issued This year six publishers not overcome. could fairly well paid a hundred over of Schubert's works, some Often he got only for, others at incredibly low prices.
fault
was

dogged

twenty

cents

apiece
was one was

for his songs."

Schubert
funeral.

of the

torch-bearers

at Beethoven's

This

long worshipped
the The
a

The right and proper. Though him from afar.

younger

had in

they

lived

same

city, Schubert first time he was so

rarely met
confused

with him personally. that he could not write

who cared word on that ever-ready tablet. Beethoven, little for the works was of his contemporaries, pleased Schubert dedicated however with some variations which

302
to him.

SCHUBERT.

On his death-bed

he

songs,
more

and was amazed than five hundred. !" he exclaimed that he had not

Schusome shown of bert's to learn that he had written " Truly he has the divine
was

fire in him

; and

regretting At the last Schubert Beethoven soul." is said

known

he often spoke him sooner.

of him,

to

twice, and visited the dying man have exclaimed, has my "Franz

On
a

the way with

back

from

the funeral, Schubert

went

into

two several friends, and drank glasses of to Beethoven's the other to the one wine ; one memory, He drank to his own that should follow next. spirit. Schubert Once more an outing with congenial

tavern

enjoyed

friends through music


women,

at
a

Gratz,

"
"

excursions

and

picnics

by

day

incessant at night country, and and pretty ; good eating and drinking, clever men fuss, a little romping, a good no thetic piano, a sympaaudience,

beautiful

in the autumn The


next

and no of 1827.

notice taken

of him."

This

was

known "his greatest year he composed his first oratohis greatest and longest mass, rio, symphony, his finest piece of chamber music, three noble piano
concertos,"
"

the

Swan

and a Song."
he

death,

including songs of splendid number ven's In March, the anniversary of Beethogave his first and only public concert.

It consisted wholly of his own and netted compositions, " hundred him over one money and fifty dollars, so that " Most as was of it with him. plenty as blackberries That year he got only thirty to pay his debts. went
florins for piano quintet, E-flat trio.
summer

and

only

twenty-one

for his

splendid When

came

he felt too Gratz.

journeyto

Styrian

a proposed poor to make If he had gone, it might

SCHUBERT.

303

stayed in hot Vienna ; though enjoyeda three-days' walking tour with his he was living in the brother Ferdinand, now with whom Neue They Wieden suburb. old residence visited Haydn's
have
He

saved his life. in October he

did his

at Eisenstadt, and the and grave him He had been ailing for good. return

out-of-door
some
"

life

time.

On

the

bad

and rush of blood he Nevertheless,


his deficiency
by

symptoms to the head.

reappeared,

giddiness

determined

to work

on

study

in which had of Handel's works.


an

been He

brought made

counterpoint, to his notice


to

arrangements

take The

lessons of Sechter,
lessons
were
never

authority on begun. On that he

the the

subject.
eleventh
eaten

of

November,

he wrote

Schober

had

not

for eleven

days.

On

the fourteenth

he took

anything to his

he died. bed ; on Shortly before his the nineteenth death he tried to raise himself up, and with feeble voice " Erlkonig " where death sang that pathetic part of the is mentioned.
was

He

died

fearlessly, peacefully ; his face

calm.

By
and

his
over

own

request
was

he

was

buried
a
"

near

Beethoven,

his grave
to the

erected

monument

bearing buried
a

an

inscription
treasure,

effect that

Music

had

rich

but still fairer hopes." Schubert now and Beethoven


of Vienna.

both

rest

in the

great

Central Cemetery
took place

The

in

September,

1888,

reburial of the former impressive most with

ceremonies.

his sole earthly possessions a few " a quantity at only fifty florins, and old clothes valued " inventoried of old music after his death as worth about ten florins ($2), had to wait a generation before his
who
as
"

He

had left

greatness
to discover

was

Schumann was one realized. of the first the buried treasures of his genius.

S04
Now is by

SCHUBERT.

Schubert
some

stands

Beethoven. Every

as regarded No one finds his

second only to Beethoven, by nature even greater


"

and
than

heavenly

length

"

too Ion g.

is prized. scrap that bears his name " dipped in moonbeams was says Schumann, flame of the sun." Richest in fancy, most
in

His

and

pencil, in the

musical
He himself

creation,

his

only

fault

was

spontaneous lack of proportion.

like gates.

Goethe's
His

predicted harper,
was

that
"

he

should and

creeping

be in his old age begging at the

short like his great unfinished his fecundity that even now and yet such was symphony, is still flowing. the stream of Schubert publications What inspiration he has been to other musicians, may
cut

life

be

in the multitude of transcriptions of his songs, the influence which his style has exerted. Taken certainly the most remarkable all in all, he was
seen

composer who like him, and " the last star

ever

lived.
never

"

There

never

has

been

one

there

that

He was will be another." glittered in the musical firmament

of Vienna."

LOUIS

SPOHR.

(1784-1859.}

POHK,"

says

one

of

who, during a period led German national development,

was a master critics, critical for its individual and

his

"

art with

courage

and

lofty idealism,
from
The of most harm."
career

in the

right

direction, and decided

preserved

it

of Spohr

offers

contrast

to those

of the great he
went.

wherever domestic

relations. long life he died full of of German music. grandfather Hildesheim, where
grew.

He found appreciation musicians. happy He in his was singularly him, and after a Success crowned

honors

"

almost

an

autocrat

His

was

the

in the district of clergyman famous roses ever-blossoming Heinrich,


at

His
at

father,
ran

Karl
away

to

escape of

ment punish-

school,

the

age

sixteen;

after

an
a

adventurous physician
of the

life, succeeded
at Brunswick,

as

in establishing he married where

and, self himthe

daughter
young

pastor

of the

Aegydian

Church.

The

Here Louis, at the parsonage. resided Two born on April 5, 1784. or years later his father became district physician and ultimately Obercouple Ludwig, was
or appellationsgerichtsrat, four brothers where and

judge
a

appeals, at born. sister were


of

Seesen,

305

306
Both

LOUIS

SPOHR.

parents were musical, so that Louis's feeling and love for the art were he was When early awakened. four, a terrific thunderstorm The house grew came up. dark. The rain poured down. The boy sat in a corner

troubled
the deep

and
organ

frightened.
tone
sun

But

soon

of the

thunder

clouds lifted; far in the sounded

the

distance ; the A with light. forth


strange

burst forth, and little bird hanging Spohr's


It
was

the

room

was

flooded

in song, and emotion. This same

young

in the window broke heart was filled with

music. mother.
without that he

His

the awakening of the spirit of year he began to sing duets with his father bought him a which, violin, on
"

instruction, he tried to heard. Soon


after, he

the melodies pick out took lessons from a Mr.

"

Riemenschneider,

With music. for flute, piano, and An emigre, named

evenand was allowed to share in the ing his father and mother he played trios

violin. Dufour,

came

to Seesen

himself by giving supported Under his direction Louis

music
wrote

and
some

in 1790, and lessons. French

together which the two executed friends. His father long preserved

violin duets, to the delight of their these sions, youthful effubad grammar
As
a

which and yet


were

were

naturally full of musical not wholly formless or unmelodious.

reward
a

he

was

presented

crimson jacket with laced boots with tassels.

with a gala-dress, consisting of steel buttons, yellow breeches, and

Dufour,

of

ress, astonished at the lad's ability and rapid proginstead him a musician urged his parents to make to Brunswick, doctor ; and it was decided to send him thorough He
to
a

A he

he might receive more where difficulty stood in the way. confirmed, and

instruction.

was

according

could not go until law in that Duchy

SPOHR.

LOUIS

SPOHR.

307
before the age
over

confirmation could not be granted he was Accordingly, given at Woltershausen. grandfather


old minister his grandson

fourof teen. to the charge of his kindly

The

but

strict

the plan ; but he taught religion and other things, and let him walk throughout the winter twice a week to Alefeld, where the helped him with his music. Halfway precentor stood an he often stopped and played to the miller's old mill, where did not
approve of wife, who At

liked to treat him

to coffee, cake, and

fruit.

Brunswick
and

he

boarded

in

the

family

baker,
Kunisch
Hartung.
"

the violin with studied harmony an ; and named with old organist in his autobioglatter," says Spohr "The raphy, his essays
out
so

of a rich Kammermusicus

corrected

and

scratched

in composition ideas many


to

unmercifully, that to him

so

seemed

sublime, that he further to him." in theory


were

lost all desire

submit
to

thing anyHar-

Lessons
tung's
art

soon

illness.
was

Henceforth left to and


even

in
own

ended, owing this department

of his

Spohr
on

his

guidance.
scores,

By

works write
concert

harmony,

studying appeared

he

reading learned to school

correctly, and with


an

at

Katharine

Shortly

original composition invited to after he was and


an was

for the violin.

take

part

at

some

concerts, subscription his first honorarium as

mightily pleased with artist. He also sang soprano

in the perambulations
town.

of the school

chorus

through

the

best violinist of the Brunswick director Maucourt. him Spohr With


The
a

the orchestra was studied for nearly


of his growing
to Hamburg,

year, until his father, finding the expenses family too great, determined to send him for the purpose there. of giving concerts

308
Provided

LOUIS

SPOHR.

he went with several letters of introduction " full of hopes and high spirits," ready to conquer the But he found that the possession world. of a great
name,

get
was

else of considerable hearing in the big, busy and


most

or

means,

was

necessary

to

summer,

of the

city ; and, moreover, influential people were

it
at

All this he learned of Professor residences. Biisching, the head of the commercial college a youth. where his father had taught when Young Spohr was discouraged so that he packed up
their country

his violin and


returned

sent
on

it back At

to Brunswick,

foot.

first he

was

whither cast down

he himself by the him that

thought

that his enterprising father would reproach for his lack of energy ; then the thought struck him of Brunswick

the Duke

had

once

played

the violin, and waiting for a in person as

would He

perhaps

recognize
wrote

his ability.
a

accordingly

good opportunity, handed he was in the palace park. The Duke read it, walking and asked him a few questions which he answered with He to repair was commanded characteristic readiness.
to the palace at

petition, and, it to the Duke

him addressed him. Spohr "Your


must
a serene

eleven the next in a supercilious


so

morning.
manner,

The

groom

was

indignant
your

that
servant

but announced he burst forth:


insults
me.

Highness,

protest earnestly " way ! The

against

being

addressed

in such

Duke

was

greatly amused,

and

assured

him

that

the groom should not offend again. It was arranged for Spohr to play at the next concert in the Duchess's The Duchess was more apartments. fond of ombre than of music ; and usually at her concerts a thick carpet was spread to deaden the sound, and

LOUIS

SPOHR.

309

bidden the orchestra were This time, however, cards


himself
was

to
were

play as softly as possible. banished, and the Duke that his fate depended
on patted him talent ; I will take

Spohr
on

present. played his best, knowing he

it.

After

had

finished, the Duke


"

the
care

shoulder,

and

said,

You

have

of you." in August, Thus

1799,

he

was

musicus,

and
his

the

theatre.
own

a salary of a with duty of playing at court concerts and at the to pay From that time forth he was enabled Ferdinand to help his brother way, and even

kammerappointed hundred thalers a year

obtain a musical education. kept watch over The Duke


present
some new

at the concerts

when time

his progress and he was announced


when the Duke
was

was

often
to

play ent, pres-

work. the game

One

not

in full swing, he tried a was of ombre new and forgot the Duchess's of his own, violin concerto he was the greatest While with playing prohibition. and

and whispered arrested his arm zeal, a lackey suddenly " to order you not to scrape away Her Grace sends me
so

furiously." Spohr

played
a

louder

than

ever,

which

receiving
to

from the court rebuke laughed the Duke, who

resulted in his He complained marshal. heartily and then day


he

asked
would

him

which
as a

of the

great

prefer

teacher.

violinists of the immediately Spohr

named

Viotti, called
who
was

"the

father

then

living

violin playing," modern had disin London. Viotti, who covered


of

that the English


wrote
not

liked

wine
a

better merchant

than

music, could

back
receive
next

that any

he

had

become

and

pupils.
was

The

application

made

to Ferdinand

Eck

of

310
Paris ; but
married
of who Eck
a

LOUIS

SPOHB.

he

too

refused

to

take

any

the
was
came

with rich countess He land. suggested then


to

he whom his brother, Francis through

pupils, having lived on the fat


Eck,

travelling

Germany.
at court
; and

Francis it
was

Brunswick, Spohr
for
to
a

played
accompany

arranged
tour
as
a

for

him Duke

pupil

year,

the

his artistic for the paying


on

instruction They

and half of the travelling expenses. St. Petersburg set forth in April, 1802, and reached

toward autobiography

the

Spohr's diary and end of December. give interesting pictures of their journey
he

and adventures. At Hamburg,

lost his heart

to

Liitgens, who, though only thirteen, was She had curly hair, bright brown eyes, and a dazzling divided beSpohr, whose tween allegiance was neck. white

Miss charming a born coquette.

likeness of painting and music, took a miniature her ; but her coquetry for him spoiled all the pleasure of her acquaintance. At

Strelitz, where

they

spent

the

summer,

assiduously with Their relations

Eck,
were

rather than teacher his first violin concerto.

who took great pains those of friends and comrades, Here Spohr finished and scholar.
During
an

he worked with him.

Eck, young
women,

Spohr

became
a
a

real character.

who for It was

acquainted time deceived romantic

illness which overtook with two beautiful him


as

to

their

and
any

rather

pathetic
consequences.

adventure,
Spohr,

though

it ended

without

serious

and the

attractive to extremely constitution, was kept under feelings, though fair sex, and his own He says himself, easily excited. excellent control? were

who herculean

was

handsome

man

of gigantic

frame

LOUIS

SPOHR.

311

"The

young
to

artist from his earliest youth was female beauty, and already when

very susceptible he a boy

fell in love with every pretty woman." in At Mitava, Spohr played for the first time in his place. Eck of his teacher, and presence requested Beethoven's
to

the
was

accompany
violin
sonatas

young
;

but,

pianist in being not

one a

of

ready

reader, refused. Spohr offered to take the part, and his skill at sightin good They at stood him service. stayed reading Mitava had then the opportill December, tunity and Spohr
pieces of hearing for the first time many of the masterof Mozart and Beethoven. journeyfrom Narva, where the governor detained
to play at
an

The them

party, to Petersburg, occupied The between the contrast six days and five nights. magnificent city in all its winter gayety, and the sordid huts which they had seen on their long and monotonous
evening

journey, greatly
At
was

impressed Eck
so

him.

Petersburg, engaged
as

the Empress that he pleased solo violinist in the Imperial Orchestra, rubles.

salary of thirty-five hundred the acquaintance of all the famous


at
a

Spohr

made

the

Irishman

John
were

Field

and

musicians, including the Italian Clementi


"

who at that time Russian capital.

reaping

golden

harvest

at

the

He the each by

heard
forty

violinist Titz, and had orchestra, who played


exactness
an

crazy also the strange, hornists of the Imperial


one
"

overture

only Gluck

note

to

blow.

They

have which would instruments." Spohr adds :


was
more

a with been hard

and rapidity for stringed of the


it must
overture

"

The

adagio

effective
to

than

the allegro, for


such

be

always

unnatural

execute

quick

passages

with

312

LOUIS

SPOHE.

these living organ pipes, and one could not help thinkhave received." of the thrashings which they must .ng " At a performance Seasons " the orchestra of Haydn's Spohr was consisted of seventy violins. present during it was the festivities of carnival, " the mad as week ing mountains called. He describes the snow and the break"

Petersalso in burg ing the foundat the time of the jubilee commemorating of the city by Peter the Great. up of the
was

ice in the Neva.

He

In

June,
he
was

Spohr

took

leave
never

of
to

his
see

beloved
again, and

teacher,
in company

whom

destined

Leveque, the director of an with orchestra of Russian to a serfs belonging noble, set sail for Lttbeck. They were greatly buffeted by contrary winds, and the lasted three weeks. trying voyage

Shortly the

after his return,

he played

at

concert
was so

before
overwhelmed

Duke

and

numerous

as

one

with applause days of the happiest first violin with an


thalers.

audience, and that he remembered


of

it always He
was

his life.

appointed
two

addition

salary for

of

hundred
In

January, friend
as

1804,

Spohr
intending

started
give Gottingen from
to

Paris

his Just
that

Bencke,
were

concerts

with there.

they

his trunk
It

had

entering been stolen


not
a

he the

discovered
back

carriage.

clothes and but most precious one of his which


Petersburg. police found Only the bow
case.

contained linen, and

only

his

of the his manuscripts,

sum of money, considerable Guarnerius of all a splendid violin, had to him in presented admirers

It
an

was

never

recovered.
trunk and

The

next

day
a

the

empty remained,

violin-case in clinging to the cover

field.

of the

LOUIS

SPOHR.

313
he

Imagine philosophic
of
an

Spohr's

despair

!
He

But

was
a

disposition.

borrowed

and of a sunny Stainer violin outside


of

and acquaintance, The Brunswick. story

gave

his first concert

of the

the

hall, and

he

had

to fill lost violin helped he was success ; but excellent

Not even the obliged to give up the "artistic tour." best violin in Brunswick, munificence which the Duke's him to purchase, could take the place of the enabled
which he had lost. he started on tour through a new The autumn next At Leipzig, he selected one Germany. of Beethoven's to play at a private party ; but the music new quartets Before he left was altogether too fine for the audience.
perfect

instrument

town,

however,

he

was

enabled

to

make

the

Beethoven

quartets

His

and popular. really understood at Leipzig concerts established

throughout

Germany.

The

Councillor
Herr
most

reputation Rochlitz wrote


might

his

in his

musical rank

journalthat
among the

Spohr eminent

less doubt-

take
the At then day.

violinists of Meyerbeer,

Berlin,

Spohr

first heard

the

young

exciting so much attention only thirteen, who was Spohr by his wonderful on the pianoforte. execution had meantime lost his heart again to the beautiful Rosa had sung in several of his concerts Alberghi, who and
even more

accompanied
than

to Berlin. with her mother his passion ; but though, reciprocated

him

Rosa
as

he

said, "she

was

an

by
neglected,

nature,"

amiable, unspoiled had her education bigoted


He

and

her

devotion

to

dowed girl, richly enbeen somewhat her own church

began
and

to repel him.

when

they himself

bade
that

schooled

avoided a declaration, so each other farewell, he had he did not lose his self-control,
therefore

314
Rosa pressed
upon

LOUIS

SPOHR.

while and

burst
into

into tears, flung

herself

into his

arms,

his

hands thread

card

worked
tresses.

it with

made

with the letter R black of her raven

When days the with


young

Rosa

with Spohr's

her

mother

afterwards

parents,

and

that the musician, they took betrothed, and were two were at Spohr's very indignant it. His father declared he was letter denying a fool to refuse such a charming girl. She afterwards entered a convent. invited In June, 1805, Spohr was
a

confessed it for granted

spent a few her love for

to

Gotha

concert

playing intendant,

musical and the Duchess, that in spite of his youth, he director to the Ducal immediately was concert appointed Court with a salary of about five hundred thalers.
most opened auspiciously, where his engagement he became acquainted with the charming Dorette Scheidler, who was the harp and a skilled performer on

in celebration of the Duchess's delighted Baron Leibnitz, von so

play at birthday. His


the

to

At

Gotha,

She also played the violin, but Spohr was oldpiano. fashioned in his notions, and considered it an instrument for women. She therefore relinquished the unbecoming for for her a concerted sonata practice of it. He wrote
" They violin and harp, which they practised together. hours," writes Spohr. happy One day after they were had played it before the court, and were driving home,

he

found

courage
"

to

say,

"

Shall

we

not

thus

play

together

for life ?

She burst into tears led her


to

and
who

sank

into his them

arms.

Then

he in

her

mother,

gave

her

blessing

the proper and conventional manner. in the Palace They were married

Chapel,

and

thus

LOUIS

SPOHR.

315
lasted for

began
almost The with
almost
success.

happy

and

congenial

union

which

thirty years. principal


the
concert

events
tours

of

this period
they

were

connected together

which

undertook

every

year, everywhere Thus in 1812, the same

his sacred oratorio, "The in 1816 Vienna; to Leipzig, Prague, they went and to Italy where they spent visited Switzerland, and went their first journeyto ; in 1820 they made months many

meeting with brilliant posed year in which he comLast Judgment," they

and Mrs. Spohr played for the last time upon From that time forth she devoted herself to the harp.

England,

the piano-forte. In 1813 Spohr


a

was

induced

three-years' engagement in the theatre orchestra


more

Palffy to accept as leader and director of the der Wien," "An at a salary both
he and

by Count

his wife received he was Through the Count's munificence enat Gotha. abled his orchestra to engage excellent artists, and soon if not in Germany. was regarded as the best in Vienna
than

three times

what

This

position gave

him
an

also opportunity opera,


"

to carry

out

his had

ambition

of writing times young

task

which

he

already several The his ideal.


to furnish

but without attempted, satisfying Korner, had agreed poet, Theodor


a

him

with

libretto, but

by
fight and

sudden to die for his country,

Kb'rner's

this plan from departure the victim

was

rupted interto

Vienna

of patriotism

love. and unrequited A poet by the name offered him a version of Bernard " Faust," and Spohr composed the music in less than of four months. It was immediately by Count accepted Palffy, but owing to later disagreements was not duced proin Vienna
for
some

years.

It afterwards

became

316

LOUIS

SPOHR.

but is now Germany, popular throughout having been superseded by Gounod's more One of Spohr's great admirers, Herr von struck
a

seldom

given,

poetic work. Tost, immediately

to last curious bargain with him which was for three years. Herr Tost was anxious to be admitted

to

He to pay musical society of Vienna. agreed Spohr thirty ducats for the exclusive possession of any for more new quartet, and proportional sums complicated

the

were pieces. At the end of the three years the manuscripts to be returned to the composer. Spohr was thus enabled to get considerable ready money and furnish his new

house

Herr Tost was von soon s^en and in Vienna everywhere with his portfolio of quartets. he soon lost his money, and the arrangeUnfortunately ment
came

luxuriously,

to

an

end. stay in Vienna

acquainted with Beethoven, who often visited at his house, and was " Spohr very friendly with Dorette and the children." so says that his opinions music were regarding always decided
was as
"

During

Spohr's

he

became

to admit

of
was

he

Fifth form
as
so
a

earlier compositions, the unable to relish his later works, including even " Symphony, did not (C-minor) which he declared

the poor

of deaf

no

contradiction.
"

Fond

as

Spohr

maestro's

classic whole." trivial that he

The

Ninth

Symphony understand

genius could have Count Palffy proved to be a disagreeable threw all sorts of difficulties and annoyances way,
so

could not written it !

he regarded how such a

patron, and in Spohr's

second Vienna
during

his engagement at the end of the during his stay in One of his experiences year. he relates vividly in his autobiography. It was His house the great inundation was of 1814.
on

he terminated

situated

the banks

of the Wien

Kiver,

and

the water

if
0.
C4

LOUIS

SPOHR.

317
He

rose

almost

to

the

second

story.

spent

the

night

to the piano. a song, went and occasionally composing in His landlord's family were on the floor above engaged disturbed they called at what much prayer, and were

"the

Christless

heretic ! "

the world The summer spent


It
was

singing of the Lutheran and playing Yet both Catholic and heretic escaped, and was richer by a song ! following
his

departure

from
von

Vienna,

he

in Silesia at the
a

mansion

of Prince

Carolath.
when masonry Free-

very

formal
was

the Prince, who


was

pleasant devoted Free

but

existence, and Mason, though

then
to

against the

the law, discovered

that Spohr him

also belonged

order, he

almost

embarrassed

with attentions. Spohr describes his Italian tour with much enthusiasm, though he found little to praise in the domain of music.

wizard of the violin, the He Paganini. tried in vain to strange and mysterious induce him to play to him alone. Paganini ing refused, sayhis style was calculated for the general public only,
met

At

Venice

he

the

famous

which
was a

confirmed
trickster.

1816, and Spohr played in a concert

the other in But they met in a public competition himself Spohr carried off the honors.
at Milan,

Spohr

in his impression

that

and

was

hailed

the first of living violinists, even " himself, the first of singers
"

superior
on

of to Paganini

as

one

Spohr's
whole
and Rome

expenses

in Italy

were

the violin." large, as he

had

his

family
moreover

with
they

him,

illnesses, and they had frequent in many At indulged excursions.

he

gave

concert

necessities ; but when of 1817 their funds were the first time

relieved their pressing in the spring they reached Geneva


which exhausted, and for himself compelled

completely in his life Spohr found

318

LOUIS

SPOHR.

to

pawn
came

some

to
even

Pastor howGerlach, ever, of his valuables. his aid, and he advanced what money

needed,

and

tiara presented These meagre


not

last long.

of Bavaria. days, caused by the prevailing famine, did Their tour took them into Holland, even they by
reached
an

refused to take as to his wife by the

security

diamond

Queen

where they Amsterdam,


to become
was

When abundant receipts. Spohr was recalled to Germany director of music at Frankfurt.
a

had

offer there

Here

unfortunately for which


success.

to practise economy,
"

Faust,"

yearly deficit, and the directors had but Spohr succeeded in getting his he wrote a new out aria, brought He
one

with

and which Weber


"

good Azor," he
was

also wrote
on
"

and

began

The

his opera " Zelmira Huntsman," Black he found Yet


that
the

generously engaged " did not

abandoned
on

when
same

the

subject.

Freischutz

appear

till 1820.
the
two

Spohr's brought and

connection with to a close in about

Frankfurt

theatre

was

closeness of the president Leers, who put all sorts named Spohr was immediately not sorry to be free again, and he was to go to London, arrangements made where for the concerts already engaged of the Philharmonic

years, by the obstinacy of directors, a merchant of obstacles in his way.

Society.
In

London,

boisterous
appearing

he which passage, Spohr


a

reached
created
a

after
great

an

extremely

in the street in
of

after the death

George

red waistcoat. III., and a general He

by sensation It was shortly


mourning
a

had

been officiallyordered. from the street Arabs.

narrowly

escaped

ing pelt-

At

the

first concert
own

he

was

exceptionally
He

allowed ordeal

to

play his

compositions.

passed

the

tri-

LOUIS

SPOHR.

319
he

At umphantly. to direct, and he time with a baton


as

subsequent created instead the

concert

was

had

hitherto

been

another sensation of leading with violin in hand, During case. this visit Spohr in England,

required by beating

laid the foundation


was

for his popularity

which

by every subsequent visit. On his way back he made a the trip to Paris, where famous (now remembered violinist Kreutzer only by the increased
Beethoven
vogue months'
a

fact that

dedicated
as a

sonata

to

him!)

was

enjoying great
During his two and though,
on

composer of visit Spohr played


was

ballet music. in private, much

gave

account

public concert which on of his standing

successful, his dignity, and

day refusing to solicit good notices, the press the next inclined to be critical. was In order to complete the musical education of his
daughters, he
was

Spohr

determined

to

remove

to Dresden

; but

before Carl scarcely settled in his new apartments Maria von Weber, who had received an offer to go to Cassel as kapellmeister to theatre, and did not care at the new
accept curious
were

it, offered to recommend


to remember

him State

in his place.
revenues

It is

that

the

of Cassel

largely the result of the sale of the Hessian to the British during our Revolutionary War !
Thus Elector thalers it
was

soldiers

that

Spohr
a

became

engaged
of

by the
two

new

William and
new

II., at

life salary

thousand

The

1822, and

artistic privileges. began on the first day of January, engagement with continued unbroken activity till he was
of Hesse-Cassel

certain

pensioned off by the Elector 1857.


For the in
court

in November,

theatre
"The

he

wrote

his

operas

sonda"

1823,

Mountain

Sprite"

of in

"

Jes1825,

320
"Pietro
von

LOUIS

SPOHR.

Albano"

in 1827,

"The

Alchymist"
"

(from
ders Crusaciety the So-

the story by Washington " He was in 1844.

1830, and his instrumental in founding

in Irving)

was

of St. Cecilia, of which the song-writer Curschman For this society, though one of the leading lights. of Leipzig "The

at the invitation of Rochlitz

text,

Spohr

wrote

his

oratorio

who sent him the Last Judgment," the earlier oratorio Good Friday, 1826, of
over

which
on

afterwards
same

the

subject.
success,

entirely supplanted It was sung on before


an

with

great

audience

two

thousand

persons,

Rhenish

it was at the shortly after given and festival at Diisseldorf, where it had to be repeated

In February,

1831, Spohr
music

with

interesting

celebrated his silver wedding in a new music-room performed


his

he had which Gate. Cologne


treatise
on

built The

on

same

suburban place he finished year

near

the
great

his

the study of the violin (Die Violin- Schule}, " insure by which it was thought at the time he would and beautiful leaf to the eternal celebrity and add a new

laurel wreath that encircled his brow." The following year began a series of petty annoyances by the new Elector of Hesse-Cassel, who at first tried to
close the theatre and dismiss all the singers, actors, and Spohr insisted on his rights, and in this he musicians.
was

supported

by most their

in maintaining
seemed
to

of his colleagues and Prince The position.

succeeded

take

pleasure

utterly refused his application when These were England.


In

and

in opposing leave to give him


was
mere

afterward Spohr's interests,


of

indorsed

even absence by the royal house of

1834

Mrs.

Spohr

while

he still thought

however. minor annoyances, died; but the gallant composer, " with bitter sadness of the mo-

LOUIS

SPOI1

R.

321

ment

when

he pressed

the last kiss

on

her brow,"

within

two

Marianne, daughter the eldest of years married Councillor Pfeiffer of Cassel, who proved to be a partner " one capable of taking an interest such as he desired
"

in his musical ill-will owing

labors."
to the

The

Prince,

who

bore

Pfeiffer

sian part he had played in the first Hestried to interfere with the marriage, and parliament, at the same at the last moment, only gave his consent her to give a bond waiving time requiring all claim to a

pension. The year


great

music

he proposed to marriage festival at Cassel, and perform among


after

his

give

things oratorio

Mendelssohn's
of "The

oratorio of Last

"

St. Paul

"

and

other his own

Judgment."

After

nearly

all

made, the Prince refused to allow it to take place during Whitsuntide, nor would he permit " it would as any scaffolding to be erected in the church, in the vicinity of the burial-vaults of the be unbecoming
arrangements

had

been

Electoral
Neither

family

!"
"

he permit would for the benefit of Whitsunday


the had whole scheme

St. Paul

"

to

relief fund. Afterwards, fell through.


a

given on Consequently
he when Music "

be

" Passion the choruses practised of Bach's for long months, on and had it all ready for performance Friday, the Prince Good again refused his permission,

and music He

yielded
was was
"

a when clergyman certified that the perfectly fitted for the church and the day."

only

by such vexations annoyed almost decided to accept an appointment director of the Prague Conservatory.
so

as

these

that he

offered Owing

him
to

as

his

wife's grief at leaving

her friends, he resisted the

tation. temp-

Strange

as

it may

seem,

Spohr

was

at first a

great

ad-

322

LOUIS

SPOHR.

his side, was delighted on and Wagner, of Wagner, " he called him. the honorable, genuine as old man," with He brought out "The Flying Dutchman," and wrote that mirer he considered Wagner
of

composers

thought
He

of

Wagner's
was
new

matic gifted of all the drahe would What have the day." later innovations, is a question. the
most
a

"

himself

liked to try

certain extent inventions and give


own

to

an

innovator,

and

odd

titles, though

disguise his he could never Schumann, Robert speaking " Napoleon Symphony, said : but before folded
peror !
so,

of
once

musical physiognomy. his so-called Historic


went
a

to

masked
moments,

ball,
he
Ein-

he
arms

had

been

in the

room

few

his

The

' in his well-known The attitude. Emperor ! ' ran through the assembly.

Just

through
'

the

disguises
! Spohr

of

the

hearing
room."

Spohr

!' spoken

kept one symphony, in every corner of the


his conduct the Norwich

In
new

1843

Spohr

was

invited to England

to

Fall of Babylon," at oratorio "The in spite of the festival. The Prince refused his consent Aberdeen bridge, and the Duke of Camapplication of Lord

habitan asked it as a personal favor, while the inDuring sent an immense of Norwich petition. his vacation, however, he went to London, and conducted who

it there

with

great

success.

The
seats

whole
to

spontaneously the Belgians

from

their

audience salute him.

rose

The
of

Queen received him, and Prince Albert and the King


were

At a Sunday concert very polite to him. by were given in his honor, all the works performed him, and included his three double quartets, the only
"

ones

at that time

that had

ever

been

written.

In 1844, Spohr,

honors

who had been the recipient at Paris and at his native town

distinof guished of Bruns-

LOUIS

SPOHR.

323

his " Fall of Babylon " in the conducted he had been baptized sixty years before), church in which York festival in New invited to a great musical was

wick

(where he

City.

His

daughter
he would too long

Emily have and

had been

already
to

come

to

this

country,

and

journey was
age.

glad hazardous

accept, but the for a man of his

twenty-fifth the of anniversary occurred Spohr's directorship of the Cassel theatre, and the day festivities : serenades, was celebrated with extraordinary
.

In

1847

and the performances, addresses, musical of laurel crowns and costly gifts.1 Even presentation the Prince who had justforbidden him to direct his oratorio
congratulatory
at

Vienna,

though gave

the
a

by Metternich,

him

countersigned request was higher officialposition. occurred, and festival in which the St.
by choruses Hauptmann,
death

The

same

year

Mendelssohn's
it by twelve
a

commemorated Cecilia Society sang


Bach, Handel, Haydn,

Spohr

characteristic Mozart, Beethoven,

Mendelssohn,
The
year

and 1848,

Spohr.
as

every

one

knows,

excitement.

Spohr

full of lutionary revofelt its influence. The


was

not favorable for composition, of politics was excitement " the glorious yet he wrote his great sextet significant of eur uprising of the nations, for the liberty, unity, and grand-

from a year, during his convalescence his ninth symphony, fall on severe the ice, he wrote " Seasons," and later his seventh string-quintet. called the In the summer his vacation of 1852 he started on
tour
*

of Germany." The following

through
This occasion

Italy
gave 1838.

without
rise
to

leave
Spohr's

of

absence.
which

He
he

autobiography,

brought

down

to

324

LOUIS

SPOHR.

his vacation but was over arrived at Cassel before " fined five hundred was the bold and fifty thalers for him so stroke," on which his friends had congratulated warmly. Spohr's
now

Such
fame

was

the

treatment

which

man

of

received from a petty prince who is known only for having had Spohr in his employ. In 1856 Spohr wrote his thirty-fourth and thirty-fifth

not quartets, but they did not satisfy him, and he would to be published ; it was the same allow them with a new to him of his repusymphony, which seemed unworthy tation.

year that Spohr was and retired to pensioned, his to fall and break private life,he had the misfortune left arm. Though the bone knit remarkably well, he had Stradivarius, and strength to play his beloved it was He tried in vain to compose laid aside forever. The fountain of harmony was a requiem. sealed to him,
no

The

more

in composing of Goethe's music to one his last composition. This was instruction of talHe kept up to the end his generous ented pupils, for which, like Liszt later, he would young hundred No less than one and receive no compensation.
but he succeeded loveliest songs.

eighty-seven pupils, called him master.


Toward

many

of

whom

became

famous,

the

end

of his life he

still undertook

short

trips, and enjoyed as always natural scenery and the friendly intercourse with kindred spirits ; but he began for him. to find the excitement too much

On
soul,"

the
as

twenty-second he
has

of October, called, quietly

1859, this "elegiac


breathed
to whom

been

his last,
he had

surrounded been such


Few
men

by his children and loving friend.


were
ever
more

nephews

honored

in life, few

more

LOUIS

SPOHR.

325

He found successful in all that they undertook. for every form of musical composition:

ciation appresongs,

stringed
was one

and

concerted

music,

operas, and
ever

of the greatest of
more

virtuosi that

oratorios. lived. He

He
was

member his fame


and they have

reached

But thirty musical societies. Melodious lifetime. its climax in his own

than

graceful, as his compositions They not the strength of immortality.


clear, sweet,

were,
are

too

full of restless enharmonic

changes,

they

show

more

ent tal-

are already forgotten. of them genius, and most Some beyond Personally, his character was reproach. coarse and churlish people got the impression that he was in his manners. Chorley, an English critic,speaks of his

than

"

bovine

was reproach more self-conceit." Never unjust. his life in he he, So independent never that was all
one

dedicated
one

he

occasion had to appear it was

to a of his compositions when, being invited to some

prince ; and on court festivity,


a

in full dress, he
so as

wore

heavy

overcoat

though
on

hot weather,

not

to display the orders

honesty, were uprightness, fail to agree with the We his characteristics. cannot of his death who at the news words of Wagner, eloquent his coat.

Independence,

wrote
"

"

I let the whole

world

of music

measure

what
the the
was

freshness
master's

of power,
departure

what

from

noble life.

He

vanished productiveness, impressed has ever me


musicians, whose who

with
as

last of that immediately

long

list

of noble,

earnest

youth with

irradi

ated

by Mozart's

brilliant

sun,

touching

fidelity cherished
the pure
on

the light put

into their hands, it against

like vestal virgins guarding and


the tempests
man

flame, and
chaste

kept

all the storms service kept in


me,

of life and

the

altar.

This

beautiful
me

pure

and

if it be permitted

to express

one

stroke I declare

what
that

noble ; Spohr with


he
was
was an

inextinguishable
earnest,

clearness
master

meant

to

honest

in his art; the keynote

of his life

faith

326

LOUIS

SPOHR.

in his art, and

his deepest inspiration faith freed


him

faith.
what

This

earnest

sprang from the power of this from all personal pettiness;


one

he failed to comprehend,
persecuting it.
to

he put to

side without
or

attacking
so

it

or

This

explains he

the

coolness
"

bluntness
a

often

ascribed

him.

What

understood,
to be

and

deep

fine

beautiful was feeling for all that was ' that he loved and of Jessonda,'
"

expected

in the

author

so

soon

as

he recognized

one

prized candidly thing in it; earnestness,

and

jealously,

ment serious treat-

of art."

such beautiful words hail and farewell.

With

one

master

bids

another

MEYERBEER.
(1791

[4 ?}-1863.)

CCOKDING
Tubal many when
near

to

the

Sunday-school

-"jkas
were

Cain

was

the
sweet

question-books, first musician ; but, famous


singers of

of the

Israel, from
on

the the

time

the captive

Hebrews

hung

their harps

willows

the waters Jew has

of Babylon

down

to the present

century,
modern With
on

the

been

an

unknown

quantity

in the

history

of music.

good reason, the willows.

indeed, he left his harp


He

ing still hangmake music

had

little cause

to

for the world. But with the

entrance

factor into politics and


was

of the Jew finance, a change


was

as

an

important

came

discovered
:
"

that there

some

reason

It about. in Shylock's

questions
"

Hath

not

Jew

eyes ?

Hath
?

not

Jew
with

hands,
the

senses,

affections, passions
weapons,

Fed
the

sions, organs, dimenfood, hurt same by the


summer

with
same as us, a

the

same

subject to
cooled prick
us,

same same

diseases, healed

and warmed Christian is ? If you

means,

by the do
us,

winter

and

we

not
we

bleed ? if you
not

tickle

do

we

not

laugh

? if you

poison

do

die ?

"

The

Jew

grew

the nobility ; once of the Pharaohs

rich, became again Daniel


as

banker,
stood

was

behind
to the

raised into the throne


What

prime

minister
327

king.

328

MEYERBEER.

the warming sun of prosperity and social recognition, the Jew should again strike up the " harp of his father David ? Was liberty, equality, not
wonder that

under

fraternity,"
at

the watchword

of the

day

And

the Jew

admitted, grudgingly perhaps privileges of the Revolution. how typical of the modern Yet Jew
as
we

last

was

still,into the Meyerbeer

was

see

him

born

successively
a

Gaul

of the Gauls Beer Liebmann Jakob

a German, formed and educated and transinto an Italian of the Italians, and ! was

born at Berlin,

on

the fifth

His the year of Mozart's death.1 father laid the foundation of a large fortune in a sugarit by enand notably increased refining establishment, gaging
of

September,

1791

"

in banking. his house


was a

He

was

generous

of fine culture, and for poets, commeeting-ground posers,


a man

His

artists, and scientists. daughter Wulf, mother, Amalie

of

the

so-called

beautiful, gentle, and gracious. of Berlin, was Heinrich Heine, the sarcastic, scoffing poet, said of her : " Kot a day passes without her helping some poor soul.

Croesus

Verily
had

it

seems

as
some

first done

if she could not noble deed.

go to bed

So
"

gifts on people of all denominations, Turks, and even on the wretchedest in well-doing, and She is unwearied this as her highest vocation.-*'

she Jews,

unless she lavishes her

Christians,

sorts of unbelievers.
seems

to look

upon

Jakob
1

was

the
to

oldest

son.

There

were

three

others

Afterwards,
name names

the
two

Meyer

for

Jakob,

please a relative, and insure an inheritance, he adopted Lipmann, or instead of Liebmann and ultimately united the to the world, he is known by which into the one with the Italian date of his birth rests in The James, Meyerbeer. Giacomo or
is official basis
1794. for 1791 ; but
some

doubt.
that

There
was

of his later biographers

claim

it

really

MEYERBEER.

Painting

from

Jife by

Gustav

Richter.

MEYERBEER.

329
; Michael's

Wilhelm
as

became
was

famous short

astronomer

career

poet

cut

Jakob
would

very catch

early
any

by his untimely his talent showed

death
for

in 1833.
He

music.
on

piano, making his left hand. band

and try to play it again up instinctively an accompaniment he was four, he organized When
tune,

the
with

little
ple Peo-

of playmates
were

with
to
see

drums,
how

fifes, and

cymbals.

amazed

cleverly

sheet

score.

of paper on which His were parents

he had

he conducted from scratched an imaginary

delighted;
to

and

when

he

was

five

they

intrusted
composer

him

teacher he made

and

Franz

well-known Ignaz Lauska,

the

Bohemian

under

played
which

he was When astonishing progress. for the first time in public in one of the concerts for many August years the piano teacher Johann
had

whom nine he

Patzig

been

in the habit of giving


of the

in his beautiful
masters.

hall decorated

boy
success.

played

portraits Mozart's D-minor


that

with

old Concerto

The

with
as

brilliant
the

From

time

he

was

regarded

best

His relations were justlyproud of pianist in Berlin. him, and one one of them remarked night, on returning from a lecture on astronomy,
"

"

Just

think,

our

Beer

has been

already

placed
us one

among

Our professor showed the constellations. " in his honor was called the littleBeer !
His painted he was
parents
as
a

which

had

full-length
of
a

memorial in demand as
The

the

portrait of the boy The next occasion. year pianist, and


won

concert

great

applause. honor, and


organ

in his papers of the day printed poems Vogler, who had been giving some the Abbe his way back from tour to a recitals in Berlin on
heard
\vas

Denmark,

him

play

at Tausch's

concert,

in February, the

1801,

amazed,

and

predicted

that

young

330

MEYERBEER.

become This prophecy a great musician. artist would in Berlin. had great weight he practised seven Though or not negeight hours a day, his general education was lected.
A Latin.
In

resident tutor
famous

taught

him

French,

Italian, and

1802

the

Muzio
and
so

dementi,
many

author

Gradus

ad Parnassum

studies

of the that it was established

jokinglyasserted,
to count to

recently, that the commission had not yet reached them the
with
on

end

of

them,

came

Berlin Field,

Irishman
were

John

his pupil, the gifted young to Kussia. They their way

had given up teaching, but he was delighted with so the little musician that he offered to instruct him during his stay. in harmony His teacher the stern was and strict
guests
at the Beers'.

Clementi

Zelter, the friend

and

had

singing-school
thus

Zelter correspondent of Goethe. and his brother Hemwhich Jakob

rich attended,

coarse

of song. in his treatment after Anselm

pieces gaining familiarity with the mastertoo rough and But it is said Zelter was
of the delicately organized
young
care an

genius, who of Bernard

some

time

was

transferred

to the

Weber,

the

royal

kapellmeister,

but an easy-going, negligent teacher. excellent composer him Meyerbeer Under a of cantatas number composed and other pieces for family festivals, but they are all
lost. Musical
test

knowledge

is based

on

counterpoint.
correct

The
fugues.

of counterpoint Kapellmeister Weber

is ability to write
was so

brought It
was

him

his pupil, long before an answer Abbe,


not content

by

fugue a with pleased that he sent it to Vogler.


came,

but

not

from

neglect.

The

with

merely

acknowledging
a

the

production, took

time

and

pains to write

treatise

MEYERBEER.

331

on

fugues

work,

in general. he analyzed Meyerbeer's Then it to pieces ruthlessly. Finally he took picking

it should the fugue as original themes, and wrote be, or as he thought it should be. The treatise was lished pubafter his death, but unfortunately critics discover " is not so very far Fugue that the so-called " Master's
the superior
to the

Meyerbeer

scholar's. was not discouraged.


a new

Adopting

Vogler's
it to him.

principles, he wrote This was the Abbe's


you
a

fugue,

and

sent
"

great

grandiloquent future. Come to me


as
a

Art opens to reply : You at Darmstadt.


the very

shall
you

be treated

son,

and

at

fountain-head

shall quench

your

thirst for musical

knowledge."

His family could not resist this appeal. them, and at the age at first,but he persuaded objected he became to Darmstadt, an went of nineteen where inmate
of the Abbe

Meyerbeer

Vogler's
hitherto

house. been
a

Vogler, who
firmament
of
men,

had

sort of

meteor

in the

of art, darting

and

dazzling

about Europe to the amazement them by his brilliant though ficial super-

qualities, had at last, at the age of fifty-eight, settled down as the bright particular planet in the musicloving court of the Elector Karl Theodor, who paid him
a

handsome

salary, gave

him

title, and

put

him

over

his newly He was

organized
a man

books, concocted
strove
"

chapel. in all sorts of arts, wrote who dabbled systems, invented instruments,1 always
It has been said of him
that he

after originality.
a

was

modern

spirit who

eighteenth-century
too early and
1

too

wig." late. Though


beautiful
poem

unfortunately still wore In other words, he was

the

born

he
"

is generally
Abt Vogler,"

looked
has

Read

Browning's

entitled instrument

after he

been

extemporizing

upon

the musical

of his invention.

332
down high

MEYERBEER.

upon

as

opinion honorable character,


young It
two
more

typical musical charlatan, Weber had a development, his of his rare psychical
the most of and his skill in making and fully intended to write his life. greatest glory that he had as pupils exclaimed have been if I He

composers,
was

Vogler's
men

had

and Meyerbeer. Oh, how sorry I should than once, died before I formed these two ! "
such
as
"

Weber

Meyerbeer

found

Weber

already

firm friends. and they became Vogler, Weber and his friend Gansbacher by. During near the day the abbe made

studying Meyerbeer

with Vogler, lodged with

had them

rooms

work

practice

on

the

organ

and

piano, and
of
some

composition,

frequent
up

cantatas

rigorous exercises in fugues, corrected and

criticised, made
met at two
mass,

the they

round
spent

their time

duties.

