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2005 IEEE Electric Ship Technologies Symposium

Constant Power Loads and Negative Impedance Instability in Sea and Undersea Vehicles: Statement of the Problem and Comprehensive Large-Signal Solution
Claudio Rivetta, Geoffrey A. Williamson, and Ali Emadi
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department Illinois Institute of Technology Chicago, t t 606163793. USA Phone: +t-3 12-567-8940; Fax: + I -3 12-567-8976 EML: ernadi($iit.edu
Abstract-Power electronic converters are usually loaded b y passive loads o r combinations of passive elements and vokage a n d current sources. However, there is an emerging vehicular system configuration where converters are loaded h y power converters and a better model for the load i s a constant power model. This converter opcration appears i n multi-converter applications such as advanced sea and undersea vehicles where a main converter has as loads a set o f converters operating in closed-lunp with tight output voltage regulation. This set o f converters present a t the input terminals a dynamic behavior simiIar to a constant power load (CPL) for a range o f input voltages and a frequency span t h a t ranges f r o m DC up to the bandwidth o f the converters. The p r i m a r y goal of this paper i s the development a n d extension of a technique for large-signal analysis of power elcctronic converters operating w i t h constant power loads i n sea and undersea vehicles using a phase plane analysis. This proposed approach could bc used to present advantages and limitations of different controllers and, based on that analysis, define the selection a n d synthesis o f controllers tu achieve the required performance and robustness o f the system.

Ktcywords-Constant power loads, control, modeling and analysis, motor drives, negative impedance instability, powcr converters, sea and undcrsea vehicles, stability, state-space averaging.
1. INTRODUCTION Power electronic converters are being put into use at an increasing!y rapid rate. They are now used in a broad variety of applications in land, sea, undersea, air, and space vehiclcs [I]. In fact, powcr electronics provides the basis for a variety of

signal behavior for converters operating under these conditions [71,181. Multi-converter systems such as sea and undcrsea vehicles consist of the cascade of converters 111, [SI. The first stage usually provides a regulated DC voltage for an intermediate bus and the second stage converts the intermcdiate bus voltage to a tightly regulated low voltage for each load. In this topology. the first stage has power converters as the effective load. Power electronic convcrters operating with tight closed loop regulation present a behavior. at the input terminals, similar to a constant power load (CPL) in a certain range of frequencies and input voltages. The dynamic behavior of converters loaded by CPLs differs from the behavior of converters loaded by resistors or currcnt generators. Undcr CPLs. the converter is not globally stable for either switch position open or closed [2]. This paper presents the largesignal analysis of DCiDC converters loaded with CPLs. Eascd on an averaged model of the converter, this piper addresses the closcd-loop behavior of the converter loaded by a CPL and the determination of the basin of attraction of the equilibrium points. This work could also provide the basis for the design o f convcrters loaded by CPts. We have conducted an analysis of buck/PD-control that is useful to illustrate how the proposed analysis works for each converter topologykontrol law.
11. BACKGROUND A N D SIGNIFICANCE

new applications in power and energy systcms that allow substantial improvements in performance and flexibility. However, these new applications of power electronics employ multi-converter systems, which have unique characteristics, dynamics, and stability problems that are not well understood due to the non-linearity and time-depcndency of converters and because of their constant power characteristics [ 1]-[6J. For most of the conventional applications, the converters load has been modelcd as a resistor, a constant current source, or series combination of voltage source, resistor, and inductor. Under these conditions, the converter is open loop stable for any switch position. Several papers have addressed the large-

In general, there are two kinds of loads in power systems. One group is conventional loads, which have positive incremental impedance characteristics. The other group is constant power loads (CPLs) sinking constant power from their input buses and having negative incremental impedance chawcteristics [I][6]. This is a destabilizing effeci for the power electronic converters interfacing CPLs and is known as negative impedance instability.
A. Constant P o w e r Loads (CPLs)

Power electronic converters and motor drives, when tightly regulated, behave as CPLs [I ]-[C;]. An example, as shown in Fig. I , is a convertcr, which drives an electric motor and tightly rcgulates the speed when the rotating load has one-toone torque-speed characteristic. The simplest form o f one-toone torque-speed characteristic i s a linear relation between

0-7803-9259-0/05/$20.00 02005 IEEE.

