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CONTAMINATION All types of contamination that separate coatings from their intended substrates should be removed.

However, complete removal is not practical in many cases and coatings will inevitably be applied over some contaminants. This is not a problem where the remaining contamination is firmly adherent and will have no detrimental affect if left in place, which may be the case with remaining traces of old paint or primer. Unfortunately most contaminants are weakly bonded to the substrate, or they are themselves harmful and can cause corrosion of the substrate and coating breakdown. The types of substrate contamination most frequently encountered in shipyards are described below:1. MILLSCALE Most steel used for shipbuilding and shiprepair has been hot rolled and therefore has various amounts of millscale on its surface. On heavy plates it can be as much as 250 microns thick. The millscale is formed in the rolling mill, when oxygen in the furnace atmosphere combines with the hot metal to form oxides on the steel surface. Most of this oxide is broken off during the rolling process, but more oxide is formed by the latent heat of the steel after it has been rolled and this remains on the surface as a tight adherent blue/grey coloured film. Millscale itself is quite brittle and it will crack on cooling and flexing when the plate is handled. It also expands and contracts at a different rate to mild steel, so it tends to crack and fall off naturally if the plate is left outside to weather. 2. RUST CONTAMINATION Rust is a generic term used to describe all types of iron or steel corrosion products ranging from thick heavy scale to light gingering. They are the most commonly encountered contaminants on steel surfaces and they can be difficult to thoroughly remove. However, the severity of the contamination problem is highly dependent upon the type of corrosion product encountered. 3. SALT CONTAMINATION The salts which create the greatest contamination and corrosion problems are sulphates and chlorides. Sulphates are more common in industrial environments and come from air pollution. They are not as aggressive as chlorides, but they can cause particular problems on ships decks, down wind of funnels. On the other hand almost all surfaces in a marine environment will be exposed to chloride contamination from the sea and salt spray. On steel surfaces the chlorine ion and water form a ferrous chloride solution which is not only conductive aiding the electrochemical corrosion reaction, but is in itself a strong corrodant of the steel surface. The ferrous chloride molecule further oxidises to form ferric chloride which is a hygroscopic salt that draws moisture from humidity in the air, creating a ferric chloride solution on the steel surface, again aiding the corrosion reaction. 4. OIL AND GREASE CONTAMINATION Oil and grease are common materials in all marine, shipbuilding and ship repair environments and they are a serious source of substrate contamination, because they are virtually impossible to paint over with successful results.

5. WATER AND MOISTURE CONTAMINATION Although there are some moisture tolerant coatings that can absorb a small amount of water into the structure of the coating itself, they are special cases. For most coatings, water or moisture contamination will form an immiscible or barrier layer between the coating and substrate and prevent adhesive bonding between the two. Water will also prevent intercoat adhesion if it is present on painted surfaces and, of course, it will create rust contamination on bare steel. 6. DUST AND GRIT CONTAMINATION Dust and grit contamination can occur through natural environmental processes, but in shipyards it is most likely to arise from blast cleaning and other surface preparation operations. 7. DEFECTS IN STEELWORKS Although they are not strictly regarded as contaminants, surface defects in steelwork contribute to coating failure and they have to be rectified as part of the surface preparation process. The most common types of steelwork defects are described below:7.1 Surface Laminations and Shelling These defects will probably be exposed after grit blasting when they will tend to stand up above the surface. No coating system can properly coat or protect laminations, so they have to be removed by grinding or disc sanding. 7.2 Cracks and Deep Crevices This type of defect can contain entrapped moisture which will create corrosion cells. Defects should be ground out unless they are too deep, in which case they should be filled by welding and then ground smooth. 7.3 Inclusion All surface inclusions in steel plates including millscale not removed in the wheelabrator process should be removed by chipping and grinding, and then the surface can be weld filled and ground smooth if necessary. 7.4 Sharp Edges Wet paint will tend to flow away from sharp edges leaving a thin dry film which is likely to break down, therefore all sharp edges, including gas cut edges should be smoothed by grinding. Smoothing to a radius of between 2-3mm is normally recommended for sharp edges. 7.5 Weld Spatter Weld spatter may cause coating failure, either because it is sharp and irregular, or because it is loosely adherent to the substrate. It should therefore be removed by grinding, chipping or scraping. 7.6 Weld Porosity

It is not possible to effectively coat weld porosity. Corrosion cells will form in the defects, leading to coating breakdown. Porosity defects should be filled with weld metal and then ground smooth. 7.7 Weld Undercut Welding undercut can be difficult to coat and can lead to coating failure. Substantial undercut therefore should be repaired by grinding and filling. 7.8 Jagged Manual Welding Seams Automatic welding seams are normally smooth and should not present a coating problem, but manual welds may have sharp edges or irregularities which can cause coating breakdown. Irregularities must be removed by grinding. 7.9 Missed Welds and Stitch Welding Missed welds and far more common than might be imagined. Defective areas should have been found and rectified before coating operations begin, but they may have been overlooked in awkward or hidden areas. It is impossible for a coating to fill the gap between two plates that have not been fully welded together. Corrosion will take place in this area with resultant coating breakdown. The best way of treating these defects is to have the welding operations completed. Filling with epoxy fillers is a poor alternative. Stitch welding is a technique which deliberately leaves open gaps between sections of weld and it therefore builds corrosion problems into the ship. It is a design fault as far as coatings are concerned and is best dealt with by being abandoned at the design stage. It can be remedied on site by filling in the gaps with weld metal or, as a last alternative, with epoxy filling compounds. 7.10 Weld Slag and Welding Flux Residues Weld slag is brittle solidified weld flux. It penetrates the voids of the weld and may also spread to surrounding areas. Due to its alkalinity it must be completely removed, or it may react with oil based binders and encourage corrosion products beneath the coating system. It can be removed by chipping or blasting. SURFACE PREPARATION There are two main reasons for carrying out surface preparation. Firstly, it removes contamination, so that coatings can properly adhere to their intended substrates, rather than the contamination itself. Secondly it can increase the surface roughness of the substrate by producing a key or anchor pattern or surface profile. METHODS OF SURFACE PREPARATION This section will describe the various methods of surface preparation that are used for removing surface contaminants and old paint systems, and also for profiling the underlying substrate. It will, however, concentrate on dry abrasive blasting, which is the most widely used method of surface preparation in the marine industry.