They
on

then

improvising
were

the

chapel

organs.

Their they

evenings

devoted

to music.

Occasionally

made

Heidelberg. and feasts at Meyerbeer's rooms, when


to

Mannheim

together excursions Often they had jolly


a

box

would

from

his Berlin

home

containing

Russian

arrive caviar, Pom-

ducks, and choice wine. meranian first important Meyerbeer's work


"

was

cantata

entitled

God

the Grand that

he
same

of Hesse, who him composer appointed time

and Duke

Nature,"

performed
was

in the
so

presence

pleased to his court.


seven

of with it About

the

he wrote The
cantata

music
was

for

of

Klopstock's

sacred odes. 1811, by the

given

in Berlin

in May,

assisted by solo singers and Chapel. The accomcomposer, panied of the Koyal members home for the occaby his friend Weber, went sion,

Singakademie

and

had

perfect

ovation.

Weber

was

like

son

in the charming

mansion

of the

received Beers, The

MEYERBEER.

333

self, himother than Weber paper, none critic of the evening life, declared, that the work "glowing manifested loveliness, and above of all the perfect power genuine burning that if the composer genius," and predicted
went
on

confer On his return


more
an

equal diligence with rich fruit upon art.


to Darmstadt,

and Vogler

discretion

he would

to

teach
"

him.

said he had having Consequently,


"

ing nothcompleted

opera
one

Jephtha's

Vow,"

his first unless

the

anonymous " Maid be the


new

"The entitled he his, considered


"

Fisher
went

work

was
won

the composer

At

Munich

performed. much praise for his skill as libretto he new a obtained

to

be

the Milk and to Munich where It fell flat. But


a

pianist.

"Alimalek, Serious."

Host
This
was

Guest, or and first performed

A
at

Jest

entitled Becoming

its request to justify sufficient success thor Theatre in Vienna.


To

with for the Karntner-

Stuttgart,

Vienna

he therefore

went,

and

on

of his Hummel, beauty

arrival

heard

who so of his touch, that he went and


only
at

renowned him impressed with into

the

the very evening pianist, Nepomuk


the
a

delicacy

and

sort of voluntary

retirement

practice It virtuoso.
and

made
was

the end of ten months his first appearance as

sant of incesa

concert

at

the

time
with Even

of the

Vienna

was

crowded
won.

favor he instantly

of 1813, high notabilities, whose the well-liked Moscheles


a

Congress

scarcely dared to enter the field against such At this time he wrote a number of piano

rival. mental and instru-

compositions,
two

"

polonaise

with

orchestral

accompani

concertos, many piano variations, marches, and duets for harp and clarinet. Most of these but have been never works still exist in manuscript,

published.

384
His opera
"

MEYERBEER.

Califs

produced the following

the name under November made

Two of "The fiasco. It was

too finely shaded music was and considered dull. The brought it out under Weber too difficult. Nevertheless,
more

favorable

auspices

at Prague,

where
this

it caused

considerabl

enthusiasm. discouraged Meyerbeer was He


was

by

to renounce almost tempted have seen but Salieri, who must

failure. second dramatic composition, some merit in the

work,

advised him to go to Italy, and there study the art of writing for the voice. first to Paris, He This advice was followed. went
he remained and long enough
two
"

where

to make

was

also to compose played, but the one


as

"

operas. Robert and

acquaintances, many Neither of them Elise


"
"

is interesti

the foreshadowing

of his greater

"

Robert."

In Italy he reaped precisely such laurels as had fallen To be sure, he was to the lot of Gluck and Mozart. not Pedro of Brazil granted the title of Chevalier, but Dom Star. him a Knight of the Order of the Southern made he first reached Venice, in 1816, Rossini's " TanWhen
"

cred

was

on

the

top

wave

of popularity,

popularity
of
at

canons which, in spite of its violating all the sound won more true dramatic and musical art, it has once Rome during the late Rossini revival there.

It

was

not

difficult for Meyerbeer

to catch

this light, graceful, soulless melody. he wrote to a friend :


"

the trick of Fort}'- years later

"

All

Italy
as

was

then

It seemed
and

if the whole

delirium of rapture. revelling in a sweet had at last found its Lost Paradise, nation
was

nothing I was music.

further

for its happiness drawn

seeded

than
maze

Rossini's

involuntarily

into the delicious

of tones and

and bewitched

in

magic

garden

from

which

I could

not

would

MEYERBEER.

335
thoughts
to
me

not

Italian ; all my All my feelings became escape. After I had lived a year there it seemed Italian.
an

became
was

that I

Italian born.

art, and of nature, into the thoughts,


course

acclimated life, and the gay congenial feelings, and re-tuning

was

completely

to the

splendid
therefore

glory
enter

could

sensibilities of
of

the

Italians.

Of

such

complete

effect upon

Rossini,
as

and

diate spiritual life had an immetate loath to imiI was of composition. my methods write in the Italian style, but I had to compose
my

I did because

my

inmost

being

compelled

me

to it."

" " e Costanza ) was opera ( Romilda in June, 1818, at Turin, and was so successful produced him brought at that it immediately orders for works

His

first Italian

Turin,

was Venice, and other cities. His success all the self. in direct rivalry with Rossini himgreater for being won But to a man training and nature, of Meyerbeer's As the poet apples of Sodom. such fruits of fame were

Heine
"

said : Such intoxication


"

of the
a

senses

as

Italy could not long satisfy yearning for the earnestness him.

German

in he experienced A certain nature.

While

he found

his

ease

in of his fatherland awoke amid the Italian myrtles,


oaks

murmur the mysterious him. Southern While

of the German
zephyrs

caressed

him

recurred to he thought

chorals of the north wind." of the sombre His operas travelled to Germany, and his best friends serving false not only felt that he was who heard them

Weber : to tell him so. wrote gods, but had the courage " It makes of composer my heart bleed to see a German imitator in order to a mere creative power stoop to become
curry

He asked him if it was so with the crowd." look upon hard to despise the applause or of the moment, In his public critique it as something not the highest. " Emma di Resburgo" on reached Berlin early in which
favor

1820, he wrote

"

836
"I
make

MEYERBEER.

believe
a

the

composer
to

has
show

deliberately
that he
can

chosen

to

descent

in order
master

reign

as

lord and
the wish

over

all forms."
would

that

Meyerbeer

rule and But he expressed to many Gerreturn


set

on

and jointhe few earnest ones whose hearts were building up a genuine national opera. Perhaps it was This was not to be. justas well

that

Hebrew

" in what the world-opera." called He still retained his friendship for Weber, and Germans an evidently made protests of the earnest

should has been

have

found

more

cosmopolitan

field

the

pressio im-

afterwards called these Italian The last and most successful of works them, the only one of this period that is still occasionally " Egetto" H in for Crociato heard ( Venice), written
is said to show a decided advance upon the earlier ones ; he had tried to show that he might as though combine both methods man. Gerthe light Italian and the earnest
"

He upon him. his "wild oats."

It

was

heard

Petersburg. Janeiro. Meyerbeer's


his triumphs,

And

an

in Europe, everywhere Italian company sang

even

in St.

it in Rio

di

mother

had

come

on

to

Italy to share

in

In the stage. upon crowned and see him company with her he visited the chief cities : Kome, him Baini showed the treasures of the Sistine where pitality delightful hosChapel ; Florence, where again he found

in the house
minister Shortly

of Lord Westmoreland, to the Tuscan Court.

the English

after his return to Berlin he lost his father but found consolation in his love for his cousin Minna he saw in 1827. Mosson, Meantime he married whom
that Paris
was

the

place

for

him,

residence

there, where

amid

the

and he took up intellectual ferment

his of

MEYERBEER.

337

He formed the time his mind found wonderful stimulus. friendly relations with Cherubini, Boieldieu, Auber, HabRossini, in spite eneck, Halevy, and Adam ; and he and Yet the warmest of all their rivalries, were of friends. " " Eossini once Meyerbeer said, and I can never agree ; in surprise asked why, he replied, some one and when likes sauerkraut better than he does mac"Meyerbeer aroni

!"
came passed, and nothing of consequence from his pen. Yet he was The secretly hard at work. able French poet Scribe had furnished him with a libretto, but the composer He was morbidly sensitive. could

Several

years

never
"

tire of polishing It is finished."

and

filing.

He

could

never

say,

Other
work
:

circumstances his marriage, the

delayed
the death of

the
a

of this production child, the July revolution,


of the director,

theatre.

to the management as uncertainty But at last Dr. Veron, the new royal

began. They agreed to bring it out, and the rehearsals lasted nearly five months, ber, and only on the 22d of Novem" 1831, was le Diable "Robert given for the firsttime.

Scenic

effects, striking

contrasts,

novel

fascinating
appealed
to

melody,

inand brilliant strumen force, all dramatic Italians the of

the
"

Mendel and the

says,

public. To the flowing

solid harmony of the pathetic declamation and the varied the French." Mendelssohn found
no

melody Germans

of the

he

united

piquant

rhythm

pleasure in it. He called it a heart or cold calculated work of imagination, without Ambros clared deeffect. So thought many of the Germans.
that Meyerbeer's
luxury

music

was
"

"

banker's

music

for la haute

finance,

and

music," deserved the fate


"

that befell the money-changers

in the temple.

338
Yet

MEYERBEER.

1858
It
was

In the fortune this opera made of the theatre. it had brought in upwards of four million francs. In 1883 it was given 333 times in twenty years. Louis
of the
a member

given in Vienna for the 401st time in fifty years. Philippe nominated the composer as a member Legion of Honor, and shortly after he was elected

of the Institute of France. " In 1836 his second Les French appeared opera, Huguenots" the libretto of which was also furnished by Scribe. A date had been set for its completion, but

Meyerbeer

failed to have

could

forfeit of thirty be found to undertake of the theatre

it ready, and paid the francs. No one thousand

stipulated
else

the work,

so

the

ment manage-

was

the money, refunded and the work At first it was not so successput upon the stage. ful " but the public soon Robert" learned to appreciate as

its beauties.

encyclopaedia, called it a musical It with enough ordinary operas. material for twenty has been compared to a cathedral ; it has been called " an

Berlioz

evangel
"

of religion

and

love."

It has

been

said to be

the most

On
severe

history ever penned." vivid chapter of French even more the other hand, the German critics were " mann SchuRobert" upon it than they had been upon

All could see nothing in it but falsity and trickery. operas repelled him, and he declared that of Meyerbeer's they might be calmly left to their fate. Meyerbeer's was next great undertaking suggested by a

German

novel that had pleased him. Scribe, and the libretto was quickly

consulted in his hands.

He

with He

it again and again, fault with it. Scribe changed but failed to please the composer ; anxious for his royalties, he threatened a lawsuit if the work were not brought

found

out.

Meyerbeer

avoided

the dilemma

by going

back

to

MEYERBEER.

339
to
"

Berlin,
Eome.

and when Thus the

he

returned

Paris

Scribe

was

in

great

only

an

unfulfilled wrapped
"

project.

U Africaine" remained opera, For a long time it lay in

embryo, lived to

up

Africana,"
see

"The

in white paper, labelled " Vecchia, He Old African Woman." never

it from time to it put upon the stage, though time occupied his attention until the very end. IV. enrolled him Wilhelm King Friedrich Meantime
Pour le Merite in the newly founded of Arts order him royal director of music. and Sciences, and appointed The King of Honors thick and fast showered upon him. Crown. the order of the Oak the Netherlands gave him
"

"

of its elected him one Spontini resigned his position in Berlin, and associates. in his place, with Meyerbeer was appointed kapellmeister The Eoyal Academy
of London
a

salary of three thousand


He

thalers, which

he

distributed

among

the orchestra and members of the chapel. indefatigable to live in Berlin, and was came
He
wrote

in

his labors.
motets

for the

chapel,

number he which

of

cantatas,

psalms,
strengthened.

were

Max

" so-called, and his famous Prince for the weddings of the Crown produced His only original opera for Berlin was and others.

Marches

enlarged and Fackeltanzen"

" in Schlesien" Ein Feldlager entitled 1844, for the first time in December,

It
to

was

produced celebrate the

opening

of the

new

opera-house.

of times year, Jenny


1

with great success, his protegee, the when her German Lind,1 made
Josephson,
the composer of the
man

ber given a numespecially the following Swedish singer, young


was

It

debut
thus

in the
speaks

part

of
of

Herr

who
:
"

attended
He is
a

the rehearsals, polite man;

in his diary

meeting

most

something
man

of the courtier;
of
the

something has, in addition,


the opera

of

genius

; something

of the

world,

and

with

something Jenny

fidgety about Lind he called

his whole

heing.

upon

her, to the

cing reprodubeat of my belief,

Before

340
"

MEYERBEER.

Vielka"
was

She

won

still greater the


name

glory in Vienna,
of
"

when
a

the opera

medal was In February, benefit of


thousand he had hand

given under struck in honor

Vielka/7and
"

of the composer. 1845, he brought out " Euryanthe

for the six

the

Weber

monument,

thalers to the fund.


"

and In July

thus of the

added
same

Spohr's
crowned

Crusaders
the

"

performed,

and with with

year, his own


a

gray-haired

composer

laurel

wreath. Meyerbeer

ner often criticised for his niggardly manIt has been said that he almost of life in Paris. On the other hand he was charged with starved himself. in bribing the critics to be favorable a fortune spending was

to his work,

for he
not

Yet

he

was

brought
house

it about should be assured and

morbidly sensitive to blame. lacking in generous He sentiments. for the royal operathat composers
was

of
new

ten

that

three

per centum of the receipts, by living German works

After the out each year. musicians should be brought death of Lortzing, author of " Tsar and Carpenter," he helped raise a fund of sixteen thousand dollars for his family.

Gluck,

"

proceeds in Paris.

a descendant aged widow, of his own funds, but with certain not only with of Gluck's operas arising from the performance

He

assisted

an

"

ily also contributed to the relief of the famKameau. composer of the great French He was found the labors at Berlin too exacting. He
He
a

not

good conductor, as he himself confessed, and he was At first he was to be released. granted only anxious leave of absence ; he went to Paris and then received the
at least

incessantly,

alters and anxiety, curtails here, dovetails there, and thus, by his eagerness imparts a fragmentary the the work, and of spontaneous growth prevents to ite beauty." character
a

hundred

times,

to consult

about

this, that,

or

the

other.

He

MEYERBEER.

341

" from Scribe, still in Rome. libretto of " Le Prophete While engaged upon this, he composed, with, enthusiasm and in the at the request of Prussia, of the Princess for his brother brief time the music of six weeks,

Michael's

melodrama
success
one

"

Struensee"

which

was

performed

with great considered instrumental


The
same

The overture is in the royal theatre. in sustained of his highest achievements

composition.

they where its enthusiasm. Richard

Lind, to London with Jenny year, he went for shared in a reception almost unequalled

On
"

his return Rienzi."

to Berlin, he brought

out

Wagner's

Meyerbeer found by
an

Wagner,
in Paris.
even

whom
was

he had

had already befriende living in poverty which

He

Wagner's

rewarded found admirers


was

ingratitude
to explain
some

it hard

Probably

Wagner

because jealous

away. of his pet

did not believe were who reforms carried out by a man him to one, in his principles. Wagner who, compared the first syllable of another's speech, screams catching
out

the whole
to

sentence

in

breath

know

what

was

meant.
a

miserable music-maker," And in 1850, over

Jew
the

really waiting He a "most called him banker, who tried to compose. without
of
"

name

R. Freigedank,"

he

wrote

his

famous

the New
Jew
was

Journal

of

article on the Jew in Music, for he declared that the Music, in which
of artistic manifestation, his spleen the whole race, vented and

incapable

of any

kind

and

while
on

equally After Prophete

attacking Meyerbeer

Mendelssohn.
"

endless
"

was

of details, and changing polishing at last ready for its first production began in January,

Le

in

Paris.

1849 ; and, as the boundless. ran eventful April day drew nigh, excitement indeed pitched too high, and in spite of Expectation was
Rehearsals

342
the

MEYERBEER.

efforts of general feeling


nevertheless
summer

a and a Costellan, there was Its greatness was of disappointment. appreciated, and in spite of a fearfully hot

Garcia

and the prevalence of cholera, it kept and soon reached its hundredth performance. Meyerbeer was made commander of the Honor.
Doctor

the boards

Legion

of

The

University

o'clock he received calls, and usually spent the evening at the to a concert. The King theatre or went his ordered poraries. Contemportrait to be painted for the Gallery of Famous
He

The of Music. from early morning the Thiergarten overlooking

gave him the degree of year 1850 he spent in Berlin, working into till the afternoon in his room of Jena

Park.

After

three

was

invited

to St. Petersburg

by the
"

Emperor

Russia

to direct the music

of

"

Struensee

for the

of fifty-

Society, but his failing years' jubilee of the Philharmonic health obliged him to decline. Berlioz and Spohr were also asked, but were unable to accept. In February, first Psalm honor
for

1853, he composed
solo and

his splendid NinetyIt was in eight-part chorus.

It was birthday. of his mother's eighty-seventh sung as her requiem she died, the following year, when by the whole nation. mourned

For

the

first time
a

in its history the


foreigner.

Opera
was

Comique

opened
to write
was

its doors to

Meyerbeer

for that world-famous stage, and to the du Nord." Owing "L'lZtoile with Russia,
the

allowed his first work outbreak forbade influence few of its


of

war

censorship

nearly

to the but owing presentation; III., it was Napoleon permitted

personal
after
a

textual

changes were made, such as eliminating " Vive la Russie" and changing the word

the

expression tsar to del.

SCENE

FROM Act

THE

PROPHI

V., Sc. III.

MEYERBEER.

343
1854, and
a

It

was

performed
was a

in February,

number

performed His next

Within re-demanded. hundred times.


comic opera
was
or

year

almost every it had been

occupied with various journeys to Italy and to wateringwork, with est, places ; with compositions of comparatively small interfor the marriage Fackeltanz the fourth unless of be excepted. the Princess Victoria of England
"

under the title "Dinorah," The five years intervening

in April, 1859, produced " Le Pardon de Ploermel" been

had

latter years of Meyerbeer's life, though cheered by many distinguished honors, kings gifts from and from many homage were emperors, societies, dened also sadThe
" "

by

the

death

Westmoreland,
and Rellstab,

friends of many his French and German

and Lord librettists, Scribe

Spohr

ill-health and and others, and by his own A Swedish his eyes. trouble with editor, who visited him about the time of his fiftieth birthday, described him
as "a

little, benevolent

of power and keenness delicate and yet simple behavior. His had an countenance especially shrewd look ; and those fantastic spirits, which

old man, with in his bearing,

an

sion expres-

and

with

strongly-marked humorous and


have

bewitched

the

' Eobert ' and ' The of night pieces Prophet/ appear to be lurking in its wrinkles." In 1861 Meyerbeer his seventieth birthday, celebrated

world

in

the

which admirers. Exhibition

was

remembered
same

This
at

year
a

by hosts of his friends and he wrote for the International festival

in three parts, march " Rule Britannia." His presence added to the ending with Several theatres enthusiasm with which it was received. brought out his "Prophet," "Huguenots," simultaneously

London

and

"

Dinorah

"

with

festal

success,

After

the perform-

344
the
"

MEYERBEER.

ance

of

Granville,
the

he march in the name


the

public, and

by Lord publicly thanked of the Queen, of all great artists, English nation," for his great services.
was

his last great triumph. His failing health his eyes the trouble with more more and grew and Occasionally his old energy would flame out, alarming. " L' Africaine" which and he would work on his pet opera
This
was

occupied him accept Napoleon's


had
court

for

so

many

hunt
even

and
to
was

pressing festivities at Coinpiegne. travel


to

He was years. invitation to the

unable

to

autumnal forHe was bidden


with Gama." his the

Brussels
"

to

confer

tenor

who Unknown

to sing the role of to

Vasco da

him,

daughters youngest Julius Beer and one to his bedside. His of last words were May-Day, Sunday,

physician summoned His from Baden-Baden.


or

his

two

two

intimate

friends

nephew hastened

spoken 1863,

cheerfully
"

on

"I

will

see

the evening you in the

I bid you good-night.'7 morning. He died early the next day. His body lay in state in his simple he Montmartre. Rue Rossini when

dwelling, heard
the

in the
news

in the Park fainted away. Then he went out to wander he noted down Monceaux, a religious meditation where " inscribed to his poor friend Meyerbeer."

Meyerbeer's

body

was
a

taken

to

Berlin.

It

was

attended

to the station by

stately throng

of notabilities, spoken.
were

Farewell by music. orations were accompanied Selections from the "Prophet" and "Dinorah" with
organ

performed

and voices. On the way to Berlin at every stopping-place, signs of The funeral train reached Berlin grief were manifested.

MEYERBEER.

345

incident, It was a dramatic station. the meeting of the living monarch and the dead musician. days later the pompous Two of the funeral ceremonies
same

unexpectedly. from the

The

King

was

justabout

to make

ney jour-

black catafalque, silver candelabra, laurel from royal and princely houses, music wreath, bouquets tions, hearse, throngs of deputaand orations, palm-adorned
took place with
an

drawn
He

endless array of carriages headed by four horses. buried

by the king's,

was

tomb

by the side of his mother, in the family Later, a religious cerein the Jewish Cemetery. mony Synagogue in his honor took place in the Meyerbeer

by his father. which had been founded Meyerbeer, though possessed of millions, always lived in Paris, with only one servant ; he labored frugally when
as

industriously all
an

as

though

he

were me

poor, saying

"

am

above

artist, and

it gives

that I might have supported myself In Berlin, to be sure, the time I was seven years old. desire keep up some style; but in Paris I have no
stand

satisfaction to think with my music, from


I
to

aloof

from

my

associates

and He

play

the

rich

amateur."

His habits
nor a

were

snuff. hand-organ man

took

extremely He
playing

simple.

enjoyedwalking,
one

neither smoked he heard and when

he would

stop and

was silver. He him. But, being

listen and fond of the

of his own compositions, reward him with a piece of

distinctions

heaped

upon
never

possessed the cross His judgment of other composers He was terms on of friendship
composers of the of the day.

all his life true to of the Order of the Red


was

his faith, he Eagle.

always

ous. gener-

Gluck
one,"

past.

"

No

and he said,

with nearly all the Mozart his favorites were


"

will

ever

equal

346
Gluck
in simplicity,

MEYERBEER.

dramatic naturalness, and powerful I am and when expression; works, enjoyinghis majestic I like I often feel so humiliated that never would again
to write
a

note."

thouproperty, with the exception of a few sand to half a dozen dollars bequeathed musical and institutions, was divided among his relaphilanthropic tives. " His music, with the exception of L'Africaine"
great

His

leave untouched for thirty years. Then, be permissible in case living it would a grandson were it was to be given to the royal to publish it. Otherwise library in Berlin. he directed
to
"

L'Africaine
Every

"

was

performed effort
was

for the

first time

in

April, 1865.

made

to carry out the composer's


so

ideas ; and the enthusiasm was like an his biographer says, it seemed

great

that,

as

apotheosis

of his

takes place in Paris in September of the present apotheosis his is birth hundredth of with (1891), celebrated anniversary when year Paris will of his masterpieces. and the reproduction ceremonies appropriate
1

stillgreater

the

share

with

Bayreuth

the pilgrimages

of the musical.

MENDELSSOHN.
(18O9-1847.)

proverb IT proverbs,
a

is

that

names

go

by

contraries.
popular

But

though

often

containing

less often embody crystallized, no for instance, that lightning as, never
Berlioz applied place. to Mendelssohn's godson
"

popular

strikes as the line of Horace Felix


multos

wisdom delusions ; twice in a prophecy

Moscheles
numerabis is happy,

"

Donee
as

eris Felix

amicos."

("So
many

long

thou

art

Felix, that

shalt

thou

reckon

friends.")
same

biography. up Mendelssohn's He seems to stand as the type of the fortunate composer " Whom rich, talented, courted, petted, loved, even adored. This distinction also he enthe gods love die young."
The
line might
sum

joyed,

and it gives an is in Mendelssohn

additional
a

glamour the

to his life.

certain

sense

musician

of the

" " Songs Words to the ; his unmusical without appeal Philistines of the conservatories; his "Elijah" young is the masterpiece for religious Philistinism.

There

is, undoubtedly,

at the

present

time

tendency,

the adepts of Wagner, to underrate especially among Mendelssohn. It seems indeed ludicrous in a rather being the last of the as recent writer to speak of him
347

348
Titans
; but

MENDELSSOHN.

musical

we

may

who

" I look upon said, of his time, and pay

sympathize Mendelssohn him


the

with
as

Schumann,

the first musician homage due to a

master."

And
not
or

though

it may

the spontaneous
a

be safely maintained that he had creative genius of a Bach, a Mozart,

ing still he deserves the distinction of hav" ing restored the lost art of counterpoint," and of bringback classic forms was at a day when romanticism
men

Beethoven,

compelling

like

Meyerbeer

and

Weber

into

enchanted

if not Mendelssohn forgotten


was
an

him

ground. to a world that had also restored Bach for a hundred This service alone years.
He may have been
narrow

dangerous

immortality. but

and
of the

; prejudiced

judged according

to the standard

His well-nigh above reproach. world, his character was aunt declared that during his whole career she could not that could be criticised. His recall a deed or a word translator up by the American virtues are well summed

of his Life by Lampadius


"

"

The
poor

son
man's

and
have
rather

heir of
son,

rich Berlin indulged

banker,

he always
in
ease

wrought
or

as as

and

never

himself

sloth,
to win

he might

done;

tempted
write

to writedown

to the masses,
a

popularity, and

than

leave good
any
man

work

behind

up to the few, to set him, he always did tne


in Germany

high

standard

latter; nattered
but in
one

beyond he
most
never

of his age, not only for a moment, lost his head


of
men

England,
of the

and

remained

unaffected

; living in loose capitals and

surrounded

by

true to all moral obligations, and perfect unprincipled people, he was father; in all the relations of son, brother, lover, husband, and frank, by intriguers, he stood above them all, and was surrounded by his sunny, enthusiastic, honorable, transparent, noble; tempted

alert nature,
thorough,

to do

simply

bright

and

genial

things

in music,

he

was

studious, and

earnest,

religious,

and

steadfastly consecrated

to the highest

the best."

MENDELSSOHN.

MENDELSSOHN.

349

does Mendelssohn reason without the type of the blameless musician.

Not

stand

out

as

tle middle of the last century, a litboy, with an alert face and humpbacked Jew peddler keen eyes, entered Berlin by the Rosenthaler The Gate. Some time before the
world he was
at first went

hard

with

him.

He

was

in the habit of marking

his miserable

poor that loaf of bread


so as

into rations days many


was

by
as

means

of

greater
earn

possible. than his physical by


copying, he

string, so that his hunger But hunger. devoted


to

it might last for knowledge

The

little that he

could

prosecuting

his

studies with a learned rabbi. At last he secured a position as resident tutor in the house of a rich Hebrew and in course silk manufacturer, Jewess, and became a Hamburg rich as of time married
well
as

learned.

He
was

wrote

dialogue
into

on

the immortality

of the soul, that

translated
"

dozen
Plato."

languages,
He
was

and
a

gave

him

the title of the

Modern

of the noted men of valued friend and correspondent It Herder his day, and Lessing. and Kant, Lavater is said that Lessing took him as the model for his "Nathan
"

the Wise."
as

His

name name

was was

not

Nathan,
he

but
became

Moses,

and
as

his father's
son, or

Mendel,

known

Mendel's He had

in German

Mendelssohn.

six

children.

Abraham,
He
was

the
a

second
man

son,

was

the father and

of the composer.

ability, but often hyphen a as merely said he, the father of my


He
"

remarked between
the
son

of character that he served jokingly Moses

was

of my

and Felix : father ; now

"

Formerly,"

am

son."

began

returned

his commercial to Hamburg, home

training formed

in Paris, but in 1804


a

partnership

with

350
his brother

MENDELSSOHN.

Joseph,

and

married

Lea

Salamon,

young

lady

of property lived in Berlin.

and

accomplishments,

whose

parents

Their
as

first child
mother

was

daughter,

Fanny,

who

was

born,

her

fingers."

it,with " Bach fugue poetically expressed Like Mozart's older sister, she had remarkable

genius for music. Jakob Ludwig Felix It has been Fairies, flew
on

was

born

November

3, 1809.

fancifully that
the

said that Titania, Queen of the day over burg the prosaic city of Hamchild
on

and endowing When

kissed
him he
was

his forehead,

as

he

slept,

with

all the graces. going into his third

captured the city ; and house and lived for some years in the grandmother's Promenade. There a new banking-house the Neue

year, the French fled to Berlin, the Mendelssohns


on

was

established, and
reasons,

for various

Lutheran Bartholdy.

the whole Church, and adopted

practical, social, and sentimental family were baptized into the the

additional

name

of

not in the patriarchal family rule was least relaxed. Absolute and unquestioning obedience, industry, were Yet unceasing required of the children.

The

somewhat

this strictness of discipline was that it seemed not gentleness


especially
to the end

by love and like severity, and Felix


so

tempered

had

the warmest

of his life,when,

affection for his father, even owing to physical infirmity, disputatious.

he had The

become
mother

extremely
was

languages,

the piano. was she who began Felix in music, giving them at first five-minute several times each day.

she It

model read Homer

irritable and housewife. in the

She spoke

several

original, she played to instruct Fanny and


lessons prac-

Afterwards,

when

they

MENDELSSOHN.

351
that

tised, she
they

sat

by

them

no time. morning wasted Discipline was to study. they began relaxed for a few time talking at lunch, but if Felix spent too much moments " Felix, thust du it she would over appear and say,
" nichts ? He was

to with her knitting At five o'clock in the

see

("Have

you

nothing

to do, Felix ?

"

of course, allowed out-of-door exercise and him seeing playing many people in Berlin remembered " I spy," and other games, under the trees by the canal

in front
"

of

their

house,

or

trotting
His

along

in his "big

shoes

by

his father's

side.

brown

curls, which

attracted attention, as afterwards turned black, always eyes, lurking under long lashes. well as his big brown interesting boy, unspoiled. He was When foolish an people asked
him

idle questions,

he had

peculiarly

dignant in-

almost

spiteful, way

of answering

and

avoiding

flattery.

When

he

was

Paris, and Fanny from

took

years old his father was called to his whole family with him. Felix and
seven

profited by their the brilliant Madame

stay by Bigot. still more Rosel

taking

piano

lessons
returned

When

they

to Berlin

The and

continued droll little Professor

lessons

strenuously.

taught

them

drawing,

the clever practice

enjoyedoften
lived.
on

added
"

Mendelssohn of the pencil which to his letters so long as he piquancy


Henning
gave

The

methodical

him
"

instruction

Berger taught weak, good-natured him on the piano. His knowledge he of counterpoint " the old bear," the crusty but honorable Zelter, got from in the big who taught him as they walked up and down " Marx When ter Zelgarden back of the house. remarked, the

violin ; the

became

Mendelssohn's and let him

master,

into the water

swim

he merely put the fish Yet away as he liked."

"52
many of Mendelssohn's
master.

to this pedantic

due old-fashioned notions were Heyse, afterwards professor in


father

the University novelist, Felix


was
was

of Berlin, and

of Paul French

Heyse

the

their resident tutor. excellent in languages.


He

was
.

like

his native

tongue.
a

able to write
a

comedy and
not

verse,

charming (the "Andrea") into German of Terence he made He considerable progress in Greek.
of mathematics.

He was spoke English fluently. letter in Italian. He translated

was

fond could he was

He
.was

good

man; horse-

he When

swim almost

and
ten

dance.
years

old he

made

his first

a pianist, and as was much public appearance applauded. The following year he, with his sister, sang alto in the famous founded May, 1791, by Carl old Singakademie,

Fasch, time

Frederick

directed
"

the Great's cembalo player, and at that by Zelter. Devrient tells of seeing him at

Zelter's

Friday
at the

afternoons,"
neck, with

dressed

in

close-fitting
pockets foot to

jacket, open

his hands

in the

from one shifting uneasily another, and rocking his curly head from side to side. list of his The From this time he began to compose. of his full trousers, falling in the next four years is remarkable compositions for its amount There were nearly sixty and variety. in 1821, tata, sonatas, organ pieces, songs, a canmovements He wrote or copied them with and a little comedy.
"

the greatest
course
now

neatness

and

of time extended preserved in the Berlin he grew


The

in volumes which in the to forty-four in number, and are


care

Library.
mature, to

As

quality. the fact which being

was composition by the home that they were circle, performed of four children, the youngest, Paul, consisted now four years younger than Felix.

older and more direct stimulus

they

improved

in

this

MENDELSSOHN.

353

All distinguished
Berlin visited

people who musical passed through the Mendelssohns, noon afterand the Sunday

nmsicales often enlisted the local talent of Berlin. Thus, in 1822, the young theatre singer Devrient, through a friend of Fanny the medium of his betrothed, who was Mendelssohn,
operas.
came

to take
a
on

part

in

one

of Felix's of the

little

He
at the

gives

charming
a

description

boy

sitting while

piano

cushion

and

gravely

conducting

Mendelssohn' the dining-table. the performers sat around his greatest from utter freedom conceit was

charm. generally there to pick flaws or give merited Zelter had been for years the friend of Goethe, praise. to visit pupil to Weimar and in 1821 he took his young him. They than two weeks spent more under his roof.

Zelter

was

The
was

friendship delightful.

between

the

old

Mendelssohn made him


at

of poets." hour, He
in
was

Goethe
was

and Mendelssohn " the pole star called him by the play and improvise
man

amazed
a

at sight playing like unravelling

by the skill shown manuscript of Beethoven's.


the

boy
It

hieroglyphics. Mendelssohn
at
a

Goethe
vastly

had

heard

Mozart,

but he thought
was

Once
am

(though this
Saul, and
spirits you
l

later

visit),
I and

his superior. " I Goethe said,


am

you

are

David.
come

When
me

sad
me

low

must

to

calin

and in by your

accords." In the
to

summer

of 1822

the

Mendelssohns
they
his
as

took had

trip
a

Switzerland.
Felix

At
was

Potsdam,

brief halt,

where forgotten, and had


got
as

made

noticed only after three miles away.


1

they Heyse

far

was absence Gross Kreuz,

started back
describing
and

in search
Goethe

of the
are

Mendelssohn's
in
a

sprightly entitled
"

letters

his visit to

to

be

found

volume

Goethe

Mendelssohn."

354
straggler, but them on foot. with

MENDELSSOHN.

found
They

trying manfully stopped at Cassel and

him

to

overtake

Spohr,

for whom

Mendelssohn

made music erence. professed deep rev-

After

stopping
the

the Alps, they returned, among pleasant sojourn Felix astonished Schelble, at Frankfort, when of the

conductor

Cecilia Society, by

his powers

of

they at Weimar, extemporizing ; and where enjoyed delightful intercourse In Goethe. following the with December, Mendelssohn in public a pianoforte played The progress of his talent can be concerto of his own. easily followed

in the

1822

They numerous and 1823. and varied A pianoforte than in the years before. quartet, begun Geneva, was near afterwards published as his first opus. He had grown into a tall, slender lad of fifteen, with his hair cut short, and his features marked by great vivacity. His good spirits were infectious. He was always ready for a frolic. Indeed, so long as he lived he was apt to indulge in the gayest He was pranks. called by his friends "the king of games When Ferdinand and romps." Hiller first saw the Mendelssohn Aloys Schmitt, well-known clinging for a littlewhile and then slipping off, to repeat in Paris, Mendelssohn the frolic. Afterwards, suddenly surprised Hiller as they late one night by saying,
"

compositions were 110 less

which

he

wrote

in

running behind jumping on his back, he


was

were
"

walking

along

boulevard

We

must

do Now,

some

of

our
"
"

jumps
one

in Paris.

Our

jumps,
And
off

I tell you. they


went

for it

! two

! three ! "

like kangaroos.
little home
or

One
"

The

of Mendelssohn's Two Nephews,

the

Uncle
on

operas was entitled It from Boston."

was

performed

for the first time

his fifteenth

birth-

MENDELSSOHN.

355

Zelter took A supper followed. day with full orchestra. longer him no him by the hand, and, after proclaiming but a master, "in the name an of Haydn, apprentice
Mozart,

and Old

Bach,"

kissed

him

amid

the enthusiastic

plaudits Some

of all present. years Zelter

before,
with
a

Abraham
quantity

Mendelssohn of
cantatas

had

presented

by "the poor Cantor written manuscripts, Zelter affected to call Bach's compositions crabbed

other and of Leipzig." pieces too high

Stiicke), (borstige and


for

evidently
of

thought

them

the

comprehension relics, and

people;

these sacred
to

sometimes

still he reverenced took Mendelssohn up


where
"

the

closet

of

the

Singakademie

they

were

to him, saying, them stored, and showed Just think they "There of all that is hidden are! there," but he would never allow his pupil to touch them.

At

last,however,

Mendelssohn's

grandmother

obtained
was

for his violin teacher, permission also his intimate friend, to make Bach's Passion Music,

Edward
a

Bltz, who
score

Christmas,
development.
In the

1823.

and she This had a great

of the it to presented
copy

of
at

him

influence

upon

his

the
sea
"

following
the stormy

summer

he, for the


at Dobberan.

first time,
He
wrote

saw
an

Baltic

overture

for the wind-band afterwards

of the bathing

It
was

was

re-scored and in composition, for his progress memorable his C-minor Symphony (now No. 1) and
chamber
came

establishment. This year published. and cluded in-

several
year
seeing

important Moscheles the

compositions. Berlin and spent He


was

Later

in

the

to

several weeks, persuaded record

Mendelssohns

daily.

to give

Felix regular

lessons, and he has left on " Felix a mature of the family :

pression his im-

artist, though

356

MENDELSSOHN.

but fifteen ; Fanny extraordinarily gifted, playing fugues by heart and with astonishing correctness." "To-day," he

Bach's

writes in his diary, "I gave Felix his first lesson." But he adds that he could not hide the fact that he was The not his pupil. with his master,
acquaintance is shown as thus formed the

led to

an

intimate

friendship,
the the
two.

by

Felix known

became

between correspondence to Moscheles's son, godfather


Mendelssohn,

well-

portrait painter. In the spring of 1825 Abraham

who

had

been

hesitating
a

whether

as music determined

profession,
to consult

to embrace allow his son happened to be in Paris, and


to

verdict crabbed

was

The Cherubini. with the famous favorable. Cherubini, though usually so

and by

like old Zelter, uncertain, him Felix compared the boy. and
ashes

seemed
to
an

nated fasciextinct

volcano covered with stones belching forth flames. Felix himself and
the

and

occasionally

disapproved
atmosphere

of the

musicians
prevailed
of the

frivolous
that the

that

of Paris, there; he
was

thought
make
men

whole
of

tendency strict time

place

to

lose sight
and

real musical

feeling

and calm from their

nestness and earlove for

strong

contrasts.
own

His

detestation
extreme.

opposite him "one

of the his great fault the firmament art," thought of German in being too old-fashioned, and not yielding enough was to the modern toward tendencies richness and fulness of ornamentation. Curiously enough,

of such things carried him to the his friend Hiller, who Even called beautiful stars in brightest and most

the

French
composer,

think
as

that

if Mendelssohn easily have

had

been

French

might

MENDELSSOHN.

357
lost that

been

the

case,

he would

have and

Germanic
gained

ness stiff-

that repelled them,


ways than
one.

would

have

in

more

On
Weimar

their
for

way

back
"

from the

Paris

they
"

stopped

another

third

his B-minor he played whom Not long after their return, the so-called " Keck
roomed
ten
acres

visit to Quartet dedicated

again Goethe,
to

at
to

him.
chased pur-

Abraham Palace,"
a

Mendelssohn spacious, covering

manyover

mansion, and

by grounds surrounded including summer-houses, noble


trees, and

lovely shrubbery,
and

every

rustic seats, device for comfort

A separate in summer. especially building, called the " Gartenhaus," gave accommodations for musical parties, easily seating several hundred people. The property was really in the suburbs of Berlin, near
pleasure, the Potsdam

Gate
:

on

the

Leipzig

Koad.

It had

three

drawbacks

it was

damp,

it was

distance a long and it was Nevertheless, their friends


and
of

cold in winter, extremely from their friends.


were

glad to

come

to them,
a

their

Sunday

celebrities. Mendelssohn, painted


filling forty-seven
guests.

always attracted musicales Hensel, Sebastian married who


more

crowd Fanny

than of the

thousand

portraits,

volumes,

family

and

tinguish their dis-

This the of
a

new

home
waste

was

the

one

oasis to Mendelssohn Here, under the

in

dreary
former

of Berlin.

direction

ble royal groom, he learned to ride with remarkathe boys played bowls under weather skill. In warm the trees, and had lively swimming parties, with songs
sung

in the water,

Klingemann

furnishing

the words

and

Mendelssohn intercourse

the
was

newspaper,

here social and And musical music. A manudelightful and unrestrained. script The Garden Times, entitled in summer

358
in

MENDELSSOHN.

winter

Snow

and

Tea

Times,
as

to

which

scientists and
not
scorn

philosophers
contribute,

Humboldt

to

And their devotees. and chess, and whist, in all things the central figure, happy, witty, Felix was Felix comgay, loved by all. Just before their removal posed for an the music opera, the words of which were furnished
from "Don

added also found

and to their fun.

such great Hegel did Billiards,

by

Klingemann.

The it
was

subject was
entitled

taken

Quixote," and
submitted

"Camacho's

Wedding."
It
was

to General

Musical-Intendant

Sponof way house

tini, whose jealousyhad already stood in the Spohr's Spontini was living in "Jessonda."
once

occupied

by the

Mendelssohns.

Spontini

led him

to

the window, and pointing to the dome of the Roman in French : Catholic church opposite, said pompously have "Friend, as as must conceptions you grand

" yonder cupola ! Mendelssohn, inability to one great fault was whose forgive endure lack of appreciation, and who could never a disparaging was this not likely to overlook remark, It is said that Spontini insinuation. disliked man's

Mendelssohn

because

he conducted

without

score,

feat

he himself could not perform. which however, delays, allowed Spontini, after vexatious " " in the small Wedding to be produced Comacho's
theatre. The
even

claque

was

made

up

of

Mendelssohn's had

friends, but it
a success,

after their vigorous


was never
a

it

Mendelssohn talent.
twenty Wedding'
The

had not

given dramatic, poor, that his

applause The again.

scored
was,

truth

years

opera was later, begs


not

rather, not a theatric, and he himself, almost


or
"

old sin of

"

Comacho's

should

be stirred up again."

MENDELSSOHN.

359
this period Night's Dream,"
of the

Mendelssohn's
overture

greatest

work

was

to

"

Midsummer's
a
new

inspired

by

reading of during composed This


:

translation first summer


have

the

of Shakspere, and in the new domain.

and life, he
Dream,"

tal immorMendelssohn made ever ; nothing more perfect of its kind was composed it was that when, in the last years of his remarkable
work
alone

would

came

to

set music

to

the "Midsummer's practically

Night's

he used
same

the overture

This
the

number he followed whether


years

year he entered the of his compositions

Berlin fell.

unchanged. University,
It is not

and known

ten

later the

the regular curriculum or not ; but honored itself University of Leipzig

upon him and him by conferring Philosophy and B. A. M. One of his friends complained

the degree

of Doctor

of

that

Bach

Mendelssohn exercise. mathematical him mistaken to prove a small choir ; he got together of Saturday the sixteen evenings rehearsed voices, and on " Passion according to St. Matthew."
a

him

to seemed determined

One
His

of the

number

was

Devrient,

the

opera

singer.

were such that Mendelssohn's zeal and enthusiasm timidity in presence overcome. of Zelter's opposition was dressed exactly alike in blue One day the two young men, black cravats coats, white waistcoats, and trousers, and

yellow before

Zelter and laid their plans gloves, called upon him. It may be remarked in passing delssohn that Menhad overdrawn his allowance and had to borrow

thaler to buy

which Zelter hand


on

his gloves, his father felt obliged


"

piece

of bad

management

to reprimand.

was

at first so

the door-knob
to smooth

had his surly that Mendelssohn to flee incontinently, but Devrient by deft flattery, and
at last

managed

the way

360

MENDELSSOHN.

the old director yielded and gave his permission by the Singakademie. work to be performed

for the

The
was

rehearsals

began

in January,
on

performed since the

time

its composer. The of apathy had so much dreaded, was the people, which Mendelssohn Every taken, ticket was stirred to enthusiasm. and hundreds The success turned away. were was complete

publicly death of

March

1828, and the work 11, 1829, for the first

in every
revival. with
some

restored Mendelssohn
without saying,
"

This was the beginning of the Bach respect. day to Devrient Mendelssohn one remarked have and an actor who glee, "It is a Jew to the people this great Christian work."
knew the work
one

the

score.

At

by heart, and rehearsal he stopped


measure

conducted the chorus


have

In the twenty-third
"

the sopranos

C-natural
This

not

C-sharp."
sohn. was characteristic of Mendelsmemory Bardin's, two later in Paris, at the Abbe held every week, were reunions E-flat concerto. play Beethoven's
Hiller The

retentive A year or musical

where
was

asked
were

to

all there, and the string quartet, but no wind. "I will do the wind," said Mendelssohn simply, and he filled in the wind at a second piano sitting down a even note of the not neglecting parts from memory,
parts

second
memory. famous I could

horn.

He

Once

always he when

played
was

his piano pieces from praised for this feat, the


"

exclaimed : organist Kiihnau do the same thing if I did not


!" have

That manage

is not
to

art.

forget

everything It might

been

supposed
natural

that Mendelssohn
successor as

would
of

have the when

been

Zelter's

conductor

Singakademie,
the election

but
was

after Zelter's death (May, 1832), defeated by sixty held, he was

MENDELSSOHN.

361

at added to the disappointment " Wedding the failure of " Camacho's ; and the unhappy between Mendelssohn of the and many relationship

votes

out

of 236.

This

Berlin

would
"

musicians, notably not play for him


"

the
was

Koyal

Orchestra,
he
was

who

it because
a

Jew
ever.

made
was

Berlin

even

more

like

desert

to him

than

He
"

hopeless

of things

bettering

themselves

there.

will never to his last days, " is river." But he could


and
soon

Berlin

do
so

in music," he declared anything long as sand is sand, and the Spree

afford to look
after the

down

upon

such

ances, annoy-

performance of "the second Bach's birthday, he was Passion," which took place on " off on what he calls his grand tour," and enjoyingsuch a that they would of delightful experiences succession

alone filla book. He went first to England,

where

he laid the foundation

men Englisheven now most of that popularity which makes him look upon He as the greatest of composers. in London, success. gave four concerts with wonderful

After the musical season at the Hebrides stopping


the

was
"

over

he went he
was

to Scotland,

where
Here

inspired

with

first conception of his Cave," at Abbotsford. and


"

overture

called he was

"Fingal's

disgusted

enough, after travelling eighty miles, to be put off with a " half-hour's " indifferent conversation with Sir Walter. Melrose Nor Abbey him. even "We consoled cursed
great
men,

ourselves,

and

the

whole

world,"

were

his

words. His

visit in London

on

his return

in September
kept him him
from

was

to a prolonged, owing for two room months,

lame

knee, which prevented

in his

and present at his sister Fanny's

being

wedding.