313

torque and spced. In Fig. 1, the controller tightly regulates the speed; thereforc, thc speed (0) is almost constant. Since the rotating load has one-to-one torque-speed characteristic, for every spccd thcrc is one and only one torque. As a result, for a constant speed (U). torque ( 7 ) is constant; and power, the multiplication of speed and torque. is constant. If we assume a constant efficiency for the drive systcm, considering the constant power of the rotating load, the input power of the convcrter is constant, Therefore, this motor drivc prcscnts a CPL characteristic to the system. Fig. 2 shows another example of CPLs. It is a converter, which feeds an electric load and tightly regulates the voltage when the electric load has one-to-one voltage-current characteristic. The simplest form of these loads is a resistor, which has a linear relation between voltage and current.

B. Negative Impedance lnstability


Powcr electronic converters including rectifiers, invcrtcrs, and choppers such as basic PWM buck, boost, buck-boost, and Cuk converters with CPLs are unstable. This includes voltage modc control and currcnt modc control as wcll as continuous conduction modc and discontinuous conduction modc of operation [ 2 ] - [ 5 ] . Due to the negative impedance characteristics of CPLs, conventional linear control methods havc stability limitations around the operating points. To overcome the instability problem, [3] and [4] present a nonlinear P I stabilizing controller. This method has a variable switching frequency. The effect of powcr electronic loads in an induction motor based electric propulsion system as well as a small distribution system consisting o f a generation system, a transmission line, a DC/DC converter load, and a motor drive load has been studied in [3]. Both systcms arc unstablc due to the negative impedance characteristics. [3] also proposcs a nonlinear stabilizing control to manipulate the input impedance of the convertedmotor drive. Dynamic interactions caused by paralleling, stacking, and cascading converters are analyzed in [ 101-[ 1 31. Fig. 4 depicts the interconnection of constant power and conventional loads. Fig. 5 shows the equivalent constant power and conventional loads of the power converter represented by P and R, respectively. Fig. 6 depicts v-i characteristic of the equivalent load of the power converter. It also shows the stable region that conventional controllers can be applied for regulating the output voltagc.

P=C'"rur.

Rotating luad
with one-lo-une

torque-speed
chanctsnrtic

Fig. 1 . A motor drive sinking constant powcr from the system.

Power + Dcluc system ,~onverter

-P=Conrt.

elccnical load

Converter . :

Iin
i0"I

LOXI

Converkr

#I
I
I

V=Cnnsr.
I=c"".Tr.

.'. P=%l=Collsr.

Source

3 Power

System

+
Vi"

Cunvertcr

Fig. 2. A DC voltage regulator, which presents a constant power load characteristic to the system.
In CPLs. although the instantaneous value of impedance is

V,,,tI

Other Loads o f + the Source System

- Converter #N
Resistive
Loads

Load

positive, the incremental impedance is always negative. In fact, CPLs have negative impedance characteristic, which might impact the power quality and system stability. Fig. 3 depicts the negative impedance behavior of CPLs.

Fig. 4.Interconnection of constant power and conventional loads.


P=Cm7s1.
iin

vin

Power

6
Loads

vo

Constant Power

C onventionaI Loads

Fig. 3. The negative impedance behavior of constant power

Pp=Cunsr.

loads.

Fig. 5. Equivalent constant power and conventional loads of the power converter.

31 4

If v,,>V,. the slopc of the v-i curve i s positive and the equilibrium point is stable, i.e., the operation will be restored to it aftcr a small departurc from it duc to a disturbance in the source or load. If v,<V,,. the incremental impedance is negative. In this case, the equilibrium point is unstable since the operating point moves away from it after a small departurc due to a disturbance.

generated electrical powcr. These converters supply powcr to main AC or DC bus in sea vehicles via isolation transformers and generator switchboards (SBs). Power conversion and distribution system contains multiple interconnected power electronic converters and inverters working in individual modules.
SIU. s n , . c

rimht
'A-.