1. HIGH PRESSURE FRESH WATER WASHING

There are several reasons for using high pressure fresh water washing as a surface preparation method as follows:1. To remove salts from the surface of the hull. 2. To remove slime, weed and some animal fouling from underwater areas. 3. To remove the leached layer of antifouling paints from the underwater area of vessels.

1.1. HIGH PRESSURE AND LOW PRESSURE FRESH WATER WASHING METHODS SSPC-VIS 4 (1) NACE No. 7 standard defines low pressure water cleaning at pressures less than 34 MPa (5,000 psi) and high pressure water cleaning at pressures between 34 MPa and 70 MPa (5,000 and 10,000 psi). There are several types of equipment that can be used for this purpose, including the lower pressure water jetting machines. However, the two types of equipment normally used for washing rather than blasting are the fan jet lance and the rocky washer. 2. SOLVENT CLEANING OR DEGREASING It is essential to remove oil and grease contamination that can prevent proper adhesion of the coating to the substrate. The American Steel Structures Painting Council standard SSPC-SP1 is the recognized standard for solvent cleaning which describes these methods. 2.1 SOLVENT CLEANING METHODS SSPC-SP1 defines the methods of solvent cleaning as follows:Remove heavy oil or grease first by scraper, then remove the remaining oil or grease by any of the following methods. 1. Wipe or scrub the surface with rags or brushes wetted with solvent. Use clean solvent and clean rags or brushes for the final wiping. 2. Spray the surface with solvent. Use clean solvent for the final spraying. 3. Vapour degrease using stabilized chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents. 4. Immerse completely in a tank or tanks of solvent. For the last immersion, use solvent which does not contain detrimental amounts of contaminant. 5. Emulsion or alkaline cleaners may be used in place of the methods described. After treatment, wash the surface with fresh water or steam to remove detrimental residues. 6. Steam clean, using detergents or cleaners and follow by steam or fresh water wash to remove detrimental residues. 3. MANUAL METHODS OF SURFACE PREPARATION Manual methods of surface preparation are only suitable for preparing small or localized areas of corrosion or paint breakdown. It is not generally cost

effective to manually prepare large areas and in any case, the standards achieved are generally low. All manual methods of surface preparation will leave an adherent layer of rust or scale on the surface of bare steel. This means that the likelihood of eventual coating failure in these areas is high, especially in maintenance and repair situations. There are three methods in common use. 3.1 HARD SCRAPING OR SLICING Hard scraping or slicing is carried out with various types of scraper. Two scrapers commonly encountered are the hand scrapers used for small local areas and the long handled scrapers with wide blades used on the outside hull of ships for removing animal fouling and detached coatings. Scrapers are useful for removing loose material, but they are virtually ineffective at removing tightly adhered corrosion and scale. 3.2 CHIPPING HAMMERS OR CHISELS Chipping can be carried out using a wide variety of hammers or chisels, but it is a very slow and laborious method of surface preparation. Heavy deposits of scale are often removed by impact chipping prior to grit blasting, but the technique is used mainly for removing loose corrosion products and old paint coatings. Best results are obtained if chipping is followed by secondary preparation such as wire brushing. This helps to remove the remaining contamination left by chipping. 3.3 WIRE BRUSHING Wire brushing can remove loose contamination, but it is ineffective at removing scale and deep seated corrosion. It can, however, polish residual scale, giving the appearance of a clean surface. If this polished surface is scraped with a knife, the rust that has not been properly removed will be exposed. Preparation of steel substrates by hand-tool cleaning is described in ISO 8504-3. 4. POWER TOOL METHODS OF SURFACE PREPARATION Using portable pneumatic or electric power tools is less laborious than using hand tools and it is economical to prepare larger areas. Technically, power tools can produce cleaner surfaces than hand tools and give standards of preparation that are acceptable for most of International Paints products. However, it should be stressed that these surfaces are not 100% clean. Power tooling does not normally remove all contamination from the substrate, and products applied over these surfaces will not have the same long term performance as products applied over grit blasted surfaces. Power tools used for cleaning fall into two basic categories. Rotary cleaning tools and impact cleaning tools. 4.1 ROTARY CLEANING Two types of rotary cleaning commonly used for marine applications are rotary wire brushing and rotary discing.