362
In

MENDELSSOHN.

he returned to Berlin, he found when installed in the Gartenhaus, the artist and Fanny which had been turned into a studio. They were ready to take

December,

Mendelssohn part in a surprise which his parents' This silver wedding. " from Abroad," The Return entitled,

had
was
or
"

prepared
a

for

comedietta Son and The


was

Stranger."
part, but
a as

Every Hensel

member
was

of

the

family

to
was

take

part

note.

In

which required At the performance the spring, having


"

totally unmusical, him to sing one he could


not

he

given
same

and
even
an

the

do that. attack of folk, must


fortune," He

recovered
as

from
as
meaner

the measles, endure


"

for

genius,

well

"the

slings and

arrows

of outrageous
tour.

Mendelssohn

Venice
Weimar

in

his world resumed October, after

reached
visits at and Pres-

enjoying delightful
at

with

Goethe,

at

Munich,

Vienna,

burg.
letter-writing. One passion was of his intimate friends declared that most of his time The have was spent in this way. result is that we Mendelssohn's
great

in regard to every step detailed information remarkably in the very air with drank of his Italian journey. He idled away the ecstasy, and, as he says, systematically
days.

Natural

scenery,

the treasures

with

enjoyment

brilliant painters, poets, and to the highest tension.

of art, intercourse kept his musicians, Italian antiquities that he remarked

failed to interest him, and

it has been

sentiment, either showed scarcely a trace of devotional in his letters or his music. Indeed, the ancient music of He the Koman called it service entirely irritated him.

insignificant and dull. He spent nearly half enough


to witness

year

in Rome,
of

and
a

was

tunate for-

the

coronation

pope, and

MENDELSSOHN.

363
He

the ceremonies

of

Holy found

Week.

spent

Naples,
then

where

he

visited From Lakes. composed

Florence,

his old friend Milan, Genoa, and

six weeks Benedict.


the

in
He

Italian where yet he

Geneva
some

he
was

he walked to Interlachen, and waltzes, his only ones,


"

devoted to dancing. passionately his Italian and Scotch symphoIn Italy he composed nies, " Night," and other Walpurgis the music to Goethe's and vocal, and filled drawing-book pieces instrumental
after drawing-book with his sketches. he reached Paris, where he threw In December " into the vortex " of musical and social life.

himself At this They


was

time
wore

he had
their

to Meyerbeer. marked resemblance hair in the same Mendelssohn way.


a

annoyed,

cropped. usual invincible good-nature." In spite of his warm reception

appeared and one morning with his locks close heard of it, but took it "in his Meyerbeer

there, and the presence of Hiller and other good friends, Mendelssohn could not Paris, particularly after his Reformation phony Symstomach had been shelved by the "Concert Society" as
too

learned
smoky

and

"that

abstruse. nest," London,

He

was

glad
he spent

to

be back

in

where

two
a

months,

at many concerts, playing important pieces.

and

publishing

number

of

he gave three public winter bringing out a number at the Singakademie, concerts of interesting novelties, his Reformation Symphony, his
the
overtures
to
"

During

following

Midsummer's

Night's the

Dream,"

"

The

rides" Heb-

("Fingal's Cave") and


Prosperous

Voyage,"

as

well

as

Sea, and pieces by Beethoven and


"Calm
at

Bach.

Mendelssohn's

success

in conducting

the Lower

Rhine

364
Music Festival

MENDELSSOHN.

at the end

of May,

1833, brought

him

an

in Diisselthe entire charge of music offer to undertake dorf for three years at a salary of 600 thalers. By the advice of his father, who was with him during festival, and who was duties, he titles without the

pleased

title, he accepted

it.

would Afterwards

that while others had have duties without a don to Lonthe two went

interesting details of this visit together, and many learned that a very fine The are preserved. old man in London like the end of a November was morning afternoon
son's

in

Germany.

enthusiasm institutions. Diisseldorf had

his could not appreciate for English fog, Sundays, and other
to be less pleasant

He

proved

than

sohn Mendels-

He that by four complained anticipated. drunk, so was o'clock in the afternoon, half the town that he had to transact all his business in the morning. he gave operas by After a few months, during which Mozart

and

Cherubini

by religious works he threw Handel, up

theatre, and at the church Beethoven, Palestrina, Bach, and


at the

direction

he the slight connection which immense irritation and disgust. Socially there the
was

Even of the former. had with it caused him


He

much

in Diisseldorf Schadow, who


was

to

enjoy.

lodged
an

with

painter there.

art

school

Thus

he

established into an thrown

had

often took artistic circle. They Schadow with his noble head, and

long

together; walks distinguished manner

the bevy of speech, quite overshadowing and eloquent him. One handsome fellows who surrounded young No took much one time Chopin was there. notice of him, but when they returned
to

the
was

studio

"the

lyric
to

epicurean"

had

his revenge.

He

called upon

MENDELSSOHN.

365
dumb

play,

and,

after

the

first note,

all

were

with 1834,

amazement.

Mendelssohn he went
ran

kept
for
a

horse.
on

On

Christmas
The

Day,

out

ride

his bay.

steed bolted, and

through "I

the town

straight

for the stables.

kept

my

seat,"

he

wrote,

"but

was

in such
to
see

rage

! and weren't Herr Musikdirector Mendelssohn eyes This dorf


simply
was was a
:
"

the

people

just delighted
!"
a

the

racing
a

along
was

in blazed
rare

rage
out

fine sight ; for then

his

from

not

with

him.

lashes. the long under The at Diisselorchestra

gives
tune

for much He responsible of his irritation. humorous description of their lack of time and Every allegro leaves off twice as fast as it began,

the oboe plays E-natural in C-minor, and they carry it rains, and when it their fiddles under their coats when is fine they do net cover them once at all ; and if you four horses heard me this orchestra, not even conduct
and

could bring you there a second In the following spring, he

time."
was

invited

to Leipzig,

to

He accepted, at the Gewandhaus. conduct the concerts " a paradise." and found it, as he said, A little more than a month after the first concert, he by the sudden death of his father, was quite stunned who very

had

In the cataracts. entirely blind from last letter that he wrote, his father had urged him

become

his oratorio of " St. Paul " which he had begun several years before at Dflsseldorf. Felix selected " He once There are always the words himself. : wrote I stop anywhere two have when things that I must : one
to keep
on

with

is

Bible, and
was

the other

is

It owing

ordered for the illness, the to Schelble's

piano." Cecilia Club

"

of Frankfurt,
was

but,
can-

engagement

366

MENDELSSOHN.

first produced Rhine at the Lower celled, and it was Festival, in 1836, by a chorus of three hundred and sixteen singers, a large and efficient orchestra, all full of
enthusiasm. flowers upon
was

When

it

was

over,

young

ladies the

showered

the composer,

placed upon a golden Later he went to Frankfurt


for six weeks.

and lyre

crowned
on

score

which

the conductor's stand. to supply Schelble's place

of the aristocratic families of this place was Souchay. They lived in a fine house with a beautiful named became quent Mendelssohn the Main. a freview down
visitor at this house. in love, but here, at last, was
to last.

One

He
a

was

always

more

or

less

genuine

passion, destined

The

objectof
serene

it

was

the
a

Charlotte
of face

Sophie
most

Jeanrenaud, and The

Cecile granddaughter, beautiful girl of seventeen,

of a Madonna. Mendelssohn was attracted by her mother, a found The townspeople soon young widow. there
was
a

gentle disposition, with the family, at first,thought that charming


out

that

courtship
amusement

going

on,

and

it afforded
see

them the

considerable

and

be ; for, though was young, result would a man of culture, amiability, genius, rich and handsome, belonged to a family fame, and of considerable and
little against as celebrity, still all these things weighed " " the imponderable significance of patrician blood ! hard hit, but, being a young man Mendelssohn was of prudence, his idol for he
a

curiosity to Mendelssohn

what

determined

to

tear

himself

away

from

time, and test his affection by separation. her. The It stood the test. He was without miserable baths at Scheveningen sea could not cool his ardor. he flew back, proposed, was At the end of a month
accepted, and made
"

the

happiest

man

in the

world."

MENDELSSOHN.

367
in the
an

lie returned to Leipzig, bliss, it was at commemorated When


season

full halo
concert
"

of his

early

in the

" by the significant finale to " Fidelio " Who a lovely wife has gotten " by the the program put on He was directors. to improvise on the theme compelled
"

amid

shouts
was

and

hurrahs

in March, 1837. The at Frankfurt married honeymoon delight and fun of their happy are preserved in a diary kept by them both, and adorned with all sorts happiness Their was of droll sketches remarks. and almost
cut short
at
"

He

Bingen
to

on

the

Rhine,"

when

Mendelssohn,

in attempting with the cramp, and

swim

the

barely

Shortly
"

after this, he
"

saved from had to hasten


"

river, was drowning.


over

taken

to England
"

fifth visit to Festival. Birmingham


It is curious

his

his conduct His wife was he says


so

St. Paul

at

the

him.

that

unable to go with little about her in

his letters, but when he was in the gloomiest complaints


the double counterpoint !"

absent from her he indulges " is the good of all What : in the world," he asks, " if his

Cecile is not with him After a more than


Birmingham
to be again

usually successful visit both in he returned to Leipzig, glad and London, He home. established in his own pleasant
not

asks

if he
a

ought

to

be

perfectly

comfortable nice new Lurgenstein's garden, and the fields, and the view over serenely happy, more calmly city towers, feeling more felt since he left his parents' than he had ever joyful, roof. His

Cecile in

satisfied with his house open with an

happiness,

the

next

year,

was

interrupted

by his
He pain

wife's dangerous

complained

ill health. illness, and by his own deafness ear, of one and of complete

368
in the head playing what
on

MENDELSSOHN.

and
the

neck.
piano,
to

He

could
often It
four

not

even

hear the

his

own

people anxious, but passed

said
a

and him. attack

missed
made
years
one

point

of

him

similar

somewhat previously had

off in six

weeks,

and

this

also

was

only

temporary. The
full of
summer

he spent in Berlin, and was That month twelvework and pleasure. memorable included forty-second the and ninety-fifth
of that year string

quartets, his violin concerto, and he other things ; and when returned to Leipzig, and had " Elijah" recovered from a second attack of measles, his

Psalms,

several

was

well under Mendelssohn's

way. favorite motto

was

"

What

doing

at all is worth

doing

to accomplish
:

in his busy

he What well." life at Leipzig is almost letters, composition,

is worth found time incredible business,

writing

innumerable

friends, the exhausting society, the circus, visits from labor of conducting ; and while and arranging programs he, one hand composed two cantatas might say, with one for the festival in honor of the invention of printing,
with the other Italian poems

he

translated

into German
"

for his uncle It was verse.

number
a

of

constant

"a turmoil." whirl of excitement, really overpowering He thus tells of a soiree given in honor of Liszt : hundred "Three and fifty people, orchestra, chorus, Bach's Triple Concerto, at Sea, Psalm, punch, pastry, Calm
"

from St. Paul, Fantasia choruses Erlking, the Devil and his Grandmother." He
was

on

Lucia, the

fond

of Liszt, and

called his perfect

playing

at sight a miracle. of the G-minor pianoforte concerto If he liked anything but if he he liked it immensely, disliked it he would act in the oddest way. Once, when

MENDELSSOHN.

369
he

played himself down

Hiller

to
on

him

some

poor

composition

threw

the floor and rolled all about the room. he could not Some of Liszt's idiosyncrasies abide. how Hiller could see anything in BerHe could not see lioz's " I cannot Symphony. more conceive of anything

insipid, wearisome, and Philistine," to go stark mad he all his endeavors and as for your Liszt with his two what does a homely Mendelssohn was thought
"

he
never

says, "for
once on

with

fingers
want
on

succeeds ; key, one

provincial
a

like

me

severe
"

critic
a

even

" with him ? Handel, but he

William

Tell

perfect
a

and

complete

masterpiece.

pleasant picture of him at is going wrong. He a concert or opera when something boils with indignation, and his ever simply quiet and his coat Cecile lays her hand on serene and says, sometimes
get
"

We

Dear

husband,
he heard

do be calm that
he declared
not
a

!"

When

Meyerbeer

had

been

kapellmeister,
if there miles

that he might
a

court made have been jealous

had

been

distance

of several

German
real

between
"

court
were
"

kapellmeister
to

and
a

kapellmei

If I

be

made

court

composer
to

to-morrow,"

said
so

he, long

I should

be

bound

not

write

another Yet pleasant

note

as

I lived."
to
was

he

was

himself

be

kapellmeister, disturbed

life at Leipzig
up

to be

and his and finally


William

broken

by the proposed found an


was

ambition shortly Academy invited

of King
after

Frederick

IV., who
throne
to

of

his accession to Arts in Berlin.


the

the

end of 1840 to take the post of director of the musical division or class. His better judgment,and his dislike of Berlin with " its its utter lack of shoals of sycophant courtiers" and
toward musical
taste,

Mendelssohn

stood

against

it; but

he

was

probably

370
with
the

MENDELSSOHN.

weary

season's

concerts given nineteen he did 15. Indeed, what

at Leipzig, work between January

where 1 and

he had March his of

for Leipzig sumptuous

during history

life the

there

published. for a year, and his farewell He to Leipzig accepted Passion Music consisted of the Matthew appropriately Mendelssohn had interested himself to raise of Bach.
funds Thomas His for
-a

may Gewandhaus

be

read

in

the

concerts

recently

statue

of the
was

old

Cantor

in front

of

the

Schule.
first great
to

It

work
the

successful, for Berlin, where


was

he

now

became
gone" "Anti-

kapellmeister
The

King,

the

music

for

first performance of this old drama with beautiful setting took place on October Mendelssohn's 28, 1841. It immediately
with became

relations Berlin kind public,


were

his

band,

Mendelspopular, but sohn's and indeed, with the The King


was

most

unsatisfactory.

his request that through and obliging, and it was " Oidipous" Mendelssohn the music to " Athalie" wrote Dream," Night's Midsummer's Goethe's "The and
"

Walpurgisnacht" But
the

disagreeable, and more situation grew more from there, residence and at last the King released him him thalers for his thousand a salary of one allowing
had died in December, His mother duties of composition. But during his. 1842, and the Berlin house was now the rest of his life he lived chiefly in Leipzig, where his

darling

scheme into effect. A

of a conservatory legacy left by a man

of music

applied
to

to this purpose,

so accomplish much in April, 1843, with opened

named and the great institution destined formally for German art was Mendelssohn, composers David,
among

carried Bliimner was

was

mann, Schuthe

and

other

well-known

MENDELSSOHN.

371

teachers.

One

of the

genius, the greatest Even


*"

Joachim,

Hefirst pupils was brew the young boy of twelve, destined to be a


"

of violinists since Spohr. the long tedious Berlin business The


greatest
not

of

these
were

was

its compensation his lovely home had

life.
where

And

perhaps
was summer

least

his visits to England,


men.

he
the

the most

In

popular of of 1842 he made


was

his seventh

journey

to London,

and

this time

twice

received

ham at Bucking-

Palace,

Queen

for the he played accompaniments where him how She asked to sing. she could best express her thanks. He asked to see her sleeping children, this
of his
next

and

when

favor
own

was

granted,

kissed

them,

and

thought

at home.

year the Philharmonic

The

he

the conducted Society in London, composition and

last six concerts of introducing many by Bach,

novelties of his and Beethoven. Mendelssohn


the orchestra. from

own

Schubert,

conducted with His movements invisible.


He He

his
were

right

side

toward decided,
get the nature, good-

short and took


great

sometimes

almost

pains
tact

to

best

his orchestra. sometimes


was

had

and

though
wrong

when

things But
he

went
was

persistently popular with

his tongue and

sharp.
them

the band, Ever

inspired

to enthusiasm.

since

1838

Mendelssohn for
an

had

kept

in mind

the
took
Festival
as

subjectof Elijah
shape, and at last In of 1846. head

was

It gradually oratorio. for the Birmingham engaged


of his incessant
"

midst of the Conservatorium, and


to

the

labors

teaching

the

composition yet managed August was

administrative overseeing finish it in time, and by the

piano details,

"

and he
of

middle

in London

again.

372
The

MENDELSSOHN.

oratorio
home

was

unheard-of
and
wrote

success.

on performed Mendelssohn

the twenty-sixth, himself of it.


was

with

amazed,
was

glowing

accounts

But

he

not

satisfied with
custom,

changes he would them

and, in accordance with his usual after judgingby the public hearing, made many in it. His taste was fastidious, and often most
the work, spend hours
on

few

bars till he had


to

to perfection.

" " and Elijah in its revised form, the Prince Consort, who was present, wrote in his program-book, him a note as addressing another

the tenth

returned last time, to conduct the

When

he

polished England for

Elijah,
hours Prince

faithful to the worship of true Art, though by the idolaters of Baal." He also played Palace for the Queen and at Buckingham

"

surrounded

two

the

Consort
his way

On

alone. back, he

was

zealous official, who mistook by the police. It was wanted

arrested and detained by him for a Dr. Mendelssohn


a

very annoying accident. He had hardly reached home before the news of the sudden death of his sister Fanny to him. was abruptly broken He spent to the ground. With a cry, he fell unconscious himself largely occupying large pictures Thirteen with painting in water-colors. of Swiss scenery, and carefully executed, are in existence. that
summer

in Switzerland,

He

who

had

so

many

times

held vast

audiences

spellbound

on the organ, performances with his masterly played for the last time in the village church of Ringgenberg, on the Lake of Brienz.

When

he

the change
and
grown

his friends were home shocked at returned He had aged, that had taken place in him. dull and listless. Only occasionally his usual themselves
; for the

gay
was

spirits asserted

most

part

he

mournful

and

depressed.

MENDELSSOHN.

373
in his head

The
worse.

trouble which After three


3, he

he

had

suffered

grew

severe

and

November

died
It

October 9 attacks between in the evening of Thursday,


too

November
Europe
were

4, 1847.

is not

much
was as

mourned. In dead/'
was

In Leipzig,

it

say that all " a king though


to

London,

Manchester,
in many

and

Birmingham,
chief

where he Germany,

so

beloved,
even

of the

cities of
were

and

in

Paris,

memorial

concerts

organized. Scholarships

were
were
a

established
erected.

in

his honor.

Busts

and statues of him After his death, selections from They included male
without

commission the immense

was
mass

to pubappointed lish of his manuscript.


"

and

mixed and

words,"
opera

quartets

part-songs, duets, quintets, fragments

songs

of unfinishe

and

oratorios, overtures,

concerted

pieces,

and symphonies. As a song-writer Mendelssohn cannot He a dozen other German composers.


care

compared himself did

be

to

not

for what

are

national airs were bagpipes, Swiss horns, heart ; still less,


tone,
"

He declared that called Volk-songs. beastly, common, false things. Scotch

and

Welsh

harps

were

not

to

his

stupidly

in a so-called melodies whined by maladroit fingers." accompanied his


own

nasal Naturally,

with few exceptions, lack spontaneity. His duets are better. Still greater his four-part songs, many are of which are immortal. He himself confessed that pianoforte not pieces were therefore,
songs, what real he wrote
success.

with the Yet his unequalled


composer

greatest
"

Songs

pleasure or even Without Words "

with have

enjoyed almost
It
was as a

popularity. concerted music, and oratorios, that Mendelssohn

of chamber

and

especially of symphonies

374
was

MENDELSSOHN.

great.

His

greatness

consists

not

in those
of
a

overwhelming

day;

but

effects characteristic in calm, symmetrical

of the music beauty. In

later

this he

is

friend, in all the relations of family His stands alone and apart. and society, Mendelssohn him letters have endeared He is known to the world.
as a
as

unexcelled. As a man,

few

other

composers

have
to

ever

been

known.
it

Though
seems

it is somewhat
to

the fashion

sneer
on

at him,

safe

predict, that as time increase than diminish.

goes

his fame

will rather

SCHUMANN.
(18W-1856J

MOZAKT'S
was

life has been


volcanic; with

called panoramic; Mendelssohn's was


Schumann's
was

ven's Beethoscopic. kaleidocolorless

In

contrast

these,

and monotonous. Mendelssohn and

Schumann

were

antipodes.

The

one

effervescent ; the other, silent clear, open, spontaneous, fond of publicity; The one, deep, sometimes obscure. fireside, or in the by his own the other, most at home
at the editorial sanctum guarded light and spirit of any company;

desk. the

The

one,

the
a

other, almost

hermit We
Both

and

know have

recluse. both most

intimately
influence

through
on

their letters.

exerted
was

great

Mendelssohn's
of

weaker

especially Brahms. Kobert


children.
was

ephemeral, and fibre ; whereas has Schumann's by stronger Contrast natures.

But musical art. felt mainly by those

been

felt

Gade

and
of five place birth-

Alexander
His

Schumann
was

was

birthday

June

youngest 8, 1810. His

the

the quaint little Saxon town of Zwickau, with houses tall, picturesque streets, and broad, grass-grown

his father, F. A. G. Schumann, the where carried on father's business of bookseller His and publisher.
375

376
father
surgeon.
was
a

SCHUMANN.

clergyman.

His

mother's

father

was

No
the

long line of musical He Tone-Art. was


was a

ancestry
a

explains the

his bent for


But

graft

on

tree.

his

father

man

of poetry

; and

of culture, sensitive, imaginative, fond his mother strangely combined strong,

practical

common-sense

sentimentality. romantic it. The mother opposed Yet it was cultivated

with His

an

extravagant

father

favored

view of his bent.

At early. Baccalaureus who


was

seven

he

was

certain extent, beginning taking lessons of the pedantic


to
a

Kuntsch,
long

not

they who drew in music with their mother's milk, thereby feeling themselves of the great family of consciously members their artists, into which others like himself had to make
entrance

that he predicted He must have felt the lack of musical nurture for he afterwards remarked how fortunate were

organist of the Marienkirche, in discovering the boy's talent, and be one of the lights of art. would
at home,

When Moscheles

by dint of sacrifice. he was nine, he heard


at

the
a

famous

Carlsbad.

It

was

It awakened When wings.

ambition ; it made he was back at


the

revelation him conscious

pianist to him.
of his

studying
sports formed flutes, a

at

and
a

or gymnasium had music pleasures

and high school, all his He for a background.

his

home

again,

little orchestra
two

clarinet, and filled in with

the

consisting of two violins, two mann horns. Missing parts SchuHe composed pieces piano. He
amazed father The who
use.

suitable
at
was

for this band.

them
was

extempore
sure

playing.
an

by his skill He pleased.


ever

of

audience

buy classic masterpieces

of one, for his

was

ready to

SCHUMANN.

377

public performance by Schneider. A lively boy of eleven it was the accompaniment, playing
"

Kuntsch

gave

of

stood Schumann.

choral work at the piano


Two

years chorus
not

later he and

himself

arranged
played

the in

150th

Psalm He
was

(for
was

and orchestra),

in music. precocious merely he helped his father prepare

public. he When
a

teen, fourentitled of All

book
Men

"Picture

Gallery

Nations
His
of
a

and father, who

of Times." had

the

Most

Famous

been

hindered

in his
von

own

to Carl Maria profession, wrote Dresden, with a view to putting Robert Weber to receive him consented
came

choice Weber, at his tuition. nothing


course

under ; but
His long

of it,and

the father died in 1825.

the gymnasium three years later ; and, out of ended love for his mother, who was in her views by supported his guardian, Herr he reluctantly Etidel, the merchant,
at

sacrificed his inclinations, and Leipzig.


He
was

began

the study

of law

at

by this time
Jean Paul.

fully under Whole pages


are

the sway of the sentimental he of letters which rhapsodies


of

wrote

while

the author in his eyes


He

sofa with tears and his friend's letter in his hand ; he wanders a dozen times. out through nature, and reads it over feels pure and undying love for the first time ; he
on

still in Zwickau " He Titan." of

like the the

lies

would fain be a smile be joy so as to bound


tear

weep with poetic mill is still either because there is too much water in the sluiceway, or too little. Yet can he hardly tell it is Liddy or Naimi whether Verily it cannot be Liddy, that most stirs his heart. for on a fatal Thursday he

and

her eyes, would around her pulses, would through be a her, and die on her eyelashes ! His

and

play

378
her

SCHUMANN.
-W-J""'

-V.

sat with
arose

on

the Rosenburg;

great

bluish mist mountains

in the east ; the sun was setting ; the whole temple of nature lay far and wide before the intoxicated to him It almost seemed by that his ideal was vision. his side. He seized Liddy's hand, and pointing to the

black-purple
"

Liddy, But

such Liddy

storm-clouds is life !"


was

on

the

horizon

exclaimed,

not

one

in that day, who his dog. She made some


on

of the young Jean worshipped


remark

women

so

mon com-

Paul

and

deified

his flowers of sentiment,

and

that fell like cold water he cries, " The dream is

over."

Quaint and far-fetched conceits, glowing


love
and

words

about

ideal and the real, mental sentiall pictures of peasant dances and idyllic scenes, incomprehensible that strange and to us almost rigmarole friendship
and the and nonsense, of sense heart, flow from his ready then
pen.
so

dear to the German

his acquirements and tastes : He Sophokles ; he has lately taken up has finished reading Plato's " Crito," but can find no delight in it : " Plato is

Occasional

hints

at

Tacitus and Sallust attract him strongly, but Cicero revolts him : " he is a rabulist, that is, pettifogger braggart." charlatan, and windbag

food for

men."

"

"

It is Jean

Paul

him.

"

I place

finds still who him above all


"

"

" the first place with Schiller (Goethe even

as understand yet)not excepted." him This influence remained through with supreme his love for the life, and explains to a certain extent

I do not

in expression, the sharp conbrilliant and extravagant trasts, laughter and tears, and the disregard of form, which characterize his music.
"

"

Before

he took

up

his residence

at Leipzig

he went

on

SCHUMANN.

379
friend, Gisbert
went
as

pleasure
a

also where

trip with a new-made Paulist. He strong Jean


he

Kosen,

far

as

Munich,

the acquaintance of made of Heine, so many he afterwards At Augsburg set to music. whose poems he lost his heart to a charming Kurrer, but it Clara von The young platonic and sentimental passion. Her image lady was he writes so engaged. of which doomed to go into ecstatically, with eloquent silence was his heart gave so much that picture-gallery to which
was

only

room.

He

Jean

made Paul.

husband. but
more

to Bayreuth to see the widow pilgrimage of Frau Richter him a portrait gave of her He was delighted with the palace-like houses, with the people, like Rollwenzel, who could talk
a

for hours

When
attention
"

about his idol. he returned to Leipzig


on

it

was

hard
gone

to fix his

his law studies. Eosen Oh, to be at Heidelberg


early
cannot

had

berg. to Heidel"

Schumann
where
progress
rooms."
one

in

June

"

with is Leipzig

wrote you ! horrid hole a

enjoy life.

in the art of spending

It is far easier to make than in the lecturemoney few

Yet

he had

written
"

his mother
"

only

days

before

declaring
"

that though

ice-cold definitions

get the

he

can

He

better of it : " indeed do all things." hides nothing from his beloved
"

" chilling jurisprudence with its is revolting to him, yet he will if only a man his will-power, uses

mother,
"

forgiving

the mother," gentle monitor him he faithfully warned so who when " of sinking deeper into the labyrinth of life." He writes her long letters full of sentimental effusiveness, complaining
that there
are
no

good, his of youth, in danger was

his

"

mountains,

no

valleys,

no

380
forests

SCHUMANN.

where

his thoughts

may

have

free

course

no

be alone. he writes her, "Nature," place where he may " handkerchief is the great wide-spread of God, embroidered His for eternal name, and serviceable to man with
wiping The
out

all his tears of sorrow." with which perfect frankness his soul to his mother, and the away between

Schumann

sympathy understand

why

evident it them, make somewhat she so opposed him in making

pours love and

hard
music

to

his

profession. He lets it be
In the
same

no

secret that he is stillinterested in music.

letter that tells her of the cost of his "patriarchal he mentions ducat a a paying establishment," for the hire of a piano, and wishes he might month " dear old faithful instrument, or be either have his own dollars in the purchase of a able to spend four hundred
new

one."

He
to

tells her

that he

goes

regularly

and

the

and
goes

lectures, plays the piano much, reads a great deal, plays chess every
out for
a

machine-like at home works


evening, and He also takes
as

fencing

walk of two or three hours. her apprehensions lessons, but he calms


of duelling

to
a

the danger

by saying,
never

"

I have

never

been

brawler
he
go

[Raufbold~], and
often
to

the

Neither will be." but rather finds Bierkneipen,


or

does
more

delight in the
men

; the
were

society of two only family whom

three

he

congenial young visits is Dr. Carus's,

They were musical people, old acquaintances. led to Schumann's with Marschner, acquaintance and " brought Vampyr" was out that spring, and with whose the Wiecks.
who

Schumann
one

began

to

take

lessons

of the best piano

teachers

of Friedrich in Germany ; but

Wieck,
as

early

SCHUMANN.

381
to leave

as

August

he wrote

for his

mother's

permission

for a year, so as to hear and go to Heidelberg famous German the most jurists, especially Thibaut, the " Purity in Musical Art," who had performed author of
Leipzig
two the miracle of combining His spirits, which had been

opposing professions. improved low, immediately

such

at

the

prospect
with

paradise,

in that blooming of being with Rosen its great tun and little tuns, its jolly ple, peo-

Italy, and France; to Switzerland, and its nearness of being in the society of those who should understand in Leipzig him. That was the cause the of his gloom lack of sympathizing nous spirits to inspire him, the monoto"

course

of commonplace
went to

life.
"

So
"

he

Heidelberg

the

journey being
It
was

like
all
a

flight through

hundreds
the

illusion

about

law.

of spring skies." In the easy-going


or

life of

university
temptation

student restraint without irresistible to drift was


was

obligation, the the stream. with


pandects hours
the

Piano
with

open dust.

more

attractive
of practice

than
seven

We
devoted

read
to

covered day, of

evenings rather

than

Thibaut
forecast

music, of Thibaut the lawyer.


fate ! In

musician

Strange
letter to lodgings
old
"

of

his

his mother,

he

tells her

first enthusiastic that his "princely

because (princely

mountain
are so

oaks)
or

castle and between the Catholic

of the view of the splendid hills covered with the green

Church
whether

and
to

the

madhouse, crazy

that he is truly in doubt His


a

be

Catholic !
from

descriptions sentimental

of the whole

journeyare

like pages
"Hyperion."

novel,

"

like Longfellow's

Before into
the

he procures establishment

piano, he goes with all boldness himself of a dealer, introduces

382
the steward

SCHUMANN.

as

of

of purchasing long hours, " gaped Thousands

English young instrument, an


at and

lord who
and

was

ing think-

plays for three


in Schumann's
He

of such

applauded." details are found


he
is

letters.

In

September

in

Italy.

tells his

sister-in-law of a beautiful English girl at Milan, who seemed to have fallen in love, not with himself, but his piano-playing. She gave him

She

was

haughty

they parted. sprig of cypress when and kind, loving and hating, hard and Schumann
:

soft, when

poor and rich, weak and strong, long the recollections worn out, yet full of life. And Perhaps they, of the cypresses of Milan filledhis heart. to weep more than lack of ready money, as caused him

played. to himself

he

applied

similar contradicti

he sat

on

stone

bench with

in front of the sad

Doge's
at

palace at
the
sea

Venice,

looking

and

weary

and the unknown people hearts like Schumann's


as

well
was,

as

their heights

passing have their valleys of bliss. But how

eyes to and fro.

al Sentimentof
sorrow,

he

is shown Englishwoman's The

by his diary and is like the speech


noses

susceptible his letters. A pretty whispering


who

angel.

Grecian
Rhine, him he he

of the

maidens

of an dwell

with Father hair, delight

and

their oval

cheeks
from

and

brown

amazingly.
got

Whether
Italy which forth under

all the

advantage

his trip to

be told.
fluently.

he eloquently set expected, and which twelve heads in a letter to his mother, cannot He had learned to speak French and Italian
But

if the

charming the

days
Italian

that lakes

he did

spent

in

Switzerland
more

and
confirm
were

among

than

him
not

they

nothing tiful, in his love for all things beauhe heard Moreover, wasted.

SCHUMANN.

383

Kossini he heard Pasta and when it seemed to him (so he at the Scala in Milan, sung Himself God Friedrich Wieck) as though stood wrote The before him, and let him look into His face. charm

Paganini

And

was

upon
must
"

him

; henceforth

the law

was

an

impossibility.

He

him

make future

of Saxony Still he remained at Heidelberg, to decide, toying with art, and

her dream his mother renounce of seeing diplomate, ambassador of the Royal Court America !" to the Free States of North

ing undecided, yet longperation yet in a sort of deslost time by more one effort to redeem making An unsatisfacthe course tory with an old lawyer. reviewing his mother, speaking of existence ; for, as he wrote his attraction for music, and of the creative spirit, jurisprudenc
"turns

ice,

so

that

no

the springtime He tells her simplest


thirty

gristle, and freezes flower of fancy will any longer " of the world !

him

into

him yearn

into for

how

economical

he

is, living

on

the

of fare, and spending thalers for the semester,

hire, and
how

almost

as

much

hundred and only one forty florins for pianofor French lessons, which are because justifiable, he daily

"stupendously
sees

dear,"
a

but

necessary

his is, and because it. recommended led him into the extravagance Sometimes his economy but potatoes for a fortnight at a of living on nothing
time.

perfect knowledge dear father had

of the language

his guardian inclined to keep him was on for he is always short commons, writing to his "most for more honored Herr funds, or sharing Riidel" his Evidently telling of his anxieties with his "dear good mother," debts, and his plans for raising money by methods which he should most adopt unnatural circumonly in the

384
in

SCHUMANN.

stances

namely,

case

he

should

get

none

from

home. He with
was

too

light-hearted

to

be he

unhappy
goes
to

; he

drifted
in

the

current.

One

day

Mannheim

Grand Duchess coach of the widowed "to Stephanie breathe court air for a little of Baden, it is choking." he figures as leadThen ing while, though the
" at the soloist is attended which

four-horse

great, miserable

Heidelberg

concert,

from

Mannheim

or

almost Karlsruhe."

by

fine society which, as frequents at Dr. WUstenf eld's,


of the

all the royal highnesses And he tells his mother it were, under protest, he
"

where from

there

is

pretty "with
move

daughter, French him,


"

and

witty

gouvernante

Lausanne,
not

eye-play,"

and Handel a oratorio sung by a select chorus house " of " the splendid, divine " Thibaut,
keenness,

does which, nevertheless, he Or, on a Thursday elsewhere.

listens to
"holy wit, and

at the

of whose

sensibility,

pure

artistic

sense,

charm

grace, he cannot

say enough. birthday He celebrates his mother's " What the the old castle. else should of
of

in the

ruins

of

child be, than an its parents ? " he


a

life and the vocation ness eternal wish for the happiAs a fervently exclaims.
"

birthday

Liederkranz a several songs, he called it ; but, as he failed to get them (song-wreath) his piano-playing ! adding, done in time, he gave her in his letter, the hope that she is not annoyed at his gift, he
wrote
"

wit, and will smile at the deceiver again. 145 florins to the tailor for his But, oh, the debts !
"

fine red cloak and black stockings and blue dress-coat and black coat and waistcoat, and then dues for shoes And then he must eat and drink, and go and cobbling. to Mannheim, and buy books and music; and smoke,

SCHUMANN.

385

masked
tuner,

balls, fees, subscriptions, bootblack, washerwoman,

cigars, cigars, pianocandles,

friends who must sometimes he adds pathetically, " For had


a

soap, good have a glass of bier / and I have four long weeks not !"
at last.
"

kreutzer

But

in my pocket the fateful June came life !

How

he

revels in

the glorious summer four," he writes his


to

I get up
;
"

brother

the

at every morning sky is blue enough

kiss.

I work

till eight

on

ten to twelve the piano from eight to to two, go and Mittermayer ; from twelve with Thibaut out for a walk and dinner ; from two to four, with Zach-

play

pandects ten ; from

and

civil law ;

; then we go to the castle, or aria, and Johannsen Rhine, or to my dear mountains." On the last day of June, he wrote his mother,

to

the

at five

o'clock in the morning, his life." The alcohol

"

the

most

important sputtering

letter of

boiling and

under

his

to kiss, the sky pure and golden enough coffee machine, ing his cigar tasting excellently, his mother's last letter lyhe comes to his great confession : before him, and now
"

My

whole

life has been

twenty

years' battle between

poesy and prose, or call it music and/ws." In Leipzig he dreamed more and cared less about his he says he has plan of life ; but in Heidelberg, really tried
to

and

more

work, with to depend


I stand
at

the
on

result

that

he

has

come

more

art.

parting of the ways, and am frightened at the question, ' Whither ?'' He his genius points to him tells her that it seems in spite of her good out the right way, and motherly
"an future and a and the danger of uncertain Thibaut precarious living," he must choose for himself. him had long advised to dedicate himself the jurist to reasons

"Now

the

Art.

386
And
he begs

SCHUMANN.

his mother to write to Wieck, and ask him frankly what he thinks of him and his plan of life. it was for her, she consented. Hard His guardian as her answer When was came not so yielding. enclosing
so

for six months, experiment what an earnest protest he sent her against any longer his talent! degrading With he scorn eloquent what

Wieck's

advice

to

try

the

holds

in a provincial up the petty life as oberactuarius city of 3,000 inhabitants and with 600 thalers salary, in the morning till seven at night in sitting from seven lawsuits, dealing with four-groschen the council-room, with convicts and the and scoundrels
"von"

! Even

the title of nobility,


not

much-coveted

would

repay

those

years of service to a false ideal. he had turned his back on Yet when ready for a three-years7 devotion his spurs, and with America already
as
one

berg, beautiful Heidelto his art, to win


as a

dreaming
an

of

career

virtuoso,

he writes and barren


After

goal, and his dearest mother


as

English
his
"

that

wife as another, heart is as dead

the future." settled comfortably in Leipzig, he once


sixteenth
"

he

was
"

in
more

an

simple
money.

fashion

idyllic and began to lack


wrote

On

the

" For two weeks mother : Wieck thalers, and owe twenty His actually living like a dog."

of November I have not had


Ltihe

he
a

his

I shilling. thirty, and I am


"a

hair

was

yet he could not get it cut, and for a been obliged to wear white cravats, his black His piano is horribly out of tune. so shabby. even shoot himself, because he has no money

yard long," fortnight he had


ones

were

He
or

can't

pistols.

Still in all his mock despair he her fear lest a good tree may be justified.

assures

his

bear

bad

that mother fruit will not

SCHUMANN.

387
Wieck's
house,
read
get

Schumann began

took

lodgings
beginning, But he
was

near

and any

at the very
at sight.

although
so

he could
to

concerto

anxious

ahead

that he

practised for hours, fastening the third in a strained position, hoping finger of his right hand to give it equal thereby strength with the others, and
secretly thus

equal
was

bros,

if not surpass Moscheles. This, says Amis good illustration of the saying that a man his neck if he jumps through a window down stairs quicker than by descending of 1831,

liable to break

in order to get the stairway.


In

he to what owing calls his "painful, almost childish, fear of cholera," his will, Schumann he even thought of going to made But the plan was Weimar to take lessons of Hummel.
the
summer

perhaps

"

"

it because of the slight lameness Was given up. he began to feel in his hand ? Perhaps. Two he

which that

years

later he the

wrote

his friend Dr. Topken

is playing
one

crippled

began,
neglect
to play

he

injured and piano but little,having The injury of the fingers of his right hand. insignificant, but through says, by being
worse,
so

it grew

as

to make

it almost
even

impossible

at all. Yet

he

was

resigned, and

considered

it providential. It turned It was. both


of incomparable

activity into two influence: composition

his

channels, and
icism. crit-

he though attempted, knew a number not the laws of the science : at Leipzig of songs full of queer indiscretions, but also of soul and At Mannheim he had met a young girl poetic feeling.

Composition

he

had

already

Abegg Meta named a, 6, e, g, g, he wrote

at
a

masked

ball ; and

on

the letters

set of variations

afterwards

printed

388

SCHUMANN.

Op. 1, and dedicated to a Countess existed only in his imagination.


as

Pauline

Abegg,

who

This

trifle formed

") which appeared his mother, he wrote time/,'


healthy,

part of his "Papillons" in Leipzig in 1831.


"

flies ("Butter"

In

short

baptized

I shall be the father of a blooming I should like to have child, which in Leipzig. Heaven grant that you may
.

it with understand life !" They were


"

its earliest tones of youth, of living directly inspired by Jean Paul's

writes to his friend Kellstab in Berlin : after reading the last scene in the work, as he Walt called up before his mind and Wult and the and the dances, he sat almost unconscious at masks

Hegeljahre" as

he

"

"

the piano, "and so arose He studied harmony

one

Papillon

with but systematic was of the Leipzig opera; application he had to his nature, and years later, when contrary begun knowledge, to feel the need of more a thorough
a manual and his wife poring over Schumann was always grateful to Dorn of counterpoint. for his instruction, and speaks of him as the man who

after another." Friedrich Dorn, conductor

caller found

Schumann

first helped of the


common

him

to the heights

herd

pure atmosphere Schumann spent

of of Art. the

men,

he might where and drink in more

see

less

of the

Schneeberg
was
never

writing

winter of 1832 his first symphony

at

Zwickau

in G-minor.
was

and It

published,
at
a

but

one

movement

at

Zwickau

wonder
was
so

in which Schumann child, took part. was that Zwickau marvellous


concert

Clara

played Schumann, a

says her playing fired to enthusiasm

for the first time

in its existence. In March, 1833, he returned to Leipzig, where happy in quiet though a easy circumstances
"

he lived
type of

SCHUMANN.

389
he

"

the

free lance

surrounded eager to do something great. him and the charming Between there
was

in music, working by gifted friends, whose

"

pleased, and him made stimulus Henriette

as

Frau

Voigt,

interrupted noble platonic friendship which was only by the early death of the latter. He wrote " in the following summer, to his mother two splendid of female beings " who had come into their circle, Emily,
a
"

the
"an

sixteen-year-old Englishwoman

daughter
through

of

the

American with

Consul, keen,

and

through,

sparkling

and of a Countess
"

hair, firm step, full of spirit, dignity, eyes, dark life ; " the other, Ernestine, the adopted ter daughBaron Fricken, her mother von rich Bohemian,
Zeltwitz
"

tender
me

and

thoughtful,

gloriously pure, childlike nature, intense love for with the most

everything artistic, extraordinarily musical." into her motherly He whispers ear that and sympathetic if he could choose he would make his this young woman wife. broken
town

and

They
in the

became
summer

was engaged, but the engagement from the little She came of 1835.

of Asch,

made in his

which he celebrated in music with it,and mystically up of the letters composing


own

theme

hidden

name.1

At

Poppe's
a

restaurant,

Kaffeebaum,
men,

evening

coterie

of

young though

and

gathered Schumann

every quently fre-

joinedthem,

his " pensive, dreaming He wrote Clara Wieck

apt to sit silent and Jean-Pauliads."


was
:
"

he

am

often

dry, and
1

disagreeable, and
Esin
that
are

laugh
with

much

very leathery, inwardly." And


for

A-es-c-h:

German
the town

corresponds
of Asch
name,

E-flat; h

B-flat.

"I
that
ones
"

have
the

just discovered
same

has

letters writes

found
a

in my

a very name, musical and indeed, are the only musical

in

it," he

in

letter

dated

September

13, 1834,

and

signed

Robert

SCHumAnn."

390

SCHUMANN.

of his tendency again, speaking I acknowledge even "Inwardly

to

seclusion,
most

the

says : trifling favor,

he

every hint, every subtle trait in another's understand heart, and yet I so often blunder in what I say and do." " him best were his radiThose who knew satisfied with ant

expression,
approved Among of what these

and
was

his

speechless

"

glance

when

he

said.

congenial
the

spirits originated,

at

mann's Schuwas

suggestion,

musical

journalwhich

to

lead the revolt of genius against traditions, and be the in favor of greatei freedom, protest of youth of new The the establishment things. year 1834 saw of the
New

Journal

of

Music

("Neue

Zeitschrift fur
Wieck, but

Musik

"),

at first was which edited by Friedrich Schunke, Julius Knorr, Schumann, and

Ludwig

afterwards

by Schumann

alone.

various signatures, figure 2 and combinations Meister


Raro,

various contributors employed Schumann taking for his, either the of it, or
Florestan,
as

The

Eusebius,

Jeanquiritj

according

he

different points of view, criticise from and imaginative, the gentle and sensitive, the light and humorous. These imaginary a revocharacters formed lutionary in all band, conspiring to fight Philistinism
its forms.

to wished the impulsive

Schumann
figure

introduces
in his carnival

them
scenes.

into

makes
march

them

his music have We

;
a

of the Davidsbundler

against

the Philistines.

Schumann and

certainly revolutionized the influence of the new

the science of criticism,

time
a

when

both
can

low

tide,

Schumann
feared
a
as
an

and musical music be over-estimated. never declared that if he once


not

journal, started were journalism


had
not

at

at

been

publisher

editor, he would for his works.

have

been

able to find

They

were

not

generally

SCHUMANN.

391

by his contemporaries ; they were understood Spohr, dry, eccentric, heavy, out of rule.
not
"a

considered could
works mony of har-

comprehend
want

Beethoven,

found

who in Schumann's

breadth euphony and melodious But still he composed, !" with his eyes fixed not on popularity, but on his ideal. Not present until he " " he appreciated Kinderscenen was published his lovely
of

by the general public. Meantime Leipzig musical 1835.

was

blossoming
Mendelssohn after
new

out

as

the

most

city in Germany. On the evening Wieck the concert, gave Mendelssohn The
at next

came

there

in

the

first Gewandhaus

and

Schumann

a conductor reception. for the first time. met

day they

dined

together,

and

in the

afternoon

Clara Wieck, a and six, Moscheles, pianist from for three pianos, MenBach's delssohn Bremen concerto played furnishing fourth. the orchestral parts on a
"

It

splendid," wrote Schumann. influenced Mendelssohn apparently


was

Schumann
They

in the
met

direction of greater perfection Schumann though was


Mendelssohn
natural,

of form.
a

quently, fre-

better than

such Mendelssohn opposite glorious


another

He recluse. liked him,

liked
as

was

considering said he, !


a

their "is
"

"Mendelssohn," polarities. fellow, a diamond

heaven right from " a high mountain,

In

letter he

calls him

" perfect god ! Among the other brilliant lights who Chopin and Hiller, Gade and Henselt.

shone

then

were

Clara
whose
English

Wieck

had

grown

into
set

woman.

