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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Aircraft Fasteners, Bolts, Studs, Screw and Nuts ,Control Cable

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS


Specifications and standards for aircraft hardware are generally identified by the organization originating them. Some of the common are: AMS Aeronautical Material Specifications AN Air Force-Navy AND Air Force-Navy Design AS Aeronautical Standard ASA American Standards Association ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials MS Military Standard NAF Naval Aircraft Factory NAS National Aerospace Standard SAE Society of Automotive Engineers

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AIRCRAFT HARDWARE - THREADED FASTENERS -

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THREADED FASTENERS
Allow parts to be fastened together Unlike rivet its may be disassembled & reassembled an almost infinite numbers of times. Include threaded hardware such as bolts, screw and various type of nuts that secure them.

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SCREW THREADS
A male (external) screw thread is formed by cutting a helical groove into the surface of a round bar, whilst a female (internal) thread is a helical groove cut in cylindrical hole.

Female threads

Male threads

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SCREW THREADS cond


SCREW THREADS TERMINOLOGY The principal terms used concerning screw threads are as follow: 1. 2. 3. Pitch: The distance from a point on one thread to the corresponding point on the next thread. Crest: The prominent point of a thread. The crest diameter is the diameter of the outer circumference of the thread. Root : The bottom of the thread groove.

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SCREW THREADS cond


4. 5. Flank : The straight edge which joins the crest and roots. Thread Angle : The angle between the flank. This varies for different type of screw system. e.g. 55 deg. for BSW (British Standard Whitworth) and BSF (British Standard Fine) , 47 deg. for BA (British Association). 60 deg.for UNC (American Standard Unified Coarse , UNF (American Standard Unified Fine) and metric thread.

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6. 7. 8.

9.

Minor diameter The smallest diameter of the thread measured in a plane normal to the axis. Major diameter - The largest diameter of the thread measured in a plane normal to the axis. Effective (pitch) diameter Standard value for a given thread size and is appox. Halfway between major and minor diameter. Lead The distance traveled for one revolution of the screw thread. Lead equals pitch for a single start thread. For multi-start thread lead = pitch x number of start.

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THREAD TYPE

Aircraft bolts, screws and nuts are threaded in either coarse thread or fine thread. Coarse thread when there are a few thread per inch and has strong threads but a weak core diameter. Fine thread when there are more thread per inch and has weak threads but a strong core diameter. Example; American National series (NF,NC) has more threads per inch compare to the American Standard Unified Series (UNF,UNC)

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THREAD FORMS

The four common types of thread form are the Vee, Square, Acme, and the Buttress. 1. The Vee Thread gives the greatest strength for common usage, such as bolts, and is easily produced by taps and dies 2. The square thread stands up well to constant wear and heavy loads ,such as met with screw jacks. This type of thread is readily cut on a lathe. 3. The Acme Thread is for use on the lead screws of lathes to facilitate the opening and closing of a split nut 4. The Buttress Thread is used where the thrust is required in one direction only, as with the bench vice screw.

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The Acme Thread

The square thread

The Buttress Thread

The Vee Thread

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THREAD TYPE cond


Normally threads are designated by class of fit. 1. 2. 3. Class 1 thread is a loose fit, allow you to turn the nut all the way down using only fingers. Example wing nut Class 2 is a free fit Class 3 is a medium fit where screws are typically a class 2 or 3 fit. Most common aircraft bolts are usually fine threaded with a class 3 fit Class 4 is a close fit Class 5 is a tight fit where requires a wrench to turn a nut down from start to finish wing nut

4. 5.

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DESIGNATION CODES

Like rivets, threaded fastener are given a part code indicating a fastener diameter in 1/16 inch increment and its length in 1/8 inch increment. Example AN4-7 identifies a bolt that measures 4/16 or inch in diameter and 7/8 inch in length AN4-7

AIR FORCE-NAVY

DIA.4/16 Or 1/4

LENGTH. 7/8

For bolt longer than 7/8 inch, the code changes. E.g 1 inch bolt is identified by a -10 representing 1 inch and no fraction. There are no -8 or -9. Dash numbers go from -7 to -10, from -17 to -20 and from -27 to -30.