U,,"'.

Fig. 6. v-i charwteristic of the equivalcnt load o f thc power converter.


ynlp,l..

LI*rh

5nkm

In this paper, we concentratc on large-signal analysis and control of DC/DC converters that drive CPLs. They are the main interhce at the front cnd of CPLs. CPLs are usually connected to a DC source via a DCIDC converter or to an AC source (utility network) via a DC/DC converter that has an ACiDC rectifier at its front end [ []-[3], [ h ] .
111. ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS OF SEA AND UNDERSEA

Fig. 7. Integrated DC power system.


IV. LARGE-SIGNAL PHASE PLANE ANALYSIS Different topologies of converters (mainly DCiDC choppers) loaded by CPLs and their feedback control loops have been analyzed in thc literature assuming the converter operates around the equilibrium point [ 6 ] , [10]-[15]. However, to the best o f our knowledge, large-signal analysis. though important for control design and operational considerations, has not been addressed comprehensively. Because of the lack of such a large-signal analysis, significant issues such as the stability robustness of control strategies to sizeable perturbations in source voltage and load conditions, the effect of controller parameter sclection on behaviors beyond the local operating region, and impact of controller design on start-up, all remain open rcsenrch questions. A specific aim of this papcr is the development and extension of a technique for large-signal analysis of power electronic converters using a phase plane analysis whose application to power electronic convertcr control analysis our research team has pioneered. Our previous research has yielded an analysis using this technique applied to a DC/DC buck convcrter with proportional-derivative (PD) control and CPL [16], [17]. We will here use that analysis to illustrate the approach. We have also conducted an initial analysis of a CPLloaded DC/DC boost converter with state variable feedback [IS]. In these works, the effectiveness of this analysis approach in determining the global stability properties of a convertcr control strategy has been established.
A. Illustration of the Phase Plane Analysis

VEHICLES Navies utilize surfacc combatants and aircraft carriers as sea vehides and submarines as undersea vehicles. Traditionally, segregated powcr system (SPS) configurations have bccn used in these types of vehicles where separate prime movers are used to supply power to the propulsion system through geared drives, which consumc ilmost 80-90'% of thc total power [I]. The prime movers are also uscd to drive generators. Generators supply power to the electrical distribution systems that contain transformers. switchboards, and circuit breakers to supply power to various electrical loads such as ship service and combatant loads. However, this type of power system configuration has proved inefficient, as the high-speed propulsion is not always the prime requirement of these vehicles. Therefore. tactical diversion of this surplus mechanical power to electricity was needed for the procuremcnt of all distinct advantages of the more electric ship (MES) approach. In rccent sea vehicles, implementation of integrated power system (IPS) configurations has brought revolution, where, as shown in Fig. 7, a common set of generators is used to supply powcr to ship service and combatant loads as well as electric propulsion systems [I]. This configuration has improved fuel efficiency of these vehicles for different rangcs of speed while ensuring quietcr operation. IPS has also made the modular equipment approach more realistic. As shown in Fig. 7, the powcr electronic intcrfiice contains modular high or medium power AC or DC convertcrs with inbuilt control assemblies that handle high

In order to demonstrate the concept behind our proposed approach, in this paper, we present our technique for a buck converter operating with CPL and controlled by a

3 15

proportional-derivativc (PD) algorithm. Fig. 8 depicts the configuration of this converter.

phase portrait, a picture of the cvoiution of the system behavior. Critical to the character of the phase portrait is the location and nature of equilibrium points. Equation (3) has two equilibrium points given by thc intcrscction between the hyperbolas defined by dvc(t )/ dt = 0 and di,(t)/dt = 0 , These equilibrium points arc Vre,( P E - 1) k ,/yf, ( P E - 1)I
V',

+ 4rbPL (PE-

1- r, / R )

Fig. 8. Electric schematic of buck converter Using an avcraging technique [I 9]-[22] to describe thc converter mathematically, the state equations are

Z(PE-I-r, l R )

(t)i, ( t ) - v , ( t )i R - PL / v, ( t ) dt C di,(f) uE - r,i, ( t )- v, ( t ) dt L


dV',

Vci i,; = +-PL R vCi

(4)

with i=l, 2. In thc limiting case of

< + 0 , both

vc, + Tel.