Schumann, by the

warm

heart had
eyes of

been

to

beating by

guishing lan-

dark-haired

Italians,

intellectual

girls, and the pretty maidens in her at last his truest ideal. Years

of the Rhine,

found

before

she had been

392
He

SCHUMANN.

perfection. as a brother

of you not of a sister, or as a friend of his friend, but as a thinks somewhat pilgrim of the far-off perhaps And after asking her how apples tasted altar-picture."

wrote

her, in 1832

"

I think

in Frankfurt,
comes

he end.

to

an

closed with Everything

the
comes

words:
to
an

"My

paper

end

except

friendship." the greatest pianist in Germany. She and it was said of her, played Bach, Chopin, Beethoven, No came, one "She she played, and she conquered." could

She had

become

resist the Schumann

poetry said

of

"this

Schubert,

tion." noble appariPaganini, Chopin, and

tender,

now

Clara,

were

examples

lightning which make up from its tranquil grazing. loved her. But Schumann

brilliant flashes of the world, that herd of cattle, look


of those her

father, who Schumann loose, refused a man of honor, but with a screw said was He forbade any sort to hear of their marriage. even "on He carried Clara pain of death." of intercourse,
off, and where

Schumann
was.

for
one

time

did

not

even

know

called him phlegmatic " " Schumann ! wrote Carnaval, and phlegmatic ! ; " for ! Love E-sharp sonata, and phlegmatic minor he slightingly !" Then such a maiden, and phlegmatic she At time

Wieck

"

"

Juan is his " Don asks where he scornfully remarks Then But his compositions. buy
already

"

and
that
the
"

his the

"

Freischutz

"

public will not " had Kinderscenen


there
was

appeared.
"

And
"

what

promise

in that of
so

marvellous
"

Toccata

(Op. 7),which
hoping
to

is

prophecy

much, of all ! In 1838 Schumann,

better found

paying Vienna

basis, transferred

place his journalon a But he it to Vienna.


as
a

had

lost its prestige

musical

centre.

SCHUMANN.

393

No

Paul Jean and seemed able to appreciate interfered with his The Shakspere. police authorities The editor. work, and required him to have an Austrian in vain. Vienna struggle was cakes and the chorus in
one

then

the Karnthnerthor
April

Theatre

helped he

to console

him,

but in and

of the following
*

year

returned

to Leipzig,

in

revenge

Scene

the placed from Vienna.


was

"Marseillaise"

in his

Carnival

Wieck

Clara
law.

in his opposition. But, still strong had recourse reciprocated his love, Schumann The father's
were objections

as

to
on

overruled,
at his
own

and

September had
was

12, 1840, Schumann, made


Doctor

been

who, of Philosophy

request,

by the University,

at the church of Schonfeld. married to Clara Wieck Rtickert wrote them a congratulatory poem. felt justified Schumann He wrote, in the at this step.

following
power,

February

"

We

are

young,

we

have
a

our

fingers, property

which

reputation. brings me

I have,

moreover,

modest
a

three
are

hundred
almost
as

thalers much,

year; my

the

profits of the Journal


are

and

compositions

well paid
annoyances
to
a

for."
were of the experience exceedingly He temperament. of Schumann's

Yet

the trying

man

himself
bundler
"

that acknowledged dances, the E-minor


"

his

concerto,

his
"

"

Davids-

sonata,

the

Kreisleriana"

and that

the

Noveletten"

his Clara

had

particularly cost him. exception of been written


inspiration
songs !
aus

betray

the

struggle

Hitherto,
his piano.

with

the

the

E-minor

had works Now, the under


one

exclusively of love, came


yearj

symphony, for the


upwards

of gems
most

hundred
are

in

one

and

what

of them
1
'"

Faschingsschwank

Wien."

394
Nearly
years

SCHUMANN.

all of his great works his marriage that followed


; in 1842,

date
:

during

the

five phonies sym-

in 1841, three
"

mostly

chamber

music

three

quartets

in

The

same

Berlioz was piano. present, and took the fame of it to Paris. In 1843 Mendelssohn at established the Conservatory Leipzig, and Schumann instructor in comwas appointed position
at the

was which Schumann

at the rate of one month, movement year he wrote his quintet for piano and strings, first played January 8, 1843, Madame on
a

string a day.

as

and part-playing. teacher.


next

He

had, however,

littleability

The Russia.
were

Madame year he accompanied The imperial family and many


to

Schumann
of the

to

were and all the musicians The Grand Princess Helena, whom they visited at Tsar" treated artists skoye Selo, treated them as she had never

kind

them,

nobility friendly.

before."

She
an

was

found
Tver,
to

and

enjoyed

mann Schuto keep them there. anxious living in older brother of his mother's It is pleasthe unexpected ant meeting.

" the old reconciliation with read that complete " had at last taken place, and many man of the details of their Russian visit are to be found in their letters to got, forforgave, if he never Schumann their " dear papa."

the cruel acts of his father-in-law. After Mendelssohn was called to Berlin, Schumann, the who had resigned his editorship, settled in Dresden,

being change Mendelssohn,


awful

necessitated by his ill-health. He wrote in July, 1845, that he had been having an
:
"

winter by a

absolute

nervous

prostration,

accompanied

swarm

him

to despair."

of metal

tools,

of terrible thoughts, nearly drove Insomnia, a horror of death, a dislike him. fear of being poisoned, tormented

SCHUMANN.

395
And

The
was

doctor
much

forbade
more

his

hearing

quiet

than

music. Here Leipzig.

Dresden ant pleas-

he had

being the young them acquaintances, also, among hot-headed Wagner, then kapellmeister, and ready for any kind of revolution.
The
"

following which

glow

year he he had begun

was

much to feel

better;
as a

"the

rosy
reof newed

promise

which

its sunrise, and brought he comstrength had posed his second symphony, the drums and trumpets of had been throbbing and blaring in his head tremendousl
as

Encouraged
"

he writes. by the great


"

success

* had won Leipzig concerts and the Peri 1843, he took up the composition of December, of " in Genoveva," an was opera entitled which completed 1848. When, after long delays caused by intrigue, this

Paradise

which in the

his

cantata

was

in June, 1850, it fell ciated. in Leipzig unappreproduced In spite of its exquisite music, it was regarded
too
monotonous,

as

dramatic. The music


same

After

over-sentimental and it was three performances shelved.


colorless,
was

as

un-

year he director," with

called to Dusseldorf the duty of conducting in his

as an own

"

city

tra orches-

as

He believed and a vocal society. director, but he, like Beethoven, a He


was
never

power really lacked the

ability. he what
he would try the

was

nervous,

and

sometimes
a

oblivious

of

doing. think
over

If at rehearsal
to

stop
over,

and
to

wrong, piece went it, but would correct

whole

and

the

annoyance

of the

performers.
1

In June
on

he wrote
paper many

to

friend

that

during

the past
notes

ten

days

he ready

had
for

been
the

putting heavenly
but
say

hundred
of that
:
"

thousand
great while work
"

and

getting
not

journey
cheerful
in sweet

by
men,

means

an

oratorio,
it,
an

for the

chapel,
to

for

and
accents

composing
art not

inner

voice This

seemed

to him

Thou

writing in vain.

production

will become

immortal."

396
This

SCHUMANN.

difficulty made

he although bringing out his own trying, committee


requested and leave

his experience at Diisseldorf very had for exceptional opportunity In November, 1853, the works.

comconduct only his own positions the rest to Tausch, the music rector. diThis led to open rupture, and he left Diisseldorf. Those years had been splendidly prolific : among the

him

to

compositions

poured was of "Genoveva,"

which

was of which Weimar, on the hundredth

some

his pen after the completion the beautiful "Faust" music, Leipzig, and at Dresden, performed anniversary
of Goethe's
to Byron's
"

from

birth,
Manfred,"

Riickert's
the

"

Advent "Wood

Song,"
Scenes,"

the music
two

the oversymphonies, tures " " to the Bride of Messina," Julius Caesar," and " " Hermann The Pilgrimage the cantata and Dorothea," of the Kose," his Mass and Requiem, and an immense

number
of them

of songs
were

and

instrumental

compositions.

Many
"

written

in most

in the

nursery,

restaurant,

surrounded sitting in a corner,

untoward circumstances, by his children, in a noisy face to the wall, oblivious

and his wife undertook Holland, which, as he says, an artistic tour through " by good geniuses from beginning was to accompanied He was end." surprised and delighted to find that his
winter
so thoroughly music was appreciated there, "almost in the Fatherland." Still even than it was at home
more

of all things. The following

Schumann

the

Fatherland he

treated him

well, for only

year

or

so

before

written that he was by new acquaintances his music was to notice how

had

to be stood accustomed misunder; but still he was pleased


more
:
"

and

more

taking

root

in Germany

and

also abroad

I receive

many

proofs

of this,"

SCHUMANN.

397

with him to bring in four volumes. his literary and out essays musical declared that he was Schumann glad to find that during had been written, the twenty of them years since some
In 1854
a

Leipzig

publisher

arranged

he had
These

scarcely essays

changed

his opinions at all. interesting estimates most contained

of

of the epoch. and performers nearly all the composers lips ever Schubert, " that sweet, pale youth round whose death ; " Bach, who plays an expression of approaching
more eternal neither ancient nor modern, but much " " destined to come Brahms, John who was the ; time," of our and to express the highest ideal utterance hundreds It was a cism, critimany-sided and of others.
"

was

"

genial

recognition

of genius,
un

friendly
;

warning,

trumpet-blast of
a

against

worthiness

the

outpouring

nature

above

pettiness,

generous
"

and

sympathetic. It was true in


the impulsive candles
on

more

senses vases

than

one

that

Florestan,"

critic, kept

full of flowers instead of


woman's

was

his piano, especially when a to be tried for the first time !


criticisms
are

sition compo-

Many

of Schumann's Many of music.

have

treasured

the risms aphofor their flashing

become

keenness
length,

he their wit, as and when length, like a the heavenly


"

speaks
romance

of "the in four

volumes," of a Schubert symphony. first thought of going to Diisseldorf, When Schumann he looked up the place in a geography-book, and found " I have no that it had three convents and a mad-house.
to objection

the

former,"

he

wrote,

"but

to read I about the uncomfortable have to be careful in guarding against all melancholy impressions."

rather

it made latter.

me

...

398
The

SCHUMANN.

lunatic

asylum, up
as
a

twice, loomed doom. The


nervous

and part of the landscape.

more

than

once

more

than
was

It

his

disorders, which

ringing in he heard whole his ears. Sometimes Mendelssohn pieces. and Schubert, who had been, with Bach, his guiding lights, seemed to come to him and hold communion with
tones

cigars undoubtedly He imagined that

aggravated, he heard persistent

his passion for strong began to grow worse.

him.

One

night

he

got

out

of bed

to write
on

down
were

theme his last

that they gave

him.

His variations

this

work. In February,
throwing
so

1854, he attempted to commit suicide by himself into the same Rhine sohn Mendelswhere

narrowly by the boatmen.

escaped

drowning.

He

also

was

rescued

After Bonn.

this, he
He

had

confined in a private asylum lucid intervals ; he corresponded


was

near

with played eagle's

his friends, and and even flight.


He
over

received visits from them ; he but it was a sad ending of an composed,

died his

on

July

29, 1856.

monument

was no

erected
monument

grave in 1880, but he than his mighty works.

needed

other

a splendid didst rule with a golden world sceptre over freedom. tones, didst therein thou and power with of work and intrusted And themthee, best selves round many of the gathered to thee, inspired thee with their inspiration, and rewarded

"

Thou

thee

with

their deep wife, gifted

affection.
with
a

And

what
crown

love adorned

thy

life!

radiant

of genius,

to her as the father to daughter, thy side, and thou wert as to disciple, and to bride, and as saint to the master every stone she could iiol be with thee and remove elect. And when

at stood bridegroom as

SCHUMANN.

399
feel, in the midst
the distance

from
and

before
sorrows,

thy feet, then

didst thou

of dreams
when

Angel

of

from her protecting hand had pity on thee, and Death


to help

; and

the

soul, in order hours thy

it again

toward

nigh to thy anguished light and freedom, in thy last the

drew

weary

glance met spirit fled."

hers

; and

reading

love in her eyes, thy

Thus

cried his friend Hiller, inconsolable

at his loss.

FREDERIC

FRANCOIS
(1809-1849.)

CHOPIN.

"

TTATS
-LJL

! off, gentlemen With those words

" genius ! Robert Schumann,

in his

character

of Eusebius

the

mild
the

and
young

dreamy, Polish

the gentle

and sentimental, Frederic Chopin,

welcomed
sixty years

composer,

ago.

Julius Knorr,
between David,"
"
"

describes the conversathe pianist, who tion " " Davidsbundler" the the hosts of
" "

replies I have Chopin ?

never

heard

the

name

before

"

Yet still he's a genius." who may he be ? And " heated with wine, Chopin, and much discussion," " is Raro," who Meister the imaginary go to see army

Schumann
own
"

again

as

umpire,

cool and

critical between

his

contrary and Meister Raro

conflicting natures. " laughed much, and

showed

small
he

the new curiosity over "I know you and

work. your
your

cries, but let Henceforth


"

me
"

see

new-fangled enthusiasm," Chopin once."


"

Eusebius,"

Florestan,"

Raro,"

that trinity of critics, all are one of Chopin, the first of the generous

" Meister and in their admiration


"

the

the sleeping and fall upon hip and thigh, in that memorable whip them Art which dates from 1830.
wall
400

to scale youth Philistines," and

uprising

of

CHOPIN. After
the

painting

by Ary

Scheffer.

FR"D"RIC
"

FRANCOIS
says

CHOPIN.

401

He

came as

not,"

Schumann,

"

with

an

army,

and In

to come. are wont great geniuses only a little cohort, but it belongs to him to the last hero." entirely, even

orchestral He sesses poswholly


l

the middle Poland Duke was

of the last century a former of Lorraine, and held court Poles

of at Nancy. there,
and formed

King

Naturally,

many

settled
or

or

visited

through
there
or

the would

friendships be Frenchmen

thus acquaintances for profit going to Poland

pleasure.

Frenchman The

from

Nancy

at Warsaw.

demand
to

had started as a tobacconist for his snuff became so great


an

that

he

was a

obliged

have

assistant.

About

1787

he engaged
to
come

youth to Warsaw is
a

of seventeen,

and

keep

Nicolas named his books for him.

Chopin,

All about this Nicolas Chopin. that is known about his early years is the date of his birth at Nancy. his father was Polish solWhether a dier Polish nobleman, Szop, or a nameless or a named
There

mystery

French When

Chopin refugee named he reached Warsaw,

or

Choppin,
found

cannot

be told.

he

capital in a ferment. picturesque beginning to rise, bright and enticing, before The Diet the naturally light-hearted Poles.
and after many

lively and Political hopes were that


the eyes
soon

of

assembled,

sessions passed the famous (1791), which promised constitution of the third of May " to restore to the country her former the greatness, golden age of Poland." stormy
"

But
It

the Poles
a came

reckoned

without

their host.

was

mirage.
commercial
Stanislas
Leszczynski

First

ruin caused
(pronounced

by the uncertainty.
Les-chin-skee).

402
There

FR"D"RIC
was

FRANCOIS

CHOPIN.

greater

demand tobacco

the Frenchman's Then


came

for gunpowder than factory was closed. rising under

for snuff;

the national

Kosciuszko.

national guard and became he was On the fifth of November on guard at captain. Praga, and was relieved only a few hours before the Nicolas

Chopin

joined the

Russians,

the cruel under all the inhabitants


"

Suvarof,
men,

entered and

and

massacred

women,

children, to

the number
"

of ten
Poland,

thousand.
by the Northern condor's beak

And

talons torn,

lay prostrated

again."

This home,

narrow

escape
severe

turned

his thoughts

to his former

but

recovery He was engaged one of his pupils

his him, and illness prevented on himself by giving French lessons. he maintained
a
as

the mother of Count III. Napoleon Walewski, minister to his father's nephew, Fryderyk Count In 1806, while tutor to the young
a

resident tutor being afterwards

in

wealthy

family,

Skarbek, at he Warsaw,
longer than

about twenty-eight lady,1 whose Polish a married her fortune, but whose character
manor-house

miles
name
was

from
was

in every respect. humble little cottage

They

lived for
to

few

admirable years in a
estate,

belonging
March,

the

Skarbek
was

and

here,

on

the

first of

1809,

born

their

only son. Warsaw,


Duchy, French

had been erected into a Grand meantime, was professor of appointed and Nicolas Chopin From this time Lyceum. founded at the newly with
were

forth, and the Chopins


i

the

improving

condition

of the country,

in easy circumstances.
village where is Zelazowawola. The they

Justina

Krzyzanowska.
was

lived at first,and

where

Fre\le"ic Chopin

born,

FE"D"RIC
Nicolas Chopin
abilities.
among counted His wife, says
was
a

FRANCOIS
man

CHOPIN.

403
life and

of blameless

excellent

He

various positions of trust, and his friends men of distinction. many "was Karasowski, tenderhearted, peculiarly
in
"

held

and
free from

rich

true

womanly

virtues."

She

was

considered pride, and the greatest of blessings."

the quiet of home

life

In her old age, after the sorrows which came upon her in the death of her youngest daughter, of her husband, described of her son, and of her oldest daughter, she was
as

quiet, intelligent old lady," of still remarkable " Her son the best of mothers." activity. called her Frederic was All that is of rarely sensitive nature.
a

"

neat,

is the fact that he could of his early childhood His first and not hear music without sobbing violently. Adalbert Zywny, the Bohemian only piano teacher was so was and his progress rapid that at eight he played

known

before second When public

numerous

company,

and

was

regarded

as

Mozart.

he

was

nine
concert

he

was

invited to take
by
a

part

in

charity

was citizens. The given Poland's After the concert, which took greatest poet.1 place in February, 1818, his mother asked him what the lad, who was The of course public liked best. arrayed in all the bravery of the Polish national costume, replied,
"

organized invitation

number

influof ential personally by

Oh,

mamma,

Nearly
concerts
to meet

two

looking at my collar ! " was everybody Catalani gave four years later Madame
city hall.

in the Warsaw Frederic

She

expressed

wish

Chopin,

much

was

she gave
1

She was said. him a watch with


Ursin
Niemciewicz

of whose precocious delighted with so


an

genius so him that

inscription

in French.

(pronounced

Nee-em.tsee.a-vitch).

404
About

FR"D"RIC
this
same

FRANCOIS

CHOPIN.

time

dedicated
Prince

to the Grand

he composed Duke, or, more Russia,

he which correctly, Grand


march

Konstantin

of

right to the throne,


"
"

and

had
on

the guardian angel the piece scored for handsome

had renounced who all married a beautiful Polish lady The Grand Duke of Poland."
a

military

band,

and

played

parade. Oftentimes

horses house, Duke's

by four fine carriage, drawn harnessed Chopins' abreast, drove up to the bringing Frederic's young friend Paul, the Grand
a
son,

Moriolles.
were

adopted son, The two boys

or

with
were

his tutor, the

Count
age

de

about the

same

and

great

friends.
the aristocratic

Among

families
and

of

the
were

Polish

nates, mag-

young
to the

extravagance whose Chopin found a warm

pride

support. and

He

proverbial, invited was


whose long

houses

of many

princes

counts,

names star the history of Poland. and unpronounceable insight into that wonderful There he got an elegance This the Poles. characterized and which refinement

society had As he character. high


at the country

strong grew

influence

on

his tastes
summers

and

estates

older, he spent many of friendly families who

had

sons

age. of his own But his father, who kept a sort of boarding-school his time. boys, was too wise to let him fritter away

for

He

recognized
music was Lyceum. Zywny,
was

besides his genius, but knew that something necessary ; so he fitted him for the Warsaw himself

though
a

not

the

best

hobby

was

wise and admirable Bach, and thus Chopin of classic

saw, pianist at WarHis teacher. great had for


The
a

foundation
"

this corner-stone

pianism.

well-tern-

FR"D"RIC
was a

FRANCOIS
his
concert,

CHOPIN.

405
Afterwards,

pered
when
own

clavichord"
about
to

daily

bread.

give

instead
shut

he would compositions, and play his Bach.

of practising his forthimself up for a night

He

was

equally
was

fortunate

in

his

master
a

in composition. native
of

This

Joseph
a

Xaver

Eisner,

Silesia, who, Warsaw, as

after

busy

and

varied

life, had

of the conductor long as it Conservatory so director of the Warsaw was " of keen insight and fine ability ; full existed, and a man learning, industry, perseverance." of purpose, of nobleness

musical

settled in He theatre.

He

him

what alone ; he

saw

genius

Chopin

was,

and

is extraordinarily methods,

stick to the traditional he will develop such


a

gifted. for he has his

Leave said, He does not


own,

"

an

originality

never

before

and discovered in

degree."
teachers mould.

Many into
a

have tried to run would Then, after wasting, perhaps,


effort to
a

life in the vain have split it by


except That
so

stick to

the

genius years of his mould, he would unhampered, to him.


a man's

his

sudden

effort, and become clung by

far

as

styles.

is what begins He

pieces of the mould is generally meant


as an

three the

imitator.

Then

follows

Then the originality asserts itself. period of the mould. At first,to the beginning. Chopin was original from he was be sure, the tricksy more successful in evoking ing spirits on the pianoforte than in catching them and confin-

them
came

between
He

the bars. might

Afterwards had
severer

this power

to him.

have

also training, but

have lost. the world would probably Eisner had the strength of his insight

to

criticisms

of

people

who

thought

Chopin

resist the be should

406
drilled Eisner,"
"

FRJSDtiRIC
in
Himmel
a

FRANCOIS
Hummel.
to

CHOPIN.

and

"

The

clever

Pan

says

correspondent

Schumann's

journal,

a there was poetic germ very clearly perceived what dreamer, in the pale young and felt very keenly that he him had under the founder of a new of pianoepoch forte upon him, playing, and declined to put a nose-band

knowing

deed, a well that such noble thoroughbred may, inbe cautiously led, but must be trained and not fettered in the usual way."

Chopin

always

felt himself

deeply

beholden

to his two

teachers, especially to Eisner, who taught him, as Liszt " to be self-exacting, and to value the advantages says patience and hard work." obtainable only through

Chopin
by two

had

great gift for improvisation.

It is proved

anecdotes. his father's assistant was Once when not Frederic told the order in the schoolroom,
they

able to keep boys that if

improvise and keep quiet, he would would sit down He had the lights interesting story for them. an

put out

he (for

the house, but approaching justas they were going to climb into the windows, they Instantly, with frightened by some were noise. away feet they make for the deep, dark forest, and winged

He

and told how

always began.

preferred

darkness

when

improvising),

robbers

were

there, under asleep. He played

the

starry

skies, they

lie down

and

fall

and moresoftly, and at last found that all his audience, like the robbers themselves, were
more

sound asleep. Then he stole out, called in his sisters and the servants himself lights, and, seating at the with piano

again, played

crashing

chord,

which

woke

up

all

FR"D"RIC
the sleeping
one.

FRANCOIS
to

CHOPIN.

407

robbers, much,

the

amusement

of every

Another
Lyceum, he

time,
was

the

summer

before

he

Jews
them

had
to

come

visiting at a country to the village to buy grain. and


them entertained His guests marches. that

the entered Some house.1


He

invited

his

room,

Majufes,or
and
to
an

wedding
so

playing fell to dancing,

by

were

wedding; approaching " play like a born Jew ! he gives entertaining In his letters home of life in the country, especially of his horseback
riding.
nose, on

pleased Jewish

they

to come urged him for, said they, "you

descriptions
attempts
at
on

The

flies bother
the

him

by lighting

his prominent
not

and

mosquitoes
nose.

bite him

"

tunately for-

his prominent

He
only
was

was

full of good

spirits,

capital

a clever acted well, but also wrote his father's birthday. on performed

mimic, and not little play that

early summer improvised in public


an
con

In

the

of the
on

year

following,
instrument

Chopin
called

new-fangled

aelopantaleon

"

sort

and Warsaw the

piano.
at the

When
same

of combination of aeolomelodiAlexander I. was in the Emperor

time, he which
was was

aeolomelodicon, One genius.

expressed a desire to hear Warthe invention of a saw


in the
to

set

up

Lutheran

Church,

and The

Chopin
Emperor

was was

called
so

upon

pleased

play it and display it. the boy that he rewarded


for the publication

with a diamond ring. This same also memorable year was for the a rondeau of his first opus
"

Mrs.

Linde,

the

Dr. Linde.

wife of his father's Schumann, who got hold


1

piano, dedicated to friend the Rector,


of it later, charac-

With

the Dziewanowskis

at Szafarnla.

408
terized it lesque."

FR"D"RIC
as
"

FRANCOIS

CHOPIN.

very pretty, very piquant,

almost

Mosche-

individuality and freedom was progress toward in his next As Schumann very marked pieces. said, have been two years and twenty there must tween beworks
and two. the order of their birth. In his second rondeau
one

His

Opus

They

were

not

published

in

(a la Mazur),

Chopin's

liking

for difficult skips, and for chords to be grasped only by large hands, began to manifest itself. It is said that in hand, he invented an order to stretch his own apparatus
to put
more

between
fortunate

his fingers than

and Schumann,
lameness.

wear

at

night.

He

was

for the

experiment

did

not

of 1826, Chopin, with his mother waterand sisters, went to Reinerz, a famous ing-place in Prussian for his Silesia, to drink whey

end in permanent During the summer

holidays

health.
to climb

He

had

been

overworking.
mountain
gave
a

He

was

forbidden

the Heuscheuer

; but in spite of what

calls his behalf of two he without money

laziness, he
young

children who
to

in concert successful had been left orphans, funeral

enough

pay

the

expenses

of

to reach their home. or their poor mother At this time he is described as being

clear, finely-cut features, high


slightly, and an protruding His health, though good. From of

brow,

thin

youth with lips, the lower


melancholy.

expression
not

of gentle
was

robust,
the

generally

Eeinerz,

Chopin and

went

to

summer

his

godmother,1
at

also

visited

residence Anton Prince


was

Radziwill

his country

seat, Aiitonin,

which

near

by.
1

Mrs.

Wiesiolowska

at Strzyzewo,

sister of Count

Fryderyk

Skarbek.

FP."D"RIC
Prince

FRANCOIS
was

CHOPIN.

409

Radziwill
to

goveruor

of Posen,

and

nearly

He was royal family of Prussia. also fond of music, and composed passionately creditvery able " for a prince. His music Faust " was to works at the Berlin Singakademie performed only a few years A few ago, to considerable satisfaction. years later, related the
"

at representative of Prussia he frequently the coronation at Warsaw, of Nicholas friendship him and The between visited the Chopins. the delicate, sensitive youth was very pleasant.

when

the

Prince

was

the

his examinations, though not had music absorbed his time with flying colors, so much from It was the Lyceum. and energies, and graduated finally decided himself that he should devote to Art,
passed

In

1827 Chopin

and so with in company


was

great

joy he
a

with

going

to attend
was
more

his first visit U Berlin made learned friend of his father's, who the Scientific Congress there.

Chopin
than

interested

in

musical

celebrities
round Mendelssohn

in the

Humboldt.

zoological professors who gathered He was too modest to intrude upon

there and the other famous musicians who were fine performances some at the time, but he heard of " impressed by Handel's Ode on opera, and was greatly St. Cecilia's Day." His letters home detail all his experiences, give the impression of a keen-witted, finds a comedy in, not man, satirical young who stage, who pokes fun at the scientists, all save and
"

rather
on,

the

Humboldt,

"

and his

who

criticises the

dress

of

the

Berlin

ladies.

On
life
he
man.
"

return
to
so

to

Warsaw,
parties

Chopin
that,
as

led he

going

many

gay it, expressed

rather

could compose had He a

nothing

worthy

pleasant

or either of God of little nook in his father's

410
house,

FRfiDfiRIC
where
many

FRAN

IS (JO

CHOPIN.

of the talented

young

musicians

and

poets of the city often gathered. Warsaw, though out of the world, wholly
were

as

it were, German
great

was

not

without given
at

advantages
the

French

and the

operas

theatres,

and
a

Hummel
on

that winter played He Chopin's style. helped toward

and

had

also heard
the

powerful Paganini,

influence
and

perhaps
was

purchasing

gold

snuff-box

which

to the uncanny presented magician of the violin. Next August found Chopin in Vienna, after a delightful

journey with
carriage, through
picturesque Moravia."
at

three "the

congenial

friends

in

private

Polish

Switzerland,"

last he House he
"

regions of Galicia, Upper His friends urged him to give It took place at consented.
on

and "the Silesia, and


concert,

the

and Imperial
writes "free

Opera
that

was
on

the eleventh of the month. several times, and called back


a

He

his

fantasy
was

Polish

theme

electrified the audience,

and

by stormy applause and many recalls." faces The only drawback was the grumbling and sour to read his illegible manuscript. of the orchestra, at having "followed
A

week
more

later he

gave

second he
was

concert, to

even

his

by all the praised Some amateurs and favorably criticised by the press. ("Stockdeutschen ") thought he of the ultra Germans indeed his strong point. This was played too delicately. " " I know," that I have pleased the ladies and says he, the musicians." The days and fully occupied of the with sight-seeing, music, and visits at the houses he instantly became Vienna a aristocracy, with whom of his stay

successful, though He services at either.

refused

which be paid

was

for

evenings

were

FR"D"IUC
great

FRANCOIS

CHOPIN.

411

favorite. He

Musically,
wrote

gain to him. years

more and wiser in capital spirits. The good, and he was " he remarked, My popularity left Vienna crescendo, and that indeed pleases me."

a great also, his visit was home that he already felt forty health His was experienced.

day

before
on

he the

is here

Such
have

praise and intoxicated a


was

compliments
more

as

he

experienced
to write

received would less, Nevertheman.


were

he

sober enough

that his finances

in the best of order. After a tearful parting

from

his

new on

Vienna
the way

friends,
at

Chopin
famous

stopping started for Dresden, old city of Prague, where

the

he

enjoyed
with

"the

charming
statue

cathedral views, the majestic the beautiful of St. Johannes,

its silver of St. chapel

Wenzel,

and other jewels," and adorned with amethysts direction of Museum the personal a visit to the under Hanka, Skarbek's. a friend of Count the learned Waclaw
He

also made

the

acquaintance
composer,

of the

but celebrated pianist and he liked Klengel, whom


though

parsimonious August Alexander than

much

better

Czerny,

" to repeat it. wish his "dear ones At Teplitz, Chopin found a number of friendly Poles, introduced him to Prince Clary, one of of them and one He went to the castle, the richest magnates of Austria.

he did not

in his best white gloves, and found brilliant a and of Austrian princes, generals, counts, assemblage ladies. He was ceeded asked to play, and judged that he sucdressed

theme

improvisation in pleasing with an from Eossini's " Moses."


was

on

the

chief

day, and even to make longer stay at the castle, but he refused the temptations was offered, and, joining his travelling companions, He
urged
to dine
next

412
borne
sum

FR"D"RIC
into Dresden
of two

FRANCOIS
by
a

CHOPIN.

team

which

cost

the

enormous

thalers !

At
was

Dresden,

Tieck's

adaptation

of Goethe's

"Faust"

given in commemoration birthday, with passages from in the entr'actes. There was

Chopin

stay for an in front of the box-office. formed was He was back in Warsaw by the middle of September. Prince and Princess Radziwill offered him lodgings in
to

had

music such a rush for places that hour in the "queue" that

of the Spohr's

author's

eightieth to " Faust "

their words

palace
"

in Berlin, remembered

but

he

distrusted

their

"fair

the old proverb, " It is not good " to eat cherries with great lords ; nevertheless, he could that not resist the temptation at Antonia, of a week " " Paradise are the " two princesses whereof the young and
Eves."

But He

Berlin

exclaimed
so

for a musician. offered slight advantages in a letter to a friend that he had undertaken

much

work

that Warsaw

it would
were
a

be wiser melancholy

to

stay at

home,

even

though
must
"

place

to

him.
"Pan

He

be
Mr.

near

Frycek,"

parents, and, moreover, his Polish friends Freddie, as


"

his

called him, had faithfully and night (so he with This


was

found

said),

his ideal and was her worshipping dreaming of her every sincerely, and he had never though spoken a word

her !
was

Constantia

Gladkowska,

young

receiving her musical training at His letters for a year to come


l

singer who servator Conthe Warsaw


to

his friend
of Jean

Titus

are

full of
quite

sentimental

Paul
humor

and
saves
1

out-Schumann from being them


whose

ravings worthy Schumann ! A


nauseating.
seat
was

vein
was

of
so

He

Titus

Woyciechowski,

country

at Poturzyn.

FRANCOIS
deeply in love, that in
a

CHOPIN.

413

the made he that when spirits, he wished should be scattered under her feet.

fit of melancholy, his between valleys


was

such

as

occasionally

mountainous dead, his ashes


most

Like
even

youthful
of
"

passions, it burned left. were

itself out.

Not

ashes

roses

On

November

1, 1830, he left his

"

sweet

home

as

he

calls it, with the return to it, or see accompanied banquet was him given

that he should never presentiment His friends his native land again. his journey: a farewell part way on him
at the end
a

Conservatory
occasion by with Polish

pupils
the worthy

sang

of the first stage ; the for the cantata composed

and a silver goblet filled to him with the needless soil was presented to forget his country or his friends who never injunction Eisner,
great things of him. expected It took him nearly a month four days at Breslau delayed

to
at

reach Vienna, for he Goose" Golden "the

the theatre, and intercourse friends ; also a week at Dresden, where with congenial he had his first ride in a post-chaise^ or sedan-chair,
Inn, and

enjoyed music

and

"

"a was

curious

but comfortable to kick out, tempted


went
to ;

box," the bottom


"

and

innumerable
also
same

of which he and visited the Green Vault, dinners, soirees, operatic performance

at

Prague,

where

he

probably

went

through His

routine. first letter to his parents, from spirits


"
"

the

Vienna, shows

him

in good

He as a lion." tera rible sound makes pun, occasioned by the fact that he and his friend Titus three charming on were rooms the occupying

just vacated by an English admiral. cabbage market, " Admiral !" he exclaims, " and I receive admiration !" to find the impression Chopin expected which he had

414

FR"D"RIC
in Vienna

FRANCOIS
"

CHOPIN.

made

mistaken.

He the iron still hot. still vivid All his plans for concerts fell through.
to

was

The

not ready publishers were less to pay for them. much Then the Polish came

accept

his compositions,

insurrection,

tyranny moved and


news,

of
to

the

Grand

Duke

by caused Konstantin. Chopin


He hired

the
was

join the

insurgents.

his friend tried to overtake had started for home.


a

post-horses, Titus, who, at the first

He stages, his resolution gave out. to Vienna, and had his picture painted, since returned he was for playing. He not in a mood says the artist But, after few has given imagine. him
He
an

inspired
many

look, though

why,
"

he cannot ners, dinhim,


notabilities

makes

and

soirees, concerts, and he indulges in sarcastic


; which

visits, attends many balls," which only bore


references
to various

promises home.
"I
am

to

is due to his frivolity, and confesses Yet, at heart, he longs to be at amend.

he

friends. of his Warsaw sad," he writes one " I cannot live as I I feel so lonely and neglected here. in the salons dress, must appear would like. I must with have
my cheerful
a

face ; but when

am

in my

room

again, I

confidential
as

woes

to my

piano, and tell it all with my best friend here in Vienna." talk
that

in his letters mentions from Vienna of forty families and individuals upwards he was personally acquainted, and that his with whom him much study or composition. gayeties prevented

Niecks

declares

Chopin

Chopin's

eight

months

at

the
He

Austrian

capital

were

of little good. productive to his list of compositions, Toward the end of his stay

almost added he made no and he forced himself

nothing money.
to

give

FRANCOIS
a

CHOPIN.

415
was

concert,

but it did not


moment,

pay

expenses.

It

at exactly

the upon

wrong

and

perhaps

caused

him

to

draw

his parents, suggesting that they should sell the Alexander. ring given him by the Emperor He was recreation in often in low spirits, but found

excursions and other amusements. In June, 1831, he went to Munich,


waiting for funds,

where
some

he

was

kept

but

having

made
a

he
of the

was

induced
Society

to give

acquainta musical in the hall concert

Philharmonic

at which

he

played

his E-

Polish national songs. and a fantasia on minor concerto, He " gained unanimous applause." It was the last time that he ever played in public in

Germany.
At Stuttgart
he learned
This

of the
event

the Russians.

sad

by capture of Warsaw is said to have inspired

mission perbut his passport contained to go only to Munich, Paris to London," the words (inFrench)," Passing through his home. It was henceforth and to Paris he came.
gave Poland sympathy

his etude in C-minor. The Russian ambassador

at

Vienna

Chopin

and
to

the the

Poles

were

at ;

this time

objectsof

Parisians

Vienna,
had

quite the justreturned from Poland,


was

it

in Austria, in whereas Ramorino General opposite.

where

he had
"

taken

in the insurrection.

Polonais

"

besieged

regular mob his lodgings.

shouting The police

part Vivent les had


to

clear the streets. lived in the And the timid, gentle, irresolute Chopin fourth story of a house opposite the General's lodgings !

besides mobs other things excited the Paris of It was 1831. the very heyday of French romanticism, Alfred de Musset, and and Victor Hugo, Balzac, Dumas,
But

416
dozen

FR"D"RIC
other

FRANCOIS

CHOPIN.

give the world Romanticism

just beginning young geniuses, were the benefit of their lights.


in
was

to

had

found and

music his place. And


composers

Chopin also welcomed; host of talented mua what sicians in Paris at that time ! there were

Rossini, Meyerbeer, only mention and Liszt ! They all met in the salon of old Cherubini, whom at first he afterwards Chopin to came though called a mummy,
We

need

like him

better.

The
whom

wanted
time

Kalkbrenner, stiff, elegant, and marchpane-like he thought Paganini, as as perfect in his way in three years' to give him lessons, and promised
a

artist of him, thoroughly grounded in the old traditions. But Chopinetto (as Mendelssohn indicalled the little man) had no wish to surrender his viduality he recognized his shortcomings even though
to make

great

in technique. "I
wrote

he become a shall never copy of Kalkbrenner," his old teacher Eisner : " he will not be able to my
art

break
new

perhaps

bold

but

noble

resolve

"

to create

era."

He

did, however,

attend

Kalkbrenner's

like : pupils, to see what it was of Chopin's other friends, who and some undervalued Kalkbrenner Chopin and thought played better than he

class for advanced and Mendelssohn

did,

were

furious.

Chopin's
26, 1832,

first concert

in Paris

took

ments. postponeafter several annoying He was and others ; assisted by Kalkbrenner financially it was failure, the audience a consisting been of the tickets having chiefly of Poles, and most
given

place on delays and

February

rather than sold. there, and of Paris were

But

all the

musical

everybody

was

celebrities taken by storm.

FR"D"RIC
Mendelssohn

FRANCOIS

CHOPIN.

417

" triumphantly." present and applauded In the following he played May cert again at a charity congiven by the Prince de la Moskowa.

was

At
paid

first he

seems

to have

had
a

plenty

of funds,

for he

twenty-five

francs

for

place

at the

Malibran, funds
ran

depressed
to

Schrdder-Devrient. and low. His health became precarious, and he was in spirits. He ing of emigratseriously thought Rubini, His
parents

opera to hear Later, his

advised him to return to Warsaw, and, against the advice of Liszt and his friends, he was so on the point of doing (so the story when he met Prince' Valentine Radziwill, who took him
America.

runs),
a

to

soiree

at

the
one.

Rothschilds',

where his

he

played

and

delighted
From
great

every this time

forth he began
"

career

as

one

of the

pianists

of Paris, and

professor

par

excellence of

the aristocracy." He himself wrote

early in 1833 : " I move in the highest society among ambassadors, I don't know how I got princes, and ministers; and Then there, for I did not thrust myself forward at all."
" "

speaking

of the esteem

in which

he is held by his fellowto

artists who
:
"
"

dedicate

their compositions

him,

he tinues con-

of the Conservatoire, nay, even private pupils (consequently of Moscheles, Herz, and Kalkbrenner clever take lessons from me, and regard me as the equal

Pupils

artists),
of Field.

Really,

if I

were

am,

I might imagine I feel daily how

myself
much

somewhat a finished
I have

more

silly than

artist ; nevertheless, still to learn."

His

was

delightand Liszt was very ful, and at the houses of the influential Poles in Paris he One day he came into a welcome always visitor.
with

friendship

Hiller

418
Count

FR"D"RIC
Plater's salon and

FRANCOIS

CHOPIN.

in the character after jumping and dancing


a

of Pierrot

or an

quin, Harlehour,

about

for

left without saying he Yet generally


manners,

word
was

distinguished

for his gracious

studied but somewhat affected refinement in all things, his gentleness and winning playfulness." Affectionate as he was to his friends, it was only a few, his
" " peneand those his Polish intimates, who, as Liszt says, trated into the sacred recess where, apart from the rest of his life, dwelt the secret fountain of his soul."

Chopin

used

his growing

his compositions, many him from Poland. In

popularity and fame to float he had brought of which with is surlooking over the list one prised succession
at

both
1832, they

at
came

the

rapid and

with

which,
which

after

out,

the

skill

with

he

selected princes and counts, princesses for his dedications. In this respect he by Beethoven.
Though vein, they his works
were

and
was

countesses,

rivalled only

were

written well

generally
the
case

such received by

in

an

unusual
critics,

the

which
was

was

often

his

who with those of Schumann, failed to stand undersoundly rated by those who knew depth Chopin, however, and height.
not

himself
to

and
an

his limitations.

To one opera.1 who asked him why, with " Ah, count, not do so, he replied :

write

could not be induced Philippe's of Louis aides ideas, he did his admirable
He

let
not

but piano-forte

music

j I

am

compose ing nothlearned enough to

me

write operas." Such self-knowledge


*

is

rare.

It has

been

remarked
that with time

The
1859

Polish
there

and

opera national were at Warsaw ninety-two


were

was

established
performances,

in 1778.

Between

5,917

of 285 works

Polish

words.

Of these

composed

by

16 Polish

composers.

FR"D"RIC
that what

FRANCOIS
have

CHOPIN.

419

geniuses they

often

did

least of

themselves most prided forte lay in Chopin's well.


;
even

on

the he the

smaller
quickly
greatest

forms

music and

orchestral
he stands

abandoned,
of masters
one

thus

writing forth as

of pure

this respect
whose

might

pianoforte him to compare

In composition. a Japanese artist,


a

greatest

labors
into
a

were

piece of ivory During

but each told Liszt


crowd curious

the year time he came that he

marvel 1835 he

exerted on carving of delicate beauty.

minute

was

in public, frequently played He it more to dread and more. that the not fit to give concerts, and

intimidated
looks.
his

him

paralyzed

him

with

their

Moreover,

playing audiences

was

too

disappointment a great scale was grand to him, as Niecks says, cruelly torturing and slowly his life like a malignant cancer. consuming In private, however, and congenial spirits, he with in showing delighted his unique of the piano ; mastery
on a

subtile for large lack of success

; and

delicate, refined, and he was, as this modest

and

during

charming
the

visit which
acquaintance

he

primarily

to make

at several houses, enchanting played " Mendelssohn a really perfect called him virtuoso." Schumann, Mendelssohn, Niecks Chopin, and whom distinguished three most calls "the composers of their

to Leipzig, made of Clara Wieck, he Even every one.

time,"

were

together also went

for several hours.


to Carlsbad,

where he met his father of five years ; and from after an and mother, absence to Dresden to see his boyhood friends, there he ran across the Wodzinskis. There Polish
a

Chopin

were

three brothers, all of whom

took

part

in the

revolution,

and

one

sister, the

Countess

Maria,

tall, slender

girl of

nineteen,

with

420
fiery black

FE"D"RIC
eyes, long

FRANCOIS
luxuriant

CHOPIN.

ebony-black

hair, and

talent for music and painting. fell in love with her, and offered himself to Chopin her. She liked him, but yielding to her parents' wishes, She gave him a rose refused his hand. and drew his
He portrait. Afterwards

composed she

for her
a

waltz.
of Chopin's

Count
a

Fryderyk

married Skarbek,

son

godfather, turned
out

and

the

marriage

failure.

Chopin

was

in Leipzig

(justafter
with

his

rejection
"

again the following by the lovely Schumann.

summer

and countess),
He
wrought

enjoyedmuch
him
a new some

intercourse heavenly

with
"

and

mazurkas, etudes, nocturnes, " he played ballade, all of which parably." very incomintroduced and was visited London, James Broadwood, manufacturer

In July, 1837, Chopin


to

the
name

under house

the

piano of M.
"

Fritz.

He

dined
"

at Broadwood's

and

played
was

most

beautifully

(so Mendelssohn
He
was

and reported), suffering with


acquaintances.
as

detected

in his incognito.

his lungs, and therefore refrained from all He peared a few concerts, and disapattended
as

mysteriously his health, Hitherto good;


from

he

came.

though

this time

forth

been robust, had battle his life was a long


never

with disease. Early in 1837

Chopin

gave

little party

in his

rooms.

him the famous novelist, George with Sand,1 a beautiful but undisciplined genius, in whose with that veins flowed the blood of Polish kings mixed Liszt brought
of the daughters
1

of French
Aurore de Baronue

Bohemia.
Dudevant
son

Amantine
was

Lucile

(ne'eDupin).
of

Her Strong,

grandfather greatKing

Marshal

Saxe,

natural

August

the

of Poland.

FR"D"RIC
Separated
with de Musset
from

FRANCOIS

CHOPIN.

421
self herAlfred
was was

her husband,

George

Sand

amused

love-affairs with poets and musicians. it her spell ; now had fallen under He was delicate and feminine turn. she
,

pin's Chomasculine, was

and
weak

even

at

times

wore was

men's

clothes.