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DESIGNATION CODES cond


Bolt that is 1 long is identifies by -14. Bolt with the code AN5-22 identifies an Air Force-Navy bolt that is 5/16 inch in diameter and 2 inches long. AN5-22

Air Force-Navy

Diameter 5/16in

Length -22 = 2in + 2/8 or in = 2 in

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BOLTS
STANDARD AIRCRAFT BOLT

Hold two or more items together Typically used for airframe structural Have hex heads Range from AN3 AN20 Made of cadmium-plated nickel steel, corrosion resistant steel and 2024 aluminum alloy Corrosion resistant steel bolt is identified by the letter C inserted between the diameter and length designations. Whereas aluminum alloy bolt are identified by the letter DD

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BOLTS cond Holes drilled at the end of the shank


Letter A is used
Appears immediately after dash number no hole at end of the shank Absence of A indicates hole exists in the shank E.g. AN6C 12A Bolt is 3/8 Dia, corrosion resistant steel, length 1 and undrilled shank.

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Propeller bolt
Drilled through head of the bolt not at the shank Letter H is used appear after diameter number E.g. AN6H34A
bolt is 3/8 Dia, nickel steel, drilled head, 3 long and undrilled shank.

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DRILLED-HEAD ENGINE BOLTS


Range from AN73 AN81 Hex-headed Have thicker head Drilled with small hole in the center of the head Made with either fine or course threads

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CLOSE TOLERANCE BOLTS


Designated AN173 AN186 Ground to a tolerance of +0.000 -0.0005 inch Used in areas that pounding loads Triangle mark on their heads

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CLEVIS BOLTS
Range from AN21 AN36 Loaded in shear only Typically slotted or recessed to accept a screwdriver Installed on forked end

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INTERNAL WRENCHING BOLTS


Range from MS20004 MS20024 High-strength steel bolts Used primarily in areas that are subjected to high tensile loads Six-sided hole is in the center of head to accept an Allen wrench

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BOLT SELECTION AND INSTALLATION


Joining two pieces of material Washer must be added if the grip length is slightly longer than thickness Check the installing drawing to be sure the correct hardware when installing the bolt ,washer ,and nut combination

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Studs: Types and Uses, Insertion and Removal


Waisted Stud Standard Stud Stepped Stud

Types of Stud

Shouldered Stud

Fitting Studs

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1.

Standard Stud
This is a plain or parallel type. The diameter of the unthreaded portion is the same as the major diameter of the screw thread at both end with the threads merging smoothly into the plain part.

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2. Waisted Stud
This is a weight-saving stud. The plain shank of the stud is reduced to the minor diameter of the screw thread. This will lightening the stud without losing any of its strength.

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3. Stepped Stud
The purpose of this stud is two fold. First its larger diameter end provides a stronger anchorage particularly useful when the stud is located in soft metal. Second, it is used as a replacement stud and fitted in a stud housing that, because of damage, has been re-drilled and tapped with a larger diameter thread.

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4. Shouldered Stud
The projecting shoulder of this stud gives extra support and resistance to any side pressure.

How to install Studs


Studs may be inserted by using a stud box and a spanner, or by fitting locknuts to the stud and using a spanner on the upper nut.

