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ZigBee (IEEE802.15.


ZigBee is the name of a specification for a suite of high level communication protocols using small, low-power digital radios based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard for wireless personal area networks (WPANs). IEEE 802.15.4-2003 (Low Rate WPAN) deals with low data rate but very long battery life (months or even years) and very low complexity. The first edition of the 802. 15.4 standard was released in May 2003. The ZigBee standard was developed by the ZigBee Alliance, which an association of companies is working together to enable reliable, cost-effective, lowpower, wirelessly networked, monitoring and control products based on an open global standard. Philips, Motorola, Intel, HP are all members of the Alliance. The goal is to provide the consumer with ultimate flexibility, mobility, and ease of use by building wireless intelligence and capabilities into every day devices.

ZigBee technology is embedded in a wide range of products and applications across consumer, commercial, industrial and government markets worldwide. For the first time, companies will have a standards-based wireless platform optimized for the unique needs of remote monitoring and control applications, including simplicity, reliability, low-cost and low-power.

ZigBee is an established set of specifications for wireless personal area networking (WPAN). WPAN Low Rate or ZigBee provides specifications for devices that have low data rates, consume very low power and are thus characterized by long battery life. ZigBee makes possible completely networked homes where all devices are able to communicate and be controlled by a single unit. When you hold the TV remote and wish to use it you have to necessarily point your control at the device. This one-way, line-of-sight, short-range communication uses infrared (IR) sensors to enable communication and control and it is possible to operate the TV remotely only with its control unit. Add other home theatre modules, an airconditioner and remotely enabled fans and lights to your room, and you become a juggler who has to handle not
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ZigBee (IEEE802.15.4)

only these remotes, but also more numbers that will accompany other home appliances you are likely to use. Some remotes do serve to control more than one device after memorizing' access codes, but this interoperability is restricted to LOS, that too only for a set of related equipment, like the different units of a home entertainment system Now picture a home with entertainment units, security systems including fire alarm, smoke detector and burglar alarm, air-conditioners and kitchen appliances all within whispering distance from each other and imagine a single unit that talks with all the devices, no longer depending on line-of-sight, and traffic no longer being one-way. This means that the devices and the control unit would all need a common standard to enable intelligible communication. ZigBee is such a standard for embedded application software and has been ratified in late 2004 under IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Networking Standards. This kind of network eliminates use of physical data buses like USB and Ethernet cables. The devices could include telephones, hand-held digital assistants, sensors and controls located within a few meters of each other. 2. ARCHITECTURE ZigBee stack architecture is made up of a set of blocks called layers. Each layer performs a specific set of services for the layer above: a data entity provides a data transmission service and a management entity provides all other services. Each service entity exposes an interface to the upper layer through a service access point (SAP), and each SAP supports a number of service primitives to achieve the required functionality. The ZigBee stack architecture, which is depicted in figure 1 below, is based on the standard Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) seven-layer model but defines only those layers relevant to achieving functionality in the intended market space. The IEEE 802.15.4-2003 standard defines the lower two layers:

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ZigBee (IEEE802.15.4)

The physical (PHY) layer

Medium access control (MAC) sub-layer. The ZigBee Alliance builds on this foundation by providing the network (NWK) layer and the framework for the application layer, which includes the application support sub-layer (APS), the ZigBee device objects (ZDO) and the manufacturer defined application objects. IEEE 802.15.4-2003 has two PHY layers that operate in two separate frequency ranges: 868/915 MHz and 2.4 GHz. The lower frequency PHY layer covers both the 868 MHz European band and the 915 MHz band that is used in countries such as the United States and Australia. The higher frequency PHY layer is used virtually worldwide. The IEEE 802.15.4-2003 MAC sub-layer controls access to the radio channel using a CSMA-CA mechanism. Its responsibilities may also include transmitting beacon frames, synchronization and providing a reliable transmission mechanism. The responsibilities of the ZigBee NWK layer shall include mechanisms used to join and leave a network, to apply security to frames and to route frames to their intended destinations. In addition, the discovery and maintenance of routes between devices devolve to the NWK layer. The NWK layer of a ZigBee coordinator is

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ZigBee (IEEE802.15.4)

responsible for starting a new network, when appropriate, and assigning addresses to newly associated devices. The ZigBee application layer consists of the APS, the Application Framework (AF), the ZDO and the manufacturer-defined application objects. The responsibilities of the APS sub-layer include maintaining tables for binding, which is the ability to match two devices together based on their services and their needs, and forwarding messages between bound devices. The responsibilities of the ZDO include defining the role of the device within the network (e.g., ZigBee coordinator or end device), initiating and/or responding to binding requests and establishing a secure relationship between network devices. The ZDO is also responsible for discovering devices on the network and determining which application services they provide.