He

and
soon

vacillating;

she

She

obtained Accounts differ


who slim

complete
as

and control of him.


strong

self-willed.

to

Chopin's
to

personal
a

appearance.
extent,

Niecks, he
was

follows

Karasowski

certain

says

hands

and of middle height, with delicately formed parent and feet, an oval softly outlined head, a pale translong silken hair of a light chestnut complexion,
on

color, parted rather


a

than

gent brown eyes, intelliside ; tender dreamy ; ; a finely curved aquiline nose
one

sweet

His
dress Perhaps
cause
was

subtle smile, and dress was always


than
any
woman

graceful

and

varied

gestures.

elegant, vainer of studiously had his hair curled. ; he even


utter

George

Sand's

of Chopin's
soon

was unconventionality first impression of dislike to her.

the This

dissipated

by

her

beauty

and

her

wonderful

power He

of pleasing. visited her several

times

at her

country

estate

at

Nohant, sake

and of her

when,
son

to in 1838, she went Maurice's health, Chopin

Majorca for
was

the
to

induced

accompany
care,

her, thinking

that the rest, the freedom

from

be good for him. and the out-of-door life, would delicious At first, the picturesque the tropical scenery, delightful ; but climate and the novel life were

when

the wet

season

set in, the dampness


warm

and

sibility the imposworse

of keeping than and


ever.

set

Chopin

to

coughing
were

All the doctors


who

in the

island

called in,
of
a

Chopin,

gives

an

amusing

account

their

methods

of procedure,

declares

that

he

had

narrow

422
from

FRtiDtiRIC

FRANCOIS

CHOPIN.

escape

their bleedings,
They

operations.
at Valdemosa;

took
and

up

cataplasms, and such in "an their lodgings


monastery

like

vast, abandoned,

ruined
most

old, " of Carthusians

on residence earth." Chopin's cell, so he wrote, was shaped like a coffin, high and full of dust, with a small window shaded by orange, trees, and over their heads palm, and cypress

"the

poetic

ally majestic-

soared He had a piano


the

the eagles.
sent
to him

from

Paris, but it fell into

clutches duty of five

of the
or

customs

six hundred three

demanded a officers, who francs, but accepted, after Kightly

much Chopin Their

wrangling,

hundred.

enough,

thievish.1 called the people food consisted mainly of pork and unimaginable

"

imaginable
Juicy

grapes, excellent potatoes and fried Valencia pumpkins, gave a zest to their appetite, but the terrible rains frequently spoiled everything, and to keep starving they had to gnaw Had Chopin been well, he might and-ready picnic, but bronchitis
from the dryest
have

guises from Malaga,

in all appearing disguises." and

of dry bread. rough-

enjoyedthe
nervous

and

brought

of pulmonary He irritable and was at the lowest ebb. spirits were difficultto manage Sand declared, ; in short, as George symptoms
"

on

excitement phthisis, and his

detestable patient." Toward the last of February,


left

they which

Majorca on
the

fair weather set in, when loaded down with pigs, steamboat
almost he was
a
"

made reached

they
and

voyage Barcelona,

and when unendurable, spitting basins of blood


The doctor
on

crawling along French soon war-ship


1

like

ghost." the

stopped
Hiver A

hemorrhage,
an

and

he

Bead

George

Sand's

Un

Majorque for

exaggerated monastery.

but charmingly

poetic

description

of this abode

in the Carthusian

FEAN^OIS
began
summer

CHOPIN.

423
kept till early
"

to improve.

At

Marseilles
of
an

he

was

under the care himself to recover the

excellent

doctor,

ing resign-

By

patiently." last of April he was so


a

much

better that he

could play the organ at of Notre-Daine-du-Mont,


who simple had committed

memorial service at the Church for the tenor, Adolphe Nourrit,


at
"

was organ upon did his best with it, and the song off echo from another world."

of melody his coffin." The

suicide Schubert's

Naples.
as a

He

played

to place souvenir very bad, but Chopin

sounded

"

like the far-

also made Italy, which saw his dreams. After


a

He

trip to Genoa,

nine years

and for the first time before had been the land of

he returned to Paris in ber, Octovisit at Nohant his lessons. He 1839, and immediately resumed have been very much better, for Moscheles, must who later, spoke of him for the first time a few months met
him
as

merry

and other

exceedingly

of Liszt

and

invited
and cup
sooner

together

musicians. to play at St. Cloud


The
to Moscheles
"

in his imitations comical He were and Moscheles

before
sent

Louis
a

lippe Phi-

the royal family.


saucer,

King
a

and

and

gold travelling-case, the with


sly

Chopin

to

humor.

Chopin rid of him," remarked did not like a Jew. Chopin, however,
get

In April, 1841, and mustered


courage
were

in the following give


most concerts

February,
at

Chopin
rooms.

to

PleyePs
the

The waxed the


over

audiences eloquent

aristocratic, and

critics

of trembling chaplets pearls, the interplay of gay colors, roses and mignonettes, " " heads the perfumed and snowy shoulders of
over women

the

beautiful
honor.

whom

princely

salons

were

proud

to

424
The

FBfiDtiRIC

FRANCOIS
playing

CHOPIN.

effect of Chopin's

upon

the

poets

and

musicians of
was.

very remarkable, of the time was and so many have described it that we know it them almost what its great featare. Individuality Schumann was

declared

else did. He was Heine called the Ariel of the pianoforte. and Liszt rhapsodize His about his poetic interpretations.
as
no

that he knew

his instrument

one

playing was It reminded

the soul of tenderness,


some
"

one

delicacy, refinement. of the warbling of linnets. George Fingers."

Sand

called him 1838 Between

Velvet

at the Chateau

and 1846 de Nohant.

Chopin
The

spent
monotonous

eight

summers

life there,

it was by the singing of nightingales varied though and the visits of distinguished people, bored him frightfully. longed for Paris, but his love for George Sand He kept

him

quiet and freedom from him to indulge in composition. cares enabled Niecks him between of the friendship speaks and the
a

prisoner;

and,

moreover,

the

painter

Delacroix

as

green

oasis in the barren

desert,

amidst the affectations, insincerities, and superficialities infatuation His at Nohant. of his social intercourse for the immortal but one of that of Odysseus reminds
cruel and nymph Kalypso. enormously
"

But

Chopin's

Kalypso
cigars
:

smoked,
and she

smoked called him


In Paris

thick Trabucco
"

d'Orleans,

cher cadavre ! in the Court they lived in fine apartments from the number of called Little Athens
mon

celebrities who had Chopin's rooms

inhabited
were

it.

luxury ; much flowers, of fond, always he was passionately which by Easy-chairs abounded. and cushions embroidered some princesses and titled dames, his pupils, rugs, and handfurnished

with

tablecloths

made

them

cosey.

He

had

"sane-

FR"D"RIC
turn,"

FRANCOIS

CHOPIN.

425

where he could retire if he liked ; but he used it He was short generally chiefly in giving his lessons. of money, and always quarrelling with his publishers,
in his letters he whom knaves, and thieves who " profit for his manuscript Though His he earned
poor

calls Jews,

rogues,

dogs, fools, of all feet."


out

tried to cheat him flies " and " spider he


was were

much

generous

and

dent. improvi-

him draining always On one occasion he spent a thousand of his last franc. back all the knickfrancs at a charity fair, and gave knacks he bought He to be sold again. got twenty
countrymen
francs
a
a

lesson, but he

never

taught

more

than

five hours

for love, not money. day, and many of his lessons were He kept a cat, and indulged in the luxury of a male servant
at

In

salary of nearly two spite of his exquisite


a

thousand
manners,

francs. his love for


"

high
those
was

society"
who
often

sometimes
more

much

made deserved
"

him his

actually

rude

to

tormented

by

He consideration. dilettante bores," and he kept

clear

of young

Karasowski pianists so far as he could. relates behavior to the young an example of his impertinent Schulhof, until the latter had played to him, Bohemian,
when of him,

he

caprices of society, "was his brother artists with a too apt to treat and of his equals and a few supercilious hauteur which many insulting." to stigmatize as wont of his superiors were his friends he was Niecks more among says that even

made that he

amends.
was

It

was

common

criticism

spoiled

by the

loved

than

loving.
give

Liszt

says,

"

Ready
He
was

to too

give

thing, every-

he did not

himself."

apt to say

pleasant

things

to people's

faces, and

cutting

things

hind be-

their backs.

He

was,

at

least in his later years, when

worn

with

426

FRfiDtiRIC

FRANCOIS

CHOPIN.

illness, extremely
wrong, barking j or
went

irritable ; and when

teaching,

if things

break and himself ever


sun.

jump up and ask if a dog had been would fling the music on the floor (so it is said) up the chairs as ferociously as Beethoven
did.

Such

were

some

of the spots

on

the

Bach
gods."

were and, above all, Mozart Hummel, Field, and Moscheles

his
were

ideals, "his
his favorite

pianists. him. He

Field's

"

Nocturnes

"

were

greatly

prized

by

Schubert, though not without reserve. admired Weber He and Beethoven only partially satisfied him. disliked much of Mendelssohn's music, and found still
less to praise in Schumann, in giving his lessons. He using any of his pieces disapproved of Berlioz, and personally he heartily disliked
never

1 while he liked Meyerbeer his music. Liszt says truly that Chopin

sought

in the

masterpieces corresponded only that which with " his nature. it pleased him ; what What resembled from him." differed from it received scant justice
great

With

Liszt himself

he

was

on

terms

of the

most

mate inti-

comradeship
have

until their quarrel, which

is said to

not very creditable to resulted from a circumstance hardly be said to have Yet he and Liszt can the former. him without been friends. Chopin a rarely mentioned
sneer,
on

in prose a poetic rhapsody and Liszt, who wrote Chopin's life, did not fail to point out his weaknesses. Eossini
a

Just Chopin
i

as

dreaded

the

had

superstitious
once

fatal number thirteen, horror of the figure seven.


a

It is said that
at

Meyerbeer
played
a

had

falling-out
sent

down

the

piano,

and
on

nocturne

He with his wife. him by Chopin. Such and kissed

sat
was

the effect of the music Meyerbeer wrote

his helpmeet, composer,

that

she went

him.

upon There-

the

telling him

of the incident, and

inviting

him to

come

and

see

their domestic

happiness.

FR"D"RIC
He live in
on
a

FRANCOIS
a

CHOPIN.

427
or

would
to

not

house
of the

that bore

the

number,
was

start

travel
His

day

shameful It is a long in 1847 that it ended. in 1837, and it was Kalypso Probably tired of Odysseus. and sad story. bonds. She sought a pretext for dissolving the wearisome
In

by it.

that month alliance with Madame

marked Sand began

her

Prince
him. The
never

Floriani," novel "Lucrezia Karol she caricatured Chopin

the under and deeply

mask

of

wounded

In

broken. The two geniuses parted, connection was but once to meet ment. again, and then only for a moAs for Chopin, he loved her to the end. 1848, Chopin in February, gave his last concert
an

Paris, before

audience

sifted

by

himself only
never

from

said to have been selected and long list, so that he was a Tickets
were

surrounded francs, and


concert
was

by

his friends.

twenty

projected,
on

A second did he win greater success. but the outbreak of the French

Revolution
Two

February

months

22, 1848, upset all his plans. " later Chopin arrived in the whirlpool

a "fine large room," and secured where " to breathe and play." hoped to be able He could rarely be prevailed upon to play in society. heard at the Countess But he was of Blessington's and at

London,"

of he

the Duchess
one where he played

of Sutherland's, who
to
were was us,

and
wrote

present I do not

know
on

also at a private house, " I do not know : what how long our ecstasy

lasted ;

earth ; he had transported into unknown us of flame and regions, into a sphere azure, where the soul freed from all corporeal bonds floats
we no

longer

towards
swan."

the

infinite.

This

was,

alas ! the

song

of

the

He

was

invited to play at the

Philharmonic,

but

de-

428
He

FR"D"RIC
gave,

FRANCOIS
however,
two

CHOPIN.

clined. houses,
money, seemed

tickets at a guinea. with in such wretched but he was dark to him, and he soon gave

at private matinees They him brought

health up

that

life

his possible

plan of settling in England. for sixty pounds He at Manchester played sterling, long visit in Scotland, where a one and made of his Stirling, resided. He favorite pupils, Miss a sucgave cessful also in Glasgow piano said that the Broadwood
concert

and
on

Edinburgh. he played

It is
was

which of "30. afterwards sold at a premium After a visit at Stirling Castle he wrote
soon

that he should already spoke like a English

be

forgetting
an

his Polish English


he

; that

he

French

always spoke with a foreign His intercourse as birth. accent in spite of his French "I drag," he wrote, with the high nobility. usual was " duke lord to another, from one to from one myself French

with Scotchman.

accent,

and

another." The last concert Niecks hands


swan's

at which

he

ever

appeared

"

this, says

(whose
of every song,"
"

admirable
music took

biography
"

lover), may
the
Mr.
same

to be in the ought be truly called the


on

place at Guildhall
evening Hueffer says

the sixteenth
as

of November,
"

1848,

on

the
was

Grand

Polish

Ball."

"

he

annual in the

last stages of exhaustion,


Perhaps

and

the affair resulted

in disappointm

little attention which this performance on to exclaim the journeyhome attracted caused him " have ? They Do see the cattle in that meadow you " intelligence than the English ! more

the

too to Paris he was his return had left him capricious improvidence

On

ill to teach. almost

His

penniless,

FRANQ01S

CHOPIN.

429

of his friends, especially Miss and only the generosity him thousand Stirling, who twenty-five sent anonymously francs, kept him from actual want.

His

last days

were

days

of weariness

faithful Princess the the sister Louisa, loved him dearly, and Potocka, who beautiful Countess in their attentions. unwearied several other friends, were
The

and pain. Czartoryska,

His

death

fore Two days belong and trying. struggle was " her sorhe died, the Countess Potocka, row mastering her sobs," sang " beside the bed and suppressing
her friend him
was

where
gave

exhaling

his life."

Polish

abbe

the sacrament.

The
"

priest afterwards From this moment,


of God

writing of it said by God's grace, or


he became became say he

"

rather

under
man,
.

the hand and


one

Himself, almost

quite another
a

might

saint.

His

patience

did not to the will of God resignation abandon up to the last minute." A He died early in the morning of October 17, 1849. and him
fortnight later
a

most

imposing

funeral

ceremony

took

of the Madeleine, which was packed place in the Church Mozart's Kequiem to the doors. was with the performed, the greatest singers of Paris as soloists. Liszt conducted
to the mausocarried Chopin's body leum, which procession " funeral march." to the solemn sounds of his own Prince He buried in Pere-la-Chaise, Meyerbeer, was

Czartoryski, Delacroix, and other noted Over his coffin was scattered
which

men,

being
Polish

bearers. pallsoil

the

he

had

kept
on

presented
was

to him

for nineteen years in the silver cup forever. His heart leaving Warsaw

taken

to Poland,

and
where

is preserved
a

in the Holy

Cross

Church
was

at Warsaw,
a

marble

bust of the composer

set up

few

years
i

ago.
Jelowicki.

Alexander

430

FRfiDtiRIC

FRANCOIS
of George
was

CHOPIN.

Clesinger, the husband


a

Sand's unveiled

daughter,
on

signed denext

which of his death. anniversary Stirling bought Miss at


monument,

the

the

public
a

auction

furniture Ary

of his former Scheffer, his Pleyel


to him

by Louis

portrait piano, the Sevres porcelain presented Philippe, and all the trophies of

rooms,

all the by painted

his friendships.
In 1858, after Miss
sent to

Stirling's death, these

were objects

and three years mother, into the hands of his sister Isabella. later came Count Berg, Governor-general The Eussian of Poland, after from

Warsaw

to

Chopin's

the
a

Russian

shot at The house Chopin's sister lived. next where the two houses, soldiery, infuriated, surrounded

insurrection

on

January,

1863,

was

and then sacked of them, all the inhabitants removed All the precious Chopin memorials were thrown them. A Russian into the street, and helped to make a bonfire.

perished all the books had been preserved the letters which Only the Pleyel piano, which years.
elsewhere, Such an quite
"

officer himself flames. Thus

flung the Ary

Scheffer

portrait

into

the

and papers, and during eighteen happened


to

be

was

saved.

of ending in keeping with

Chopin
the

memorials

seems

to

me

tragic note

of Chopin's

life,
his

that tragic note

which

rings persistently through


in the

marvellous

Niecks
"

compositions. says Chopin's importance added


"means
new

lies in his having originated


new

elements

of art to music," in

realm

having

of expression"

for moods

that and emotions and emotions, and shades of moods to the realm hitherto had "belonged of the unuttered the and the unutterable," and he quotes with approval

FRANCOIS
dictum
that

CHOPIN.

431

" his compositions the celestial echo of are what he had felt, loved, and suffered." indeed his autobiography, His works told only to are " No those who can the notes. other poet," read under

says Niecks
romance

again,

"

has like Chopin

of the land poet has

other

and like him

in art the embodied And also no people of Poland. in art the romance of embodied

his

own

existence."

"Poland,"
temper him his

and

him his chivalrous Heine, "gave says historic passion gave (Schmerz); France and
grace
; Germany

airy charm melancholy rather

gave

him

his

romantic

; while

nature

gave

him

slender,

slim

figure,

the

noblest

elegant, heart, and

an

genius." In spite of his failures


of the
greatest

(withina

he was one and shortcomings limited that the world

sphere)

of music

has

and
NOTE.
rondeaux,
"

errors exwere cruelly piated produced, and purged by the fire of suffering and sorrow.

his

During
nocturnes,

Chopin's

life the published


concertos,

number

of his works

(including
scherzos, 64 ; to these
ten
more

mazurkas,

variations,

krakowiaks,

ballades,
must

etudes,

preludes,
four

impromptus, without
were

raises, polonaises,

etc.)

was

be added with
six opus

works

opus

numbers.

After

his death

works also

numbers
and

published, other

including
of

seventeen

Polish
without

songs, opus

mazurkas
; in

several
200

pieces

little value of which

number

all nearly
are

distinct

compositions

it may

almost

be

said that

the least

the

greatest.

MIKHAIL

IVANOVITCH
(18O4-18B7.)

GLINKA.

though
one

wholly

partially a Pole by birth, was by predilection. He took the peculiar


only
"

of his native land rhythms Mazur, and and adopted


"

the dance them,


to be,

songs

bringing
as

of Krakof by them

refinement

children.

and careful nurture He is the typical

it

were,

his of

own

representative

Polish

music. Yet Poland


the Slavs
are

open to Western isolated from Europe, and hence influences. Russia was in greater purity that heritage of song which preserved has come down Curiously enough the ages. the through
on

the number, Poland, being

All monopoly of national music. musical, but Russia, it is claimed, leads in beauty, and variety of folk-melodies.
no

had

the border,

was

more

widespread

use

or

abuse

of

the

harmonicum

through

the central Russian effect of destroying enough The

provinces

has had, in later years, the Rightly the national type of song.

anti-musical instrument. are characteristics of Russian music very marked. liberty of rhythm, The principal feature is the complete in a few measlike caprice, perhaps ures which often seems

Cui calls it

an

changing several times. harmonies Odd modulations,


432

suddenly

ending

in

GLINKA.

MIKHAIL

IVANOVITCH

GLINKA.

433

unisons, plaintive minor cadences, dashing dance forms, frequent Greek the of ancient reminiscences modes Lydian folksongs a character and Dorian give Eussian as individual as the jerky measures all their own, of the
"

"

Magyar

Nep

Eussian

the singsong of the Scottish ballad. have done to rescue from musicians much
or

forgetfulness

these

charming is known
; and

wild
was

flowers of song. toward the

The
the

first collection that


end
of the

edition of in the Eazumovski adagio in the


Lydian

last century it, Beethoven

published from this, or


themes
Thus

took

the

quartets. in Opus mode

which he wrote

second he embodied
an

132.

Still better

published since.1 little is generally of Eussia, outside known of Eussian music, and some of the best Eussian be even cannot composers said to be "names and nothing
more."
" Eussian N. a sixties prince, Yuri Galitsin, whose father had been one of Beethoven's many in London concerts patrons, directed several hundred The Times and other cities of England and Scotland.

collections have Nevertheless,

been

Early

in

the

"

declared
had been

that through

the

acclimated.
a

prince's efforts Eussian music At one hundred and fifty of these piece
once

concerts

gay

and

rollicking

kaya"

was

played,

and

not

Kamdrinsentitled did it fail to be re-

"

demanded.

piece, which represented the songs sung at it,interrupted and


composed
1

This

popular wedding and by the inevitable intoxication,


was
com-

and broad humor, by the prince's teacher, Eussia's greatest


glee
the little Russian
"

full of the wild

Such

are

Pisni

of Kotsipinski

; Balukiref

"

National and

Russian

Songs
A.

and

the

collections

of Prokudin,

Ruimsky-Koraakof,

Professor

I. Rubets.

434

MIKHAIL

IV^NOVITCH
Ivanovitch
"

GLINKA.

poser,

"

Mikhail

[or,in
called

English,
the

Michael
of

John's-son]Glinka
Russia." Glinka
was

often

"Berlioz

born

He was early retired captain. Thekla care of his adoring grandmother, he grew Glinka, in whose apartment up, rarely seeing impressionable He his parents. a was sickly, nervous,
was a

l village in the his father, who intrusted to the

the first of June, 1804, at a little belonging Government to of Smolensk,


on

child, in his

"a

sensitive plant" "Becollections,"

as

he afterwards
remained

called himself

but

sweet-tempered with which he

and
was

docile in spite of the over-indulgence

treated.
He
was

in his studies, and amazed every precocious Books. The by his ability in reading the Holy one in quaint, difficult in Russia Holy Books are printed
type,

and

in

language

that

differs

It was as though a ordinary Russian. to read Coverdale's be compelled version printed in black-letter.

essentially from boy or girl should


of the

Bible

He

had fond

natural

gift for drawing, sounds,

and

he

was

of all musical

especially

passionately of the bells

the steppe at all hours of would ring out over the day from the gayly painted belfries of the churches. He would greedily listen to them, and then mimic their
as

they

music by striking on brazen wash-hand-basins. death, Glinka his ailing old grandmother's After She had no belief in the system returned to his mother.
of coddling
to

to which

he had
a

been

accustomed,
more

and

tried

around But atmosphere.

throw

him
he

fresher
a

was

and hot-house

wholesome flower, and pined

for the old companionship.


1

Novospaskoy^.

MIKHAIL

IVANOVITCH

GLINKA.

435

According

to

the
often

custom

of old-time

landed

tors, proprieat great

his father

entertained
was

their neighbors the


chief

dinners,
It
was

the music which by usually furnished


at

attraction.

his brother-in-law's

tra, orches-

composed Many
great

of serfs.

and opera forty hornists executed


an

nobles at that day had private orchestras In the Imperial Orchestra were companies.
each played who difficult music.

most

organ,

and

supported

and yet They served instead of choruses with great firmness


only
note,

one

and

strength.

Some from 1773

derived considerable income of the proprietors In letting their serfs practise and teach music.
serf named

Danila

Kashin,

belonging

to

Aleksei

Bibikof, not only taught but composed songs, some many became the promoter of which very popular, and he was in Russia. of the first musical journal
Young

Glinka

was

simply

overcome

by the

beautiful

He was like one charmed. music of his uncle's orchestra. him, or rather lifted him, into a delicious but It plunged tormenting region of

dreams.

As

he

grew

older

it

his tutor again ; and when and more for him for his abstraction and again and reproved neglecting his studies for music, he replied, " is my very life ! " Music I do ? What can

absorbed

him

more

"

His

first teacher
who the boy
not
a

in his father's
no

house

was

French
compelled

governess,

had
to

ideas

learn
success

above his lessons


with such

routine. by heart.
a

She
Her

tem sys-

was

sensitive

nature.

She taught

him
was

some

of the rudiments mechanical and

this also she Still, he made

of music, but in inspiration. without

natural

rapid progress, and predilection for all that was

seemed
worthiest

to

have

and

best.

436
One

MIKHAIL

IVANOV1TCH

GLINKA.

of his uncle's fiddlers taught him the violin, but fault in his handling some there was of the bow, and Afterwards, he went Glinka caught it from him. when in queer the latter exclaimed of Bohm, Sieu Klmka,fous ne chourez chabroken French, "Me " du fiolon ("Mr. Glinka, you will never learn to mais
to take

lessons

play the When the

violin)."
he
was

in his fourteenth boarding-school

newly

opened

year he for the

was sons

sent

to

of the

nobility, connected at St. Petersburg.


were

excellent

men,

with the chief Palseological Institute The teachers in the upper classes had pean training in Eurowho

enjoyed

rough

classes they were universities, but in the lower The sub-inspector, I. E. Kolmakof, and boorish.

to the students, owing popularity among his sweet temper and his comical ways. him capitally, and never forgot him Glinka mimicked Some long as he lived. as of the students composed

enjoyed great

some

doggerel

lines,

"

Podinspektor Umnozhaet On
glazami

Kolmakof durakof
vsio morgaet

I zhilet svo'ipoprevlyaet.

which

might

be translated
Sub-inspector
Is
a

freely
Kolmakof

"

fellow odd enough. With his eyes he's always

blinking,

And

his vest fits to his thinking.

Glinka
dinner the

set

these

words
sang

students

music, and one them in the fashion

to

day
of
a

after
serenade.

Kolmakof

listened.

He

pricked

up

his

ears.

The

MIKHAIL

IV AN

0V

ITCH

GLINKA.

437
dawn in the

sense

or

nonsense

of

the

verses

began
He

to

him.

It touched of the singing.

his dignity. But when

started
came

upon tion direc-

he

to the suspected

spot he found

the students

quietly

and

diligently

singing sounded At the time


most

studying, while from a different quarter.


of

sitting in their places the jollybut offensive

distinguished

the arrival at Petersburg there was the composer piano-teacher

Glinka's

of nocturnes,
was
a

John

Field.

curious and hair, blue eyes, a light complexion, and expressive and "an He for was pleasing features. almost remarkable
somnolent

Field, who was interesting figure.

of Irish origin, He had blond

tranquillity,"

of his playing. in strong much


"

" " clear limpid flow and for the he was inclined to indulge too Afterwards

drink.

He

became

heavy, He
was

ing, vulgar-lookextremely

sort

of

musical

Falstaff.

indolent

falling asleep while and easy-going, sometimes he On one this happened occasion when giving lessons. he thought he was was asked whether paid twenty rubles for allowing himself to be played to sleep. Another
he dropped
to

time
along

his

pick it up dress-boots too tight, he

and for him.


put
on

cane

one came waited till some Another time, finding his

slippers, and

wore

them

in

most

fashionable

company.

Glinka
progress.

began When

to

take Field

lessons of him,

the quitted Glinka continued with one Osman, of his pupils, named he shortly after exchanged for the famous Zeuner. whom But him learn his theoretical lessons by Zeuner made heart, a process which the young man could not endure, and time
a

and made rapid Russian capital,

in consequence

he

made

still

third

selecting another pupil of Field, and

German
so

named

change, Karl Mayer,

this
also

far his equal

that

if the piano

438

MIKHAIL

IVA^NOVITCH

GLINKA.

were

screened

from

sight, not

even

clever

connoisseurs

playing. could tell which was in 1822, Glinka On the day of his graduation and Hurnmel's in Mayer A-minor public concerto played His for two on the violin had progress pianos. not been less brilliant. During the summer vacations which

he

spent

at

his father's home,

he

played

frequently

in

his uncle's orchestra, and learned the piccolo and other instruments, a and acquired practical knowledge of orchestral demands. At
many

Petersburg
operas

he often went to the theatre, and heard and ballets. He particularly liked Kossini's

music. At first he

studied diligently ; and as he had remarkable in aptitude for languages, he made great advances Latin, English, and Persian. German, he conFrench sidered
barbaric

little progress Afterwards

and thoroughly in it.


grew

unpoetical, and

he made

lazy, and neglected his studies. Only through the memory of his earlier attainments and by certain clever artifices, the nature is not of which he managed known, to graduate with good rank, obtaining
he
the chin

(as it

is called

Councillor, corresponding
and conferring personal pieces

published
a

several

of Collegiate to staff captain in the army, The same nobility. year he for harp and piano, and composed

in

Eussia)

The
to

string quartet. next winter he went


the
waters

to

the

Caucasus

Mountains

springs. mineral his cousin, He that relates in his by means a course of treatment of who was undergoing into a trance, and advised him to try went magnetism,

drink

famous of some " Recollections "

similar

measures.

Glinka, like Rossini

and

Chopin,

was

MIKHAIL

IVANOVITCH

GLINKA.

439

He believed, for instance, in superstitious. extremely lights. the fatal meaning of seeing three burning had a bad effect The mineral waters of the Caucasus his health. He to Petersburg worse than on returned

he had left it ; but, in accordance he entered Highways


the chancellery
as

his father's wishes, of the Department of Public


with
a

required which hour's than an not more service each day ; and brought him into friendly relations with Count Sievers, had around him a pleasant a great lover of music, who

assistant

secretary,

position

circle of friends. During a visit to the country his variations betrothal, he wrote

to
on

attend

the then

his sister's fashionable

" to his them and dedicated aria Benedetto, sia la Madre, he furnished dear niece ; " and while at Smolensk some choruses and an aria, as a prologue to General Apukhin's

"Death

Nikolai
This

of Alexander Pavlovitch."
was

and

Accession

of the

Emperor

the
was

poetical

and

dreamy

part

of

Glinka's
of

life.

by the romantic carried away poetry "romances," he wrote Zhukovsky; melancholy young " to weep the sweet tears of emotion." and loved
In

He

1827,

thanks

to

the

policy of his chief, he was in the public service ; but it was for the gain of art. had Fortunately his the debts which encumbered father's estate were out by a sudden wiped rise in the tide
of

selfish and narrow-minded from his position removed

prosperity.

A and

man

senator afterwards Glinka's father was

Pogodin, named who intendant, learning court


to

was

that

anxious

that promised great returns, to his stainless reputation, rubles, taking


a

in a speculation embark decided to help him. Trusting he


loaned him

500,000

share
were

in the transaction.
great.

It succeeded,

and

the profits

very

440
During
of Prince Prince

MIKHAIL

IVANOVITCH

GLINKA.

this eventful year Glinka Prince Sergyei Galitsin, Yuri,


was such who Sergyei encouraged a

made
a

the acquaintance

connection devoted friend

of
to

the him.

the

stirred his activity, wrote

comsensitive young poser, for him, had his verses

him to many and introduced performed, works of the leading members of the aristocracy of the city. In company an with Galitsin and his friends, he made Biver, in two boats, illuminated excursion on the Chernaya with lanterns.
on

In

the

stern

of

one

of

them

was

placed

piano,

which

he

accompanied

the

attendant
"

musicians. Afterwards,
as

encouraged
were

by the

success

of these

serenades,"

they

operatic performance President of the Imperial

gave a comic called, the musicians for the benefit of Prince Kotchubey,

Council.

dress and red wig, took in Mozart's " Don Giovanni."

muslin

arrayed in a Anna, the part of Donna

Glinka,

Glinka
that he

was
was

always
"

feeble in health.

It has

been

said

doctors."
more

of medicine victim voluntary In 1828, finding that his breath troubled

the

and him

he called in Dr. Spindler, who examined and more, him, found that he had a " whole quadrille of diseases," and advised him to go abroad for three years. In 1830 he summoned the and started on up energy

long

with him as a travelling companion the tenor singer Nikolai Ivanof, who afterwards enjoyed a great reputation in Italy and Paris. taking journey, Glinka
him
to

went

first to

Dresden.
of

The Thence

doctors
he

try the waters

Aix.
; and
some

advised leisurely passed

through
he took
up

Switzerland
for

his abode

he reached Italy, when time in Milan, Turin, and


Rome,

Naples

j and

visited

Venice,

and

other

cities.

MIKHAIL

IV^NOVITCH

GLINKA.

441

Twice

lie and

Ivanof

their meals saucepan. Yet Glinka


"

died from almost having been prepared

soning, accidental poiin an untinned

worked

diligently, and
a

composed

many

among others, pieces, He Italian themes. on

sextet,
went

trio, and

variations

into

the houses
artists and

of the Russian composers

envoys

at society, meeting distinguished the most

of the day.

He

also took

lessons for

in singing, and

studied

the Italian method

of writing

the voice. At first,like Meyerbeer,

he felt completely under the he quickly influence of the Italians, and, like Meyerbeer, He even grew recovered from the subtle intoxication. soulless style of Donizetti and weary of the sensuous, Bellini and the lesser imitators of Rossini. He became His physical infirmities grew alarming. to to say, owing to hallucinations ; but, strange subject the excessive tension of his nervous system, his voice, which had

been

hoarse

and

uncertain,

developed

into

strong, high

tenor.

On reaching
"a

Vienna,
cure,"

Glinka
and had
The

underwent

homoeopathic

seemed

called really to improve what

was

under it. At this time


a

Vienna

fallen from
great
masters

its high

estate

as

it had whom 'to die in Strauss neglect were still forgotten. allowed Chopin said, the elite of the city. as were, and Lanner musical
centre.

Glinka

heard
and
was

the

dance

moved

music of these to imitate them.

composers, popular He a wrote

theme

which

he

afterwards

utilized in his great Russian

opera. In 1836

back

to

he got word of his father's death and hastened In Moscow, his home. the same year, it sud-

442
denly

MIKHAIL

IV^NOVITCH
to

GLINKA.

occurred
no

him

to write

an

find

suitable words,
on a

and

the

that subject making

occurred

opera ; but he could few scenes that he composed to him were laid aside.

He

was

and had house of


Mary
a

even

the

his preparations to go abroad again, at the applied for his passport, when he met Stuneyefs a relative of theirs,
Ivanova. It
was
a

Petrovna

case

of love

at first

He sight. Petersburg,
men

married
where
an

her

in May,

more of a great who were him to compose literature stimulated a national by the Russian opera had been established Petrovna, Elizabeth a troupe and in 1775 of

enthusiastic than dreaming

settled in literary set of young


and national
opera.

1835,

Empress Russian

singers

had performed

"Kephale

by an was composed of which tinguish Sarti, Cimarosa, Paisiello, Bo'ieldieu, and many other dishad visited Russia, and foreign composers, helped to stimulate the national love of music, and drill
for their work. singers and orchestral performers in Russia. had Some taken up their abode

and Prokris," the music Italian, Francisco Araja.

Sarti,
Russian-

Saliva, Sapienza,
texts.
came

Caterino
to Petersburg

and others, wrote Cavos, who a was

operas

on

Venetian

by

birth,

in 1775, and devoted


; subjects
so

to treating

Russian
as name a

that

his great talents he himself came

to be regarded

genuine
as

Russian.

One

bore the

that first chosen by birth who comThere were posed others of genuine Russian the music the first to make operas, but Glinka was
same

his works Glinka.


of

as

national. well as the subject The poet Zhukovsky suggested


the

to him

taken subject

from

history, and was " book of the opera ; " but he failed anxious to write the intrusted to to fulfil his promise, and the task was troublous
times
of Russian

MIKHAIL

IV^NOVITCH
found

GLINKA.

443

Baron

Rosen,

who

it difficult to

keep

Glinka's

obliged do," said


you
same

Oftentimes energetic flow of ideas. " to fit the words All you to the music. Glinka,
"

up with he was

had
verse

to

"

was

to show

him

what

sort of

wanted, to him.

no

matter
a

how

In

day's

; 'twas all the complicated Zhutime it was all done."

had verses laughingly, that Rosen all remarked, " billeted in his pocket. Tell him what sort, and there " he had the most implicit faith in Moreover, you are !
kovsky
the inspiration

of his

own

poetry.
was was

of the opera composition by domestic Glinka troubles.


sweetness
women

The

somewhat remarkable
was
one

hindered
for the

of his disposition, but his wife

of those

who, as the saying goes, would try the temper of he his immortal was a saint. While writing work, she before he was every one that complained wasting ruled paper. Another

some

in

of visitors, she represence marked " All poets and artists come to her husband to : bad end, as, for example, Pushkin, killed who was duel." for
"

time,

in

the

Glinka
He

once

was

goaded
claim
not

to

make

savage

retort. ;

replied : but I should


the sake The

I do

not

to be wiser

than
to
a

Pushkin

certainly

expose

myself

bullet for

wife." incompatibility mother-in-law,

of my

between and

them

was

fomented
separated,

by
and

Glinka's

finally they

Glinka man. tried to procure a another she married divorce, but failed after enduring many unpleasant experiences.

On
"

Friday,
Life

December
was

9, 1836, Glinka's

for the Tsar,"

at

the

Bolsho'i

(or Great)

performed in the Theatre,

opera, for the first time

great

presence

of

444
the Emperor

MIKHAIL

IVANOVITCH

GLINKA.

immense.

The and a brilliant audience. Immediately after the curtain


box, and Empress by
a

success

was
was

fell,he

to the Emperor's summoned family, the the Imperial


"

congratulated and
the

by

Grand
not

Dukes.
to

Glinka

was

bound

written

agreement
; but

demand

after the

any compensation Emperor sent him

for his work


a

shortly

purse

of

four thousand

in the following January him rubles, and appointed kapellmeister to the court chapel. " The A Life for the Tsar " secret of the success of
was

not

far

to

seek.

It appealed

to

all the

of the people, and, moreover, emotions itself many of the elements of popular national song. After the death of the Tsar Ivan the Terrible, an ambitious

patriotic in embodied

Boris Godundf, by murdering the named He young Prince Dimitri, paved the way to the throne. Just before he died a monk years. reigned only seven Otrepief pretended that Dimitri, the son of the named

boydr

late Tsar,
escaped.
to

but that he had murdered, He to be the Tsarevitch, claimed and managed his to Poles, joined support an army enlist of
not

had

been

by many

disaffected Russians.
young Tsar.
son

Public

The conquest easy. and Otrepief became

his opinion made of Boris was murdered,

His prey the

reign

was

of short

duration.

Russia

became

the

factions. Anarchy to ruin threatened of warring When the trouble was a at its height, realm.

butcher

Pozharsky, Minin and a prince named named forgetting all differences of rank, heroically determined to restore By their efforts a Tsar of pure Russian order. into power the origin was elected ; and thus came

present house of Romanof. These exciting years,

filled

as

they

were

with

in-

il
"

MIKHAIL

IV AN

0V

ITCH

GLINKA.

445
the
Russian

tensely

dramatic

events,

have

furnished

poets with material for many Glinka also chose the


The

subject

brilliant plays. of his opera.


the False

From

this

Poles

who

had

come

in with

Dimitri

are

cow. or city fortress of Mosstill in possession of the Kreml, Tsar Mikhail to They the new abduct plot force the peasant, Ivan Susanin, to Romanof. They

conduct

them

The place. brambles, and

in the guise of ambassadors instead leads them peasant when

to his hiding-

into

his design

he is made to pay In the first act of the opera,

is accomplished the penalty with his life.


the
peasant
to at

pathless covered, and dis-

first forbids

his beautiful because

daughter,

Antonida,

marry

Sabinin

of the dangerous

uncertainty

but when news arrives of the he gives his consent. The second

of political affairs ; election of the Romanof,


act

is

ballet divertissement,

krakoviak, a a polonaise, Polish dances. The third and other popular mazurka, for Antonida the wedding act shows preparations and Sabinin interrupted by the arrival of the Polish party.
a

introducing

Susanin
after
a

sends
tender
to

his

son,

Vanya,
to

to

warn

the departs

Tsar,

and
the

farewell death.

Antonida, Sabinin,

with

Poles
what

certain

entering,
a

discovers
starts

is in the

wind,

hastily gathers

party, and

in pursuit.
The
fourth
act has

two

scenes

first portrays Vanya death of Susanin.

warning The epilogue

The and an epilogue. the Tsar ; the second, the relates with the
story

of

the martyr's death, and entry into Moscow.


This

concludes

the Tsar's solemn

will give a hint at the possibilities of song and dramatic situations which it afforded. Glinka's great innovation was the employof the
opera

brief synopsis

446

MIKHAIL

IVANOVITCH

GLINKA.

national Polish and Russian


ment

of

melodies,
ones. are

especially

the

contrast

of

Whenever
Polish

the Poles
are

introduced,

employed, and This, and the orchestral remiof Chopin. niscences quite worthy are of Vanya of the melodies and Antonida, in Wagner distinct foreshadowings are of what called leading motives. rhythms

in the last act, there is a mazurka


as

"Glinka," Cui,
"was

Antonovitch Tsesar says his countryman, fertile and inexhaustible a standing melodist, underthe art of giving songs a perfectly vocal form, violence
and the

He displays commonplace. is always His melody animation. variety, grace, and knowledge, His the astonishing musical expressive. free from

inventions, bold, original, and richness of his harmonic His lucid, are genius. equal to his melodic always introduced harmony a of effects absolutely multitude
" "

novel and full of good taste." In April, 1838, Glinka was despatched the
Emperor land,
so

to

"

Russia

Minor,"

"

by command the Ukraina,

of that

border

fertile in popular

stringed of dance
peasant

lute, whose

and hut.
he

sweet

where the threebalalaika, is suggestive very name, heard in many a refrain, still was
songs,

and

especial in succeeded

His

service

was

to

enlisting
three
men,

in

ers, singprocure the Emperor's


them
so

boys and service nineteen famous Gulak-Artemovsky.

among
was

the

Nicholas

that he gave Glinka fifteen hundred rubles. beyond not retain his position as kapellmeister

pleased Glinka did lowing the folhe had


a

year.
severe

Owing
of

to his shattered

health,
of

"

attack
and

fever,

"

the

death

his

brother,

Andrei,

various

disagreeable

the quarrel with which was 1839. last day of December,

chief of circumstances, his wife, he retired on the

MIKHAIL

IVANOVITCH

GLINKA.

447

Not
and

three years later, his second opera, " Ruslan Luidmfla,'' was brought out for the first time.
quite

idea of the Shakdvsko'i, who


The
score

opera
saw

had the

been

suggested
a

by Prince dramatic
scene

possibilities of
narrative poem, it not been Had

in Pushkin's

famous

which is laid in the East. bullet of the duel which cut off Russia's greatest poet in the very prime and dramatist of his powers, Glinka would have followed the author's indications ; but as this
was

of for the fatal

the

impossible,

certain

Bakhturin,

one

the task, and, as Glinka undertook himself said, finished the libretto in a quarter of an hour five others had his drunken Four hand." or "with made by
the libretto. The plot represents with Liudmila, the daughter of an Eastern prince, wooed Kuslan, Slav, Katmir, Oriental, and Farlaf, a an a experiments

brilliant young men brothers, Kukolnik

who

gathered

at the

of the many house of the

of a prophetic villain. Nuptial choruses, the singing bard, the marvels of a magician, all enter into the score. A'ivazovsky, who had been in Persia, gave Glinka three
Tatar

give
more

into he introduced which Moreover, Eastern an coloring. than ten years before, Glinka had
songs,

the

third

act to

while caught
or

travelling
a

charming
:

lips of his yamshchik, this he utilized for the ballad of " Phinna." " first performance Ruslan " took The of theme from
the 9th of December,

postilion

1842.

The part
same

ill,and
to
a

the

important

place on the favorite singer, Petrova, was " Ratinir " was intrusted of
name

means

pupil who bore the her equal. The

but

was

scenery

had

quarrelled

chorus were wretched. Though did not know their music.

with The

the

painted director, Gedeonof,


not

by any by Roller, who


not
was

utterly

well

drilled, and
was

the

music

of

448
higher

MIKHAIL

IVANOVITCII

GLINKA.

quality

than

that

in

"

Life for the Tsar," the

not nearly so dramatic, and it did not appeal opera was This, together with directly to patriotic emotions. so it to be coldly the faults of the performance, caused

received
were

by the

mingled One of Glinka's


:
"

the curtain public, and when with the faint applause. friends

fell hisses

tried to comfort
than

him
you

Christ suffered more Petrova At the third representation

Come

now,

by ing saydo."

herself

took part,
was

and

more

enthusiasm

was

shown.

The

composer

to

on two-thirds of the receipts, but receive ten per centum him three him instead of bringing profit it plunged Bulgarin thousand criticised silver rubles into debt.

the

opera

by Count
composer. The

Bee, edited and the Northern unmercifully, Bielgorsky, had a cruel sting for the sensitive

next

year

the

was and "Kuslan" during his lifetime.

Italian opera Nor shelved. failure

came was

to

Petersburg,
ever

it

revived

Glinka,

who

felt

this

bitterly,

soon

went

Berlioz appreciated abroad, and this time visited Paris. Caucasian a his greatness, and caused the " Leschinka," dance from " Kuslan," and a cavatina from " A Life for the But neither was in public. executed Mozart had reGlinka what marked successful. remarked, bad listeners before him, that the French were Tsar,"
to

be

and worse singers. He a concert gave


mor's

at which
"

his krakoviak,

"

Chernoan

March
romance,

"

(from
"

Kuslan

"),a

waltz

Italian

Desiderio"

were

scherzo, and but performed,

in

spite of the presence of all the Russians a good audience, he lost 1,500 francs.

in Paris, and

In May,

1845, he went

to

Spain, and

travelled

over

MIKHAIL

IVANOVITCH

GLINKA.

449
for lecting colAt years.
on

large part of the country, He folk-songs.


Madrid, popular with At
Russia
a

indulging
was

Ms
for

passion
two

there

in 1847,

he
la

composed

his great

fantasy

the

dance
symphonic the

"

jota arragonesa,"
poem

called "A

he followed which in Madrid." Night he


to returned From failed.

desire

of

his

aged

mother

this

this time in
or

year, and forth he led

again
a

his

health

Warsaw,

restless, wandering in Moscow, sometimes


In

life, sometimes
or

in Petersburg,
a

Smolensk.

June,

1857, he

from

and before he had opened shock from his finger-tips : it contained death. mother's
During these

home,

received it felt a
the
news

letter

nervous

of his

Prince

five years of nomadic for life he wrote cluding Varshavsky's a of pieces, inorchestra number his pot-pourri "Recollections of Castile," and
"

his ever-famous The

Kamdrinskaya"
May he went

abroad for the third time, again visited Paris, and started for Spain ; but his painful Toulouse to nervous sufferings drove him back from following
for his native land, and dreamed he of a quiet life in a little house with a garden, where for his pet animals and birds. should have room
was

Paris.

He

homesick

It
or

about this time that he wrote Autobiography.


was

his Recollections,

Just

two

years

later he

was

in Russia
Ivanovna

once

more

and
who
great

sister visiting lived at Tsarkoye Selo.

his

Liudmila At

Shetakova,
he

Petersburg
great

found

pleasure in the society of the began for her an opera to be


or ("The Bigamist"),

singer Leonova, " Drumuzhnetsa entitled

and
"

"The
apply

Robbers
some

of the Volga,"
sketches
"

for

which

he

intended

to

of

Malo-

Russian

songs,

formerly

written

for

Taras

Bulba."

450
The time.

MIKHAIL

IVANOV1TCU

GLINKA.

libretto, unfortunately,
him again made to Berlin in order

did

not

reach

him

in

Physical

pains

restless, and
to

in April,

1856, he went

study

the

music

of

the ancients, especially the so-called church ecclesiastical he was Here greatly delighted because a trio of modes. his was by the King's band conat a parade cert, performed
" Life for the Tsar and his for the first time.

"

was

given

in Germany

He

No

suddenly taken ill, and died in February, 1857. found one was peacefully resting with him, but he was in bed with a holy image pressed to his lips.
was

His in the

body

was

brought

to

Russia

in May,

and

buried

Monastery, the near of the Nevsky of Eussia. grave of the great Kruilof, the Msop Glinka always had the good fortune to make friends, cemetery and his intimates
were

the

leading

spirits of his time,

him looked the greatest upon who with admiration. There are in existence numerous He portraits of him. is portrayed boy in 1817; a as as a regular-featured

sentimental in a uniform world,


the

young
coat
a

wearing year before

in 1824 ; as an inspired official in 1830; as a contented citizen of the fez, in 1850; Turkish and in 1856,
man as a

his death,

dark-eyed
gray,

Titianesque

thinker,

hair changing with imperious in expression.

to

self-willed

and

HECTOR

BEELIOZ.
(1803-1869.)

