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What is the meaning of positive action?

This term refers to a coherent set of measures aimed at setting up real equality between men and women in public life (on the labor market, in political life). These measures refer to recruiting, work conditions, to salaries, wages and payment methods, vocational training, career development, to the access to decision-making positions, and other. Positive action works on increasing the feminine quota in public life areas in order to improve their role in the society, diminishing the de facto inequality between men and women. "[...] as long as reality produces inequalities, positive action is necessary for decreasing the artificially created gap (through the jaundiced character of the existing institutions, etc.) between men and women". (Liliana Popescu, Feminist Lexicon, Otilia Dragomir, Mihaela Miroiu - editors; Polirom, Iasi, 2002). Why do we need equal opportunities for women and men? The equal opportunities issue rose due to the efforts of the faction for the promotion of women's rights that emphasized the existing unequal opportunities in accessing politics, business, the academic fields, in accessing decision-making positions - in contrast with men. Most of the issues in this area were focused on the inclusion in official set of regulations of the access on the labor market, equal payment for work of equal value, the access to professional and vocational training, career advancement, preventing and fighting sexual harassment. An important aspect of equal opportunities for women and men represents the reconciliation of professional and family life - with the lofty initiative for parental leave (child care leave which can be offered for mothers, as well as fathers). Statistical data show that women are paid generally 30% less of the salaries men receive. The percentage of women in the Romanian Parliament draws near to 11. What is the meaning of "gender"? Gender is defined as the psychological, social, cultural differences between men and women - in contrast to sex, which represents simply biological and anatomical disparities between men and women. Gender relates to femininity and masculinity, in their cultural definition, while sex is connected to the biological female/male dimension. Sex-based characteristics are given by ones birth, are innate. Gender traits develop through socialization. Feminine gender characteristics: tenderness, deep emotionality/sensuality, dependence, and incapacity to take decisions. Masculine gender characteristics: independence, rationality, and aggressiveness. What are gender stereotypes?

They constitute a system of beliefs, consensual opinions concerning the characteristics of women and men - with reference to the desirable qualities of masculinity and femininity. These qualities attributed to men and women are not only descriptive, but normative as well, showing how men and women are perceived, and not just this: they illustrate how men and women should be (Feminist Lexicon, Otilia Dragomir, Mihaela Miroiu - editor; Polirom, Iasi, 2002). What is Trafficking in Human Beings? The official definition of Trafficking in Human Beings, as it appears in the United Nations Protocol (Palermo Convention, 2000) and in the Law No. 678 regarding the prevention and elimination of trafficking in human beings (as published in the Official Monitor of Romania, No. 783/11.XII.2001, Chapter one), states: "Trafficking in persons shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs". Why are people trafficked? People generally resort to the services offered by traffickers to escape poverty and/or in order to flee from areas affected by war. They are attracted by the promises of work wellpaid jobs, studies or marriage. Many of them expect that by engaging in such activities they will be able to improve their own economic situation, or that of their families. There are cases when victims are kidnapped. On the other hand, trafficking in human beings remains a very profitable business, with a lower associated risk as compared to trafficking in guns and drugs. Is prostitution the only purpose of trafficking? No. There are several purposes/ends to trafficking, such as: domestic labor, exploitation by forcing people to work in agriculture or factories, begging. Are women the only group of people being subject to trafficking? No. Women, men and children are all subject to trafficking. Yet, most of the trafficked victims are women and young girls, and one of the reasons behind this situation is the prevalence of gender discrimination. What are the differences between "Women in development" and "Gender and development"? Women in development this approach seeks to integrate women into the development process;

the focus is on women; the problem is the exclusion of women from the development process; the goal consists of more efficient and effective development; the strategies are: women's projects, integrated projects, increase women's productivity and income, increase women's ability to manage their households. Gender and development this approach seeks to empower women and to transform unequal relations between women and men; the focus is on relations between men and women; the problem is unequal relations of power (rich and poor/men and women) that prevent equitable development and women's full participation; the goal consists of equitable, sustainable development - men and women sharing decision-making and power; the strategies are: identify and address short-term needs determined by women and men to improve their conditions, address women's and men's longer term interests.

