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# Cebu Normal University

TTh 6:00-7:30

## Submitted to: Mr. Vincent Theodore Balo

Mode
What is mode? It is the value that occurs most frequently. When the data have been arranged into frequency table, the mode is defined as the midpoint of the interval containing the largest number of cases. It is the score that is attained by more subjects than any other scores. In other words, it is the most frequently occurring raw score in a distribution. Computation of mode for ungrouped data distribution. Considerations: 1. The mode is not established through calculation. 2. It is determined by looking at a set of scores or at a graph of scores and seeing which score occurs most frequently. Examples: Raw scores: 12 20 14 13 10 15 15 11 16 19 19 14 10 13 11 12 15 15 17 15

Here, the value 15 occurs five times, more frequently than any other value. Hence, the mode is 15. For finding the mode of grouped data, first of all we have to determine the modal class. The class interval whose frequency is maximum is known by this name.The mode lies in between this class. Then the mode is calculated by the following formula. Mode = Here, l = lower limit of modal class f1 = frequency of modal class fo = frequency of class preceding the modal class. f2 = frequency of class succeeding the modal class h = size of class interval.

Let us understand this method more clearly with the help of an example. Example: Find the mode of following data Class interval (C. I) Frequency (fi) 5 - 10 3 10 - 15 5 15 - 20 7 20 -25 2 25 - 30 4

Solution: Here frequency of class interval 15 - 20 is the maximum. So, it is the modal class. Now, l = the lower limit of modal class = 15 f1 = frequency of modal class = 7 fo = frequency of class preceding the modal class = 5 f2 = frequency of class succeeding the modal class = 2 h = size of class intervals = 5 So, Mode = Mode = 15 + [(7 - 5) / (2 x 7 - 5 - 2)] x 5 Mode = 15 + [2 / (14 - 7)] x 5 Mode = 15 + (2 / 7) x 5 Mode = 15 + (10 / 7) Mode = 15 + 1.42 Mode = 16.42

Table of Specification
The table of specification is an instrument that a classroom teacher should prepare before constructing test items. This device consists of the proper distribution of items in a written test. Tests are constructed and conducted to assist learners. In order to satisfy and respond to the expectations of a test, a teacher should consider three important decisions before laying down specifications. First, the content to be tested. This will spell out the coverage of the test. Second, the objectives to be assessed. The expectations a teacher would like to develop and convey are considered in the construction of a classroom test. And third, the weight to be assigned to the elements of content and objectives. It is dependent on the importance and number of hours appropriated for the subject content. Source: Guide to Educational Evaluation: A Handbook by Eduardo Acebo Carag, CatalinaGuinagb-Carag Edited by Ernei T. Bhagwani 2004

## Steps in Constructing Table of Specifications

Building the table of specification involves: 1. Obtaining the list of objectives; 2. Outlining the course content; and 3. Preparing the two-way chart that relates the instructional objectives to the course content and specifies the nature of the desired test sample. Although, a table of specification is especially useful in preparing norm-referenced tests (because of its broad coverage), it is also useful in preparing some criterion-referenced tests. A table of specifications may contain a listing of the general instructional objectives or the major content areas down the left side and the skills across the top of the table. The bottom row will indicate the proportion of the test items. The table of specifications is the blueprint of a test to ensure adequate sampling of the concepts or objectives and skills to be tested or measured. It is particularly useful when one intends to give long tests such as achievement tests, summative tests or periodical tests. Source: Work Text in Assessment of Student Learning 1 by Levi T. Atibula, Ph.D. 2007