Applicationra Application k raamewk .ApplicationObjecl 240Object 1 * (

APS Sa unly

ZfeBiM Device Object (ZDO)

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EE 802.15. 4

Nelwvrk Manaee mcnl


e r ^ -------*

ED defirs S d ZigBe*


( N W K ) L a y e r

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Alliance cefred End manuf acture r ifrtsd Layer

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Routi ng Maiu eenic nl

M e d i

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ZigBee (IEEE802.15.5)

u m
\e c e s s C o n tr ol

Physical Laver




( M A C )
L a y



Figure 1: ZigBee-Stack Architecture


There are three different types of ZigBee device:

ZigBee coordinator (ZC): The most capable device, the coordinator forms the root of the

network tree and might bridge to other networks. There is exactly one ZigBee coordinator in each network. It is able to store information about the network, including acting as the repository lor security keys.

ZigBee Router (ZR): Routers can act as an intermediate router, passing data from other ZigBee End Device (ZED): Contains just enough functionality to talk to its parent node


(either the coordinator or a router); it cannot relay data from other devices. It requires the least amount of memory, and therefore can be less expensive to manufacture than a ZR or ZC.

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l.Pan (Full-function Device) (Full-function Coordinator 3. Device(Reduced of Device) 2.

ZigBee (IEEE802.15.6)

4. MESSAGING The three messaging modes are: 1. Direct addressing. 2. Indirect addressing. 3. Broadcast addressing. 4.1 DIRECT ADRESSING Direct addressing assumes device discovery and service discovery have identified a particular device and endpoint. which supply a complementary service to the requestor. Specifically, direct addressing defines a means of directing messages to the device by including its full address and endpoint information. Once devices have been associated, commands can be sent from one device to another. A command is sent to an application object at the destination address. 4.2 INDIRECT ADDRESSING Use of direct addressing requires the controlling device to have knowledge of the address, endpoint, cluster identifier and attribute identifier of the target device that it wishes to communicate with and to have this information committed to a binding table on the ZigBee coordinator prior to the creation of an indirectly addressed message between the device pair. A full IEEE 802.15.4 address amounts to 10 octets (PAN identifier plus 64-bit IEEE address) and a further octet is required for the endpoint. Extremely simple devices, such as battery-powered switches, may not want the overhead of storing this information, nor the software for acquiring this information. For these devices, indirect addressing will be more appropriate. In Indirect addressing mode .when a source device wishes to send a command to a destination, instead of including the address of the destination device (which it does not know and has not stored), it omits the address and specifies indirect addressing via the APSDE-SAP. The included source address, source endpoint and
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ZigBee (IEEE802.15.7)

cluster identifier in the indirect addressed message are translated via the binding table to those of the destination device(s) and the messages are relayed to each indicated destination. Where a cluster contains several attributes, the cluster identifier is used for addressing and the attribute identifier is used in the command itself to identify a particular attribute within the cluster. Attributes are not used in the indirect addressing mechanism and are treated as a part of the data payload. The applications, however, can parse and utilize the attributes as defined within their profile. 4.3 BROADCAST ADDRESSING An application may broadcast messages to all endpoints on a given destination device. This form of broadcast addressing is called application broadcast. The destination address shall be the 16-bit network broadcast address and the broadcast flag shall be set in the APS frame control field. The source shall include the cluster identifier, profile identifier and source endpoint fields in the APS frame. 5. FRAME FORMAT This sub-clause specifies the format of the NWK frame (NPDU). Each NWK frame consists of the following basic components: A NWK header, which comprises frame control, addressing and sequencing information. A NWK payload, of variable length, which contains information specific to the frame type. 5.1 GENERAL NPDU FRAME FORMAT The NWK frame format is composed of a NWK header and a NWK payload. The fields of the NWK header appear in a fixed order, however, the addressing and sequencing fields may not be included in all frames.
Octets: 2


Frame Destinatio Control n Address

Source Address



Sequenc e NumbQi*

Variable Frame Payload

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ZigBee (IEEE802.15.8)

Rout Fields ing NWK Header

NWK Payload

Figure2: NPDU Frame Format Frame Control Field:The frame control field is 16-bits in length and contains information defining the frame type, addressing and sequencing fields and other control flags.
Bits: 2-5 8 9 10-15 6 -7 0-1 Frame Protocol Discove Re- Secu Reserv type version r route serve rity ed d