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

NUTS
Used in aircraft construction to prevent them from loosening and falling off 2 types of nuts Self-locking - locks onto a bolt on its own Non self-locking --- relies on either a cotter pin ,check nut, or lock washer to hold it in place

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AN 310 CASTLE NUT


Class 3 FIT Made of cadmium-plated nickel steel Corrosion resistant steel 2024 aluminum alloy Used when the bolt is subjected to either shear or tensile loads

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AN 320 SHEAR CASTLE NUT Same type as a AN 310 Thinner than standard Used only for shear loads on clevis bolts

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AN 315 PLAIN NUT


No castellation Fine thread have no locking provisions A spring type lock washer used in combination with the nut Corrosion resistant steel, 2024 aluminum alloy, made of cadmiumplated nickel steel

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AN316 CHECK NUT


Second nut tightened against the primary nut Made of cadmium-plated nickel steel Plain nut is locked in place using a check nut

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AN 340 MACHINE SCREW NUT Have coarse threads Available in carbon steel Corrosion resistant steel Brass and 2024 aluminum alloy

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AN 345 MACHINE SCREW NUT Have national- fine series threads Corrosion resistant steel Made of cadmium-plated carbon steel Commercial brass and 2024 aluminum alloy

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AN 355 SLOTTED ENGINE NUT Use on aircraft engine Made of heat-treated steel Has national fine threads Class 3 Fit

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AN 360 PLAIN ENGINE NUT

Use on engine only Doesnt have cotter pin slots Has a black rust proof finish

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AN 350 WING NUT Class 2 Fit Made of cadmium-plated steel or brass Has national fine threads Remove a part frequently without the use of tools

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SELF- LOCKING NUT Design to keep them from coming loose 2 general type the fiber or nylon type / all metal type

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LOW- TEMPERATURE SELF LOCKING NUTS


AN365 Used on bolts and machine screw Held in position by nylon insert above the threads Class 3 Fit nut allows it to rundown on bolts threads easily until the bolt enters the insert Limited to operating temperature below 250 F

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METAL SELF-LOCKING NUT


Usuable to 250 F ( 121 C) Made of corrosion resistant steel Available in either NF or NC threads

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AN 364 SHEAR SELF-LOCKING NUT


Used in areas that are subject to high temperatures Typically made to be used on clevis bolts that dont have drilled shanks

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ANCHOR NUT
Permanently mounted nut plates that enable inspection plates and access doors to be easily removed and installed Installed around inspection plate openings and installed in a channel that is riveted to the structure

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TINNERMAN NUTS
Cost economical nuts Commonly used on light aircraft To mount instruments can be either be installed in an instrument panel or in the instrument case itself To reduce the chance of magnetic interference To protect aircraft skin from damage by repeated insertion and removal of selftapping screws.

U - Type

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

TORQUE RECOMMENDATIONS
To ensure preloading is accomplished Give recommended minimum and maximum torque values for the most commonly used nut and bolt combinations

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SCREWS
Made of lower strength materials typically installed with a loosefitting thread The head shape are made to engage a screwdriver or wrench

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MACHINE SCREWS
Which are the most widely used
Fairing, inspection plates, fluid line clamps, light structural part Fully threaded shank

Class 2 or free fit National fine threads Fillister-Head Machine Screw -Class 3 fit -(MS 35265) coarse thread -(MS 35266) fine thread Flat-Head Machine Screw -Countersunk Screw -Made of cadmium plated carbon steel Round Head Machine - Made of cadmium plated -Available with either fine or coarse thread Truss Head Machine screw -large head that provide good holding ability on thin pieces of metal

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STRUCTURAL SCREWS
Made of alloy steel, heat treated & can be used as structural bolt
Strength equal to bolt at the same size NF standard thread

Fillister Head Screw - the cross on its head indicating that it is made of high strength steel - fine or coarse thread Flat Head Screw - made of heat treated carbon steel - distinguished from 100 degree by the X marked on their head to increase the screw holding ability - Made of cadmium plated high-strength steel Washer head screw
Washer form onto their head Increase screw holding ability Used on thin area (thinner sheet metal plate) Made of cadmium plated high strength steel

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SELF TAPPING SCREWS


TYPE A has a gimlet ( sharp ) point TYPE B has a blunt print with threads 4 type of head - Round Head - Countersunk Oval Head - Truss Head - 100 degree Countersunk Head

Countersunk head

Truss head

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PIN
ROLL PIN - used to provide a pivot for joint where the pin is not likely to be removed CELVIS PIN - used for hinge pins in some aircraft control systems COTTER PIN - used to safety castellated nut TAPER PIN - produce a tight fit in a reamed hole for applications in shear