(1)

and vc2

+0 .

For practical applications we consider that

vC,E Vrcf is the only useful equilibrium point, In a typical


design, the parameters P and D are calculated to achieve a particular desired /mal performance of the system around the equilibrium point whcrc v,(t) E vref. Equation (2) is valid only for Z{ E (0,l). The limits in the control u=O and zi=1 define three regions in X which we denote

where v,(t) and iL(t)are the capacitor voltage and the inductor current, respectively; r, is the equivalent series rcsistor of thc inductor L ; E is the primary voltage source; R is a resistive load; PI, is a CPL; and, td E [O,l] is a continuous control variable that models the switch. Considering the output variable of the system is the capacitor voltage, this is a minimum phase system and t h e non-linearity is due to the term PJv,(t). It is assumed that the converter operates in the first quadrant so that the variables

as

x = (v',,i,)'

are

in

x = (X E R 2 ;V , > 0, iL > 0)
algorithm is defined as

and PL>O. The control loop

x,= (x E x; u ( x ) = l} x,= {x E x;u ( x ) = 0) x,, = (x E x; E (0,l)J


Zf(X)

(5)

that limited by the boundary curves

where P and D are the proportional and derivative gains of the controller, respectively; Vmy is the desired output voltage; u,=Vre,/E; and dvC(t)/dt = i,(t)/c i s the derivative ofthe output voltage. The last variable can be estimated using a circuit that performs the derivative of v,(r) only at low frequencies and filters the high frequency components or it can be calculated by measuring the inductor current and the load current. Replacing the control equation into (l), this equation becomes the following for u E (0,1) : The dynamics in Xo, are defined by (3) and the behavior in X I and X, is defined by (1) after substituting ti=l and u=O, respectively. The global dynamics in X are then defined by combining the three sets of differential equations valid in each region or cell of the state space. We will here illustrate the construction of the phase portrait within &. The construction in the other two regions proceeds similarly. The closed-loop behavior of the system within X,, is defined by (3). The system has two equilibrium points defined by (4). The first equilibrium point is stable, and the local dynamics around this equilibrium point is defined by the controller parameters P and D. The second equilibrium point is, in general, a saddle point. Fig. 9(a) depicts the phase portrait of (3) in the first quadrant. In this portrait, t h e unstable manifold of I?, W'(x2)joins the stable manifold of x I , Ws(x,). Following the analysis in [23], the stable manifold of 21, W(X?), is part of the boundary of the region of attraction of the equilibrium point xI. All trajectories starting to the right of W(x,) convcrge asymptotically to the equilibrium point .r/,

(3)

Equation (3) is a two-dimensional dynamical system that describes how the behavior of the controlled buck converter evolves. The parameters R, C, L , E and PL are system parameters. The parameters P and R are the control design parameters. For a given set of parameters one constructs the

3 16

while all trajectories to the left of Wfx?)diverge toward the


axis v,=O. Fig. 9(b) shows a detail of the phase portrait around the

is such that it does not operate in DCM in steady state. The convertcr will operate under DCM only during transients.