4.1.1 Rotary Wire Brushing Different types of wire brush are used for different applications. Radial brushes attached to straight or in-line tools are used for preparing awkward areas such as corners or weld seams. Cup brushes attached to vertical or angle grinders are more often used for preparing large areas. Power wire brushing can clean loose contamination from a substrate, but it is generally ineffective at removing tightly adherent scale, which may in fact be polished giving the appearance of a clean surface. Polishing of actual steel surfaces may also be a problem if brushing is carried out over zealously, because smooth polished surfaces can be detrimental to coating adhesion. You should also be aware that rotary wire brushing is notorious for spreading oil and grease contamination over previously uncontaminated areas. It is therefore essential to use clean brushes, and to degrease areas prior to rotary wire brushing. 4.1.2 Rotary Discing Rotary disc cleaning of a surface is achieved by coated abrasive discs attached to angle grinders. Similar cleaning effects can also be produced by using abrasive flap wheels attached to straight or in-line tools. Various types and grades of abrasive disc are used for different applications. Some typical applications are described below: Discing can be used for removing both loose and tightly adherent rust and scale. However, it is not a practical or economical method of removing tightly adherent millscale. Discing can be used for feathering back edges of old paint, particularly in spot blasted, or block join up areas. Unfortunately the discs can become clogged and ineffective if used on soft paint systems. Discing will also remove base metal and it should be used only in areas where this is acceptable. In fact, removal of bare metal to produce a profile is one of the reasons discing is used. Because of this ability to remove contaminants and produce a surface profile, discing can be seen as a viable alternative to spot blasting and it is recommended as the best method of power tool preparation when blasting has been ruled out. Preparation of steel substrates by power-tool cleaning is described in ISO 8504-3. 4.2 IMPACT CLEANING The action of impact cleaning tools is dependent upon the cutting blade or point of the tool pounding the surface and breaking away the contaminants. They are therefore good at removing brittle substances such as heavy deposits of scale, rust, millscale, thick old paint coatings and welding slag. Unfortunately they are only effective at the point of impact and will leave residual contamination in the bottom of pits and other areas untouched by the tool. It is therefore a good idea to follow impact cleaning with rotary wire brushing, in an attempt to remove this contamination. Impact tools include chipping or scaling hammers, chisels and needle guns. These tools work when the impact piece is struck by an internal piston which forces it into violent contact with the work surface. Needle guns are

slightly different because a bundle of needles are simultaneously struck by the piston and the needles themselves are able to adapt to and clean irregular surfaces. Other types of impact tools include scabblers, which are used mainly for decks, and rotary impact tools which flail the surface with a series of small hardened hammers. A major problem with all impact tools is that they can cut the steel surface, throw up sharp burs and produce a very rough surface profile. This is obviously dependent upon the sharpness of the tool and the pressure at which it is used. However, if this type of surface is painted without further preparation, the burs and rough peaks can stick through the coating and cause rash rusting and coating failure. 5. DRY ABRASIVE BLASTING There are two main types of dry abrasive blasting processes in common use. In the first, the abrasive is carried by compressed air, in the second airless process it is thrown from an impeller wheel. Compressed air blasting is more suitable for site work because the equipment is reasonably portable, whereas the airless process lends itself to fixed workshop installations and is more common in blasting and shop priming plants. Preparation of steel substances by abrasive blast cleaning is described in ISO 8504-2. The visual cleanliness of the substrate produced after blasting is described in ISO 8501-1. 5.1 COMPRESSED AIR BLASTING Since its inception in the 1930s air blasting has become the most common type of surface preparation in use. This is because of the reliable nature of the equipment, its versatility and its efficiency in cleaning substrates. Basically the system works by propelling abrasive at high speed with compressed air at the substrate surface. The higher the velocity and impact force, the greater the rate of cleaning. 5.2 SPOT BLASTING Spot blasting is usually specified by shipowners where patch corrosion has occurred on the outside hull of a vessel. The idea is to blast the corroded spots to a specified standard, usually Sa2 or Sa2 (or equivalent), then to move the abrasive stream onto the next area of corrosion, leaving the uncorroded areas of intact paint untouched. 5.3 SWEEP BLASTING Sweep blasting is a method of preparation that relies upon sweeping a jet of abrasive across a surface. Its effectiveness depends upon the nature and condition of the surface, the type and particle size of the abrasive and, above all, the skill of the operator. The latter can be extremely variable. Two types of sweep blasting are commonly specified, light sweeping and hard of heavy sweeping. 5.3.1 Light Sweep Blasting Light sweeping involves the rapid sweeping of the abrasive stream over a surface.

5.3.2 Hard or Heavy Sweep Blasting Hard sweeping will remove most old paint coatings down to shop primer or bare steel, and it will remove most deposits of rust or scale. It is not a cheap method of producing a totally clean surface, but it will produce an acceptable surface for some coatings. 5.4 Full Blasting Full blasts are specified where the removal of all, or nearly all, paint and contamination is required. It is therefore important for the industry to work to clearly understood standards. The most commonly quoted reference standards are International Standard ISO 8501-1-1988, (incorporating the old Swedish standard SIS 05 59 00), Japanese JSRA standards, and American SSPC standards. 5.5 Vacuum Blasting You will be aware that all of the blasting techniques described above produce large quantities of spent abrasive and dust. The pollution and safety problems caused by open blasting are unacceptable in some situations and the process is becoming increasingly prohibited throughout the World. Alternative techniques of surface preparation are therefore being developed, and the ones that show the most promise are hydroblasting, slurry blasting and vacuum blasting. We will look at vacuum blasting here because it is usually a form of compressed air blasting, although large vacuum blasting machines may be airless with abrasive propelled by an impeller. Vacuum blasting machines eliminate or reduce dust by combining the blast nozzle with a suction device in a specially designed head. This head is held in position on the surface being blasted so that the abrasive, dust and other debris are sucked back into the machine instead of flying off in all directions.