Colossal
Fierce, With Foiled, Taught

genius

of the eagle's

wing!

unrestrained, capacities
ever

ambitious,
for love
met

passionate,
hate,

vast

and

fostered,

by

spur

and

sting,

by

thy

nature's

wondrous doomed
to work

art to sing,

Volcanic

in impatience,
in defeat,

by
and

Fate,
;
"

Successful What
A
message

wait

hadst

thou

to the

world

to bring

message

far too
as

vast

for human

thought high
of the ;

It

was

though
the

thy

spirit mounted voices harmony


us,

And And

caught fitted them


our

choiring

spheres,

to earthly

It wakes Yet
we

wonder,

stirs

causes

tears,

who

hear

it comprehend

it not !

LOUIS
month French

HECTOR
of

BERLIOZ
in
the

was

born

in the

chill

Frimaire,
; that

twelfth

Republic

is to

December

11,
a

1803.

say, his His birthplace Berlioz's

year of the birthday was Sunday,


was own

Cote-

Saint-Andre, "built
plain,
on

tiny village

(touse
hill and
the

words)
a

the

slope

of

overlooking
of

vast
was

rich, golden, by a characterized further in


on

green,

peculiarly the

silence dreamy

which

majesty, still
it shutting in the far

enhanced the
south

by
and

belt of mountains and surmounted

east,

distance

by

the

gigantic

snow-capped

peaks

of

the

Alps." His

father,

of

honorable
451

family

and

considerable

452
"

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

a wealth, was for humanity's

health

officer," who

practised

medicine

love
him

medical have been considerable, for he won on chronic diseases that was His
was a

and Monsieur

sake rather than respect of the humble Berl.


His

profit, and peasantry,

enjoyed the
who called
must
memorial

acquirements prize for a

published

in Paris.

free a man nature, meditative from of any sort, inclined to the scepticism prejudices he never though of the Revolutionary philosophers,

dreamy

and

interfered
was a

with

the

victim of instructor in languages, Berlioz, while and patience,


was

beliefs of others. In later life he He habit. his son's the opium was literature, history, geography. tribute to his father's learning
that

paying

structi inthis method of home Having to him. dealings almost injurious considered
relations

exclusively chosen

with

and

servants

companions, and seeing " I am was unfitted for rude contact with the world. "that in this respect certain," says he in his Memoirs, I remained ignorant an and awkward child till I was

and only carefully little of real life,

he

twenty-five." his passion his delight, and such was for studying the maps of far countries, and reading all possible stories of foreign travel and adventure, that he

Geography

was

declared
certainly
consent

if he had
have

been

born
a

nearer

the
or

sea

he

should the

become

sailor, with his

without became

By

of his parents. curious freak of heredity visited the lands ceased dreaming.

own

son

sailor and and never He was

of which

the father dreamed

obliged each day to learn by heart lines of Horace the task and Vergil, but found he was Nevertheless, at the early age cf twelve

several
odious. imso

HECTOR After
a

BERLIOZ.

photograph

from

life.

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

453
of Dido

voice and flowing tears. in the magic The secret of this lay not so much of Vergil's hexameters, so completely unfelt by the average Hector's ing schoolboy, as in the youthful precocity in falla
a

pressed by the pathos book of the ^Eneid, read it aloud without

of the story

in the fourth
to

that

he

found

it impossible

breaking

what

victim to he himself
so

what

poets
"

call "the

tender
"

passion,"

he

was

that half Every mother


the
name

Indeed, the cruel passion ! called he was, hard hit by Cupid's dart, child though later the wound had not healed ! a century
he
was

summer

in the

habit

of going
"

with

his

and

sisters to visit his

of Walter
was

grandfather, Scott's fabulous warrior,


romantic valley

bore who Marmion."


village looking in the

His

home

in the

and
of the

of Maylan,

above between

the

picturesque Isere, and

toward
army,
"

the mountains.

Hector's
campaigns

uncle

Felix

was

and
warm

the

all

with a mere in his foot, He


was

with the cannon's lance thrust, sometimes


or

home often returned breath, adorned sometimes with


a

gun-shot

magnificent
of

one

those
"

sabre cut across intrepid heroes,


great

wound his face."

like Captain

Coignet,

who

followed

the

Emperor's

luminous

" path," was ready to give his life for a glance, believing Blanc." the Napoleon's throne to be as solid as Mont Many stories he had to tell of his adventures, gallant

and

lance jovial

that

he

was

He

also

played

the

lin -viothe

and sang comic But this warrior


doctor's
son

songs.

made
a

less vivid

impression

on

sister and

lived with girl of eighteen, who her aunt, Madame Gautier, during the than
on

her
mer, sum-

high surrounded ruined

up

the vines

mountain-side,
and

in

white

cottage,

by and

gardens,

tower

the mighty

and guarded St. Eynard. crag of

by

454
One

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

of

Hector's
"

favorite

books

was

again and Hamadryad "The the St. Eynard," nymph, again. of Estelle. She was, was also named says Berlioz, "tall, and
of elegant
they
were

entitled in his

Estelle et Nemorin"

mance, pastoral rodiswhich he had covered

father's

library,

and

read

figure, with
always helmet

though

the of adorning but thoroughly not Andalusian,

for war, eyes armed smiling, a head of hair worthy of Achilles, and feet, perhaps
great

Parisian, and rose-colored

buskins The he felt

!"

first time
an

that

the

boy

saw

He electric shock. grew " " I spent whole to a prey pain. nights," he says, day I hid in the corn-fields, in the desolation. By like a secret retreats of my grandfather's orchard,

this superior being, dizzy with mysterious

wounded companion

bird, silent
of the

and

purest

Jealousy, sad. love, tormented

that
me

pallid
a
man

if

spoke the merest word to my idol." he had forgotten Forty years after, when her hair, he

the

her sparkling still remembered rose-colored buskins, and still the clinking of his uncle Marmion's spurs as he danced with her brought a pang to his heart.

color of eyes, her

He
at

was

only
so

boy

of twelve,

and
he

she

was

least, and
great
"

his passion, which


to

could

eighteen not hide, Estelle him for

afforded herself,

amusement

the

country-side. encouraged
not what

the star of the mountain," diversion's sake. Perhaps she knew

cruel pain

it caused
"

him.
evening,"
barres. ourselves

One

he

aunt's

to play

there relates, In order to form


into equal

"

was

large party

at

her
we

the

two

hostilecamps,
gentlemen
my

had

to divide

groups.
to make
me

The

chose

their partners.

They

took

pains

point out

choice

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

455
; my
one

in presence
violently.
me.

of all. But I had I silently dropped


Miss
me

not

the courage eyes. my

heart
was

beat too

my

Every hand,

When
let

Estelle, ;

seizing
Mr. she

well,

choose

I take
as

Hector.' looked down

mocking, * Very exclaimed, ! She Oh, agony


upon
me

also laughed, the cruel one, height of her loveliness."

from

the

This colored
memory
"

of brief duration, but it pathetic episode was all his life. Other loves failed to blot out the of the first.
thirteen from when Italy, house, I parted
across

was

from

her. I

I
saw
"

was

came

home
the

the Alps,

as thirty when, afar off St. Eynard

and

little white

and

the old tower

I still loved

her."

Berlioz

declares
at the
means

in his memoirs
same

that

music

was

revealed

to him

time it
was

with

love, at the

age

of
to

twelve.
compose.

He

that

then

he

first began

His

first impression

of music

was

gained

at

his first

communion.

His

mother,

who

was

tall

woman,

religious, duly of her faith. His older sister, Nancy,


extremely
convent ; and

taught

him

rather stern, and the first precepts

was

pupil

at

the

Ursuline

the sun spring morning, early one shining, in the poplars, the priest the fragrant breeze murmuring to take him to the " holy house," where came the august In the chapel he found his sisto occur. was ceremony ter
and

her

companions

all clad

in white,

their heads

bowed

in prayer. honor of being invited to Blushing at the undeserved the table before those charming maidens, he received the "a Host, and just at that moment chorus of virginal
voices,

in joining mystic

hymn

to

the

Eucharist,"

filled him

with

"a

and

passionate

agitation."

456
"

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

" heaven that I saw says he, opening the heaven of love and chaste delight a heaven purer beautiful than that of which times more and a thousand I had heard so much. Oh, marvellous power of true

I thought,"

"

"

expression, incomparable from the heart ! he continues, saint, in so far as going


"

beauty

of

melody

coming

Thus,"

"

I became
to hear
mass

suddenly
every

saint day, taking


"

the communion

every

Sunday,

and

of penitence to tell my have done nothing?


"

worthy priest ; keep followed his advice only too well." Before he was twelve he found a flageolet in and
so

'

I father, spiritual ' Very well, my boy,' replied the for many And I on so/ years

going to the director, * My

tribunal

drawer,
him

in a day his father succeeded that he good an idea of its use air
"

or was

two

in giving

popular flute, so

Marlborough."
seven

Later

able to play the he practised the

he played, as he himself months Dr. Berlioz, who had taught him says, passably well. to have a violinist arrangements all he knew, then made from Lyons. The boy received two Imbert come named lessons a day, and, as he was able to sing at sight, and play
"

that in

Drouet's

Complicated

Concertos,"

he

made

rapid

progress. He studied

by himself
comprehend

E/ameau's

treatise
he

on

harmony,
the

but

could

not

it, though

burned

midnight

oil, until suddenly, due to practice

by
in

kind

of mystic

enlighten

Pleyel's

fundamental
mind. Then
on

established principles he sat down wrote and


Italian themes, bass-viol.

quartets, the in his themselves

violin, viola, and another

and Two
was

six-part potpourri for flute, quintet


later he
composed none

months
so

quintet, which

difficult that

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

457

of them

enough, gloomy love.


"

play it. All of these pieces, naturally in the breathed were the most minor, and inspired by hopeless They were melancholy.

could

I burned

these two

them after I composed Paris, long after, I was the passage


of

" some years quintets," he writes, at ; but, strangely enough, when

writing approved
came

these

essays,

first orchestral composition, by my father in the second head, and into my was
my

adopted." Berlioz's Dorant,


play and the
a

second far man

instructor
more

was

an

Alsatian and

named

clever than

Imbert,

every After a
"

guitar, the clarinet, the violin, the known to man. other instrument
short time Dorant
went to Hector's

able to bass-viol,

father

I cannot

"Why
you, or him ? "
"

any more give your son Has he failed in not?

guitar

lessons."

any that

manner

toward despair of he

has

he

been

so

indolent

you

Nothing
a

is

good This was

as

of the sort ; but, absurd player as I am." Berlioz's first diploma,


of his
career

as

it may he found

seem,

and

himself
"

at the outset

(as he

expresses

it), master
the

of the three

and majestic

incomparable

instruments,

flageolet, flute, and guitar." Even while declaring that he could command he suddenly instrument, recollects the drum.

no

other
could

He

beat the drum.


He and

This

was

always

regretted yet this very lack

his chief resemblance that he could not play caused


him

to Haydn.

the piano ; himself to rely upon

entirely when composing. to look But his father began


enthusiasms,

askance
mother
"

at

his musical

and

his very

pious

did

he

never

458
forgive her for it ?

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

"

saw

in that art the lurking

tions tempta-

of the stage and all other evil. him, like himself, His father desired to see So having

doctor.

started

him

in Latin,

Greek,

he put him literature, and geography, his home. From of La Cote near
at

history, and into the little seminary this, Hector


graduated

eighteen with a fair amount of it is said that he remembered his Latin well learning, to talk in it with a famous enough professor at Stuttgart,
the
age

of

"

many

his memoirs full of classical are and not indisposed to study medicine. quotations, But it chanced day that he picked up the Lives of one Gluck and Haydn, and shortly after a piece of musicyears later, and
"

paper ruled and he, who


music
a

with had in

twenty
never more

-four
seen
a

lines fell into his hands full


score
or

dreamed
woke
was

of
to

written

than

a consciousness of what ladder, reached by climbing that marvellous by Jacob in his dreams. than the one seen

six parts, suddenly world of harmony


more

to be

magical

under his father's revelation to him ; and when direction he studied the splendid plates, life size, in Monro's was treatise on the human skeleton, his mind

It

was

rather on bribe of

of symphonies, and only the skeletons flute that his father offered, and the a new him yield and respect and fear inspired by him, made " for the most the empyrean melancholy give up what he calls angels abiding places of the earth ; the immortal

the

of poesy

and

love

and

their inspired

songs,

for the disgusting

attendants

of the dissecting-room,

hideous

corpses,

cries of patients, moans and death-rattle." Yet he did yield, and in company with a cousin who became a distinguished with physician, he read medicine best for the two to go to the old doctors until it seemed

Paris,

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

459
ing-room to the dissect-

This

was

in 1822.

When

he first went

of the of the hospital of La Pitie, the horror so great that he jumped out of the window sight was and to his lodgings as fast as his legs would ran carry him.

But

it

was

only

he went
than

again

stoical. for some

and He studied
months,

momentary revolt. himself showed calm

The

next
even

day
more

and

assiduously
till, at
the
an

under

famous

fessors pro-

father's hopes,
"

he went

to

opera

evil hour for his and heard Salieri's additions. He tried hard,
against

Daughters Again

of Danaus,"

with
came

Spontini's

the magic

spell

in honor
it. which
The

of his promise
next

upon him. to his father, to struggle

week

he

heard
sung

the years

ballet of before

"Nina,"

in

occurred
at

the song the

sisterhood
when

Ursuline

convent,
was

by the young at his first communion,


to him.

the realm
was

of music

opened

The

theme
on

by the

famous

Dalayrac,

and

it

was

played The

the English step was he found


scores
"

horn.
to seek
was

next

which himself in the Gluck's

the library of the conservatory, open to all, and there he buried


his dearest admiration. he heard early

of Gluck,

opera

1822, decided
Inspired
once so

Iphigenie" of his career.


more

which

in

by these

musical
a

treasures,

Berlioz,

who

knew

little, composed

cantata

with

orchestral named library,


who has

accompaniment.

A had

Gerono,

who

pupil of the conservatory, frequently found him at the him


true
"

offered to present been "the called


Lesueur
was

to

Professor inventor
of

Lesueur, program
as

music."

looked

over

The

Arab

Horse,"

the cantata

it abounding in life and dramatic called, and found fire,but pronounced it so full of faults that it was of no
use
even

to

point them

out.

460
Gerono
methods, the

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

was

deputed
he did it
young he

to
so man

"

"

coach

Berlioz

in Lesueur's
a

and

effectively, that in
was

few

ambitious

able

to

enter

weeks Lesueur's

classes. Afterwards
wasted

came
"

to

mourn

the

time
and

that

he

had

in studying

this excellent

worthy

man's

theories." antediluvian his Lesueur became


every

earnest

friend, and

Sunday
on

to

hear

his

masses

took him and his little "oratorios"

Ossianic and episodes, performed Then the ceremony was over, at the Tuileries. when King Charles X. had and retired to the sound of fanfare big drum barbarous on a and a fife, master
take pupil would his struggles, his
successes,
on

Biblical

walks, confiding in him his disappointments, ambitions,

long

all his

united

and discussing with him theories and philosophies. dissimilar The two friends so were strangely for Gluck, Vergil, and Nain their admiration poleon
!

All this time with

Berlioz

was

having

heated

discussion

his father, in regard to his " chimerical notion " of for music. And a mass, abandoning medicine when he wrote at the suggestion which of the chapelmaster of Saint-Roch,
so

failed lamentably

(not through

his fault
threatened

much

his that of the performers), parents to cut off his allowance hundred of one and
as a

twenty

francs

him home. month, and finally summoned During his two months' stay at La Cote, he almost his father over to his views, talked and presented Lesueur's in such a light, that Dr. services to him

Berlioz

sent

his

especial

thanks

and

regards

to

the

professor. Berlioz

was

back

in Paris early in August,

1825, but,

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

461
studies, he spent his He could not afford

instead of attending
time

to his medical

revising
a

and

copying

his

mass.

to employ

professional copyist. In order to have it properly represented, he needed francs, and he had applied to briand Chateautwelve hundred
for
a

loan, which

was

spendthrift
whose

nobleman, he made acquaintance


young
own

But a curtly refused. Augustin de Pons, named


at

the Opera,
was

proffered

it

of his

accord, and at Saint-Koch.


to repay

the

work

excellently

formed per-

In order

the loan, Berlioz lessons, hour


"
"

moved

into humble
singing,

quarters, gave
at

music
an

flute, guitar, and


saved

almost assiduously, in slowly covering starved himself, and had succeeded half of the indebtedness tience De Pons in a fit of impawhen to Dr. Berlioz, telling him the situation. wrote

twenty

sous

paid the old gentleman francs, and, for a time, deprived

The

six hundred remaining his son of his stipend,

hoping
But
a

to bring
new

him

to terms.

revelation

had

come

to

Berlioz

on

hearing
of
"

the sadly garbled Freischiitz"

and

travestied which,

French it

version
was so

Der

through

though and
see

lated, "mutiable,

vulgarized, in spite of his


romantic composer.

tortured,

insulted,"
the

he

was

to prejudices,

grace, poetry,

coloring given his


on a

to orchestration

and by the German

What day, have

was

disappointment

in 1826,

justhad

reaching visit from heard him

when, Lesueur's, he
:

one was

February
told
:
"

Weber play

five minutes
scenes

sooner,

have you would French scores."

whole

from

our

he missed seeing him Weber and in the evening at the Op^ra. to London, he died. where

Again

that day

at
was

publisher's, his way on

462
Berlioz

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

to present himself as a this year determined " But, unfortunately, prize of Rome." candidate for the he was only a private pupil of Lesueur, and a preliminary

examination
the weaker This news
ones,

was

required,
he
was
"

in order

to

get

rid of

and

confirmed letter assuring urgent future before him, and


his pores." So Berlioz went It
was

reached in his opposition,


him

screened out." his father, who was more though that


Lesueur Hector

than
wrote
a

ever an

had

great

that

"music

streamed

from

all

home

to try his powers

painful visit ; after several days him on first begged his father relented, but his mother his plans, and then, finding him her knees to renounce
a

of persuasion. of icy coolness

unyielding, his memoir

cursed
es.

him,

"

or

so

at

least he

relates in

One

of Berlioz's
named
a

man young Catholic,

first acquaintances Ferrand, Humbert


in
the

in Paris
an

was

ardent

Roman
monarchy,"

zealous believer Berlioz was while

"legitimate
more

growing

and

more

"liberal,"

both

spite of these between the two.


It
was

regarded divergences, a

as

politics and religion. friendship sprang warm

In up

Ferrand,
wrote
a

revolution, and of the Greek stirred, like Lord Byron, by the poetic struggle, Berlioz heroic scene or with choruses. poem

about

the

time

set it to

sufficed music, but no letters of recommendation to get it publicly performed. Then Ferrand an entitled operatic poem composed

"Les

Francs-Juges,"

which

Berlioz, full of enthusiasm,

set to music.

While

he

was

engaged

dreaming

of unheard-of

in this great undertaking, and definitely enhe was success,

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

463

rolled in the
two
courses

Conservatoire,
at
once:

and

diligently

counterpoint and Keicha, friend of Beethoven's. a He He of his economies. gives a vivid description had taken as a room-mate a young student of pharmacy,
a

composition under fugue (which he detested)under

carrying on Lesueur, and

townsman

of his, who

had

some

skill in cooking

; and

1826, tillthe twenty-second the sixth of September, day on raisins, another on next, they feasted one of May bread and salt, varied occasionally by a cutlet or pulse fried in lard, or, as a special extravagance, a capon costing
from
more were

than

rigorously Nevertheless, a
francs
"
"

franc and a half ; so that their expenses kept down to thirty francs a month. hundred that cost one piano and ten
a
" piano !

what

exclaims

Berlioz

"

decorated

their humble They


were

rooms.

too proud and well, and Berlioz was young It came into his head to to apply to his parents for aid. find an engagement flutist in some American as theatre,
at New

York,
one

or

Then

day
comic

the City of Mexico, he heard that a new opera


was

or

in China.

theatre

for vaudevilles the

and Bourse. He
went

to

be

opened

opposite

there

and

applied

for

place

as

flutist

or

chorus singer: all the places were already taken. left his address, and a few days later was given an at fifty francs a month.

He

engagemen

He

kept

this

secret

even

from

his friend

the pharmacist,

that he was pretending he took his place in the chorus by a false nose !

giving lessons, and when he concealed his identity

he As soon as slavery lasted only till spring. his visits to the felt free to quit it, he began to renew This

464
Opera, always

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

taking

pains to give

careful preliminary

of the work performed, study to the score and to assure himself of the scope and compass of various instruments. He was still under the influence of Gluck and Sponde Rome trial for the Prix the new when instituted, the judges, Lesueur, were was among whom his compositions Cherubini, Paer, Boieldieu, pronounced Berlioz insisted that it was because the unperformable.

tini, but

duty it was pianist, whose incompetent ! was


Berlioz
never

to represent

the orchestration, his

forgave

them

for their

of rejection

claims.

his revenge later by senda few months ing them tickets to his mass, was at which executed Saint Cecilia's Day, 1827, Saint-Eustache on a work, as
He
"

had

his friend he wrote than his lyric scene

Ferrand, presented

thirty times for the

more

difficult
It went

prize.

finely, especially one tremendous four horns, three six trumpets,

passage

executed and

by
two

trombones,

ophicleides ! It was the


orchestra; and

first time the

that

he

had

ever

directed

an

excitement
so

piece affected him dropped the baton.

that

his own of conducting he felt faint and almost life : two

This

year

was

revelations
an

came

memorable to him,
"

in Berlioz's
two,

new

and

third, which Smithson

was

old one Charles

revived. Kemble and

Miss

Harriet

English
spere Hugo,

to the Odeon, and came company Victor for the first time to the French people. Dumas, Vigny, and other writers, hailed the new
; the
were name

with an revealed Shak-

phenomenon it as was

of Shakspere

henceforth

for them

knew

Berlioz the watchword of romanticism. ideas came scarcely a word of English, but the new

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

465
he
"

to

him

like

thunderbolt upon
to
me me

"

Shakspere,"
me

coming its flash, opening crash, illuminated I recognized

me,

struck

as

unsays, expecte by lightning ;

the heaven
its most

of art with

sublime

for

distant

the true

truth, of the drama. that

grandeur, I saw
"

the true

profundities. beauty, the true


"

was

living being,

I comprehended and that I must

I felt

arise and

walk." Henceforth
companions:

Shakspere
these

his inseparable and Vergil were Scott, Tom Byron, two, Goethe, and
them

Moore,

Cooper,
He

Gluck,

Beethoven
all in turn,

made

his pantheon. all equally


"

worshipped

and

to

the

end.
"

Shakspere
of his life.

confidants
pocket

Goethe were and He kept Vergil's

the

mute

works

in his

wherever

he went.
these

Week
were

after week

Shaksperian

had
away.

in March, 1828, given, and when benefit, more than a thousand people The theatre was turned into a garden

representations Miss Smithson


were

turned

of flowers.

X. and the Duchess de Berri, who were present, Irish actress magnificent made the lovely young presents. Berlioz, with his inflammable heart, found it in vain

Charles

her in "Romeo He saw sudden passion. " but with fierce pain stayed Hamlet," and Juliet/' and " from Lear " and all the other performances. away But it was had become He too late. the prey of a
to

resist the

Fury.

He

could

not

sleep, he

could

not

the streets of wildly through Liszt and Chopin followed him all one

dered work, but wanIt is said Paris.


across

night Plain of Saint-Ouen until at last he fell, worn fatigue, and slept where he lay, like one dead.
It is
a
common

the

out

with

story

that Berlioz

Miss

Smithson

in

"

Eomeo

and

on exclaimed seeing " I will marry Juliet,"

466
this

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

and I will write my greatest symphony Berlioz denied saying such a thing. this drama." Hippeau points out that Jules Janin put the words
woman,

on

But
into

in Les Debats Berlioz's mouth 29, 1839, at the of Nov. time of the first hearing of the symphony, and Berlioz did not then deny " the soft impeachment."

Another
anguish.

came shock Beethoven

to
was

rouse

him

from

this moral
adequately March, 1828,

for the

first time
In

presented
the "Heroic

to the

sceptical Parisians. Symphony" was performed

tory at the Conservaa

concerts,

and

fortnight

later, at

concert

in Beethoven's

memory,

only

that master's
from what

Berlioz suddenly
"

awoke

works were he himself determined

given. calls
"a

sort of stupor

(abrutissemenf), and

that the

he had dreamed so unprofitably of whom should be made to hear of him. he announced Accordingly a concert composed entirely to " Waverley," that of of his own works : the overture

Ophelia

"Les
a

Franc-Juges"

(theopera
"

itself was
"

shelved

forever),

" from La Scene Grecque Death few numbers and the had been declared, by the Academy of Orpheus," which (Berlioz proof the Fine Arts, impossible of execution. posed

to have

last number, from the mass.

that fact printed on the however, was replaced by

program.)
the

The

Resurrexit

servator It took place on the twenty-sixth at the Conof May and in spite of some serious faults of execution,
created
a

genuine

sensation.
were

The

applause

was

tremendous;

congratulations
comments

showered

of the press were generally famous. He With some was of right he was show " For, did not Byron the Byron wake of music." called Still his "star, worto sudden fame? one morning

him; upon favorable.

the

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

467

he could not pronounce name she whose afar," he could not understand, ignored language and whose to receive his letters, scorned his existence, refused even

shipped

"

"

him.

His him

despair

was

almost

comic.

Sometimes

it impelled

to compose

instrumental

he wrote
Then and
to
a
won

pieces hyperbolical

madly, and from flowed

numberless his pen.


for the Prix

and Sometimes

songs

letters to his friend Ferrand.


de Home,

he tried for the third time The

only partial success. friend of his ; the second

firstprize was divided prize was

decreed

between

pupils. and another of Lesueur's important His was at this time most composition from Goethe's " Faust," inspired by Gerard eight scenes him

de Nerval's
into
on
"

translation. Damnation

This

was

The

them

he

learned During

of Faust." that Miss

afterwards he While

elaborated
was

at work

Smithson

was

Bordeaux. declared

her
no

that

he

absence in November, longer lived, that he suffered but inspired


organ

going to 1828, he the

impossible.
Yet oratorio
new

his

sufferings

him

the

more

an
a

for two

solo voices and of "Les


Moore's

accompaniment,
and musical
"

arrangement
to

Francs-Juges"
"

settings

Thomas

Irish

Melodies,"
"

Miss
"

be it remembered, was intoxication joy and of mingled love knows."


Smithson,

Irish
sorrow

revealed that

the
true

only

Miss Smithson, grain of hope consoled him. for Holland, about to leave Paris and learning of the furious adoration composer, of the young who would Not
one

storm

the

citadel of her
least knew

heart, said, "Nothing

is

more

impossible." She his


name

at

greatest

of his existence ; she had spoken ! Thus one he calls the act in what ended drama of his life.

468
Again
prize.

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

came

the annual
refused
to

competition
make

for that

Berlioz

allowance

coveted for the conventiona


gave

of prejudices

the

rein to his imagination, and most original " The Death of Cleopatra " lost passage in his work him the honor. The decided not to give any committee first prize, and divide to Berlioz the was second.
"

committee. the best and

He

free

"

in Paris, and in October gave another concert, with a hundred and ten musicians, under The included the direction of Habeneck. program
a

entirely left out ! He spent the summer

Beethoven

piano
own
"

concerto,

played
"

by

Hiller, and

and "Waverley," from the " Faust," and the number from his mass. Except for the sextet, which badly played, the concert was He was loaded with a tremendous was artistic success.

of his number " Francs-Jug es

compositions,

his overture to the his sextet of Sylphes

ovations, and francs profit.


But he had

it brought

him

five hundred

and

fifty

borrowed

and
engraved his two happy,

secondly and

much for having


; and

published
were

first for the concert money, " his " dear Irish melodies his earnings from teaching His prospects
to
"

pupils
and
worse

small. all, he William

were

not

than

had

correct,

the proofs of Rossini's " everlasting crescendo being

Tell,"

for pay, Kossini and his

When
Smithson
"

he

learned

in London,

his pet detestations. success of Miss of the immense he was rendered almost insane.

is still in London," ary, he wrote Ferrand, in Febru1830, " and yet I imagine me that I feel her near ; in all my recollections awake and join forces to tear me pieces ; I hear my heart beat, and its pulsations shake

She

me

like

the

piston

strokes

of

steam

engine.

Each

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

469
In vain !

in my body shudders with muscle horrible ! Oh, unhappy


.
.

agony.
woman

...

for
of
were

one

my

instant conceive love, she would

! if she could all the poetry, all the infinitude fly into my arms, though she

" And to express the depth embrace ! passion, he and height of this fierce and tempestuous " sode his wonderful Fantastique" Symphonie the " Epiwrote

to die in my

from

the Life of

an

Artist."

It is probable that Berlioz was growing weary of this hopeless love. A sudden shock cured him of it for the time

being.

Some

Paris and went the fields, half dead with hunger through and wandering weariness, tillat last he fell fainting, and slept like a dog. At the end of two days he returned to his friends, him dead and had sought for him in supposed Then the morgue. of gloomy after a few days more to himself again, and so far forgot " her, silence he came the Juliet, the Ophelia that his heart called to," that he who had fell
no

libel regarding frightful truth."

officious friend repeated a scandalous " He Miss Smithson. a received it as


He

disappeared

from

less desperately

pianist, named and Belgian parentage. Moke, Liszt, and


afterwards

in love with Marie-Felicite-Denise

charming young Moke, of German


as
"

She became

was

known

Camille

"

enjoying a
a

European

rival of Thalberg Hiller had reputation.


a

and lost

his heart
"

to her, and

asked

Berlioz

to be his go-between,
"

always

dangerous

experiment. the
her. young

Berlioz dreamed
with
to
"

supplanted
of

Hebrew
mother

lover.

He

marrying
reason.

Her
was

and objected,
ever

good

Berlioz
great

more

than

accomplish

deeds.
"

First, he

would

stirred have his

Symphonie
should

Fantastique

which

show

in it with a scene performed the world the perfidy of his false one

470

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

and
"

her: nay, not his venhis vengeance upon wreak geance; "I do not wish to avenge myself/7he writes; for her, and I despise her. She is an arn sorry
woman,

ordinary

endowed

with of the

an

expressing such torments felt, and incapable never

instinctive genius for human soul as she has immense Pity and that he

noble love such as did not cling to this view. much suffering !
But after Berlioz

of conceiving an I honored her with." It would

have

saved

him

had
a

his twenty-three

hundred had

pages

of music
one

copied, at

cost of 400

francs, and

came

was rehearsal, the scheme the trial for that tantalizing

abandoned. Prix de JZome,

undergone Next,

and

again he girded And he won


event,
so

himself

for the contest.


vote
was
an unanimous day, intoxicated
"

it. he

The

unheard-o

writes

the

next

not

in pulling with his success eyes of the judges, for he hastened


much
"

that
"

as their approval, with Ariel" as he called Mile. Moke, would His successful cantata, written in the
won
"

the wool over to burn the piece the thought that his
soon

the

be his.

last two

weeks

of July, during that exciting political crisis which saw the fall of a monarchy, an annual pension of gave him he francs for five years, and in December three thousand He would for Eome. departed gladly have unwillingly

but the authorities in Paris, where his heart was, he appealed to whom obliged him to fulfil the conditions Before he went he gave several concerts of the pension. he makes ful delightwith great success, and in his memoirs stayed
of the prize cantata solemn performance which utterly failed of its effect, from the fact that the horn forgot to play at the climax, and all the other wind

fun

of the

instruments

likewise,

losing their

cue,

were

silent.

It

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

471

the burning and destruction of Sardanaparepresented What lus' palace. a tumult crash and of brass and be expected of Berlioz : and all that was wood would heard was the twittering of the strings ! No wonder the away mystified and inclined to think that public went Berlioz

had

made

sport of them.

His

last concert
among

took place

included,
Ball,"

"The

other pieces to Execution," March his


"

early in December, of his composition,

and
"The

it

Sabbath,"

from

Symphonie

Witches' and "The Fantastique." "The


on
"

Witches'

Sabbath"
girl,"
once more as

was

Smithson
she in
was
"

he

his revenge calls her, and

that wretched

at that

La

Muette

But
scene

she knew in which


not

the playing for the first and only time. de Portici" " " satanic effect of this nothing of the did Berlioz care ; she was pilloried, nor good Ariel's
"

in Paris

very time part of Fenella

parents at last consented to their marriage after he should have been a year in Italy ? and was she not his angel, his genius, his thought, his heart, his poetic life ? for had
"

his

The This

story

of his

sojournin

strange,

his shock by the young hurrahs


the

eccentric of blond hair, and


pensioners

Italy reads like a comedy. creature, with his fiery eyes,


his eagle of France
nose, was

received

of every sort, as he and jests February diligence one evening,

with shouts and dismounted from

just at
of the

supper-

time. He,
"

like

the

rest,
one

became

an

habitue

dingy
the

Cafe Greco," and Mendelssohn, young


pictured him

of his first acquaintances in a letter to his who,

was

mother,

in vivid

without
new

world,

gall, calling him a genuine ture caricato create a a of talent, ambitious shadow full of immoderate vanity, desperately

472

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

affected. Yet the two for each other.


"He
is
a

opposites

had

certain attraction

fine fellow,"

is as great as his musical All that I have heard


that he is He
rooms
1

Berlioz ; "his talent of execution genius and that, indeed, is saying much. has I firmly beme. lieve of him charmed
writes
"

one

of

the

loftiest musical Every

has
:

been he
'

my

cicerone.
me a

day. capabilities of our I have been to his morning


;
we

played
then
a

sonata
me

by Beethoven
to
see

sang ruins,

Gluck's
which,

Armide

; had

he

took

the
me.

famous

I
of

confess, those

very

slight effect upon which


are

Mendelssohn
; he has
a

is
firm

one

open

natures

so

in the Lutheran by laughing

religion, and He at the Bible. had

rarely seen I sometimes


has my

belief
him

greatly scandalize
me

given

the

only

endurable

that I have
.moments

during

stay in Rome."
was

Insinuations
to

from drove

Paris

that his fair one wild.


the

not

true

almost from procured Joie" "Father

him

him

His

excessive title
to
"

despair
Pere la

his

associates He

mock

Joy."
wagered

threatened would
not

return to

home.

Mendelssohn
Berlioz having

he

dare

do

so.

left, and money suddenly secured some an eaten at Mendelssohn's excellent dinner was expense. At Florence, where an attack of sore throat detained letter from Madame him, Berlioz received a Moke,

accusing

him

of having

brought

sorrow

into her

family,

and announcing Pleyel.


Then

the marriage

of her daughter

to Camille

He conceived seized upon him. sheer madness less faithfearful plot : to hasten to Paris, to kill the two

own

and the brains out !


women

innocent

man,

and

then

blow

his

He

his

procured the disguise of a chambermaid last will, secured a passport, and set
at Pietra

; he wrote

forth

in

private carriage. But in changing

equipages

Santa

he lost his

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

473

disguise, and had to wait And be made. while he

at
was

Genoa

till another

should

about, restlessly roaming he accidentally or purposely from the walls into plunged fished He the salt brine of the Mediterranean. was
out
more

dead

than
sun

alive, "harpooned

like
was

salmon," cured

laid in the hot


of

to dry

and revive, and

thus

his passion. " The terrible hippopotamus


Hiller
"

"

of !) the

mother trinkets had


crazy

sent

back
had
"

through given
not
"

(of all
but

men

that

he

Camille,"

one worthy in which Euphonia,"

very

afterwards ; he wrote he

he
a

his revenge
story

entitled

introduced

all the

anagrams. under very transparent Pleyel returned to Paris crowned with " Les Debats," a savage criticism of her playing. gave, in He determined to live for his two sisters, whose death have been caused by his own, a would and wrote tential peni-

And

characters Madame when laurels, Berlioz

letter to Horace

Vernet,

the head

of the

French

Academy
Being

at Rome.

assured the list, he spent


near

that
a

his

name

was

not

few

of the happiest
among

stricken from weeks of his life


groves,

Genoa,
in the

wandering
warm

the

orange

ing bath-

waves,

and the Lear."

sea

to compose

and inspired by the his wonderful overture such


a

mountains to " King

on

genius born ? During his leisurely journey back to Koine, mostly foot, he began to compose his Lelio, that extravagant

Was

there

ever

queer

and

extraordinary united

lyrical monodrama which " Symphonie to the Fantastique" artist attempting

was

afterwards

showing and
then

the

tortures

of the

suicide

returning Berlioz

to life.
was

he considered

frightfully tired of his sojournat Rome : it a miserable waste What of time. could

474
he

HECTOR

BEKLIOZ.

get

out

of

the

works

of

Palestrina

sung
"

by

the

of the Sixtine Chapel male sopranos merely But the lazy interesting vestiges of a glorious past ? " life the Eternal City," the vagabond wanderings around

eighteen

among
no

the woods help to his


;

and

crags

of Tivoli

and

Subiaco,
energetic

were

ambition.

He

wanted

life,

to exercise that " proa chance wanted digious " aptitude for happiness with which he was gifted, " incalculable superabundance to satisfy his of sensibility," to stop the fearful "evaporation of heart, senses,

struggle

he

brain,
Then

nervous

fluid," which he began suddenly

tormented
once
more
"

him.
to

compose
"

with
a number

fierce activity ; his overture of other

to

Rob

Roy

and

finished, and tremendous plans were them that of a colossal oratorio on evolved, among " Last Day The of the World," with several different orchestras and groups of brass instruments placed at the pieces
were

four points of the compass. leave of absence, At last he was allowed six months' His eldest and started for Paris by way of his home. just made a satisfactory marriage, and his sister had parents Indeed, dowry
were, were
an

ambitious heiress with

that

he

three

do the same. should francs hundred thousand

in expectation, it was, as and a similar amount But Berlioz had seen daughthe graceful ter at hand.

of
out to

the

Vernets

at

Rome,

and

his fickle heart


"

went
"

her ; her

also

he

He

refused to entertain After tranquilly working


"

called his his father's plan.

had

fair Ariel

and
The

at La

Cote, Berlioz returned


"

reading for four months for to Paris and arranged Episode


from the

grand concert at which Artist " and " Lelio an place early

Life

of

were

in December,

It took the chief features. had and Miss Smithson, who

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

475

returned permanent She, the

to

Paris, with the intention of establishing a English theatre there, was present, in a box. It may be heroine drama! of the musical what
no

imagined
could have

interest

it gave
was

to

the

occasion.

She

doubt

who

meant

by the scarcely veiled her.


He

allusions in the spoken She allowed Berlioz least


once

text. to
come

to

see

thought

from sea-voyage flying heavily northward. bird England, toward


"

of her while in Italy. Rome to Naples, he saw His thought


of

On
a

had at his one


crow

black

followed

the

the

land

Shakspere

Juliet! accepted
the match.
torments.

He

became

more

her
family
a

his love. Then Miss

Her

slave than ever. and his fiercely opposed


of the affairs
an

and She

followed

year

most
were

Smithson,

whose

wretched going from


"

bad

to

worse,

at last announced

afternoon

benefit."

Just before
BerMoz
care

it began,

here her,

she fell and broke his opportunity. found


a

her leg. He took

tender
and of her

of

arranged

concert

at

which

Chopin

Liszt

to pay some managing played, thereby finally, after the most debts, and matic melodrapressing he tried to kill himself in one scenes, of which
"

with

opium

in her presence,

and

on

hearing

her

protestations

some of despair and affection bravely swallowed for an foolish creatures, ipecacuanha the two emetic,
"

destined

so

palpably
on

English
went

embassy to Vincennes they

misery, the third day

to

to spend

at the married of October, 1833, and their honeymoon.


were

returned to Paris what a prospect awaited fourteen bride had only her debts, some them ! The had three hunBerlioz francs' worth, dred thousand and

When

"

"

francs
from
run.

loaned

him which

by had

friend, and
still a year

his

the

Institute

and

pension a half to

476

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

Alas ! Berlioz had The "delicious


among
to win

married being," as he
the

falling
called people.

fallen star. her, had lost her


or

popularity and
the again

French

She On

it back.

In vain.

tried again Berlioz rested

task
were

of

supporting

their

domestic

arrangements,

which Louis,
ever

made

more

trying and he

"the

sweetest

birth of his son loveliest baby" that he had

by the

seen.

He
wrote
were

gave

concerts,

composed,

and

musical

criticisms

original and des Debats Journal twenty


years. He

which, as might His connection piquant. with the began early in 1835, and lasted for regarded lived, and
as one

above all, he be supposed,

was

of the most

liant bril-

the
art.

critics that ever determined glory of having fame


es"

shares

with
of the

Schumann
canons

many

of
"

His

began
was

to

be spread
with

through
success

Europe.
in Leipzig,

Les
was

Francs-Jug

given

declared Mendelssohn ; though praised by Schumann " was a that the mystic element ing of screechprogression harmonies, cats," unintelligible to all but the March " to show terrible is agitating the that something while
composer's

fevered shakes
as

brain,

an

apoplectic the

stroke

on

the

big drum
orchestra
audience." His two

into
as

shivers

efforts of the

whole

well

the auditory

nerves

of the assembled

great
"

symphony for Paganini


favorite in the

his at this period were musical works in Italy," begun Harold as a viola concerto Messe des Morts (his or ; and the Requiem
for those

composed composition), July


days,

who

perished who
were

but

slain in the capture But he dreamed

performed of Constantine.
greater

for

those

of

conquests

he

burned

to

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

477

write

an

in

the

opera, and chose life of romantic

for his

certain subject

episodes
great

Benvenuto

Cellini, the
with

Italian
on

silversmith,

"artist
on

shoulder and guitar It was on performed


overture

and brigand, his back."


tenth

musket

the

The
was

had

tremendous

1838. of September, ovation, but all the rest


cat-calls, and every to the flames before it
It
was

received with species of insult,


"

hisses, groans,
"

was

heard,"
more

said

condemned writer in IS Artiste.

played

less receipts. with even further attempts Four the next were year to made give it, but it was shelved until, thirteen years later,
twice

Franz

Liszt, who

had

been

latent greatness, brought The failure of an opera befallen him. could have
him

present and recognized it out at Weimar.


was

its

the most memory

The

cruel blow that of it followed

all his life, and

obscured

the glory that he received

abroad. Berlioz, suffering with bronchitis, and grieved at the " brilliant failure " of his first opera, was obliged to He to pay the debts incurred. fore theremoney raise some
gave
two

concerts.

The

first scarcely

covered

expenses.

The

second,
was

the

famous

cember, sixteenth of DePaganini the turning-point of his career. " violinist, the infernal virtuoso," was ent, preswhich

occurred

on

the

in Italy" for the first time. "Harold and heard He forced his way to Berlioz, surrounded by congratulating friends, knelt before him and kissed his hand. him a note in Italian, hailing The next day he wrote him
him
as

the heir and


twenty

successor

of Beethoven,

and

begging
that

to accept

thousand

francs

in order

he

might

live for music.

478
Berlioz such
a

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

replied, saying him genius touched

that
a

the

encouragement

thousand
The

times letters
new
"

more

of than
published.

the royal

generosity of his gift. to him Berlioz dedicated


written
over

were

his

Romeo

Juliet
"swam

"

symphony, vigorously by the wanton

in

seven

months

and while he

sea mighty of poetry, breeze of fancy, under the warm kissed Shakspere illuminated, was of love whereby rays of that sun isle the marvellous and feeling able to reach

that

where The

of pure art rises aloft." beauty of Paganini's lessened gift is somewhat by the supposition that it was only a clever advertising by a wily journalist dodge who foresaw that suggested
concerts
were

the

temple

Paganini's

likely to fail unless


were

some

great

stroke to attract public attention for his stinginess. famous was


This

made.

Paganini

"

granted the Cross of the Legion year Berlioz was " " dramatic of his symphony of Honor, and fragments it inspired by his Juliet ? a great success. was made indeed recognized as a genius by his native land, He was
"

to write his " Symcommissioned " in honor of those muchphonie funelre et triomphale The next year he victims of the July days. mourned " Invitation an wrote of Weber's orchestral arrangement

and

in 1840

he

was

to

the
"

Dance," and

"

Glinka

while engaged in its correct form for the Opera, the


news
"

serthe same vice, also performed " in preparing the Freischutz "

was

greatly
:
"
"

at rejoiced

Juges

of his works succeeding the " Requiem at Hamburg,

abroad

Les Francs-

at St. Petersburg.

Berlioz

had
he

the
was

"

gentle

art

of

making

enemies."

And

while

place

and misrepresen misunderstood generally even while he held a sufficiently prominent by the multitude of in the public eye, as is shown

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

479
throughout journals tormented

caricatures which his life, he was

stud

the

French

by endurance His wife, who was considerably older than he, had lost her charm, though She she had heroic characteristics. She proved at home to be a termagant, was a failure in public.
a

exasperated and domestic unhappiness.

beyond

Xantippe.

She
too
"

was

too

fond

of the
was

bottle, and

her

jealousy, only
her
says
went

well

founded,

goading

to

scenes." make that according as

Legouve,
the

constantly in his Recollections,


eter thermom-

Smithson

down, and went up, the Berlioz thermometer her love, which at first had been simply cool and when jealousy of a tiger, complaisant, grew into the passionate already tired of the marriage dreamed but plotted a separation. that "she the harp that found was
was

he

noose,

and not only Yet he could write its place in all my

of its strings, many is nothing to be said in extenuaThere tion alas ! I broke." It was But from of her. of his treatment cruel. her, his punishment began ; the time that he deserted
concerts,

my

joys, my

sorrows

; and

one

of the saddest stories in the history of art. He himself found at a stand-still in France.
were

Abroad

there In

tempting

September, music,
and

vistas. 1842, he quietly

slipped wife a note of farewell. he became Henceforth and


for Paris
to content

away

to

off his luggage Belgium, leaving his


sent

and himself

ing yearnnomad, and while ever he had Parisian success, genuine the

with

bitter-sweet

of

increasing

triumphs
His
included

abroad. first grand


only

tour

lasted
At

Germany.
batons.

about half a year, and he and MendelsLeipzig sohn

exchanged

480
"Only
wrote

HECTOR

BEELIOZ.

squaws Berlioz.

and
"Be
us

Spirit shall send


hang warriors He the lodge."
our

arms," pale-faces love decorated brother, and when the Great my to hunt in the land of souls, let our

friendly evidently

tomawack

on

the

gate

of

The

reading Cooper. " by Mendelssohn is served tomahawk presented prein Paris. at the Conservatoire
"

had

been

Followed

journeysto

Austria, Bohemia,

At everywhere meeting with ovations. for the first time his "Hungarian the
famous

and Hungary, Prague he performed March"


on

theme

of

Rakoczy,

beginning
a

pianissimo, climax which

contrary

to all traditions, and

carried enthusiasm During this journey he


Damnation Budapest,
on

rising to to its height.


began

of Faust."
at

Snatches
at Breslau

his great of it were


; but

work,

"The

Prague,
to

his

return
a

Paris,

almost
manner

like

an

at composed the larger part improvisation,

now of Schubert), while in the garden of the Tuileries. walking finished, being unable to obtain When at last it was he hired Opera the the hall of the Conservatoire,

now

in

cafe

the (after

Comique

for sixteen

thousand

francs, engaged the work


on

soloists,

chorus and orchestra, 1846. December,

and

gave

the sixth of

The
The made
not

Parisian
three
or

public stayed four hundred

away

ring the " beau public" nor awaken helped matters brought or
expenses.
Moreover,

the echoes

enthusiastic the empty through


even

partisans who
theatre

could

the second formance perfor the terrific returns critics poured


out

the hostile

all their venom. Thus always originality and innovation must And only after the innovator way. generally

fight its
is dead

is his greatness

realized.