equilibrium point I,,using as examplc a power converter with the following parameters: E=120V, C=4OOyF, r,=0.2 R= IO00 fl, PL=2SOOW, Y&=4XV. These convcrter paramcters arc used throughout this example to demonstrate the analysis. The local dynamics around the equilibrium point are mainly defined by the controller parameters P and D. Locally in this region, the small signal performance can be defincd by linearizing the closcd-loop system defined by (3). In this figure, the boundary curvcs Lo and L, are superimposed to thc phase portrait to show thc region A,, where this behavior is valid when thc converter is operating with U E [0,1]. To analyze the region of convergence of the equilibrium point x I in the case where the control U E [0,1], it is important to define the behavior of the trajcctories near the boundary curves of the region X,,,. The relative incidence angle between the state trajcctories and the limit curves can be calculated by the inncr product < X,VL > for any x E L,, and L , , whcre

a,

x = [av,(t)/dt,di,(t)/dtlTi s the vector field defined by (3) evaluated along the curves L, and Ln and V L is the
gradient of curves L I and Lo. From Fig. Y(b), it is possible to observe that on the curve Ln statc trajectories move inward toward the region Xol for points to the right of A , while they for points to the left of A . move outward out of the region XO/ On the limit curve L,, trajectories are inward toward the rcgion X,), for almost all the practical values of currents displayed in Fig. 9(b). The point on curve LI where state trajectories change direction from inward to outward from ccll X,,, is always above the intersection between the stable manifold W(x2) with the curve L I and in the fourth quadrant. Due to thc converter topology limits, it is necessary to analyze the basin of attraction of x I including the behavior of the system whcn it operatcs in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM). From Fig. 9(b), it i s possible to observe that trajectories in Xo, can approach and cross the boundary iL=O during transients. In this condition, the converter operates in DCM and ( I ) no longer describes mathematically the behavior of the converter. Several papers have presented full order models or reduced order modcls of convertcrs operating in such conditions [24j, [25]. Based on [25]. a full order model can be exprcssed by
m
4 0
3

Fig. 9. a) Phase portrait when the control variable II is not restricted to the set [O, 11. W(x2) and W(x2) are the stable and unstable manifolds of x2, respectively. while W(r,) is the continuation of W(x2) to stable manifold ofx,. b) Dctail of Fig 2(a) around the equilibrium point x I . The limit curves L,] and L I in Xdefinc the cell X,), whcre these tnjcctories are valid.
There are two curves inside cells X,,, and X,,, that limit the dynamics of the converter to II E One of them is the O as C,. The other curve is trajectory labeled in Figs. 9(b) and I defined by the segment of the axis v, limited by the curvcs L , and Lo. Any state trajectory starting in X,,, and XDo,in the area limited by the defined curves convcge asymptotically to the equilibrium point x, with U E ((),I). By performing a similar analysis with u=O and with U = ] , the phase portrait within X, and X, is determined. By combining the behaviors in the cells X,,, XDo,X I , ,X,,,, and X , we obtain the complete picture of this converters global behavior, shown in Fig. 1 I , Note that the behavior in Fig. I I in X , and XI is different from that shown in Fig. 10 since Fig. I 1 accounts for the control saturation. Though over-current protection is not reflected in the phase portrait of Fig. 1 1, it can be included in the analysis. An examplc of this appears in our previous papcr [ 161.

(o,]).

d., ( t) - i,, (f ) - v ,( t )/ R - PLi v, (f) --

dt C L-_-rLdi ( t ) - UE r i ( t ) 2iL(t)v,(t) dt L L uTJE-vc(t))

(7)

where T, is the switching period. It is necessary to define a ncw cell XDo/,limited by the boundaries inside the region X(,/ ~ L = O and ~ L = z , ~v (C E ) / ( 2 L where ) the converter operates and A,,,. in DCM following (7). Fig. I O shows thc region X,,, For this analysis it is assumed the load regime of the convertcr

317

We have vcrificd thc analytic model via simulation evidence corroboratcs thc prcdicted behavior. See Figs. 12 and I3 for an example.

B, DC/DC Converter without Over-Current Protection

VcOI

Fig. 10. Phase portrait of regions X,, and Xu,,.

Fig. I I . Complcte phase portrait for U E [0,1] in the first quadrant. Curve B defines thc boundary of the region of attraction of the equilibrium point x I .

I
02

01
lime ISeCj

06

08
I

1 16'

Fig. 12. Time rcsponse based on ( 1 ) from a initial condition v p 2 3 V and iL=OA.

Fig. 13. Time response from an initial condition v,-23 V and iL=OA using SPICE.