A VACUUM BLAST HEAD 5.6 WASH/BLAST/WASH At major refurbishment, if a holding primer is not specified when coating the hull of a ship; the normal method of application for large vessels is to sectional blast/prime/sectional blast/prime etc. However, if the drying time of the primer is not sufficiently short, freshly coated areas can be damaged by the blast cleaning process when blasting the adjacent section. In these cases, and with certain products, a wash/blast/wash technique can be used as follows: High pressure fresh water wash at minimum 211kg/cm2 (3000 psi) Abrasive blast clean the entire area to be coated to the required standard Carry out a second high pressure fresh water wash Measure residual salt levels on the steel surface (refer to Module No. 8 for method). If the level is above that specified for the coating (e.g. 10g/cm2) re-wash until acceptable. Provided that the visual standard for flash rusting is acceptable for the primer concerned, apply a full coat of paint. 6. ROTARY OR WHEELABRATOR BLASTING Rotary or wheelabrator blasting is an airless blasting process that cleans surfaces by

throwing abrasive from impeller wheels or rotors. The plant used for this process is usually fixed, with blasting taking place in an enclosed environment. Apart from vacuum blasting machines, this equipment cannot be used for blasting ships in maintenance and repair situations. However, Wheelabrators are used by many newbuilding shipyards to blast steel plates, stiffening bars and pipes, in their own blasting and shop priming plants. 6.2 WHEELABRATOR BLASTING STANDARDS The normal standard of blast given by a Wheelabrator (and required for shop primers) is Sa2-3 or equivalent. The factors that can adversely affect the standard of this blast are the initial condition of the plate, the type of abrasive used, and the operation of the plant itself. We will look at each factor in turn. 6.2.1 Initial Condition of the Steel Plate New millscaled plate will normally give either a white metal finish, or a slightly blue-stained white metal finish. This slight staining is acceptable for shop primers but residual millscale, even as small islands, is unacceptable because it can very quickly detach taking the shop primer with it. Well weathered and severely corroded plate may cause more of a problem. The track speed of the conveyor system may have to be slowed down so that the plates are blasted for a longer period to ensure removal of the more deeply embedded corrosion products. Laminations will also become visible after wheelabrator blasting and they must remove by discing or grinding, if possible. However, this is normally carried out prior to the application of the full coating scheme rather than at the shop priming stage. 6.2.2 Wheelabrator Abrasives Steel shot is normally used as the abrasive in Wheelabrator plants, because it produces less wear on impeller wheel tips than steel grit. The grades used will range up to 1.4mm. The shot is recirculated and gradually becomes worn to a fine dust, which is removed from the system by extractors. Unless the shot becomes contaminated, it is not necessary to change the abrasive. It is merely topped up with fresh abrasive to maintain the required quantity and abrasive work mix for efficient running of the unit and production of the required profile. 6.2.3 Operation of the Wheelabrator Plant As mentioned above, blasting is carried out by a series of impellers located above and below the plate. The plate is blasted as it moves through the plant on a conveyor system. The slower the track speed, the higher the standard of blast. It is rarely necessary to adjust the settings of the blasting unit, but mechanical problems can result in inferior blasting. Table 5 may help you to recognize the cause of the problem and suggest the remedial action which should be taken. 7. SLURRY BLASTING

Slurry blasting is a technique for blast cleaning surfaces with a mixture of water and abrasive. Its major advantage is that it eliminates, or reduces dust, and it is widely used in situations where the dust produced by open grit blasting would create problems. Various types of equipment have been in operation for many years, but the present concern over environmental issues has meant that slurry blasting is becoming increasingly popular. Many manufacturers are developing equipment to fill the gap being left by the demise of open grit blasting. We will look at two of the most common slurry blasting techniques here, pressurized water abrasive blasting and air abrasive wet blasting. 7.1 PRESSURISED WATER ABRASIVE BLASTING

Pressurised Water Abrasive Blasting Flow Diagram PAINTING DEFECTS 1. DRY SPRAY AND OVERSPRAY Dry spray is caused by the partial drying of atomized paint particles before they reach the substrate. They are then unable to flow out and form a smooth film. Overspray occurs when paint particles are blown off course and land on surfaces where they can cause problems. Three types of defect can result from dry spray, or overspray. Overspray settling on a finished paint surface can result in a rough sandpaper surface texture, which is cosmetically unacceptable. Overspray settling on antifouling paint can greatly increase vessel hull roughness. If this overspray is from the topsides (non antifouling paint), it can also cause fouling and SPC smoothing problems.

Dry spray, or overspray can cause pinpoint rusting of the paint film, in and around the overspray particles. When overspray is allowed to remain on a steel surface, full coats of paint are generally unable to wet or penetrate round the overspray particles. Rusting will start at these imperfections, that can eventually cause undercut and lead to failure of the coating. Dry spray and overspray result from poor spraying technique and from adverse weather conditions. 1.1 POOR SPRAYING TECHNIQUE Poor technique normally means that the spray gun tip is too far from the surface and not at 90 to it. When the atomized paint strikes the surface at a large angle it tends to bounce, or rebound off the surface as overspray. The larger the angle and the higher the pump pressure the greater the amount of overspray. The best way to correct this problem is to ensure that the sprayer has good access to the surface and does not need to use the spray gun at angles greater than 90. 1.2 ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS If it is windy during painting, air will blow through the spray fan and dry out the paint particles before they reach the surface, causing dry overspray. Obviously overspray problems will increase in windy conditions. Hot weather tends to accelerate this type of problem. Dry spray and overspray can never be eliminated entirely, but all attempts should be made to reduce it to a minimum by following proper procedures and good spraying techniques. Where it has occurred and is causing problems, it may be removed by sanding, or in some cases bristle brushing. 2. RUNS AND SAGS Runs occur when excess paint continues to flow in a narrow downward movement after the surrounding paint has set. Runs are seen most often around areas such as scallops, cut outs and nuts and bolts. These are areas where it is difficult to control wet film thickness. Sags occur when a sheet, or 'curtain' of material continues to move downward. Both types of defect are caused by gross over application of the paint, or by excessive thinning of the paint. All paints have a 'sag point'. This is the thickness that wet material can be applied to a vertical surface without sagging. Amongst other things, it is dependent upon paint viscosity. Thinning paint reduces its viscosity and reduces its sag point. 3. ORANGE PEEL Orange peel is another cosmetic defect. As the name suggests, it is a condition where the surface of the paint looks like orange peel. It has several causes. The paint may be too viscous, the solvent may be evaporating too quickly, the gun may be too close to the surface, or the atomization pressure may be too low.