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

481

For
not
once

Berlioz

atone

the recognition of his genius abroad could for its lack at home. Even Chopin, who had
his friend, thought that

been
man once

such

music

justified

any He

in breaking

all acquaintance
a

with
the

him.

took

up
the

pen, bent paper.

back

fly, spattering

"That

point, and let it is the way Berlioz

" The result is as chance wills it." composes," said he. How different from the judgment of Glinka, who

wrote

home in

to
"

Kussia

saying

(and
no one

posterity has

upholds

him

it),
the

such colossal inventions, and his combinations have besides all their in Breadth other merits that of being absolutely novel.
of
the ensemble,

"In

domain

fancy

abundance and

in details, close weaving

monies, of har-

instrumentation, unheard are the characteristics of Berlioz's music." it was And due to Glinka that "the first apparently
powerful

hitherto

of his time composer He had to borrow

"

was

invited
to

to go to Russia.

enable him to get away. in February, He 1847, and his first Petersburg reached by his partisans, brought concert, carefully exploited
money him

eighteen thousand to Paris in June, there

francs
was

profit.

When

de of the Academic hitch in the proceedings,


Theatre
ten

talk of making Musique ; but there


he suddenly

he returned him director being


some

and accepted in London as

off all negotiations Lane an offer to go to the Drury director of the Grand Opera on a

broke

years' engagement. He great expected


a

things
He

burst like in
a

bubble.

state, and wretched his fate kept him do what

but it of this opportunity, found the affairs of the theatre had nothing else to do but to
continually all his life, his eight months' stay in

doing

"organize

concerts."

During

482
England
He

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

he

had
that
"

in

this
was

respect

declared
he
were

he
a

success. considerable received by the English

as

though
The

French
out, and

national Revolution

talent."
of

1848

in the
was an

mean

time
:
"

broke
arts

Berlioz
in France

felt that he
now,"

exile

The

he wrote, " and music in particular begins to putrefy ; may it be buried speedily." him in his one Nevertheless, the Republic continued
are

dead

conceded
at
a

public

position

Soon deepest
great

salary of about after his return

librarian at the Conservatory, fourteen hundred francs.


as

to

Paris

his

father heard

died, his

regret

being
of his engaged

that he had
now

never

year

works he was

illustrious in
composing

son.

any of the During this

his

fascinating

memoirs, which must his imagination them Then

be read with great caution, for in flames as well as in his music. harmonic a Philof 1850 he founded about the beginning At Society which a gave a concert month.
one
" It was Faust." portion of his its way. The year before, some to make of tory, had been sung and played at the Conserva-

its first beginning


the
scenes

he

gave

and others had in memory of its first performance. his In November, Berlioz had and Meyerbeer

gold medal

struck

a chorus of shepherds, pastoral been written by a certain Pierre Sainte Chapelle in 1679, and discovered

a society perform had he claimed which Ducre attached to the

by

him

in

an

old armory. It was a

charming piece of mystification, for when had praised it to the skies, of Berlioz's enemies many and made invidious comparisons, it leaked out that Berlioz
himself
a
was

the composer
overture,
a

of it !

He

afterwards

little fugued

piece

for tenor

added " The voice,

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

483

Eepose

of the Holy " The Flight March


of

and into Egypt."


next

Family/7
year

other

numbers,

completing

In

the

Berlioz
"

was

in London
Philharmonic

again, directing

the concerts he

of the

New

Society/' where
his
"Benvenuto"

the Liszt.
In

same

Yet ovation. received a triumphal it sucfailed there as completely as ceeded under the direction of year at Weimar

March,

1854,

Berlioz's
passed

dying
often

of paralysis,
seen

had been wife, who husband Her away.

long had

her proofs of his continual her, and shown into despair, made Her him death threw all affection. by the thought the more of his failings toward poignant

her.

the dissolute woman who shortly after married had brought misery into his home life. Strangely enough, he thus obtained however, a mother-in-law who proved
He Her only fault angel to him. real guardian Spanish, and Berlioz had no that she spoke gift languages.
to be
a
was

for

Berlioz

himself again and again presented for the Institute. But the Immortals
him. Yet

as

date candito

refused

recognize

how

many

crosses

possessed Not until

attesting

1856
"

was

says Jullien,

had
a

his membership he elected to that Institute which, so long as a pupil, condemned refused him

he and medals in foreign societies !

him
In
a

1851

composer, Prince Napoleon

as

rejected

him

series of concerts He refused Exhibition.

proposed at the Palais d' Industrie


to
run

candidate." to Berlioz to give during


on

as

the

that risk, but

the

teenth fif-

in the presence of the emperor and of November, he had a gigantic concert empress, with twelve hundred of the poniards musicians ; it included the benediction " from " Les Huguenots (eighty voices singing instead of

484
four

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

as

own

"

prayer from Rossini's by eighty harps, Mozart's Ave March of the Banners."

the usual),

"

Moses

"

accompanied

Verum,

and

his

repeated, and brought francs and a series of receipts of seventy-five thousand Berlioz caricatures, some of which were very amusing. fond of brass instruments, was caricature and one (of
next

The

day

the

concert

was

later

date)represented
of

cattle being
; and

killed at the abattoir

another placed a cannon in the midst of his orchestra. Still another portrayed the Greeks running from the walls of Troy at the sound of Berlioz's brass.
The
year
a

by

means

his

scores

of
new
"

Berlioz's edition

published

election to the Institute, he " InTreatise on strumen of his great

with an additional chapter on the art of first in 1844. It had been published The conducting. to suffer from next of the neuralgia year he began bowels, the agony lasting days at a time, and preventing

At the same time his only son any work. loved, quitted the navy he devotedly Louis, whom to enter the merchant marine, and Berlioz, in order to raise
him
from

for the required examination, published money from his memoirs. last ten years of Berlioz's life were The pathetic. Wagner
to Paris and

selections

sad

and

came

gave

three concerts

in 1859

" " to France. Music of the Future which introduced the " Berlioz wrote his famous Credo " which was a musical tom declaration of war. Probably was at the botjealousy

of it, for those


the two

outside

the

arena
"

redoubtable
creation

for whose

were musicians the last works

that recognized brother enemies "


were

of Beethoven

responsible.

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

485

to the with all his might prejudice " Tannhauser" and in fact it fell flat. public against for classic masterhungry The pieces, public at that time were under Berlioz's and the revival of Gluck's works

Berlioz

worked

direction
think

success, astonishing that the music of the future was

met

with

which routed

him made forever.

In 1862
a

Berlioz's irony
such

strange

second wife of fate, the two

died
women

cruel tortures, were Berlioz did not marry the again ; but when grave. his first love, was "Star of the Mountain," already a a white-haired woman of seventy, he staid grandmother, each
other
saw

suddenly, and by had caused who buried in one mon com-

her

again,
to

and and

with

all the

ardor

of

himself

her

almost

persecuted

boy, offered her with his


a

importunities.

Was
this

there

ever

such

strange

volcanic

creature

All

time

his

musical
"

productiveness music (taken from and

composed " Beatrice Nothing,"

words et Benedict and

both

He continued. to his comic opera, " Much Ado About

as early as 1833),and his superb planned Capture "The Trojans at of Troy," and "The works him. It was but an Carthage," not evil fate pursued

until operas

ten
was

years

after

he

was

dead

that

any
as

one

demanded
"

in Paris performed be; the that it should incarnation

exactly last has

of his he had called

been

final and magnificent illustrated by Gluck."


a

of the lyric tragedy

that in spite of Berlioz's remembered music, he was wholly passion for descriptive or program : Gluck and Spontini, controlled by the classic masters It was Beethoven the contradiction of his and Weber.
For

it must

be

nature.

The

comparative

failure

of

his
,"

Troyens

"

(itwas

486
twenty-one receipts, thousand failing health.

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

given

times

in

garbled
to

amounting

ishing version with diminfifty only a little over


trying

francs)was

made all the more it enabled Nevertheless,

by his
resign

him

to

his position of critic,which had been a continual for twenty it to a years : he compared

ment punishcannon-

ball perpetually chained to his leg. It also brought him the Cross of the Legion of Honor. None it for him the less bitter was to hear of the their vogue growing of the Wagner music ; already
If it and Berlioz. ! It seemed could only have been Berlioz and Wagner to him as he had though were another reaping what
names
:

began

to be coupled

Wagner

Nor sowed. could he forgive his old friend his Wagner enthusiasm. Abroad, his fame was more and more growing From from America, all parts of Europe, even tidings
of

Liszt

for

assured. came the

December,
was

successful performances 1866, he went to Vienna, and heard


his
"

his works. In where his popularity


of
"

immense,

Faust

first time

for twelve

years.

The

complete ladies wore

for the

jewelry

He was with his portrait. ornamented offered the position at the Imperial of kapellmeister chapel, but though

he called the
not

French Paris.

Hottentots

and
a

Chinese, he
nervous

could
state,

forswear

He

was

in

terrible

him into a the least mistake in time or tune threw He flung his baton at the head of the man passion. who handed it was back played the English horn, and when

and

to him,

On
son

he cried, " Oh, I am sick unto his return to Paris he learned


of yellow
on

death."
of the death of his hearing the news he
"It
was

at Havana,

fever.

On

flung himself
to live, for
me

the ground, to die." The

and

cried:

for thee

young

captain

had been the

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

487

to of great grief and anxiety to his father, owing for his irregular habits, but he loved him and mourned More than ever his wonderhim as only a Berlioz could. ful
cause

face

came more

to remind

One

justresigned

of the conservatory Duchess Helena and the Grand at St. Petersburg, of Kussia urged Berlioz to take the direction of six grand
concerts

great from the management

his friends of honor came to him.

eagle. wounded Kubin stein had

the following

winter. and

His

honorarium
and

four

thousand

the Imperial

rubles Palace.
time

all expenses

would be lodgings in

At

the

same

William

Steinway

of

New

York

francs to come hundred to a thousand offered him America, and insisted that he should sit for a colossal hall that he was building. bust to ornament a new Berlioz
gave

reached

Petersburg

in

November,

1867.

He

the six great concerts, and directed one at Moscow, and an audience where he had an orchestra of 500 musicians One of his dreams at last ized of 10,600 people. real! No, not realized, for such monster concerts must

be

always the ideal.

disappointment.

The

reality

falls below

fearfully exhausted by his labors and the ovations given him, and above all by the One March to Monaco. day, clambering climate, he went the rocks, he fell headlong, over and lay for some

On

his return

from

Kussia,

time

insensible.
he
was

Nevertheless,
He
even

at

last enabled

recovered where

Grenoble,

sufficiently to go he had accepted the


But

reach Paris. to his old home at


to

great meeting
man.

of choral societies.

presidency of he was a doomed

He

lingered

still six

months.

One

autumn

day

488
friend met
he pressed
"

HECTOR

BERLIOZ.

him

on

the

his hand
:
"

quai, not far from the Institute ; in the mist, whisand disappeared pering ! when it is happy, is

these words Oh, the life of

man

shadow

sufficient to

darken

wipes out the image his last days During feed the

it; when of it, and

damp a unhappy, all is forgotten."


amusement

sponge

his favorite

was

to

birds that

nocked

liked

to visit and

receive to discuss his works

his window around ; he also his friends, occavisits from sionally


or

Shakspere

with

sudden

energy. But his end was that of a volcano growing extinct. for to vote tor One of his last efforts was an old benefacAt last paralysis for the Institute. completely He him. died on Monday, 8, 1869. March overcame Then began him popular.
the stones

the
as

When too reaction. her greatest composer.


were

late, France His

recognized

Statues

which had been to build the pedestal of his monument

erected to cast at him came,

came bemusic Indeed, him.


as

he

predicted,

HOMAGE

TO

BERLIOZ.

J. Fantin-Latour.

FRANZ

LISZT.

(1811-1886.)

almost which might mysterious poem " have Parsifal," to Wagner the idea of suggested birth a spirit prophesied, speaks of a genius of whose feast a star stood blazing in baptismal and over whose
^

OETHE,

in

the western

sky.1
genius
was

Such
comet

Franz
on

Liszt.
night

The
of

star

was

the 21-22,

of

1811, which,

the

October

seemed

to the superstitious

peasants

to hover,

over portentous, lonely little town

the

dwelling

of Raiding Franz

of Adam in far-off Hungary.

bright and Liszt in the

On
The

that night
name

Liszt

was

born. in the old Hungarian that Franz in the Franz

of

Liszt

is found
no

nobility, but there are Liszt bore relationship

documents
to

to prove

the Johann
of Kaab.

Bishop sixteenth century was Liszt's leaning to the churchly evidence of it.

Liszt who Perhaps

order is sufficient internal

Bishop
known

Liszt's descendants poor. officer of hussars.


"

were

wealthy.

Franz

Liszt's
was a

ancestry

were

His His
der

subaltern

great-grandfather grandfather, Adam,


friih vorhies, Taufefeier wies. Die

was

Wie Und

ihn wie

ein Geist ein Stern


am

Mutter

bei seiner

Sich glanzender

Abendhimmel
"

Geheimnissc.

490
to

FRANZ

LISZT.

steward children

the Esterhazys,

and

the father

of twenty-six into

whom

unknown The oldest

poverty scattered for the most part for themselves. Three made names paths.
son

Adam, followed of this patriarch, also named in his father's footsteps, and in time became a

steward to Prince Esterhazy. He was passionately fond of music, and in his moments instruments. of leisure taught himself to play on many He was frequently at Eisenstadt, where the great Haydn He was frequently called upon took an interest in him.
to play

Here, from

substitute or additional too, he made the acquaintance


as

in the famous of musical

band.

Vienna, then
star
crown.

among
at

them height

Cherubini
of

and

visitors Nepomuk caught


glitter

Hummel, like
a

the

his

glory, and
magnate,
to

by

the

rich

Hungarian

in his Few

lurked

suspected what a bitter pain of ambition balked, in the heart of that tall, gaunt, steadfast, defiantwho
was so

looking

man young gorgeously frescoed

frequently

seen

in the

His
was
a

honesty

and

punishment.

of the Esterhazy music-room palace. faithfulness brought that a reward he was When about thirty years old,
to

he

was

promoted

and of Eisenstadt. He had a struggle with his inclinations, but accepted it, took to himself a wife, named Anna Lager, and set up his penates in the steward's residence, surrounded by the humble
huts of the peasantry. His wife was of German origin, and endowed characteristic German virtues; attractive in with calm, regular features, lighted in heart and manner, true, honest, simple housewife ! ; a model womanly
form,

Raiding,

of the estate of stewardship thus separated from the musical pleasures

the

with the face and by dark eyes ;


gentle, gracious,

FRANZ Paintingby

LISZT.
Ary Scheffer.

FRANZ

LISZT.

491
beautiful boy,

Franz, rather

or

Ferenz,

was

their only
grew

child ;

tall and slender ; as he delicate lineaments, mysterious

older, graceful, with


eyes, and
a a

blue

mass

of

light blond

hair framing

his face like

picture.
of

declared that he had none mother failings of children, that he was always " loving, and obedient, very obedient."

His

the

common,

lively, cheerful,

Liszt
tender

long

years

afterward my

wrote

"

With

honor

and

love I thank
and

of goodness

It was son. good how I had such a could I help being a good son when faithful, self-sacrificing mother ? " devoted to music, and employed While his father was leisure at the clavier, the mother, taking abundant vantage adof his sensitive

for her constant proofs mother In my youth I was affection. called a indeed no for especial credit to me,

and

his heart These Again

genuine

passion

excitable nature, for religion. the keynote

fostered

in

impressions and

struck

of his life.
errors

again, amid
career,

his worldly
calmness

came

all the turmoils and the intensest yearning

of

for the

it was ; and repose of the Church only a logical step that led him at last to take holy orders, and life not so much in the character of a crownto pass from less king as in that of a humble Franciscan friar.

and

All

Liszt's
"

early

impulses, horizon,

the

fostered his poetic surroundings landscape ; the quiet but picturesque

bounded

by

wooded
away

mountains

; the

dim, mysterious
where,

forest stretching

; the village church

holidays, the gorgeous grand ceremonials especially on gypsies stirred his heart ; the dark, swarthy swarming in the outskirts of the village, and at evening practising
their

free, lawless

dances,

or

singing

their

plaintive

songs.

492
As any

FRANZ

LISZT.

rule, genius There other.

for music
was
no

shows

exception

itself earlier than in the case of Liszt. The clavier His father

First he listened, next him like acted upon put him

he
a

tried to imitate.

loadstone.

tried to
six by His

One day when he was off. It was useless. from a concerto years old, he sang correctly a theme Hies, that he had Ferdinand heard. only once
father began
to teach

him

according

to

the

best of his like


His who
out

ability. Even then Beethoven,

the boy whose

the ambition portrait hung upon

had

to be

man

the

wall.

progress

would of doors the the


some same

amazed, but his zeal alarmed, rather have had him play with than spend
so

his parents, his comrades

much
not
over

time help
to

at

the

piano.

At

time, they

little fellow
note

could bending
out

being
strike

to see amused with his nose

hands.

of the reach of his diminutive in conquering culties diffiSuch ingenuity he showed before he could ! He also tried to compose even

that

was

like the newly-hatched swan spell. It was before it could walk. interrupted by a strange This progress was fever

swimming

sort of slow

that

came

upon of

him.
saving

He him.

grew

so

ill that the

his

parents

despaired

Indeed,
was

that he carpenter, hearing the rumor his coffin. make he got well. And But with fresh impulse Three
to music.

village dead, began to

health

came

fresh

not education years thus passed, his general The village priest taught him reading, writing, neglected. learned to speak and arithmetic ; but he never

Hungarian,

"

that the

alien
of

Asiatic Europe.

tongue But

that

has

no

kinship

to

speech

he

must

have

FRANZ

LISZT.

493

come
or

later to know
popular
songs,

the meaning

of those

wonderful
rhythms

nep,

effectively wrought Occasionally Adam

whose odd, broken into his Hungarian


Liszt

he

so

took

rhapsodies. his son to Eisenstadt,

" the artist." where he began to be called A report of his powers reached a blind pianist, Baron Braun, was von at Odenabout to give a concert who

an attraction, and asked additional wanted Adam Liszt to let Franz play. his teeth were When the time came, chattering with fever ; but his indomitable through. will carried him

burg.

He

He
a

was

so

concert

successful that it his own on account. him the him,

was

decided
This

to let him

give him the


at

Then
at

his father took castle before


on

also succeeded. to Eisenstadt, and had Encouraged

the

Prince. he

by
concert

praises showered Presburg. Many


that vicinity. the Blumenthal

great

for a arranged Hungarian magnates himself had

lived
a

in

Prince

Esterhazy

besides Hungarian The

giving

suburb, which the boy a magnificently decided


his future.

palace in he put at Liszt's disposal,

embroidered

costume.

concert

Magyars as only the warm-blooded enthusiasm The feel was by his playing. ladies evoked could learning that The him men, smothered with caresses.

Such

his father
the
magnates

had

no

money,
an

raised annual

Austrian

pledging less gulden


"

subscription, six of sum of six hundred hundred


dollars
"

than

three

for six years small though


of

for his musical education. This certainly, Liszt, against the induced Adam it was, his
wife, to prudent His first choice
j but
cut

counsels Esterhazy
son
was

loose
a

from
for

the

sheep.

of

master

his

Hummel

the

avaricious

artist, who

had

494
become
kapellmeister
lesson. Karl

FRANZ

LISZT.

at

Weimar,

demanded

louis*

d'or for each

At him pay

seeing the boy's talent, gave lessons during a year and a half, saying, " I wish no from the littleZizi." The boy rebelled at the dry
upon

Vienna,

Czerny,

technicalities
not

which

Czerny

insisted.
at

Could

he

read

teacher

and knew

perform the

anything

his father wisely


more

necessity of a him in it, suggesting upheld

But sight? solid foundation,


a

his
and

slightly

elastic method of reaching the result. Salieri was old, and weary of teaching ; but he, too, could not resist the pleasure of instructing the marvellous boy.
It
was

not

long

before

he

was

circles of Vienna; At last his father circle of the highest aristocracy. felt justified in bringing him out in concert. This took
the musical

in a sensation making that is to say, in the

place "the
sight,

on

1822. the first of December, feeling, expression, shading,"


and

The

critics praised

genius

for

"free

ability to fantasy," shown

read at by the
as

"the wonder-child," called him. In April following he gave


Beethoven present. felt his fiery eyes on him excel.
was

"musical

little Hercules,"

they

another concert, at which Liszt saw his leonine head and


; but

it only
great

inspired
came

him

to

When

he

was

done,

the

master

upon

works is a piece containing thirtyIt was three variations on a waltz by Diabelli. published Liszt also with variations by fifty Viennese composers. is said to hold its own contributed, and his number with
however is not saying much, That the rest. ; and the fact is chiefly interesting from the connection which it

the platform and Among Beethoven's

kissed

him.

FEANZ

LISZT.

495

Beethoven. Czerny, indeed, between Liszt and makes hesitation in comparing had the boy to Beethoven no in his boyhood as he was of all ; or to Mozart, prototype
musical From prodigies. Vienna, Adam

Liszt

took

his

son

to Paris, and

Conservatoire, tried to place him in the famous The family Cherubini. surly but magnificent
stopping everywhere and
at

under the set forth,


way,

all the

principal
a

finding
unlimited

welcome

on cities for "the

the
new

and

Mozart,"

praise

for all those

qualities which

the

greatest

virtuosos exhibit. had given Liszt a letter of recomPrince Metternich mendation tears and to Cherubini ; but neither this nor

from the crabbed old man sufficed to move the rule that no foreigner could enter the Conservatoire. Liszt, in his vivid foreigner. he himself Yet a was
supplications description
was
a

of

the

fateful
and

interview, afterward

says

the

decision still

thunderbolt,

years

the wound

bled. But lost. Paer consented all was from Letters their of introduction
not to

teach

the

boy.

Austrian
most

and
exclusive

Hungarian

friends

residences little Litz," "The the

opened of Paris.
as

the

doors

to

the

the

French

called

him,

became

he was Yet the salons. still as fresh and in the fields of Raiding. he played as when unspoiled by his genius, When the Duke of Orleans, carried away idol of
i

In

the

hall

of

the

Seven

Electors
and,
as

at

Budapest,

on

May
In

Day,
his

1823, appeal

he
to
:

played
the
"
"

variations

by Moscheles, nobility,
and the know my inmost

usual, and

improvised.
the

High I
am a

gracious

military,
no

honorable
fortune
to

public,'' he
than
to be

said
to

Hungarian,

greater
and

good

able

dedicate
as

the

first fruits of
of my

education attachment

culture

my

dear

fatherland,
my ure depart-

tne

first offering

and

gratitude

before

for France

and

England."

496
offered
him

FRANZ

LISZT.

asked fall upon.

desire, he that his heart might anything to simply for a little toy that his eye happened

in Paris took place in the Liszt's first public concert Italian Opera-house He 1824. on the eighth of March, was of the Opera ; and more assisted by the orchestra complimentary

audience was by his playing away of a concerto (whichhe played


come

his genius than the the fact that the musicians


to

plaudits
were
so

of the

solo

passage

in the

carried Hummel
to

by

that heart),

they
"

forgot

A wag said : place. " Orpheus touched the beasts of the field and moved that stones, but the little Litz so affected the orchestra
in at the proper

they The boy's

became
French

dumb

!" unanimous called him

press was They perfection.

in its praise of the the


eighth wonder

of the world. Even at this day

unselfishness
even

were

Liszt's characteristic He was manifested.

generosity

and

always

giving,

at personal

inconvenience.
was a

One

day,

as

he

passing
sou.

begged
than
"

along the street, Liszt had nothing

crossing-sweepe

smaller

five-franc piece. it ? Can you change


a

"

"No."

"Then

go and

get it changed,

quick." stood there waiting,


at

Liszt took first perfectly


The

the boy's broom

and

unconscious

of the absurdity whom but he did


of

stared
took

passers-by, some at him and laughed,


care

of the tion. situahim, recognized


not
care.

He with

good

of the broom

until the boy

returned

his change.

It must

not

be

supposed

that

the

sunny

sky

of this

FRANZ

LISZT.

497
free from clouds. reports
were

Parisian

success

was

absolutely

Liszt's genius
were

awakened

jealousy. Calumnious
Liszt

threatening circulated about him ; even So, with a feeling of relief, Adam written. to go to London. a favorable opportunity He in his
never

letters

seized

also made

strange

and

almost

inexplicable

broken
His

He his wife back to sent plans. her again. The boy's heart saw by the separation, but his father was first public of
concert

change He Austria.
was

almost

inexorable.
place
on

in London and
"

took
; to

the

twenty-first
concerts,
we

June,

1824,

describe and

Liszt's
as

one only use need will suffice for his whole career, its monotonous repetition.

formula,
we

that

may

spare ourselves

formal more than colder and Paris, but the marvellous It is said boy won all hearts. he played tinguish disthat one a at a soiree, following evening pianist, whose
the ladies present performance

London

is naturally

fell flat. Some


success

of

Liszt by making Liszt had played


Yes, He into
was

tried to explain the greater invidious comparisons between the


same

of

the pieces.

piece !
stone

the

boy
to

had

the

philosopher's
everything

able

transmute

that

of genius. he touched

One gold. of his admirers said that oftentimes after he had played a piece of little intrinsic worth with such fire and brilliance that it seemed great, the notes
remaining like a heap of dead ashes. the rack were Liszt was in England he finished the tion While composi" Don Sancho, or the Castle of of an opera entitled
on on

Love," which,
Opera
It
on
was

his return

to France,

was

given

at

the

the twenty-fifth

of October, applause three

1825.
; yet

received it
was

with

great

significantly
The

enough

shelved

after

performances.

498

FRANZ

LISZT.

work Opera
most

itself perished when burned, was nearly


of
two

the

Library

fifty years
compositions
"

of the Royal later. Indeed,


disappeared. and
some
"

Liszt's
were

youthful
ever

Only

studies.
orchestra that

Nothing which
same

printed, is known of

an
a
"

allegro

grand
concert
own,

overture

for

he contributed
year ; off
or

to

in Manchester
as a which ing thus deceiv-

a one

sonata

of his

joke he
After

palmed

the elect. several

The
more
a

of Beethoven's, being deceived ! elect, alas, are ever journeys Liszt returned to Paris
as

and underwent Reicha, who mastered open


and
a

thorough

course

of counterpoint

was

delighted
:

at

the

ease

with

under he which
to

its intricacies explore


new season

six months of

sufficed for him

for the third time

Then lowed folmysteries. of journeying with his father, and he went to London. Only in London this realm

did he fail of fullest appreciation. As But a crisis had come to him. manhood,
a

he grew

and a He begged
renounce

dislike for the world morbid for the life of the Church. yearning
his father to let him

into young grew upon him,

become

priest and

so trials for many endured his sake, sternly set his face against it. " Thy calling " Love is music," he said. God, be good and true, and so much the higher things wilt thou attain in thy art."

But

the world. his father, who

had

In 1860
"

Liszt wrote
and humble

"

With

tears

enter

the seminary

of the saints, and

supplication I begged to be allowed to to live the life at Paris ; there it was my hope to die the death of the martyrs." even perhaps

he adds that though, alas, it was not at that time to be, yet in spite of all his errors and entanglements, And

FEANZ

LISZT.

499

he felt the for which Light of the Cross was


The

deepest
not

contrition, the divine from him. withdrawn


Liszt
to
was

truth

of the

matter

is that him

man

of

emotions.

No
career

one

His

whole

emotional. musician written in

His hears
a

emotions. was emotional ; all his disciples were in which the intellectual compositions, spoke

like

the

incoherent but nothing ravings, are language the intellect cannot which stand. undernot
an uncommon

It is therefore
to
see

phenomenon enthusiasms
"

pianists back

outgrowing
"

their Liszt

and

to look

Lisztomania as only a phase upon their but they are not of development, of which ashamed, In hearing rather proud. and criticising the works of Liszt this must not be forgotten.

Amid
between

this contest father and

of will, when the former son,

discords
was

had

taken

arisen ill,and

died in August,

1827, at Boulogne-sur-mer. After he recovered from what to his sensitive nature he wrote his mother to joinhim ; was a terrible shock, he sold his piano in order to pay certain small debts, and
then hastened
a

back

to

Paris, where

he

and

his

mother

took

dwelling, the maintenance of their estabmodest lishment falling on his shoulders. He was soon able to her a snug fortune of 100,000 francs which settle upon long as she lived. so she

enjoyed

his pupils was de Saint-Cricq, daughter

Among

the beautiful

Caroline, Countess
of the Interior.
not

of the Minister

Liszt fell in love with it. Her mother saw


like the
true

her.
the

She
pretty
was

was

slow

to

return

romance

unfolding enough

petals

of

flower, and

wise

and

enough

to approve.

she died, and the Count his daughter to marry the man
But

de Saint-Cricq
of his choice.

compelled

500

FRANZ

LISZT.

The
once

bitter disappointment
more

of this first love

turned

Liszt to the mysticism


ten

crushed, of the Church.


chaste and

"A
pure
as

maiden,"

he wrote

years

later,
was

"a

maiden

the alabaster
to
was

of holy

vessels the
the

the

offered things

the

God

of

Christians.
only word

sacrifice which Renunciation of that day."

I tearfully of all

earthly

the leaven,

He

avoided

all society, gave

himself

up

to

religious

have actually taken and meditation, and would his confessor to orders had not his mother persuaded discountenance it. reading The strain upon with

his

state combined
"

system, of this exalted life he had been leadthe unhealthy ing,


nervous

day without food, and sometimes going a whole late hours, and all sorts of staying faintness by wine, irregularities, at last brought on him a severe illness.
"

second time the report of his death was circulated. Paris papers printed obituaries of him, and his displayed pictures, with the dates of his too short life, were
a

For

in the shop

windows
a

!
Russian
came

About

this time Wilhelm

young
von

Riga, named
to take
now
"

Lenz,

from enthusiast to Paris intending

piano lessons of Kalkbrenner, forgotten. Chance brought him he

popular, to Liszt.
"

then

but

Yes,

is at home,"

said his

mother,

very

unusual

thing ; my Franz is almost always at church, to do with music." more will have scarcely anything He found him smoking a Turkish pipe as he lay
sofa surrounded

and

on

by three

young He
the

man,

with

pianos infinitely attractive


"

"a

thin, pale-looking features."

compared Lenz sun.

his smile

by introducing

claims to him

flashing of a dagger in Liszt's good graces to have won the pianoforte of Weber, works
to the

FRANZ

LISZT.

501

He all the rage in Riga. claims who at that time was to have been Liszt's first pupil, and in his little book on day," calls him "the great pianoforte virtuosos of our
"

the

past, the

He

apotheosizes

present, him.

and

the

future

of

the

piano."

The

July Eevolution
"

of 1830 woke
that

Liszt from
him,"

his lethargy.

It

was

She had said. and fighting at the barricades


and

cured difficulty to keep him


for the

the

cannon

his mother rushing out of humanity

from
cause

a "Revolutionary planned " Battle of after the model of Beethoven's Even Vittoria," but it was the sketch not completed.

popular Symphony,"

freedom.

He

or of it is lost, but one in other compositions.

two

of the motives

are

employed

With
zeal for

returning

health

knowledge.

He now neglected. of brilliant young

a tremendous and energy came His had been education general it good. And a throng what made

formed the circle of artists, minds historians, novelists, composers, ing durpoets, philosophers, ! that Romantic awakening
The phases

First he read

of Liszt's development Chateaubriand, and began teachings

are

interesting. Then

to doubt.

he

stirred by the followers, but he never


was

of Saint-Simon

and

his

joined the

hoped

to revolutionize

his genius, but

the world. the extremes

mystic society .which helped to stimuThey late to which the members

Yet he would carried revolted him. of the sect were have been their ideal of an artist, standing as a priestly between God and the world. mediator Still further stimulus came to him from the hearing of
Paganini, celebrity," who,
came
" at the zenith while of to Paris in March, 1831.

his European
The

demonic

inspiration

of his playing

kindled

Liszt to emulation.

502
Music he had

FRANZ,

LISZT.

He again took up his pracneglected. tice, fiercely at it, sometimes exercising his and worked from When fingers six hours a day. again he emerged his hiding, he had become the Paganini of the pianoforte
"

the King Hitherto

of Virtuosos. had Beethoven

been

Liszt's idol.

He

had

been

first to play Beethoven's in public, concertos the Parisian public found such music when altogether He was to make too high for them. now the acquaintance

the

had of Berlioz and Chopin, both of whom influence that was influence over him an
"

powerful equally

retro-active, in spite of the unlikeness

of their characters

and natures. Berlioz, in his battle for

wider

scope

for the

symphony,

and aid. A noble and enlisted Liszt's sympathy friendship united them. Liszt transcribed for unbroken

piano several of the movements and they were phonie Fantastique" of his published works. Between friendship

the

of Berlioz's among

"

Sym-

the

earliest

Chopin
; but
"

and We
are

Liszt

there
"

was
we

at

first

warm comrades,"

friends

have

been

of said Chopin, early in the forties. The cause esting, the breach in their friendship is very curious and interbut it lies in a chapter in Liszt's life over which

veil. dead, Liszt wrote l a prose rhapsody After Chopin was if its is a classic, even his genius and career, on which is far from being ideal. To read biographical accuracy
we

must

draw

it is to penetrate into the mysteries of genius. ideas that found vent, especially The turmoil of new in Paris, in the second quarter of this century, bore away many
great

minds,

as

a
i

freshet
Weimar,

in the spring
1849.

overflows

FRANZ

LISZT.

503
barns.

high
Into

banks
the

and

sweeps

; over wells of calm fierce passions ; across the the walls of discretion dashed fields of conventionality ran riotous, extravagant green known. Never was theories. such intellectual ferment

off bridges, houses, and faith flowed turbid doubts

What

From

like Liszt, all emotion, responded to the spirit of the times ? he was indeed saved by the absolute scepticism wonder
that
a
man

influence and of
a

celebrated ideas democratic Church,

of the

Abbe
came

Lamennais,

whose

eral libthose

into conflict with

conservative

but whose
of

truly religious
the

and
was

truly highly

cosmopolitan

philosophy
at his

universe

stimulating. Liszt visited him

country-seat

in Bretagne,

the inspiration of his teachings under composed " " he called him his Pensees des Marts ; beautiful him For instructor." Art was friend and

and his
"

paternal

the

" Art is for between divine medium God and the world. is for God." The Beautiful men the creative power what be the immutable must object of art, which, like loftier be forever progressing knowledge, toward must

heights.

There

is

one

law

for the True,

the

Good,

and ger dan-

the Beautiful.

They

Such

theory

unite in the divine unity. is in the highest degree ideal. The

lies, that under the plausible name of the Beautiful, light, a will-o'-the-wisp, that follow a phantom one may into the miasmatic lead one swamps may of Immorality. But because it is beautiful, there is beautiful. Love
come oftentimes against himself

crises when
'

'Love off,
"

himself

takes

part

to
Duty

warn

men

"And

loved

of Love
"

O this world's
comes

curse

beloved

but hated,"

"

"

like Death

betwixt

two

souls.

504
Liszt

FRANZ

LISZT.

conflicted with Duty. His partisans, and oddly enough the women above all, have defended him in the irregularities which his mar

yielded

to that

Love

that

life, affecting to judge him he were king as though a " divine right " placed him above morality. whose by the healthy Judged common standards, he, like Berlioz, for many The world
of the countess years

lived

treated him
who

life of shocking ality. immorleniently, and the husband


a

bore

acted like a gentleman he was placed by her


no

children declared that he in the difficult position in which have guilty infatuation ; still,we
or

him

right

to

mince

matters

defend

genius

for

its

aberrations. In other respects his character shines bright as the in the history Generous to a degree sun. unexampled bristles simply of art, self-sacrificing, heroic, his career it would beautiful, unselfish take a acts which to describe. volume adequately in pubLiszt, after long silence, again appeared When lic, had it was found that a new era of piano-playing with
come.

No
:
"

one

could withstand

the magic

of it.

It

was

said
"

soul is in his fingers, his soul is in his eyes: This perfect artist seems inspired directly from the skies."

His

Hosts and verse known.

of clever people have of Liszt's playing. The classic Cramer

left descriptions Nothing


like it

in prose
was
ever

and

others

devoted

to traditions

or grams.2 epishoot impudent might vainly try to sneer, Liszt appeared, the people flocked to Wherever hear him.
i

Ron

9.me est dans

ses

doigts,

son

ame

est dans

ses

yeux

Cet artiste parfait


"

semble

inspire" des cieux.


:
"

Cramer

shook

his

head

and

said

De

mon

temps

on

jouait fort bien ;

aujourd'hui on

joue bien

fort."

FRANZ

LISZT.

505
all his that
were

It would mention

take too

long

to describe
even

journeysor

all his concerts,

those

philanthropic in be found
which began

Much that purposes. his "Letters from Bachelor a

given for is interesting may

in Music,"

and book
to
a

in 1835, and Italy. Adolf


tour
"

Switzertell of his doings in land Pictet has devoted a whole

d'Agoult,
others, party,

mountain known as
a

taken

by
"

Liszt, the George

Countess
and

Daniel

Stern,"

Sand,"

making

jolly,unconventional,
"

calling

themselves
as an

the

Piffoels

sun-browned Family," ting emit-

electrical machine emits sparks. " At one a as of the hotels Liszt inscribed himself musiParnassus his way from on on cien-philosophe, born
witticisms

also described their in her " Travellers' Letters." The memory experiences in his "Years of these Swiss days Liszt preserved of

Doubt

to the Truth."

George

Sand

Swiss

Pilgrimage."
he
was

While
mund
"

Thalberg

residing in Geneva, had gone to Paris

he heard
and been determined

that Sigishailed
as

Liszt to meet epoch-making pianist." his rival ; but when he reached Paris, Thalberg had returned however, Liszt, two to Vienna. concerts, gave
an

and Berlioz wrote Musicale, praising

tremendous

article in the

Gazette
of the

him

to the skies, at the expense

to be exthat " all things were and predicting pected His article ended with from him as a composer." be the words : " He is the pianist of the future ; to him

German,

the
time

honor."

new

musical

war

broke

out

as

in the

is Thalberg But where now, of Gluck. and who plays his trivialities ? The Berlioz gave a next (1836), year, in December
great
concert, to take

and part

Liszt

came

once

more was

from

land Switzerall

in it.

Thalberg

present, and

506
his adherents.
"

FRANZ

LISZT.

When
on was

profile All the from


a

appeared
greater

young the stage, he

the

man

with

his "ivory in silence.


was

was

his triumph,
It
was

received because it

wrung

hostile

public.

he

gave

famous

concerts many description of

this winter when in Paris, that Heine his wrote

during

his

improvisation
people
not

made
But
a

him
war

see

what

other
was

he which only heard.

declared

the

with

Thalderg

over.

Liszt wrote

critical review of two of the German pianist's compositions, them and handled without gloves. it was Of course ascribed to motives of jealousy.

Shortly
and

after, Thalberg

himself
was

appeared
given
to

on

the

scene, compare

abundant
the two

opportunity

hear

and

virtuosos. Then Fetis, Berlioz's bitter enemy, replied, and at the Liszt's prodigious end of his article, while acknowledging difficulties, talent and incomparable ability in conquering
declared
that
no

new

marvel

of his playing,
:
"

informed the thought musical giving it a creative and original

character
"

Thou
no

art the offshoot

of

school that
art not

is drawing
man

to an
a new

end

and

has

further

mission,
man.

but

thou

the

of

school. you."

Thalberg

is the

That

is the whole

difference

between

by
more

lady who heard the two pianists at Princess the Belgiojoso, expressed
wittily
:
"

concert

given

the

difference

Thalberg,"

said she,

"

is the first pianist

in the world." Liszt?" "And


Liszt ! Liszt is the only one !" is The a to Liszt's genius as as composer question been His matter. acolytes have enthusiastic another
"

known

to predict

that after Schumann

and

Brahms

were

FRANZ

LISZT.

507

forgotten,

His opponents, Liszt would still live. and they are not few or to be despised, while acknowledging his genius as an interpreter and transcriber of other
" "

is like sounding people's ideas, declare that his music brass, great noise covering the lack of great ideas. Certainly no one ever equalled him in the beauty of his translations piano. And

of the of opera or song to the keyboard in his fascinating lovely melodies live anew Schubert's
arrangements of them,
a

round

hundred
wove

in all.

Magyar songs wonderful his nineteen Hungarian rhapsodies those

he which for both

into

orchestra
of the

piano, introduced One hundred world.


and

nation

to the knowledge

their inspiration Liszt hundred


was a

and from

thirty of his compositions land. the Magyar

rive de-

voluminous flowed compositions

most

Over twelve composer. from his pen. Of these,


were

and forty-nine six hundred includes two hundred number


for other

original, though

that

and

sixty -four re-arranged


to

instruments. himself in regard modest that he had no intention

He
He

was

his

own

declared

of being

an

work. vator inno-

"I

and iconoclast. have written,"

Whether
I do not

heart dictated. my my things will prove to have permanent value, have but to been honorably they presume predict ; said
"as

he,

intentioned."
His
seventy
songs

with

Liszt himself
are

worthy Indeed, Liszt's


that

called them of immortality.


career

though accompaniment, abstruse and hard to criticise,

piano

as

composer

seems

to

suggest

the thought
scale
are

as

the combinations

of the notes
more

in

our

necessarily

limited,

and chords

the

spontaneous

melodies

and

have

obvious been long

and
ago

508
during

FRANZ

LISZT.

exhausted

three hundred

with thousands
the "tone

will be driven to avail himself of the treasures of the past, frankly confessing Perhaps, however, the source. the human ear will educate itself to find beauties
tones, and

of composers of the future poet"

years of musical activity drawing from the fountain,

in quarter
a
new era

thus inaugurate

eighth of tone-colors and

tones

and

tone-pictures. After
a

three-months'
"

country-place, letter to Pictet, It


was

"

George Sand's visit at Nohant, which he describes in a poetico-pastoral Liszt started once his travels. on more

toward

toward Malzi, reading


"

Italy.
on

the end of July, 1837, and he set his face He spent some time at the beautiful Villa dreamy
"

the

poetic his daughter the wife Wagner. At


own

of the Dante Fantasie,"

his Como, where shores of Lake " inspired his strange, Comedy Divine

Cosima

was

and, where born, who


von

on

Christmas,

1837,

successively he gave

of Hans

afterwards Billow and

became Eichard

Milan

compositions the Italians to awoke Hitherto they had cared


on commented in Italy, played no

several concerts mainly, and, by


an

he played his when his improvisations,


enthusiasm. Liszt music.

unprecedented little for piano


fact that

himself
had

the
"no

Hummel, had
appeared

Field since John Moscheles, no no


on

Kalkbrenner, the Alps."

Chopin,

that

side of

Liszt

enjoyedthe

and painting Switzerland.


Moreover,
sprang

ture of the past, and the sculpmemorials had done in inspired him as nature

he met
a
warm

Eossini

at Milan.
was

Between
not

the two
cooled of

up

friendship
frankly,

Eossini

saying

which have "You

by
a

the

making

FRANZ

LISZT.

509

great

composer,

and yet you are Liszt repaid him musical soirees. In Eome, where
at the

great writer, doing nothing."

great

philosopher

"

by transcribing

dozen

of Kossini's

he went

the next

Palazzo

Poli, then of

year, he gave by Prince occupied

concert

G-al-

itsin, governor-general

Moscow.

of titled personages wholly to assist him time he had no one before attempted. Here also he
"

conaudience sisted for the first ; and innovation an never

His

composed

his

first1

song.

To

Liszt, Eome

Nature,

consummation of all Italy. the arts, religion, here found their richest manifestations in 1839 he left Italy he was ; and when able to
was

the

write that
more

he

was as an

perfect

mature, older, more artist; for, said he, "I have been
man,

different

working enormously." The period of his development had now And to choose his career. he

was

complete.

He

after much

tion delibera-

a against his inclinations, and became virtuoso rather than a kapellmeister. At the same it necessary to separate time he found

decided

from

the

Countess

d'Agoult,

the

mother

of his
"

three

children. No wonder

that it
uneven as

was

said of him
of
women,

that demon

his

nature

consisted of And long so genius


and
as

he

proportions lived, silly

and dazzled
blaze

angel."

by

his

his personality,
moths

flew into

the

attraction
torch.

singe their wings discovered


dal biondo

in the

of his fiaine of a

One
1

time

he

was

in his house
"

at Budapest,
fair with
golden

The

exquisite

Angiolin

crin

"

Angel

hair."

510

FRANZ

LISZT.

seated view
cut

on

platform
or

of six

features

eight and long

by pianos, and in full surrounded ladies trying to portray his clear-

gray

hair.

He

was

sound

asleep,

wearied " You


never

with homage. have found


"

me,"

said he with

failed him,
arrows

in the attitude
are

the ready wit that of St. Sebastian ; but

the

paint-brushes." ladies of the high nobility met him At St. Petersburg him with flowers. on the steps of his hotel, and crowned Four of celebrated beauties of the court of the King Prussia had their portraits painted representing his bust. Ladies begged supporting
treasures

this time

them

as

Caryatides
as

inestimable

the stumps

and preserved of his cigars.

it strange that such unbounded turned worship the head of the " dear sublime," as Berlioz called him ? in all the 1839 and 1847 Liszt gave concerts Between
Was countries
of

Europe. seemed
to

The

blazing

comet

of

Liszt's

birth-night

have

become

flesh

and

started

through the world. wandering Princely, Zeus-like in his generosity, he everywhere hands the golden rain that his wonder-working poured compelled, into the coffers of deserving charities. It was from his he who, at an expense marks of fifty thousand own means, at Bonn, to Beethoven, caused the monument
to be

finished

and

erected.

This

was

but

one

of

his

services to art. manifold last concert The that Liszt in 1847. From benefit was that

ever

gave for his own time forth he labored

exclusively for others. to direct a number Early in the forties he engaged of Here, in 1849, he settled at Weimar concerts each year. esting interan as conductor of the Court Theatre, and began battle in behalf
of unrecognized

composers.

His

FRANZ

LISZT.