To analyze qualitatively the region of attraction, it is possible to divide XIJ,in thrcc sectors: one of initial points .r(f,J)whosc trajectories converge to the equilibrium point without Icaving &,; another of points x(to) whose trajectories will cross thc boundaries L , and/or L,, before converging to the equilibrium and thc final of initial points whose trajectories point in divergc after crossing the boundaries of A ' , ) ] .Extending the boundaries between the last two sectors to cells X , and allows to define the region of convergence of xi=( vcl,iL,). The first sub-region, 3A,,is defined such that any state trajectories ~ ( tstarting ) at initial points x(tfJ) E X,), convergc to (vC,,iLl), with x ( t ) EX,,, for all t 2 t o .The region BA) in X,, is limited in part by a trajectory marked C, that starts on the boundary curve L I and is tangent to the boundary curve Lo before x ( t ) reaches the equilibrium point. The tangent point divides the curvc Lo in two parts wherc the vector field detincd by (3) and ( I ) is outward out of Xol above this tangent point and inward toward for the section below. On the bottom, the rcgion BA, is limited by the axis v,. This basin of attraction is depicted in Fig. 14. Since the vector ficld on the limit curve L , below the starting point of CI is inward, it is possible to conclude that the boundaries of BA, arc composed by the trajectory C,, the lowcr part of the limiting curve Lo, the axis v, and the limiting curve L , if CI intersects it. Inside this region the only equilibrium is XI. Any state trajectory starting in BA, converges asymptotically to x I with dynamics defined by the controller parameters P and D. Outside of BA,, the stable manifold W(x2)divides the region X,, in two sectors. Trajectories starting to the left of W(x2) leave the region X,r/ toward X I approaching v,(r)=O, where the equation ( I ) is not defined. Trajectories to the right of W(x2)exit the region Xo, toward X,. Based on the behavior of the system in region XtJand the characteristics defined for the limiting curve L , for u=O, any trajectory in X , re-enters in XI,, directly or through the region XDo. It shows the whole region X , belongs to the basin of attraction ofn,.To define the boundary curve B depicted in Fig. 14, there exist two possibilities depending on the circuit and controller parametcrs. One of them is that thc stable manifold W(x,) is inside the region XRIof the first quadrant. In that case, W(x2) belongs to the boundary of the basin of attraction of x I . The other possibility is that the manifold W(x2)intersects the limiting curve L,, in which case W(x2)detines the boundary inside X,, and its extension, mapped by the X , dynamics, defines the boundary curve B inside X I . The analysis presented defines the basin of attraction of the equilibrium point and analyscs the large-scale behavior of the basic buck converter loaded by CPL. This region is defined by a boundary in the first quadrant for stable behavior of the converter when it operatcs at low voltages during transients. It defines thc voltage coordination between the converter and load during the start-up process. The analysis presented is general enough to be applicable to a broad set of converter and controller parameters.

&,;

318

400

I I

Z(l/R-r,.IREK, - 1 I K . E )

-. -* - _- _
20
40
60
V c ( ' )

BD

1M)

120

1.40

Fig. 14. Boundaries of the basin of attraction of the equilibrium point .rI.

C. DClDC Converter with Over-Current Protection From Figs. I3 and 14, it is possible to obscrvc at low voltages the convertcr current is several times the nominal current. It implies thc semiconductor switches have to be over-dcsigned if they have to carry that current during transients. In power clectronic converters, the maximum current conducted through semiconductor switchcs is limited using electronic current limits. With this protcction, the converter operatcs normally up to the current through the switches reaches a limit value and triggers thc over-currcnt protection. Under this transient condition, maximum current through the switches is limited until the current i s lowcr than the limiting value. In a buck converter, the current conducted through both semiconductor switches is equal to thc inductor current, then switches can protected by limiting the maximum current flowing through thc inductor. Inductor current limits can be implemented in the control algorithm by rcdcfining (2) as follows.