Depending upon the cause, orange peel may be avoided by careful thinning of the paint, or by using proper spraying techniques. Once it has occurred, it can be corrected by the sprayer brushing it out when it is still wet. If the paint has cured, it may have to be sanded. 4. WRINKLING Wrinkled paint looks like wrinkled skin, but it is more than a cosmetic defect. It is basically caused by solvent entrapment and occurs when the outer skin of the paint cures, or skins over, trapping solvent in the underlying paint which will then never cure. This type of defect happens when thick coats of paint are applied in hot weather. Wrinkling can be avoided by ensuring the paint is applied within the specified wet film thickness range. However, once it has occurred, it can only be remedied by scraping off the wrinkled area and applying a new thinner coat of paint. 5. COLD FLOW This is quite a rare phenomenon. It is caused by paint flowing, or distorting under pressure, because solvent retention has resulted in a soft paint film, or in layers of weakness within multiple coat systems. 6. INADEQUATE COATING THICKNESS Inadequate thickness occurs when there is not enough paint applied to a surface to prevent water penetration and consequent corrosion. Pinpoint rusting is the result, with pinpoints gradually becoming larger until the entire coating area is undercut in the thinnest spots. This type of defect is generally caused by rapid paint application, where wet film thickness is not monitored. It is best prevented by careful monitoring. However, low film thickness areas can usually be overcoated or touched up after initial paint application, to bring them into specification. 7. HOLIDAYS Holidays are related to coating thickness defects. They are areas where the applicator has missed coating the surface altogether, or has left very thin spots. They are usually found in difficult to coat areas, such as backs of stiffening bars, cut outs, scallops and along weld seams. 8. PINHOLING Pinholes are small deep holes in the paint film, visible to the naked eye, which may go through to the substrate, or to the underlying paint coat. These defects are associated with conventional spray, more than airless spray, but they can result from a number of different causes. In conventional spray, pinholes may be caused by holding the gun too close to the surface. Air bubbles from the atomizing airstream become trapped in the wet paint; they create pinholes when they burst. These pinholes remain in the paint as it dries, unless it is a very slow drying type of paint. Pinholes are also caused by

incorrect conventional spray gun adjustment, and can result from both excessive air pressure and excessive fluid pressure. Pinholes may also be caused by improper paint formulation, or solvent imbalance. This is usually the result of the wrong thinner being added by painters on site. It can be avoided by vigilance and issuing painters with paint specification sheets which detail correct thinners for use with particular paints. Pinholes can also be created by porous substrates. The two which you are most likely to encounter are porous inorganic zinc primers and the porous leached layer of antifouling paint, which has not been properly removed by high pressure washing. 9. CRACKING Cracking or mud cracking is characterized by a network of cracks in the paint film, which look like dried mud. They can go through to the substrate. Cracking can occur in all types of paint, but is most common with fast drying paints such as vinyls and zinc rich primers. It is caused by rapid evaporation of solvent in fast drying conditions when resin particles do not coalesce and the pigment pulls apart the resin system. Mud cracking can be caused by a number of factors, including over application of the paint, over atomization in conventional spray, application in hot weather, or application onto a hot substrate. Over thickness and over atomization problems can be avoided by proper application techniques. Dealing with the weather is more difficult. If possible the painting work should be scheduled when the area is no longer in direct sunlight, if cracking is a potential problem. 10. CRATERING Cratering, bug eyeing, fish eyeing, or crawling as it is sometimes called, is the pulling apart, or separation of a wet paint film to reveal the substrate or underlying paint layer. It is generally caused by oil contamination. This can occur during surface preparation, paint mixing or paint application, as follows. - Surface Preparation. Oil contamination caused by dirty compressed air is quite common. Cleanliness of the airstream can be checked with a blotter test. A white cloth or blotter is held within 60cm (24") of the airstream at the end of the blasting hose. Obviously with abrasive switched off. The blotter, or cloth is then examined for dark spots that indicate the presence of oil. The problem then lies with the compressor where maintenance is required. - Paint mixing. Oil contamination occurring during mixing can be avoided by proper vigilance.