What is "Gender mainstreaming"? Gender mainstreaming refers to taking into account gender equality concerns in all policy, program, administrative and financial activities, and in organizational procedures, thereby contributing to a profound organizational transformation. This includes both the core policy decisions of the organization, and the small every-day decisions of implementation. What is "Empowerment"? Empowerment is the process of gaining control over the self, over ideology and the resources which determine power. What does "Gender Balance" refer to? Gender Balance represents the participation of an equal number of women and men within an activity or organization. Examples are representation in committees or in decision-making structures. What do we mean by saying that an initiative/project/activity is "gender blind"? This term is used to describe interventions which appear neutral as they are couched in abstract, generic categories but are implicitly male biased.

What is the concept of "Gender Equality"? This concept refers to norms, values, attitudes and perceptions required to attain equal status between women and men without neutralizing the biological differences between them. What is the concept of "Gender Equity"? Gender Equity refers to fairness in women's and men's access to socio-economic resources. Example: access to education, depending on whether the child is a boy or a girl. It depicts a condition in which women and men participate as equals and have equal access to socio-economic resources. What do we mean by "Capacity Development"? Capacity development is the process by which individuals, organizations, institutions and societies develop their abilities individually and collectively to perform functions, solve problems and set and achieve objectives. What is being "Gender Sensitive"? When talking about Gender Sensitiveness we are recognizing the differences and inequities between women's and men's needs, roles, responsibilities and identities. What do "Gender Relations" refer to? Gender relations are the ways in which a culture or society prescribes rights, roles, responsibilities, and identities of women and men in relation to one another. What is "Leadership"? The concept of Leadership illustrates a collective action orchestrated in such a way that as to bring about significant change while raising the competencies and motivation of all those involved.

What does "violence against women" mean? Violence against women means that someone threatens to hurt or actually hurts and abuses a woman mentally and/or physically. Violence against women includes physical

and sexual abuse, rape, and murder and is a serious problem in our country. Any woman can be a victim of violence. Violence against women affects women of all ages, skin colors, religious backgrounds, and income and education levels. About 25% of women may be physically or sexually abused at some point in their lives, often by someone they know. What are the types of violence against women? Violence against women can take several forms including domestic violence, intimate partner violence, sexual assault and abuse, rape, incest, dating violence, and elder abuse. Violence includes both actual and threatened violent actsphysical, psychological, or sexualagainst women. A battered woman is a term used to describe women involved and usually living with physically and/or psychologically abusive spouses or partners. Dating violence includes the use of "date rape" drugs such as Rohypnol, a drug that sedates and immobilizes a person, as well as impairs memory of a violent event. What is domestic violence? Domestic violence is a specific type of aggressions which always take part in the context of an intimate relationship, within a family. Through aggressive and controlling behavior the perpetrator attempts to gain power over the other. This includes: physical abuse sexual assault psychological aggression and verbal economical abuse

Who are the victims of domestic violence? Although the woman is the primary target, the abuser frequently directs the violence towards the children as well. Family members, friends, and even bystanders may also become the victims of his violence, because in his attempts to control his partner and he keep her in isolation from them. What is abuse? There are different forms of abuse. Abuse includes physical, sexual and emotional assault. Emotional abuse consists in harming the victim without any physical or sexual assault through emotional and psychological violence. Emotional abuse implies a continuous and stable behavior towards a person - behavior that becomes a dominant feature of the victim's everyday life. Some of the forms of emotional abuse are: rejection, belittling a person, terrorization, isolation, corruption, exploitation, denial of emotional responsibilities. The most recurrent forms of emotional abuse of women are: limitation of freedom, physical threats,

threats involving kids, humiliation, the creation of a total dependence on the partner, psychological manipulation, financial abuse/deprivation. Sexual abuse manifesting outside an intimate relationship is defined as sexual harassment - through sex-based messages from the employer or the colleagues, offence, humiliation, inappropriate comments. http://www.cpe.ro/english/index.php? option=com_content&task=view&id=21&Itemid=52