where I,, is the maximum inductor current and KI, is the gain of thc current loop. This additional condition in the control algorithm defines a new region for iL(t) > ILoin the state space denominated Xf whcrc the converter is controlled by (8). For &(t) > lLo, the converter behavior can be defined by replacing (8) into ( 1 ) as follows.

with i=l for negative and i=2 for positive. The equilibrium point .rpl=(vCpl.i L p Iis ) in the region defined by iL(t) 3 IL0 and it i s a saddle point if l/EKI,+l/R < PI/vzCpl. The other equilibrium point, (vcp2.irm), is outsidc of the region Xf and thc stability around this point is defined by the relative magnitude of R and fJv2cp2.Around the singular point x p l , the dynamics is settled by its stablc and unstablc manifolds W ( X , - ~ ) and W'(xpl}. Fig. 15 depicts the phasc portrait obtained when S(a) is applied for all (i, v) points in that region. It is possible to obscrve that trajectories coming from the rcgion iL(t)< lLo toward the unstable manifold W(.rpl) divergc to v,=O if they are to the left of the stable manifold W'(xp~) or they move to the right, close to the manifold W(xpI), if thc trajectories arc located to the right of W ( x p l ) , Including the cell X p in the region X results a complete phase portrait for a converter with over-current protection as depicted in Fig. 16. Following Fig. 15, when the protection is the current derivative diL( r)/dt is positive triggered at iL(f)=lLo and then becomes negative until the trajcctory intersects again the line iL(r) = lLo. At this point, the protection opens and thc converter operates in closed loop following the PD control law. Trajectories leaving the cell X , in the state space mcrge into trajectories of region Xol or X o previously analyzed. For converters including over-current protections, the region of convergence of the operation point is smaller than the case of a convcrtcr without current protection. The boundary curve B for the case of a convertcr with over-currcnt protection can be defined mapping in reverse thc stable manifold W(v,,) toward the regions Xu,and X I as depicted in Fig. 16.

dt

dv c (0 - iL - v , ( t > / R - PL/ v c . ( t ) dt C

(9)

for 14 E (0, I ) . To analyze the overall behavior of the power converter including the current protection, we proceed in a similar fashion mcntioned earlier analyzing the operation of the convertcr controllcd by the algorithm defined by (8) extended to the overall region X . If iL(i) is not limited by iL(t) > I,,, (9) has two equilibrium points at the intersection of iL = & I vc--Eu,)/EKL and iL = vLJR-PL/vc. These singular points

Fig. IS. Phase portrdit for the buck convertcr using control 9(a}.

are:

3 19

[6]

A. Emadi and M. Ehsmi. Negative Impedance Stabilizing Controls for

[7]

[XI

[9]

[IO]

Fig. 16. Phase portrait for thc buck convertcr including ovcrcurrcnt protection. V. CONCLUSIONS Based on the more electric ship concept, . conventional mechanical, hydraulic, and pneumatic power transfer systems are replaced by elcctrical systems in different sea vchiclcs. Considering different levels of power requirements of various electrical loads and for the achievement of compact, light, safe, and efficient power supplies, implementation of multiconverter power electronics based power systems is the most feasible option in the development of advanced navy vehicles. Howcvcr, power clcctronic convcrtcrs and motor drivcs in advanced sea and undersea vehicles, when tightly regulated, behave as constant power toads, which have negative impedance characteristics. This might impact power quality and system stability. In this paper, dynamic properties of the DC/DC converters operating with CPLs were studied. Dynamic behavior of converters loaded by CPLs differs from the behavior of
c o n v e r t e r s loaded by r e s i s t o r s o r current g e n e r a t o r s . A major

[I I ]
[ I21

[I31

141

151

161

[I71

[IS]

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goal of this paper was to address the closed-loop behavior of DCiDC convcrtcrs feeding CPLs. Based on a comprehensive large-signal analysis of thc converter, the basin of attraction of the operating point could be defined for a variety of converter topologies and control laws. This region, in general, excludes the low range of the output voltage affecting the transient stability and, thereby, forces proper coordination between the converter and loads during start-up.

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