- Paint application. Oil contamination during spray application can be avoided by ensuring that working moisture/oil separators are fitted between the compressor and spraying machine. Once cratering has occurred, it is very difficult to repair. Wet coatings have to be removed, the surface solvent cleaned and then coatings reapplied. Where the coatings containing cratering have cured, thin areas, which are likely to break down, have to be solvent cleaned and roughened before coating is reapplied to bring them up to specification. 11. DELAMINATION AND DETACHMENT Detachment or delamination is the clean break between a primer and the substrate, or between two coats of paint. There are two main causes for this type of problem; contamination, or exceeding maximum overcoating intervals. Contamination related detachment problems can be caused by dirt, dust, moisture, or oil and grease. They can be prevented by thorough inspection of the surface to be painted immediately before paint application. In addition, poor ventilation conditions during cure can increase the likelihood of delamination. PAINT APPLICATION INSPECTIONS Paint is not a finished product until it has been applied and cured. The integrity of the finished paint system can only be ensured by continuous monitoring of the paint application. These paint inspections should ensure that: 1. An accurate record of painting activity is kept for the Coating Report. 2. Environmental conditions are satisfactory for paint application. 3. Paint mixing and thinning are correctly carried out. 4. Wet and dry film thickness measurements are taken when necessary. 5. Maximum and minimum overcoating and flooding times are adhered to. 7.1 THE COATING APPLICATION REPORT The Coating Application Report can again be used to schedule inspections. It contains information on each coat of paint that is applied as follows:(i) Coat number (ii) Type of coat (touch-up/full coat/stripe coat) (T/F/S) (iii) % of area covered when only a touch up coat is applied (iv) Sales code of paint used (For two pack products only that for the base component is included (v) Specified dft (in microns) (vi) Number of litres used for each coat (vii) Method of application 7.2 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Before any paint application commences, you must monitor the ambient conditions to ascertain whether they are acceptable for painting. 7.2.1 Extreme Conditions Conditions will generally be unsuitable for painting:

(i) When it is wet. Moisture will prevent adhesion of the paint to the substrate so painting is not permissible when it is raining, snowing, foggy or misty. (ii) When there are high winds. Overspray losses will be unacceptably high and there is a danger of paint contamination. There may also be a danger to the sprayer himself in windy conditions. (iii) During extremes of temperature. Painting may take place during very high or very low temperatures, but you should be aware of the following problems caused by extremes of cold and heat: Cold Temperature: there is always a danger of ice forming on the substrate during sub-zero temperatures. The ice crystals may be visible, but even microscopic crystals can prevent proper adhesion of the paint. Below 5C (41F) the curing of paints such as epoxies slows down dramatically, and for some paints curing stops altogether, and the application of these paints is impossible in very cold conditions. You should anticipate any likely problems caused by cold weather and discuss with the superintendent, either changing the specification, or locally covering the area and heating up the ship. Hot Temperatures: above 35C (95F) the drying and curing of paints is rapid and dry spray can be a problem. You can help overcome problems by advising the spray to keep the spray gun at a minimum distance from the surface, which, of course, requires good all round access to the ship. You may also advise adding thinners, if necessary, normally up to a maximum of 5% by volume. 7.2.2 Normal Conditions During normal weather conditions, the main area of concern is condensation forming on the substrate. Condensation occurs when the steel temperature is at, or below the dew point. Because steel heats up and cools down more slowly than the atmosphere, condensation is most likely: (i) Early in the morning. (ii) After a period of rain followed by sun. (iii) On the flat bottom of the ship, which gets less sun and heats up more slowly than the sides. (iv) On the external sides of ballast or fuel tanks which still contain liquid. You should take care when checking these areas because the outside surface of these tanks may be wet and the adjacent area may be dry. 7.2.3 Painting Criteria Dew Point It is not acceptable to paint unless the steel temperature is 3C (5.4F) above the dew point. Condensation will not form unless the steel is at or below

the dew point but the 3C (5.4F) allows for a safety margin for both errors in the readings and sudden drops in air temperature. Relative Humidity (RH) Relative Humidity is less important than dew point as criteria for acceptability of painting. Some authorities or specifications will state that painting should not be allowed above 85 or 90% RH, because even small variations in substrate temperature can produce condensation at these humidities. International Paint do not specify RH limits because most marine paints will, in fact, tolerate high relative humidity. The yards themselves are mainly in humid marine environments and it is safer to use the dew point criteria. The conditions which lead to the formation of condensation are not obvious and you have to carry out a set of inspection procedures to monitor conditions before every paint application, as follows:7.2.4 Inspection Procedures (i) You must take wet and dry bulb temperature measurements from a whirling hygrometer or sling psychrometer. (ii) You should then calculate the relative humidity and dew point from a calculator, or hygrometric tables. 7.2.5 Coating Diary The Coating Diary is self explanatory. Environmental monitoring conditions for each paint operation should be recorded in chronological order together with the date and time of application and the time the measurements were taken. If readings are not taken because of absence, or lack of inspection equipment, a note should be made on the diary to that effect. You should not guess or fabricate the missing information. 7.3 PAINT MIXING AND THINNING Paint mixing and, if necessary, thinning are relatively simple tasks that are carried out by the yard directly before the paint is applied. If they are carried out incorrectly, or the wrong thinner is added severe problems ranging from uncured paint to solvent entrapment can occur in the finished coating. You should therefore ensure that these operations are properly carried out as part of your paint application inspections, by checking the following three points. 7.3.1 Contamination You should ensure that paint is not contaminated during mixing and thinning. Solid contaminants such as grit will probably be filtered out if the paint is being spray mapplied, but will cause blockages in the equipment, resulting in considerable delays in painting. Liquid contaminants may affect the paint properties. Contamination is likely to occur: (i) When containers are opened:

The painter should ensure that grit and other contaminants do not enter the containers. This occurs particularly when two-pack products are being poured into one another, or when the containers have been stored near grit blasting operations. Container lids should be blown down, or the containers turned over to remove the contaminants. (ii) When paint is poured into dirty containers: Paint may be poured into larger containers for spray application, or smaller containers for brush or roller application. These containers should be clean and should not contain remnants of different types and colours of paint. (iii) When paint is mixed with dirty mechanical stirrers or pieces of wood: Mechanical stirrers should be cleaned down when different types of paint are mixed and pieces of wood should not be used at all, even if they are clean. 7.3.2 Mixing Mixing paint is necessary to ensure that solids are thoroughly dispersed through the liquid paint. Where two-pack materials are used mixing ensures that the base and curing agent can chemically react together. Mechanical or power stirrers with paddle of jiffy type blades are the preferred method of mixing paint and two-pack materials must always be mechanically stirred. Manual stirring may be acceptable for some types of single-pack paints and boxing or repeatedly pouring paint from one container into another may also be acceptable providing it is done thoroughly. You should check the following: (i) Solids must be properly dispersed. Settlement of solids in old paints, particularly antifouling, is common and can require vigorous mixing. Where this is a known problem, it can be advantageous to store the containers upside down before use. (ii) Two-pack material must be mixed in the correct ratio. All of the curing agent should be mixed with all of the base. Splitting paint and mixing half the base with half the curing agent is not acceptable. (iii) The potman must mix the correct base with the correct curing agent. Confusion can arise if several types of two-pack materials are stored together near the spraying set up. The potman should be given a copy of the painting specification sheet if he is unsure which curing agent goes with which base. This will also help him use the correct thinners and cleaners. 7.3.3. Thinning Paints are supplied already containing enough solvent to ensure that they can be applied according to the application recommendations given in the Product Data Sheets. Adding more solvent or thinners to paint lowers its viscosity and makes it easier to spray, but it can also cause a whole range of problems, as follows:-

(i) Reduced viscosity affects the paints ability to hold up and it may cause sags, runs or slumping. (ii) Excessive thinners can extend drying and overcoating times and cause solvent entrapment in the paint film. (iii) Thinners reduce the volume solids ratio of the wet paint which affects theoretical coverage and alters the wft/dft ratio. 7.4 WET FILM THICKNESS AND DRY FILM THICKNESS MEASUREMENTS Once painting application has commenced, you have to make sure that the paint is applied in a satisfactory manner which conforms to the specification. The Paint Application and Painting Procedures modules describe the application methods, equipment and painting procedures, including volume area control, in detail. But for all drydockings, you have to check that the correct quantities of paint are applied at the right thickness. You should do this by monitoring the wet film thickness of each successive coat of paint, and where appropriate, by taking dry film thickness readings. 7.4.1 Wet Film Thickness (WFT) Wet film thickness measurements should be taken at the start of painting to make sure that the painters spraying technique is sound and is giving the correct film thickness. You can take the readings yourself, or you can have the painter take them. This involves the painter in checking the quality of his own work and he can alter his spraying technique accordingly. 7.4.2 Dry Film Thickness (DFT) When dry film thickness readings are taken, they should be recorded. However, they cannot be taken in every situation, because dfts are only relevant where new paint has been applied over bare steel. It is pointless taking readings where new paint has been applied over old paint, because the reading will give a total thickness with no indication of how thick the new paint is. The paint must also be fully cured before dfts are taken, otherwise the instrument probe will dent or penetrate the coating giving a false reading which is significantly low. Access is also a problem when taking dft readings and it is not usually possible to get accurate or realistic readings for most areas of the ship. In these instances volume area control is the best method of ensuring correct film thickness. 7.5 MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM OVERCOATING AND DOCK FLOODING TIMES It is your responsibility to see that the yard adhere to the maximum and minimum overcoating times for each product and the minimum drying time and exposure time before flooding for antifoulings. To ensure that everyone is aware of these important requirements, you must include them on your painting specification sheet. You should attempt to arrange the painting schedule according to these times, in conjunction with the yard, but in situations where there is an urgent need to

return the ship to sea, or vacate the drydock, pressure may be applied on you to shorten overcoating and flooding times. You must strongly advise against such action if the product performance is liable to suffer. However, if you are overruled by the yard or shipowner, this deviation from specification should be recorded in detail on the Dataplan report and the superintendent informed at the time by issuing an Exception Report. SURFACE PREPARATION AND BLASTING STANDARDS The primary standards refer to steel that is prepared for painting from a millscaled, rusted or previously coated state. The secondary standards refer to the preparation of shop primed steel at newbuilding, and cover subjects such as the removal of zinc salts and the preparation of welds and burn damage. 1. PRIMARY SURFACE PREPARATION STANDARDS The most widely used standard for primary surface preparation is the Swedish Standard SIS 05 59 00. This standard was originally developed by the Swedish Corrosion Institute in cooperation with the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the Steel Structures Painting Council (SSPC) of the United States. Other national standards such as the German DIN SS.928 and the Danish DS 2019 were also closely based on this standard. This Swedish Standard has now been superseded and incorporated into the International Standard ISO 8501-1:1988. The formal definitions and photographs of the Swedish Standard have been largely retained but it is the ISO standard that is now referred to. 1.1 ISO STANDARD 8501-1:1988 (SWEDISH STANDARD SIS 05 59 00) This standard uses both written definitions and colour photographs. It shows four initial grades of steel before preparation, ranging from intact millscale to rusted and pitted steel. These grades of steel are then shown after abrasive blast cleaning to various standards and after hand or power tool cleaning to various standards. There is also a section showing the steel after flame cleaning, but this method of preparation is not widely used and we shall not cover it here. 1.1.1 Rust Grades Four initial rust grades of unpainted steel are designated as follows:A. Steel surfaces largely covered with adhering millscale but little, if any, rust. B. Steel surface which has begun to rust and from which the millscale has begun to flake. C. Steel surface on which the millscale has rusted away or from which it can be scraped, but with slight pitting under normal vision. D. Steel surface on which the millscale has rusted away and on which general pitting is visible under normal vision.