Figure3: Frame Control Field The frame type sub-field is

two bits in length and shall be set to one of the non-reserved values. The protocol version sub-field is four bits in length and shall be set to a

number reflecting the ZigBee NWK protocol version in use. The DiscoverRoute parameter may be used 10 control route discovery operations for the transit of the frame. The security sub-field shall have a value of 1 if and only if the frame is to have NWK security operations enabled. If security for this frame is implemented at another layer or disabled entirely, it shall have a value of 0.
Destination Address Field:-

The destination address field shall always be present. It shall be 2 octets in length and shall hold the 16-bit network address of the destination device or the broadcast address (Oxffff). The network address of a device shall always be the same as its IEEE 802.15.4-2003 MAC short address.
Source Address Field:-

The source address field shall always be present. It will always be 2 octets in length and shall hold the network address of the source device of the frame. The network
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ZigBee (IEEE802.15.9)

address of a device shall always be the same as its IEEE 802.15.4-2003 MAC short address.
Radius Field:-

The radius field shall always be present. It will be one octet in length and specifies the range of a radius transmission. The field shall be decremented by 1 by each receiving device.
Sequence number Fiekl:-

The sequence number field is present in every frame and is 1 octet in length. The sequence number value will be incremented by 1 with each new transmitted frame and the values of the source address field and the sequence number field of a frame, taken as a pair, may be used to uniquely identify a frame within the constraints imposed by the sequence number's 1-octet range. Frame Payload Field:The frame payload field has a variable length and contains information specific to individual frame types. 5.2 FORMAT OF INDIVIDUAL FRAME TYPE There are two delined NWK 1.Data Frame format 2. NWK command.
frame types:

Data Frame Format:-

The data frame shall be formatted as

Octets: 2 Sec Variable Figure 36 Frame Routing Data conlrfli fields payload NWK header NWK pay! oad


Data Frame

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ZigBee (IEEE802.15.10)

Data frame The

NWK header


NWK header tield of a data frame shall contain the frame control field and an appropriate

combination of routing fields as required. In the frame control field, the frame type sub-field shall contain the value that indicates a data frame. All other sub-fields shall be set according to the intended use of the data frame. The routing fields shall contain an appropriate combination of address and broadcast fields, depending on the settings in the frame control field.

Data payload field:The data payload field of a data frame shall contain the sequence of octets, which the next higher layer has requested the NWK layer to transmit.


NWK command frame format:-

The NWK command frame shall be formatted as

Octets.: See Figure 3U Frame Routing control fields. NWK header


NWK NWK command command identifier payload NWK payload

Figure5: NWK command frame format NWK command frame NWK header field:The NWK header field of a NWK command frame shall contain the frame control field and an appropriate combination of routing fields as required. In the frame control field, the frame type sub-field shall contain the value that indicates a NWK command frame. All other subfields shall be set according to the intended use of the NWK command frame. The routing fields shall contain an appropriate combination of address and broadcast fields, depending on the settings in the frame control field. NWK command identifier field:-

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ZigBee (IEEE802.15.11)

The NWK command identifier field indicates the NWK command being used. This field shall be set to one of the non-reserved values. NWK command payload field:The NWK command payload field of a NWK command frame shall contain the NWK command itself. 5.3 COMMAND FRAMES The command frames defined by the NWK layer are listed below:Command frame identifiei 0x01 Command nam* Route request Reference 2.5.1

Figure6: Command Format Route request command:The route request command allows a device to request that other devices within radio range engage in a search for a particular destination device and establish state within the network that will allow messages to be routed to that destination more easily and economically in the future. Route reply command:The route reply command allows the specified destination device of a route request command to inform the originator of the route request that the request has been received. It also allows ZigBee routers along the path taken by the route request to establish state information that will enable frames sent from the source device to the destination device to travel more efficiently. Route error command:A device uses the route error command when it is unable to forward a data frame. The command notifies the
source device of the data frame about the failure in forwarding the frame. 11

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ZigBee (IEEE802.15.12)

Leave command:The leave command is used by the NLME (Network Layer Management Entity) to inform the parent and children of a device that it is leaving the network or else to request that a device leave the network. 6. NETWORK TOPOLOGY The ZigBee network layer (NWK) supports 3 types of topologies:

Star topology. Tree topology. Mesh topology.