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WASHER
Provide a bearing surface area for nut Act as spacer or shims to obtain the proper grip length for a bolt To prevent the nut from vibrating loose 3 most common types of used in airframe - Plain Washer - Lock Washer - Special Washer
Finishing washer Keyed washer

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Locking Washer
Provide efficient locking action by spring tension and biting action of tapered twisted teeth. Made of 1050 spring steel and cadmium plated, Class 3. Available with internal teeth (Type A) or external teeth (Type B)

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HOLE REPAIR HARDWARE


Threaded holes wear out after repeated insertion and extraction of fastener Hole repair hardware allows to make a fast and inexpensive repair to worn or the damage holes

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HELI- COILTM INSERT


Typically consist of a helix of stainless steel having a diamond cross section Typically installed in soft casting when the component is manufactured When are used in a repair, the repair must be approved by the component manufacturer or by the FAA Thread Repair Using a TIME-SERT Insert.flv

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Acres Sleeve Hole Repair


Used to repair holes that have been worn oversize or corroded The hole is drilled oversize and the sleeve is pressed or bonded in place Then the original TURNLOCK fastener is then installed FASTENERS

Turn lock fasteners / quick release fastener


Commonly used are the

- DZUS
- AIRLOC - CAMLOC

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DZUS FASTENERS
Cowling and other inspection access doors that frequently open put this fastener.

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AIRLOC FASTENER
Similar to DZUS fastener

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CAMLOCK FASTENER
the stud assembly of a Camlock fastener consists of a housing containing a spring and a stud with a steel pin Held onto the removable portion of the cowling or access door with a metal grommet.

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Wire Locking
Safetying of Nuts, Bolts, and Screws It is very important that all bolts or nuts, except the selflocking type, be safetied after installation. This prevents them from loosening in flight because of vibration.

Safety wiring is the most positive and satisfactory method of safetying cap screws, studs, nuts, bolt heads, and turnbuckle barrels that cannot be safetied by any other practical means. It is a method of wiring together two or more units in such a manner that any tendency of one to loosen is counteracted by the tightening of the wire

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Corrosion resisting steel and heat resisting nickel alloy are the materials normally used in the wire recommended for wire locking. The following techniques are equally effective: 1. Double twisted method. 2. Single strand with 2.5 twists at originating end and closing end.

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

TURNBUCKLE SINGLE WRAP

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TURNBUCKLE DOUBLE WRAP

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Locking AnD SAFETYing DEvicES


1. Split Pins Use with a slotted castellated nut. Split pins are used once only.

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2. Spring Washers
Supplied as: single coils of square section spring with sharp corners or, as double coil of flat spring Can be re-used if it is still springy and retains it's sharp corners Animation Presentation

Crinkle washer

Cup washer

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Single coil

Double coil

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3. Shake Proof Washer


Spring steel washer, which have slanting serration on their internal or external edge

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Shake Proof Washer

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4. Tab Washers
Thin metal washers with two tabs and a projections. It is not permissible to straighten the tab of a tabwasher and re-use it.

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5. Locking Plate
A thin metal plates, fitted around the nut or bolt after it has been fully tightened. Can be re-use provided they are still a good fit on the nut or bolt.

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6. Circlips
These are either spring plate or spring wire rings that are spring into grooves. They may be fitted internally or externally. Wire type circlips are use once only.

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Safety Wire or wirelock


Safety wire is available in a variety of gauges and materials, depending on the application. In aircraft applications, stainless steel wire is used, most commonly in 0.032 in (0.81 mm) diameter. It must be installed in the locking direction of the bolt. Generally the amount of twist is around 6-8 twist per inch, but it will depend on the size of the wire.

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Wire Safety Installation


1 2 3 4

5 6 7

9 10

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To prevent nuts from becoming loose on studs, use castellated nuts and safety wire them as you would bolt heads.