511

theory

and

conthat all truth and genuine quer merit must in the end, though the powers of misrepresentation intrigue may His ideal was lofty : he delay them.

was,

say, in this respect, that his life's highest to uphold it.1

could

aim

was

Dingelstedt,
intendant
was

whom

successful

Liszt caused to be appointed general him, and intrigued at Weimar, against in having the theatre exploited at the The
"

expense
as

of the lyric drama. Victor Hugo called him, retired to semi-private the Church, spending in constant him
"

Orpheus

of Weimar,"

and
to

resigned his official position, life,drawing closer and closer large part of each year at a with
Pope

Eome

intercourse Palestrina,"

Pius

called

my

especially Cardinal found Villa d'Este he always

and with the Hohenlohe, at whose


"

IX., who taries, great digni-

beautiful

peace,

sweet

hospitality,

mild air, splendid good wine, books,


and a In Koine

delightful walks, good food, tum, musicalien, pianos to be used ad libidelightful temperature."
landscape, astery Monnear

itself he lived either at the Dominican Mario, or at San Francisca Komana, at Monte
He

the Forum.

took charge of the musical performances which the art-loving Pope and Cardinals arranged. " he had become In 1858, at Budapest, tertiary," a member Assisi
of the third order his patron saint. was

or

: Francis of Franciscans of Even before this he wrote

to
"

Richard
Coine

Wagner
back
to

"

the

Faith

it gives

However only, the true, the eternal. in it the feeling, I cannot help recognizing
cannot
1
"

such happiness bitterly you may


way

; it is the
scorn

this

of salvation.

help
I had
of

yearning
dreamed
Karl of

for it, and


a
new

choosing

it."

"

like that
as

August,

leaders,

formerly

Goethe

he wrote in 1860, period for Weimar," in which Wagner I should have been the and Schiller but and were; unfavorable circumstances
art

brought

these

dreams

to naught."

512

FRANZ

LISZT.

In the last weeks of his life he scouted the idea that due to external circumhis appointment of abbe was stances, to the requirements but wholly of his heart;
itself in the yearnings the circle of his life completed for the rest which he could find only in the bosom of Mother Church.

Cardinal
honorary
tonsure,

Hohenlohe,
title of abbe.

in 1865,
In

invested
he the

him

with
to

the
the

1879

submitted
vows

and

took

upon

himself

of the

four

honorary He was canon appointed orders. ; but him these church dignities did not make a priest. He at liberty at any time could not offer mass, and he was had he chosen so to do. to marry
minor

But

Liszt's It
was

life

was

what vie trifurquee.Weimar residence being either

Church.

confined to Rome he called a three-branched


not
was

or

the
"

life,

the Russian

still a favorite resort, his on the Altenburg at the palace of Princess, Carolyne Sayn-Wittgenstein, whose
to

devoted

friendship
the

him

has

become

historical,
on

or

at 1869), (after

beautiful
with

Hofgartnerei

the

Ilm,

which was In 1870 of and


gave
an

memories of Goethe. him dent the authorities of Hungary made presidid not yet exist, academy of music which him a salary of four thousand cordingl Acgulden.

redolent

each

year

saw

him

at Budapest.

The

adoration

of

the

Hungarians

for

their

famous

countryman

At both
pupils, pupil
was

to frenzy. amounted Weimar and Budapest

he

was

surrounded

by

but

A compensation. refused all pecuniary talent to be obliged to display distinguished he

admitted

to

his instruction.

The

pupils gives the names of 227 men the list is not complete, of whom many
"

list of his published and 183 women,


"

have

won

FRANZ

LISZT.

513
life of the

wide
present

fame.

His

influence

on

the

musical

is inestimable ; nor tell what we can generation Wagner would have done without his superb generosity, his wise tact, and his infinite patience. Sangerfest, and was founder of the Weimar Liszt was

first conductor

German
On
the

versal and president of the festivals of the UniUnion. Musical of May, 1884, the Union
The celebrated
next

twenty-second

at Weimar

its twenty-third
Theatre,
of the Ilm

day, at the Ducal


and the Nymph
a

anniversary. the Muse of Poetry

and

Music

by written prologue Liszt's bust, while crowned Jupiter head,"


so

upon the stage, and spoke Professor Adolf Stern, and then
came

the tone-poet
to
was

himself,

"

with

his

wonted

smiled

benignly.
"

This ceremony

clouds of incense, followed by Liszt's

beautiful
The Jena, 1884.
made
a

Legend

of St. Elizabeth."
ever
on

last time
at the

that Liszt

Singakademie,
last
year
was

at publicly was the twenty-sixth of June,

directed

His

full

of

enjoyments.
Europe.
on

He
the

triumphal
of January,

journey through
at
a

On
almost

sixteenth

concert

in Rome,

the

fiftieth anniversary there, nothof his first appearance ing but his works was At the Palazzo Bacca, performed. before a brilliant assemblage, he played for the last time

in Borne.

extended improvisation.

E/hapsody, and chose his Thirteenth it to nearly double its length by a marvellous
of March his
"

He

On

the

twenty-first with

he

coinciding
appearance

the sixty-second

in Paris, almost anniversary of his first


was

there.

Here
"

Graner

Fest-Messe"

which

he
was

wrote

Wagner

was

rather prayed
receipts

than

given, and

brought
to

of 42,000
an

composed," francs.
of forty-

He

also went

England,

after

absence

514

FRANZ

LISZT.

six years; and if there former coolness, it must


up

had
have

been
been
which

any

remembrance

of

in the
the
a

fire of enthusiasm

entirely swallowed blazed around him.

Even
touch

London
were

cabbies,
so

piano,

had never who stirred by his personal


on

heard

him

magnetism,

that they
The
May
same

cheered

him

the street. he

he

was

experience back. On home

had

in

St. Petersburg.
of
May

In
was

the

seventeenth

he

welcomed Union.
there.

to Weimar

On One
was

the

by the Liszt with a serenade for the last time thirtieth he played
study that he had not performed Indeed, he had, as he expressed it,
a

since he
"a

piece was a boy.

One Count Giza terrible memory." one occasion Zichy, a young Hungarian but one pianist, who, having have two, had arm, as men played well as most who
composed In Liszt. memory,
was a

Hungarian
the

fantasy.

He

played
caught

it

over

to

Liszt, having evening it before a numerous played

it in his

equally Early

talented

in reading

the

He audience. labyrinthine most

scores

at sight.

in June

he

went

to

Halle

to

consult

oculist in regard to his eyes, which seemed him. An operation was suggested, but not performed. His wonderfully to show signs of elastic health began He apologized yielding. one time, saying, " They long journey."
to friends
are

with an to be failing

for keeping
on

his seat

putting

my

boots for the

The

twenty-fifth

anniversary

of

the

Musical

Union

celebrated Liszt's seventy-fifth year by giving two Liszt At the second his " Cristus " concerts at Sonderhausen. He was was performed. up every day at five o'clock in
the morning.

On

the

seventh

he

returned

to Weimar

in

palace

LISZT.

FRANZ

LISZT.

515

in the best of spirits, He was with flowers. On of whist all the way. and played his favorite game heard a beautiful to Jena, and the twenty-fifth he went
car

crowned

performance day he gave

of his

Mendelssohn's last official


"

"

St. Paul."
"

The

next

lesson

in the

Hof gart-

in D-major,a It included Schumann's novelette nerei. little gem On the first of to Liszt himself. dedicated He never July he left Weimar. the town saw again.

At

Bayreuth

he

was

present
von

at

the

granddaughter, author of
a

Daniela

Billow,
on

of his wedding to Dr. Thode, the

beautiful

work

his

favorite

St. Francis

d'Assisi.

On

Sunday,

July

fourth,

he

went

to

Luxemburg

to

Hungarian visit the famous He had a slight Colpach.

painter

Munkacsy
there

at Schloss

cold, and

increased

it.

But

once

more

he

yielded

to the request

of friends, and

played for the last time. On his return to Bayreuth


cough.

he he

was

On

the

twenty-first

suffering from a bad took to his bed, but in


visiting the Wagners. the first "Parsifal"

spite of all protests On the twenty-third


performance,

insisted
he

on

attended

the observed On and was of all observers. the following Saturday he played his last game of whist. Though by the doctors, he insisted on attending warned

the performance The whole town

of
was

"

Tristan.'9 filled with


on

The

exposure

was

fatal.

He died serious illness. 1886. July, Curiously


out, pointed before :
"

of Liszt's grief to know Saturday, the thirty-first of


as

enough,

August

Gollerich
thirty years

Wagner

had

written

to

him

"Kemember Thou

the

indefatigable,
If only

thirty-first of July: adieu, dear, good farewell ! Thou


thou knewest what

Mein
fortune

Franziskus!
that

hast hast

vanished.

divine

memories

thou

left behind

thee!"

516
The inhabitants

FRANZ

LISZT.

splendid Wagner.
founded

a erected in his memory designed by Siegfried chapel-form mausoleum, Duke The Weimar, Karl Alexander, of

of Bayreuth

Liszt Stiftung.

Maria

Hohenlohe-Schillings-

furst, sister of the Cardinal, who so loved Liszt, endowed it with 70,000 marks for the aid of talented pianists It was dedicated on the twenty-second and composers. of October, 1887. The residence in the Hofgartnerei

is

now

museum,

kept

forever

as

Liszt

left it.

Here

his writing-table, and heaped him, were countless stars, sixtywhich upon three medals and orders, golden laurel wreaths, batons, by the Hungarians snuff-boxes, pipes, the sword presented
"

he composed,

is the piano where the tokens of honor

in honor diplomas complete

into the nobility, of his re-instatement cities, and a of many giving him the freedom Many collection of his published works. of his

Pilgrims are manuscripts still in the hands of friends. fail to be amazed to this interesting Mecca of Art never this knight of artistic at the simplicity which surrounded

chivalry.

He

lived

as

he

died,

utterly

oblivious

of

mercenary

considerations,

simple,

whole-souled,

ascetic.

RICHARD

WAGNER.
(1813-1883.)

six hundred performand forty-one in forty-four ances of Wagner's operas were given -L had swelled In 1890 the number towns of Germany. The Wagner Society to nine hundred and sixty-seven.
the year

TN

1887

founded
forty

in

-four it had three

hundred had, five years later, two and branches, and six thousand ; in 1890 members
1883

hundred

branches,

and

eight

thousand

members.
"

Only

comet

and

no

fixed star is Kichard


years
even

Wagner,"
But how is the

wrote

Flodoard
great

Geyer

twenty

ago.

"the

train"

grown,

which

then

made
"

more metaphor " Charlatan."


"

brilliant in the eyes of the critic :

Fanatic

"The
"
"

of unmelodiousness." Heliogabalus of Harmony."


Marat of music."

The The The

"

of melody." murderer Musical Munchausen."

"The

Vandal
were

of Art."
some

Such

of

the

hot-tempered
while
tongue

they
to
:
"

opponents bent twisted and evolve

epithets which opprobrious to Richard Wagner, applied the

malleable
names

German
for his

absurd

and
517

ridiculous

music

518

RICHARD

WAGNER.

"All indistinguishable
"

lyrico-epico-draniatic

gelatine."

moral

delirium

tremens

(Katzenjammer)."

11

Epidemic

Wagneropsy."

"

Transcendental Circus
comedy." chaos

nebulosity."

"

"

Wild

of tones." of music."

"A
"

caricature
chaos

of combined

"A
"

spectacular

chord effects." demonstration."

Dissonance Butchery is
a

music." in notes." whole volume hundreds


"

"

There
"
"

"a

dictionary

of

incivilities

containing

of

rude, sarcastic, slanderous

expressions
master, to vent

used their

by
scorn

the

critics and rivals of and hatred upon him.


to
run

the

Reformers

have

ever

had

the

jealousy, and

could not grasp remains unchanged. the idea of an alien civilization, called those who spoke barbaroi, as though the foreigners were another tongue
"

misunderstanding. The Greeks, who

gantlet Human

of ridicule,
nature

"

silly sheep." dumb."

So

the

Russians

called

the

Germans

And
or

language, musical instantly the conservatives have him by the ears, and, is in their own secure conceit, declare that the new
comes

when Wagner,

genius

like Beethoven,
a new

or

Berlioz, Liszt,

speaking

barbaric, and does Thus


to learn.

that music will perish with the old. history teach modesty, but men are

loath

Wilhelm
"House

Richard

Wagner

was

born

at Leipzig,
on

in the

second Significantly,

of the Red and 1813. of May,

White

Lion,"

the twenty-

prophetically,

around

his

cradle

was

RICHARD

WAGNER.
von

Painting

from

life by F.

Lenbach.

RICHARD

WAGNER.

519
Nations."
and the

fought

the terrible

and twenty dead or dying epidemic


to

Battle of the Germans thousand

"

One

dred hunlay

Frenchmen

in the

fields around stalking

fever which came finish the grim


to
name a

city ; and the lence abroad like a pesti-

fatherless six months The family, as the and


any
was

of carnage, left the work day after his birth.

boy

of popular show, was would one not aristocratic origin ; humble, say, if might honest humble. The were ever work grandfather a service ; the father, a clerk clerk in the customs

in the police service. had Friedrieh Wagner French, speak him in the employed could
so

received that

good Marshal

education Davoust

and had

He police. had a passion for the stage, and often played in private down to his daughter This talent he handed theatricals.
reorganization
of the

Kosalie, who Albert, son,

won

fame
actor

as

tragedienne

; to

an

and

singer, and of whom

in turn

his oldest the father


on

daughters, of two lyric stage. The widow

both

appeared

the

on penury her former

years' struggle with her, married one the small pension granted of husband's friends, Ludwig Geyer, a member

Wagner,

after two

of the Koyal

Company

she went

to live with
was a

at Dresden, of Comedians her seven children.


as

where

Geyer
He

painter,
make

well
a no

as

an

actor

to proposed Wagner confesses

painter

of

and playwright. his step-son, but

having

talent for drawing.

Geyer

On the any definite plans could be made. day before his death, he asked the boy, then about seven he had two years old, to play over small pieces which learned from " Der Freischutz."
before Wagner
to

died

remembered " his mother, What

hearing

him
a

say in

feeble voice
?
"

if he has

sriftfor music

520
"

RICHARD

WAGNER.

Early Wagner

the next in
an

morning,

after he

was

dead,"
"

ues continmother
one

autobiographical
and she

sketch,

our

came

into the
us

nursery
; to
me

of

children worth

said something ' said, He hoped

to each

that

something

"remember

be made while of thee.' might that something that I long imagined


for him he

And
would

be made of me." Two years later a School of the Cross


have and
up," other

place

was

secured

in the
to

(Kreuzschule), where
sort of discipline.

seems

under no he was at home

been

Both

at
"

left to his

own

devices.

school I grew
no

he

said,

guides
got
a

by authority, unrestrained than life, art, and myself."

"

and

with

He ancient

smattering of Greek, history. Perhaps more


even

Latin, mythology, than


a

and

Greek, for

twelve

while he was books of the Odyssey

smattering of in the third form, he translated

into

verse.

He

was

a mate schoolapt at literary studies, and when considered died, and a prize was on offered for the best poem it. The verses, the occasion, he won of some shorn He dreamed bathos, were of printed. of their bombastic

being

in the several tragedies composed poet, and Greek spirit. He began to study English so as to read in the original, but after he had translated Shakspere
a

Romeo's He

monologue,
a projected

he dropped
great

it. tragedy and "King


"

Shaksperian
"Hamlet"

stupendous

compound
"

of

Lear."

on the most colossal scale," he wrote. plan was destroyed Forty-two one were after the other, persons on the before the end; and in order to have any one and stage, he was obliged to resuscitate the majority,

The

bring them
In these

in

ghosts. days, music Dresden

as

was

of secondary

con-

RICHARD

WAGNER.

521

sons, him His Latin tutor gave a few sideration. piano lesto " Der but his ambition to play the overture to acquire Freischiitz " so outstripped his willingness a he would fingering, that his teacher proper predicted
come

to nothing.
"

Strange

! the two
"

great

masters
no

of the
use

orchestra

Berlioz and

Wagner

both found

for
"

" Wagner runs the piano. attributed his detestation of in music to his inability to play a passage clearly. himself Weber was then living in Dresden, engaged

in his battle for German

art against

knew "the and charming probably Greyer, whose pleasant manners and lively character had for artists." Certainly he frequently a special charm Richard always passed the house, and the young rushed
to the

He music. intelligent Madame

Italian

window

to
was

see

him.

died, he Weber when he received declared his first that from that master " His melodies," says he, " roused impressions : musical had a perto enthusiasm me ; his character fect and nature fascination for me ; his death in a foreign land filled
Though he only thirteen
my childish In heart with

1827

Madame

grief,," Wagner-Geyer,

children, returned to Leipzig, where " had Stadttheater." Eichard an at the engagement here put into the Nicholas College, but in a lower was

her younger with her daughter Eosalie

him that he so class, and the disappointment embittered let everything the ideal of his portentous go except drama. idle and disorderly," he says, "but "I was my
held its place in my heart." death, and Wagner This was the year of Beethoven's for the first time heard The one of his symphonies.
great

tragedy

impression evening,"

" One upon him was revolutionary. " Pilgrimage to says the hero of his imaginary

it made

522

RICHARD

WAGNER.

Beethoven/' " I heard


fell ill of
a

fever, and

symphony I had when

of his ; I thereupon

recovered

"

was

musician." Fiction that is history !


Not

long

after, he

heard
music.

Goethe's

"Egmont" his
own

with
great

Beethoven's drama
must cannot

incidental
have
an

Forsooth,

One
he

make
a

of music ! accompaniment Egyptian bricks without straw.

So

of thorough-bass, and plunged method into its mysteries, hoping in a week's time to be fitted he had It was to compose. as not such easy swimming but its very difficultiesstimulated him, and he then and there decided on his profession. his neglected studies were Meantime, ance. calling for venge-

borrowed

expected,

His

family
once

discovered
more

his

tragedy,

and

he

was

brought
Whatever and

down music

into

the

he might make must thus surreptitiously he composed

plane of be made
a

real life. secretly,


a

sonata,

quartet,

and an aria. His family, to whom he at last confessed these secret fancj^, but looked upon them a as amusements, passing they

him to study allowed Mtiller, a first-class organist Wagner


Tales," and " Thirds," had
was

harmony

under

Gottfried

got

hold

and' musician. of Hoffmann's

"Fantastic

take

to mysticism and day-dreams. given over " to to him fifths," and other chords seemed The he conversed. incarnate forms with which

practical Mtiller could make Many visionary. prophets

nothing begin

out
as

young He visionaries. of such

He was him. the type of the antishook his head over Wagnerites to the present day. by fell predictions, by the reWagner, proache undisturbed to write of his anxious relatives, set to work

RICHARD

WAGNER.

523
of the leading

overtures.

He

carried
where

one

to

Dora,
was

conductor playing
a

Eoyal
part.

Theatre,
It
was

his sister

and accepted insisted on beating a

It first annoyed, This merriment audience.


bars.

A vivacious mer drumplayed. fierce fortissimo four every the then disgusted, then amused
at his expense,

said Wagner,
of
a

him wounded work by him This

deeply.
was
"

very
the

first performance impressive upon himself.


Yet the
"

"

of his absurdities, as he climax was calls it written out in three different colored inks in green, and the the strings in red, the wood-wind brass in black.
overture
"

Curiously

recently Came the July

enough in adopted

has been similar scheme an edition of Bach's fugues. The fever in the Revolution of 1830.
a

somewhat

air, one need not doubt, He became boiling. think and

set the youthful


a

Wagner's He

blood

political theme. This same year he entered the University of Leipzig ; but instead of making the most of his opportunities, he " cesses at first, as he confesses, gave himself up to all the exoverture
a

talk of nothing which dealt with

republican. but politics, he even

fiery

could began an

of student

life, but

zeal that they soon He had chosen the faculty of philosophy and aesthetics When with a view to their aid in his chosen profession.

with such disgusted him."

recklessness

and

he
he

came

to his

senses

and
to

saw

that he must

begin
hands

anew,

had

the wisdom

put

himself
This
was

in the

of

professor. really capable cantor of the St. Thomas

Theodor

Weinlig,

School.
and,
as

Weinlig led him

inspired

him,

it

were,
a

and gave in the essentials of his art.

into right paths

him

unconsciously thorough training

524
In less than

RICHARD

WAGNER.

Weinlig told him that he had six months " You will probably arrived at technical independence. never wish to write a fugue, but the fact that you can
write
one

Under which "with model.


under
was

will make Weinlig's

all composition easy to you." instruction he wrote an overture


at
one

played

of

the

Gewandhaus

concerts

Beethoven was encouraging applause." He help in Mozart's also found example, the joint influence of their "clearness
a

his

and
and

strength," composed January 8, 1833, on

which symphony at a Gewandhaus

performed Fifty concert.

was

" superannuated years later this production of boyhood," to have been lost, was discovered as he called it,supposed in different in an old valise at Dresden, and performed

parts and

of

the

world.

It

scholars of the San Day, 1882, in Christmas birthday.


errors.

by the professors given Marcello Lyceum at Venice on


was

honor

of

Cosirna
many

Wagner's
singular for he let

Wagner
Mendelssohn

declared

that

it had

evidently felt the same, it not only lie idle but disappear. At this time Heinrich Dorn, who afterwards thorn
"

became

in the flesh to Wagner that


there

"

one

declared

was more composer who Beethoven. Yet later it was

probably familiar
a

of his bitterest foes lived a young never with the


works upon
a

common

to assert

that

he

was

poetical,
"

and musical impotent an quack." Wagner


made

musical humbug,"

attack " ignoramus,

of him

literary,
lence" excel-

"ignorant

par

his first visit to Vienna, Beethoven was given city of Mozart and " " Zampa," Zampa," and Strauss pot-pourris of his pet detestation. were In 1832

but the
over

to

which

On his return he spent

some

time

in Prague,

where

he

RICHARD

WAGNER.

525
the director of
symphony and

made
the

the acquaintance famous

of Dionys who

Weber,

Conservatory,

had

his
at

other

of his compositions

played

the

Conservatory

concerts.

Wagner
"

then

began

tremendously
which,
root

tragic
of his

opera

The Wedding," entitled disapproval, he destroyed

because branch. Wiirzburg

sister's

and
at

Albert

Wagner

was

spent the year 1833 with of the theatre there. his knowledge him, and got much of acting good from He there composed the libretto and music and singing.
to
an

settled Richard

as

manager

opera
were

Weber
"were

entitled "The his models, but


from

Fairies."
at
own

Beethoven the by

that

time
stage

and Germans

crowded Frenchmen and


yet Wagner The next Bellini's which
met

their

successful

Italians."
not

Pretty
"

could
year

get

The

made, promises were " Fairies mounted.


Schroder-Devrient The
fact that

he heard

Madame

in

"Romeo
to

seemed
such

and him

Juliet."
so

"unutterably
to study

music insignificant"
causes

with Material
to

success,

led him

the

of it.

beauty, him.

passion,

Germany

fire, vivacity, melody, into dwindled suddenly

oned becknificance insig-

seemed
one

Beethoven a whole world. compared with human limits, beyond to have reached no which
go.

could At

Toplitz, in Bohemia, that

he set himself

to compose

an

opera

French
Thus

elements of the should exhibit the sensuous and Italian school. the " Liebesverbot" arose ("Forbidden Love"),
from
"

the libretto imitated


Full

Measure

for Measure."

keyed

of the fresh life of his one spirit of the up to the tense


as

and

twenty

years,

time, he
and

seriousness

puritanical hypocrisy, Europe." it the free license of "young

put away into breathed

526
He

EICHAED

WAGNER.

accepted the position as director of music at the Magdeburg theatre, and there in the spring of 1836 he had it performed As after only ten days' study.
obliged him to take a new Novice title: "The Thus to mount an of Palermo." a timbers are glued opera is like launching ship whose It is sure to go to pieces. and not riveted.
was

had

it

Holy

Week,

the

censor

the first performance, to applaud what they found

At

audience to applaud. At

good

was

present

the

second

performance,
were

only
rose,

which three in the

brought

the

season

to

the prima attacked ferociously them so second tenor and his wife, and pounded So the performance that they could not sing. had to be stopped before it began, and the Polish Jew,

the

Just audience. donna's husband

close, there before the curtain


a

who paid

was

probably

the

for admission, received back went home and took off his gala-day costume in his zeal had loaded himself Wagner and, in the hope Bingelhardt at indeed,
them, of extinguishing Leipzig to bring out the

only having

one

of

the

three

had who his money,


!

with debts, tried to induce


new

be a fine chance said he, there would in a very sympathetic her appearance daughter to make director was The burg than the Magdemore canny part!
censor
:

opera; for his

he

was

not

to be caught

by putting

the salt

of flattery on So Wagner

his feathers ! took it to Berlin, with

here

he

saw

Spontini
a

and he learned did not forget.

conducting lesson in regard to stage effects that he financial He left Berlin in most wretched and clutched
at
a

like result. But Cortez," "Fernando

circumstances,

straw
a

when

he

the position of musical accepted in Prussia, whither Konigsberg

director at his

theatre in Minna

betrothed,

RICHABD

WAGNEE.

527
"leading
"

Planer,
Her he

had

gone

from

Magdeburg,
1836.

as

lady." in love,"

he

married

in November,

was

I persisted in getting mar"and wrote, ried, afterwards thus involving myself and another in unhappiness." had gone to Riga as cantor Dorn and director of religious him his wife, and his Wagner, Through music.

places at the theatre ; but cares, sister-in-law obtained followed them. debts, and all sorts of annoyances, " Rienzi," which he read at Dresden, Bulwer's novel, inspired

him

to attempt

of the Romans

for the
wrote

grand to Scribe

Last grand opera with "The " His ambition it its hero. designed as Hueffer opera in Paris. relates that he
a

libretto, and libretto that Konigsberg,


response ! His Riga

to him proposing its acceptance. secure

to

translate
was

the

It

another

Wagner but
the

offered
generous

Scribe

while
met

he

was

at
no

proposal

with

contract

having

London

and

Paris, with

he set sail for expired, his wife, his big Newfoundland

dog, and the two completed acts of "Rienzi." long, boisterous, and terribly fatiguing, The was voyage
in mishaps. abounding in violent storms, and caught Three
once

times

they

were

had him
was

to

put

into

Norwegian
"The

The port. sailors told Flying Dutchman." Senta


extract

the
a

story of Norwegian

True men maiden. from their severest


storm

is heard

voyage.

Such

costliest triumphs hardships. howling The of the in the music of the opera born of this in life-blood, and are are written works

their

immortal.
for the city, its public buildings, and did not enter a theatre. After a week's he made to Boulogne, Meyerbeer's rest, he went where

In

London,

Wagner

cared only

628

RICHARD

WAGNER.

him his and showed acquaintance him letters of introduction gave Heine and publishers. managers curious
me on

"

Bienzi."
to famous

Meyerbeer
theatrical
on
"

has

left

record

remark

"

Do

you

know,"

my

guard

recommends

against this young him ! "

said he, what puts is that Meyerbeer man

"Celebrity,"
"

is everything

in his autobiography, Wagner, remarks in Paris ; at once the fortune and the

destruction If by

of the artist."

stood director of the Theatre

he success, meant celebrity Wagner pecuniary in no danger Antenor Jolly, of being ruined.
de la Renaissance,
went

influenced
so

by
to

Meyerbeer's accept
was

the

"

indeed representation, Liebesverbot" the and

far

as

French

translation
every into went

admirably

adapted
well,

to

the

music

; but when

promised bankruptcy. He had

thing

the

theatre

suddenly

his labor, and wasted in the bank of hope. He


was
"

overdrawn

his account

his overture also disappointed about having It was to " Faust played. rehearsed, but the musicians called it a long enigma, and refused to touch it. Another, " Polonia," he offered for a concert, arranged by entitled
a

Polish

princess.

This
came

overture

was

lost, but turned

up

years afterwards, and He had it performed

into Wagner's in honor

hands

in 1881.

in Palermo

of his wife's

birthday.
into the temple bound by one expected to mount him on He found confronting every side the of fame. lights of hedge thorny the misleading of poverty, intrigue, the fallacies of false friends. He
He revolt
was,
as

he the

expressed

it, in

state

against

artistic life of

Paris.

of inward he had Yet

EICRAED

WAGNER.

529
Berlioz, "in
most
on

of friendship. pleasant experiences spite of his repellant nature," attracted him he knew. Berlioz the musicians whom
many

among

his

side

found

Wagner

"

superb

in

his

heart," and confessed that even him. Liszt was then to him

ardor and his violences

warmth

of

transported

an

objectof
with
no

While

he

was

thus

encompassed

suspicion. difficulties and

bitter poverty, Opera opening


success,

and saw its doors

absolutely to him, or

prospect
other

of

the

any

Meyerbeer

offered to help
opera
was

to suddenly returned him. The plan for a two

of chance Paris, and

or

three

act

suggested; of
"

his idea

The

and Wagner, Flying Dutchman it to Leon again

had who " by the

developed assistance

of Heine, suggested Then Meyerbeer

Fillet.

left Paris,

and

Pillet wanted

Wagner
composer opera !

to

part

whom

the libretto, to give to another with he had promised a chance at the grand he

About
the

this

time

was

Gazette Musicale,

and

to write for commissioned contributed, besides articles on


"
"

in Germany, two music to Beethoven," a and


entitled
"

novelettes,
semi-humorous

The

Pilgrimage

The

End

of

German

sketch pathetic in Paris," in Musician

his own struggles vividly enough his dog ! In order to and immortalized with poverty, living, he underwent the most humiliating earn a scanty " for every drudgery, arrangements making musical which portrayed

he

imaginable
He

kind

of instrument,

applied for a position as fortune but had worse than


; the

the cornet-a-piston." singer in a small theatre, Berlioz in similar circumstances


even

he could not He finished his

conductor sing !
"

who

examined

him

declared

that

Rienzi,"

and

despatched

it to Dres-

530

RICHARD

WAGNER.

den, where it was by Meyerbeer. cordially recommended induced for five hundred Then he was francs to give up for the Opera; his scheme having more and nothing
urgent
on

hand,

he

hired

his

own

delight

of "The version he found that he

piano, and set to work Flying Dutchman." To


was

on

his

still

fairly shouted
that the whole The version
was

for
w"as

joy,and

everything in seven completed for the Opera

He musician. fluently so went

given
In

composed in November, days he


was

weeks. by Paul

Foucher

1842, and

these

of Beethoven's and by the representations

a fiasco. made by the splendid cheered Choral Symphony at the

performance servator ConFrei-

of Weber's

"

by Berlioz to the requirements schutz" conformed of the Opera, which insisted on ballet; but as nearly as a possible in its pristine form. The clouds were for Dresden

beginning
; and

to lift.

"

Rienzi

"

was

accepted

in the

spring

shook
eyes,

off the dust of Paris, and with for the first time Rhine, saw "the
swore
"

of 1842 Wagner bright tears in his the

German

Rhine,
"

and Rienzi

was

eternal fealty to his fatherland." October given for the first time on

20,

It showed the influences of the Italian school had but and of power passages of Meyerbeer, and It was with fine scenic effects, and produced promise. instantly made famous. It gave him Wagner the position 1842.
of

kapellmeister

at

the

royal

assured position with a salary of fifty dollars. It was no sinecure, as labors there would He brought show.
great operas besides his " The Flying Dutchman
"

an and opera, twelve hundred and list the full of his

out

number

of

own.
"
"

Wagner's

transition opera

at first failed, though

Schroder-Devrient's

creation

of

E1CHARD

WAGNER.

531

Senta

was

regarded
as a
"

Schumann

but it was hailed by wonderful; " that German art signal of hope
as

Spohr called it " a masterpiece," would be emancipated. " Indeed/' said Wagner, at Cassel. and had it performed " kapellmeister Spohr was the only German who received labors to the my warmly, cherished and lovingly best of his ability, and in all circumstances remained friendly and faithful."
me

"

from unconf essed jealousy, perhaps " Rienzi," declared that Wagner could not speaking of four consecutive bars that are melodious, write or imagine
"

Yet

Schumann,

or

even

correct

!
out
"

When

he brought

Tannhauser

his tendencies little : he wrote


that
was

more

in 1845, and displayed fully, Schumann relented a that it contained much But with this began that
"

"

to Mendelssohn

and original." chorus of abuse from the critics that has not yet ceased. Auber, hearing it, said, " It is Berlioz without melody." In Paris a word was signifying to bore, se tannhauser,

deep

coined from it. When the Revolution


"

of 1848

broke

out, Wagner,

"

spirit
"

never

content,

new,"

says who, by blood


the

and Liszt,

always
"was

devising
a
an

something

born

reformer,

undaunted

or

fire," took
in

active
was

part

in it;

and when Prussian took

insurrection he

Dresden

bayonets,

refuge with offered for him he fled to Paris.

his escape. made Liszt, but finding that

crushed by first he At
a

reward

was

In the printed description of this " dangerous height, with he is described as of medium

political," brown
nose

hair, open and


mouth,

brow,
round

gray-blue chin,

eyes, well-proportioned by and characterized

quick

speech

and

gestures.

532
The

RICHARD

WAGNER.

year Liszt had justfinished before


next

Wagner's

new

opera

"

grin," Lohenat

the Revolution,

performed

Weimar. Thus Liszt's unselfish services in aid of the poor Wagner to Zurich, and while ing there, findwent
to
earn a

began

exile. it hard
money.

living, sometimes

asked

Liszt

for

Hence

the
ten
over

"

" has arisen the charge tude," ingratiof mad " But during the cry of the horse-leech !

years

that

three
money

he spent in Switzerland he wrote letters, and only twenty-seven hundred


matters,

Liszt deal

with

was

appeals lacking firewood but most


nature

and there for help, though and


master

are some

only

twelve

bread. mind,"

of the This "genial,

personal he time

wayward,

human

correctly ; but he
on

generread Liszt's ous his services. acknowledged


"

said he, to help all others but himself." borrowed He not money alone from
"

Like

Christ

the

cross,"

Liszt

was

ready

Liszt.

In

1876

at
arm,
"

Bayreuth,

during

and, referring Papa, here comes a


"

rehearsal, Wagner seized Liszt's dream-words, to Siegelind's said, theme that I got from you."
"

Good,"
It
was

said the other,


the theme

at least

some

one

it."
"

at

the
a

beginning

will hear of Liszt's borrowings

Faust

Symphony."

Nearly

dozen

such

have

pointed out. In 1882, at a banquet

been

after the

performance
to the
on

Wagner
of that "unique

publicly and

called attention exceptional


man"

Parsifal," of influence

"

his whole

career.

"When

was

discredited, Liszt

banished,"
came

he

repudiated by Germany, who had in the bottom


of my

to meet

said, "and Liszt, me,


"

being

and

my
"

knowledge of his soul a thorough ' He Artist, I said to me, work.

have

faith in you.'

RICHARD

WAGNER.

533

Wagner think

wrote

to

Liszt

"

of thee, and

of thee

I compose, I always alone, how this passage and

When

that will please thee." During Wagner's years became


was

the

philosopher
to
see

of exile he seized his pen, and The world of music and art. super-eminent "a flashing time
that
"

forced

that

"

a
"

genius,"

as

Liszt

called him, had They could not to wear a double Here

arisen,
see

at that

spirit of flame." he was destined

crown

of fire and

gold."

he worked theories, which out his revolutionary have given They to detail here would too long. occupy library of books. Never was rise to a whole revolution
in art made the himself Wagner Liszt
for
no even one

bitter warfare. And in his bitterness of spirit. led the van " in spite of him, His genius triumphed said : put more spoke than he himself in his own

subject of

more

put into shape the splendid drama, which is the most conception of the Niebelungen colossal structure that ever entered into the mind of man. Its base goes back before history began : its walls embrace
to

wheels." here And

he

began

humanity
nature

and

its pinnacles tower Human to heaven. divine, art and religion, are comprehended
:

in it.

Such

for mate is the conception. legitiThere may be room divergences to its creation. Those as of opinion for the tickling melodies of Kossini, who of the Italian opera,
are

who

yearn

stirred by the concerted pieces find only cacophonies in Wagner's motives, and his accompanied For
see

only

wearisome

will of leading weaving in "goose-march"

recitatives.

with

of twenty years upwards his Tetralogy, to which,

Wagner
as

was

occupied
wrote

usual,

he

the

534
"
"

RICHARD

WAGNER.

words,

bombastic
"

stuttering
and

"

of

alliteration

one

critic called them, labors were His In 1855 he went

the music. composed interrupted by frequent


to conduct

journeys.

to London

Society. of the Philharmonic his drastic and uncalled-for


music ; he was idol England's
a
:

He

the eight concerts had already delivered upon the

attack
opponent

Jew

in

well-known he took no
was

of Mendelssohn,

his
After

season

not

pains to be politic ; consequently brilliant success.


was
some

coming his admirers,

his return to Zurich, there to America. The Emperor and

talk of his
was one

of Brazil
a

he

was

offered

position

in

of Bio

Janeiro.
In September,
the next

1859, he

year, he gave

back in Paris, where, early three concerts of his own music.


was

They

did not pay expenses. Then, suddenly, Berlioz turned

on

colleague, and attacked "the was the beginning of still a into


of Prince
to be given

music
new

war.

old friend and It of the future.'7 it was And carried


his

the

Opera

House,

when,

Metternich,
there.

Napoleon

the express desire " " Tannhauser ordered


at

Wagner have
poor

himself

took

general

the words properly Roche poet, Edmond

In his zeal to charge. translated, he nearly killed the


; he

succeeded

against him director to

all the employees the

of the

in arraying the theatre, from


when

given

for

the

salaried claqueurs. first time, on March

And
13,

it
a

was

1861,

more

It was fiasco was never simply chronicled. remarkable Club ; and though drowned by the catcalls of the Jockey increasing brought following the two representations

receipts, even to hear it

up
was

to ten

thousand it
was

francs, and

the demand

immense,

withdrawn.,

Berlioz

BICHARD

WAGNEE.

535

wrote

his it.

son:

"The
for
me,

As

in extermiis unanimous nating press I am cruelly avenged."

to Wagner's of late has the political opposition feelings. begun to yield to more generous music he left Paris in June, 1861, though burdened When

Only

free to return to Germany. with frightful debts, he was In order to procure His pardon was assured. Europe, he made tour through a concert cing produmoney, symphonies, and selections from chiefly Beethoven's
again

his

own

works. upwards
to

It

was

series of triumphs.

He

made

in Eussia
on

his

return

of thirty-five thousand rubles, which, in foolish, boyish Vienna, he wasted

such as always marked extravagances, for royal apparel and His expenditures

his private

life.

and the like, were hopes to be made flee from The


next

silken tapestries, so great, that, after the failure of his he had to kapellmeister at Dresden,

Vienna
year

in 1863. This was and his creditors. fate brought to the throne of Bavaria the

II., a youth of nineteen, who summed visionary Ludwig " Word-tone-poetup Wagner's genius by calling him his him handsome Master." The King a gave residence,
and

in the a general overturn planned affairs of his capital. musical At his desire Wagner's great and opera, "Tristan legend, was Welsh Isolde," founded on a Keltic or performed
a

pension,

and

under Three Meister


new

Hans

von

Billow's direction. 1868, his comic


was

years

later, in

opera,

"The

Singers," in which
was

the old

proclaimed, brilliant success.

also performed
It
was

satirized and the in Munich with most

written

in

Switzerland,

Wagner's

effort to establish a new his enemies, Munich; circulated the most when who declaring that he had outrageous libels about hiin, even
vain

after singing-school in

536

RICHARD

WAGNER.

let his wife starve to death,1 had practically driven him lavish gifts were from, the city. The King's a scandal It he in the community. was that estimated presented
hundred and fifty thousand with at least two florins. His greatest pleasure was to dress himself in On his lake at Starnberg, the costumes of the operas.
Wagner twenty

.drawn his craze

years later, he had by mechanical swans.


was

boat
The

like "Lohengrin's,"
man was

crazy ; but

Meantime should
answer

the making of Wagner. friends determined Wagner's under the most famous "Invitation"

be heard
to

that his works favorable auspices. In

his

they

thalers thousand raised three hundred and ideal theatre in the little Bavarian

rallied, and to build a new


town

of

Bay-

Here, so to speak, the Muses of Painting and reuth. to crown Architecture, of Poetry and Music, descended but genius-gifted priest in his Neo-Grecian their wayward immediately It was amphitheatre. Prussia War was that the corner-stone
after the Francolaid, on Wagner's

birthday

in 1872.

Beethoven's
"

Ninth

Symphony

were chosen as marsch More thousand than two

"Kaiserand Wagner's the herald music of the occasion. and singers were musicians in a certain sense, to stand
her husband
at Dresden,

present.
1

Wagner
Wagner,

had

come,

Frau

an

ample

income,

who publicly protested that died suddenly of heart-disease,


them
were

had

allowed

her

January

25, 18C6.

The
"

relations always

she

tenderness
von

Cosima

It is said that affectionate. and cordial her he showed he boy, big was a treated him ; while which 25, 1870, he married filial and On August at once paternal." him, to meet declined first had Billow, Liszt's daughter, at who

between

like

but at last took


a

her
"

four

daughters

and

joined
"

him

at place

Lucerne. in
1872,

She

became
ence pres-

Lutheran.

The

religious Von
to

consecration Billow, the


"

took

in the
them

of the Abbe" remained and " Wagner, are

Liszt.

almost of

heart-broken,
the Future."

forgave
"

both, said their

faithful
the

Music
He

Women,"

music

of life."

might

have

added,

"

They

have

discords."

pq

EICHARD

WAGNER.

537
And One

as

the

representative
were

of the

German
him
more

nation.
odious.

yet

never

the attacks upon

Jew
that

doctor, who the

bore the
was
a

name

of Puschinann,

declared
same

composer Wagner was

come

offered to Chicago and direct

! The maniac raving hundred one thousand


some

year dollars to
He
was

obliged for a march It


was

of his works. to decline, but he accepted five thousand


to be performed
at the Centennial

dollars

Exhibition.

generally

In August,

as regarded unworthy 1876, the Tetralogy was

of his genius. given


at Bayreuth,

before

an

world, and

audience including

had which the Emperor

heads. and other crowned heard a part of the performance, but he cared little for music, and took his departure, a slight which the Grand forgive. Mogul King The of Bayreuth could not of Bavaria
at first insisted
on

from gathered all the of Brazil and Empress Emperor The of Germany

hearing

the

so alone, but the music sounded hall that he allowed an audience to be present, and twenty thousand additional were marks gained.

lutely rehearsals absoill in the empty

thus

The

orchestra,
a

under

the

direction

of Hans

Bichter

"ensemble" of interpreters, showed magnificent " the Music as it had at first been what of the Future," Bischoff, really was. by Ludwig derisively nicknamed All the decorations of the of the stage, the dresses

and

actors,

and

the

effects of light and


success.

shade,

were

prepared

with marvellous The success

seemed

almost

to

turn

Wagner's
he

head.
on

In

answer

to the

thunders
a

of applause,

appeared

the stage
taste.

a speech which was of bad model He repaired the bad effects of it at a great subscription banquet on the nineteenth, at his own given

and

made

suggestion,

to

himself

and

the

great

artists

who

had

538
brought
meant
art.

RICHARD

WAGNER.

him

such

glory.

Here

he

explained

by saying that at last Germany was The next day a reception at Wagner's
"
"

what to have

he
an

house, called Wahnf ried " found their peace ),took


frenzy
over
an

(because

"

here

magnificent my illusions

of enthusiasm. hour.

a place, and again there was Liszt improvised and played for

of the third series of representations, on the thirtieth of August, a still more touching ceremony had a number took place, to commemorate which Wagner medals Ludwig had
to King struck off. One in gold was presented liberality alone the scheme II., through whose before had been made Kings by Warsucceeded.

At the end

wicks: made, giving

this

being
the
was

unique decorated by
name

was

of

of a king already ! A memorial a stone, subject the principal actors in letters of It simply

instance

gold,

also

erected.
:

bore

above

the

script in-

the words
DER

KING

DES

NIEBELUNGEN
IM

ERSTE

AUFPUHRUNG

JAHRE

1876.

Wagner's
!
After

name

nowhere

appeared.

It

was

unnecessary

the

exertions

of the

festival, Wagner

went

to
an

He was Italy, and there received an ovation. made honorary member of the St. Cecilia, and at Bologna " Kienzi." was of his present at a fine performance

he

he found himself conhe returned to Bayreuth, fronted by the fact that the great success of the festival had resulted in a deficit of over one hundred and twenty-

When

five thousand

Wagner
with
Hans

marks ! First he issued an appeal to the to go to London Societies ; then he decided


Kichter, and
give
a

series of concerts.

RICHARD

WAGNER.

539

place in May, but in spite of the immense for the enorinterest which mous they excited, the expenses so heavy sand not less than sixty thouorchestra were
They took
"

pounds
seven

"

that they

brought

profit of only

about

hundred

Meantime,
"

Parsifal
"

"

last work
at Palermo

his on working his drama the solemn of the Holy Grail " his musical It was finally finished will." It was first presented in January, 1882. at
was
"

pounds. at intervals, Wagner

"

Bayreuth,

on

the

twenty-eighth performances,

of June,

and
a

was

lowed folof

by
seventy-five who

sixteen
thousand

bringing

profit

had

predicted

the theatre, which later Wagner Two months


advice of

marks, and silencing the croakers It guaranteed failure. the future of had been closed since 1876. and his family,

by

the in

Venice
with

his physician, to Italy and went He Vendramini. was at the Palazzo


and

settled

troubled
February he
to

heart-disease
as a

asthma.

On

Monday,
gondola,

13, 1883,
way
to

in his out going He fit of anger. had been


he
was

gave

all excitement.
up sprang the doctor

was warning ill," and crying, "I feel very he was dead in the arms came,

The

warned in vain. He

avoid

suddenly fell. When


of his wife,

who

him sleeping. supposed The city of Venice proposed

to

have

state

funeral, His

but

his

widow,

remains,

who by escorted
were

was

inconsolable,

objected.
on

societies,
at Verona,

taken

delegates of various to Bayreuth, stopping


and

Wagnerian
the way

Botzen,

Innspruck, and

Munich.
was was

After

solemn

laid in his tomb,

magnificent service, Wagner his faithful dog Kuss before which

buried. Wagner
is said
to

have

received

two

hundred

and

540
forty thousand

EICHAED

WAGNER.

" as Parsifal/' marks copyright for and if have he had been wise in saving he would left a large fortune. But he spent lavishly, foolishly, on personal

He died poor. and delicate furnishings. adornments had As a As an genius. artist Wagner unequalled temperate, man, though generous, usual and virtuous to an un-

he was faults : extraordinary egotistical and proud, prone to fierce enmities ; he went A living paradox in everything. to extremes : impatient, degree, he also had
"

nervous, more

irritable

noble
more

friends
hated. notable

and
most

and Taken

petty ; never He was enemies. and

made

man

all in all, musically,

worshipped he stands as the

figure of this age.

ML

Dole,

390
v.2-

Nathan Haskell Famous composers

ML

390
v.2

Dole,

Nathan

Haskell

Famous

composers