In a star topology, the network is controlled by one single device called the ZigBee coordinator. The ZigBee coordinator is responsible for initiating and maintaining the devices on the network, and all other devices, known as end devices, directly communicate with the ZigBee coordinator. In mesh and tree topologies, the ZigBee coordinator is responsible for starting the network and for choosing certain key network parameters but the network may be extended through the use of ZigBee routers. In tree networks, routers move data and control messages through the network using a hierarchical routing strategy. Tree networks may employ beaconoriented communication as described in the IEEE 802.15.4-2003 specification. Mesh networks shall allow full
Star Topology Topology Peer to Peer

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ZigBee (IEEE802.15.13)

peer to- peer communication. ZigBee routers in mesh networks shall not emit regular IEEE 802.15.4-2003 beacons. 7. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS The focus of network applications under the IEEE 802.15.4 / ZigBee standard include the features of low power consumption, needed for only two major modes (Tx/Rx or Sleep), high density of nodes per network, low costs and simple implementation. 2.4GHz and 868/915 MHz dual PHY modes. This represents three license-free bands: 2.4-2.4835 GHz, 868870 MHz and 902-928 MHz. The number of channels allotted to each frequency band is fixed at sixteen (numbered 11-26), one (numbered 0) and ten (numbered 1 -10) respectively. The higher frequency band is applicable worldwide, and the lower band in the areas of North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand. Low power consumption, with battery life ranging from months to years. Considering the number of devices with remotes in use at present, it is easy to see that more numbers of batteries need to be provisioned every so often, entailing regular (as well as timely), recurring expenditure. In the ZigBee standard, longer battery life is achievable by either of two means: continuous network connection and slow but sure battery drain, or intermittent connection and even slower battery drain. Maximum data rates allowed for each of these frequency bands are fixed as 250 kbps @2.4 GHz, 40 kbps @ 915 MHz, and 20 kbps @868 MHz.

High throughput and low latency for low duty-cycle applications (<0.1%) Channel access using Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA - CA) Addressing space of up to 64 bit IEEE address devices, 65,535 networks, 50m typical range.

Fully reliable hand-shaked data transfer protocol. 8. TRAFFIC TYPES

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ZigBee (IEEE802.15.14)

ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 addresses three typical traffic types. IEEE 802.15.4 MAC can accommodate all the types. Data is periodic: - The application dictates the rate, and the sensor activates, checks for data and deactivates. Data is intermittent. The application, or other stimulus, determines the rate, as in the case of say smoke detectors. The device needs to connect to the network only when communication is necessitated. This type enables optimum saving on energy. Data is repetitive, and the rate is fixed a priori. Depending on allotted time slots, called GTS (guaranteed time slot), devices operate for fixed durations.

ZigBee employs either of two modes, beacon or nonbeacon to enable the to-and-fro data traffic. Beacon mode is used when the coordinator runs on batteries and thus offers maximum power savings, whereas the non-beacon mode finds favour when the coordinator is mains-powered. In the beacon mode, a device watches out for the coordinator's beacon that gets transmitted at periodically, locks on and looks for messages addressed to it. If message transmission is complete, the coordinator dictates a schedule for the next beacon so that the device goes to sleep; in fact, the coordinator itself switches to sleep mode. While using the beacon mode, all the devices in a mesh network know when to communicate with each other. In this mode, necessarily, the timing circuits have to be quite accurate, or wake up sooner to be sure not to miss the beacon. This in turn means an increase in power consumption by the coordinator's receiver, entailing an optimal increase in costs. Networ Coordina k Device tor
Beac on Dat a

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ZigBee (IEEE802.15.15)



Figure7: Beacon Network Communication The non-beacon mode will be included in a system where devices are asleep nearly always, as in smoke detectors and burglar alarms. The devices wake up and confirm their continued presence in the network at random intervals. On detection of activity, the sensors spring to attention, as it were, and transmit to the ever-waiting coordinator's receiver (since it is mains-powered). However, there is the remotest of chances that a sensor finds the channel busy, in which case the receiver unfortunately would miss a call


. .. Data. Acknowle dgment

Figure8: Non-Beacon Communication.


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ZigBee (IEEE802.15.4)


The functions of the Coordinator, which usually remains in the receptive mode, encompass network setup, beacon transmission, node management, storage of node information and message routing between nodes. The network node, however, is meant to save energy (and so sleeps for long periods) and its functions include searching for network availability, data transfer, checks for pending data and queries for data from the

Figure9: Zigbee Network Model For the sake of simplicity without jeopardizing robustness, this particular IEEE standard defines a quartet frame structure and a super-frame structure used optionally only by the coordinator. The four frame structures are: Data frame for all data transfers coordinator.

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ZigBee (IEEE802.15.4)

Acknowledgement frame for successful frame receipt confirmations

MAC command frame

These frame structures and the coordinator's superframe structure play critical roles in security of data and integrity in transmission. All protocol layers contribute headers and footers to the frame structure, such that the total overheads for each data packet range are from 15 octets (for short addresses) to 31 octets (for 64-bit addresses). The coordinator lays down the format for the superframe for sending beacons after every 15.38 ms or/and multiples thereof, up to 252s. This interval is determined a priori and the coordinator thus enables sixteen time slots of identical width between beacons so that channel access is contention-less. Within each time slot, access is contention-based. Nonetheless, the coordinator provides as many as seven GTS (guaranteed time slots) for every beacon interval to ensure better quality. 10. PHYSICAL PACKET STRUCTURE

Prea Start of mble Packe t Delim iter

Hea der h

PHY Service Data Unit (PSDU)

6 octets

0-127 Octets

The Physical packet fields are: Preamble


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ZigBee (IEEE802.15.4)

SPD(Start of packet delimiter) Physical header Physical service data unit(PSDU)

Preamble:-32bits (4 octets) of alternating 0s and Is is to synchronize the receivers. SPD Start of Packet Delimiter: This would be 8 bits (I octet)in length marking the start of the packet. Its appearance depends on the signaling method. It provides a secure way of detecting the start of the frame. Physical Header: This would be 8 bits that are used to denote the Physical service data unit length. PSDU (Physical service data unit): This would be 01016 (1-127 octets) bits to carry the actual data. 11. TECHNOLOGY COMPARISON Why Zigbee? This question could be easily answered by undergoing a comparison study of Zigbee with one of the wireless technology-Bluetooth. The bandwidth of Bluetooth is 1 Mbps; ZigBee's is onefourth of this value. The strength of Bluetooth lies in its ability to allow interoperability and replacement of cables, ZigBee's, of course, is low costs and long battery life. In terms of protocol stack size, ZigBee's 32 KB is about one-third of the stack size necessary in other wireless technologies (for limited capability end devices, the stack size is as low as 4 KB). Most important in any meaningful comparison are the diverse application areas of all the different wireless technologies. Bluetooth is meant for such target areas as wireless USB's, handsets and headsets, whereas ZigBee is meant to cater to the sensors and remote controls market and other battery operated products.
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ZigBee (IEEE802.15.4)

In a gist, it may be said that they are neither complementary standards nor competitors, but just essential standards for different targeted applications. The earlier Bluetooth targets interfaces between PDA and other device (mobile phone / printer etc) and cordless audio applications. The IEEE 802.15.4 based ZigBee is designed for remote controls and sensors, which are very many in number, but need only small data packets and, mainly, extremely low power consumption for (long) life. Therefore they are naturally different in their approach to their respective application arenas. 12. CONCLUSION The ZigBee Alliance is an association of companies working together to enable reliable, cost-effective, lowpower, wirelessly networked, monitoring and control products based on an open global standard. It is the only global wireless communications standard that allows the development of easily deployable, low-power monitoring and control products. ZigBee technology is being embedded into a growing number of products across consumer, commercial, industrial and government markets worldwide. The ZigBee communication standard is key to the growth of wireless home and building automation applications where various end products need to communicate with each other. The ZigBee standard is the only standard that specifically addresses the typical requirements for wireless control and monitoring applications such as: Large number of nodes/sensors Very low system/node costs Operation for years on inexpensive batteries Reliable and secure links between network nodes
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ZigBee (IEEE802.15.4)

Easy deployment and configuration Global solutions 13. FUTURE SCOPE

The ZigBee Alliance targets applications "across consumer, commercial, industrial and government markets worldwide". Unwired applications are highly sought after in many networks that are characterized by numerous nodes consuming minimum power and enjoying long battery lives. ZigBee technology is designed to best suit these applications, for the reason that it enables reduced costs of development, very fast market adoption, and rapid ROI. Airbee Wireless Inc has tied up with Radiocrafts AS to deliver "out-of-the-box" ZigBee-ready solutions; the former supplying the software and the latter making the module platforms. With even light controls and thermostat producers joining the ZigBee Alliance, the list is growing healthily and includes big OEM names like HP, Philips, Motorola and Intel. With ZigBee designed to enable two-way communications, not only will the consumer be able to monitor and keep track of domestic utilities usage, but also feed it to a computer system for data analysis. A recent analyst report issued by West Technology Research Solutions estimates that by the year 2008, "annual shipments for ZigBee chipsets into the home automation segment alone will exceed 339 million units," and will show up in "light switches, fire and smoke detectors, thermostats, appliances in the kitchen, video and audio remote controls, landscaping, and security systems."

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ZigBee (IEEE802.15.4)

Since Wireless personal Area Networking applies not only to household devices, but also to individualized office automation applications, ZigBee is here to stay. It is more than likely the basis of future home-networking solutions.

1. 2. 3. 4. 14. BIBLIOGRA PHY

W *rA.

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