Although the photographs were prepared from unpainted steel, this standard can be, and is widely used for depicting the appearance of painted steel after blast cleaning. However, you should be aware that previously painted steel has to be classed as grade C or D. 1.1.2 Blast Cleaning Sa Standards Blast standards are designated by the letters Sa. The standards range from Sa1 which is the lowest, through Sa2, Sa2 to Sa3. Sa2 was not included in the original Swedish Standards, but was added when it became obvious that achieving Sa3 on-site was impractical, but a higher defined standard than Sa2 was needed. In practice Sa2 is the best standard that will normally be achieved on-site. The written definitions for these standards are as follows:Sa1 Light Blast Cleaning When viewed without magnification, the surface shall be free from visible oil, grease and dirt, and from poorly adhering millscale, rust, paint coatings and foreign matter. Sa2 Thorough Blast Cleaning When viewed without magnification, the surface shall be free from visible oil, grease and dirt, and from most of the millscale, rust, paint coatings and foreign matter. Any residual contamination shall be firmly adhering. Sa2 Very Thorough Blast Cleaning When viewed without magnification, the surface shall be free from visible oil, grease and dirt, and from millscale, rust, paint coatings and foreign matter. Any remaining traces of contamination shall show only as slight stains in the form of spots or stripes. Sa3 Blast Cleaning to Visually Clean Steel When viewed without magnification, the surface shall be free from visible oil, grease and dirt, and shall be free from millscale, rust, paint coatings and foreign matter. It shall have a uniform metallic colour. You should note the following two points: 1. The term foreign matter in these definitions includes water soluble salts and welding residues which cannot be removed by blast cleaning or power tool cleaning. The notes in the standards book suggest that this type of foreign matter can be removed by wet blast cleaning. 2. Millscale, rust, or a paint coating is considered to be poorly adhering if it can be removed by lifting with a blunt putty knife. 1.1.3 Hand and Power Tool Cleaning St Standards Hand and power tool cleaning standards are designated by the letters St.The standards range from St1 which is the lowest, through St2 to St3. The St1 standard is not included in the ISO standard book, or considered here, because it corresponds to a surface that is unsuitable for painting.

The written definitions for the St standards are as follows:St2 Thorough Hand and Power Tool Cleaning When viewed without magnification, the surface shall be free from visible oil, grease and dirt, and from poorly adhering millscale. St3 Very Thorough Hand and Power Tool Cleaning As for St2, but the surface shall be treated much more thoroughly to give a metallic sheen arising from the metallic substrate. 1.2 STEEL STRUCTURES PAINTING COUNCIL STANDARDS, SSPC-SP2 TO SSPCSP11 These United States standards cover hand and power tool cleaning and abrasive blasting, and they are very similar to the ISO standards described above. Written definitions of the standards are given in Volume 2 of the Steel Structures Painting Manual. Visual standards to supplement the definitions for abrasive blasting are given preparation, then after varying degrees of blast cleaning. Visual standards for hand and power tool cleaning were not originally given by the SSPC. However, they have now produced a visual standard SSPCVIS 3, in response to the increasing use of hand and power tool cleaning that is more environmentally acceptable than abrasive blasting. 1.2.1 SSPC-VIS 1-89 Rust Grades Four initial rust grades before surface preparation are designated as follows:A. Steel surface completely covered with adherent millscale; little or no rustvisible. B. Steel surface covered with both millscale and rust. C. Steel surface completely covered with rust; little or no pitting visible. D. Steel surface completely covered with rust; pitting visible. 1.2.2 SSPC Blast Cleaning Standards There are four SSPC blast cleaning standards: SSPC-SP7 Brush-off Blast Cleaning SSPC-SP6 Commercial Blast Cleaning SSPC-SP10 Near White Blast Cleaning SSPC-SP5 White Metal Blast Cleaning You should note that SSPC-SP10 which corresponds to an Sa2 has obviously been added after the original coding of the standards was designated. The written definitions for these standards are as follows: SSPC-SP7 Brush-off Blast Cleaning A Brush-off Blast Cleaned surface when viewed without magnification, shall be free from all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, loose millscale, loose rust, and paint. Tightly adherent millscale, rust, and paint may remain on the surface.

Millscale, rust and paint are considered tightly adherent if they cannot be removed by lifting with a dull putty knife. SSPC-SP6 Commercial Blast Cleaning A Commercial Blast Cleaned surface when viewed without magnification, shall be free from all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, millscale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products and other foreign matter, except for staining. Staining shall be limited to no more than 33% of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of millscale, or stains of previously applied paint. Slight residues of rust and paint may also be left in the bottom of pits if the original surface is pitted. SSPC-SP10 Near White Blast Cleaning A Near White Blast Cleaned surface when viewed without magnification, shall be free from all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, millscale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products, and other foreign matter, except for staining. Staining shall be limited to no more than 5% of each square inch of surface area and may consist of light shadows, slight streaks, or other minor discolorations caused by stains of rust, stains of millscale, or stains of previously applied paint. SSPC-SP5 White Metal Blast Cleaning A White Metal Blast Cleaned surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free from all visible oil, grease, dirt dust, millscale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products and other foreign matter. 1.2.3 SSPC Hand and Power Tool Cleaning Standards There are three SSPC hand and power tool cleaning standards. SSPC-SP2 Hand Tool Cleaning SSPC-SP3 Power Tool Cleaning SSPC-SP11 Power Tool Cleaning to Bare Metal The new visual standards SSPC-VIS 3 are meant to supplement these standards. They show 51 photographs illustrating the appearance of unpainted, painted and welded hot-rolled carbon steel prior to and after power and hand tool cleaning. Degrees of cleaning achieved with six different surface preparation methods and tools are illustrated. We will not consider the visual standards further, however the written definitions for SP2, SP3 and SP11 are given below. SSPC-SP2 Hand Tool Cleaning Hand Tool Cleaning removes all loose millscale, loose rust, loose paint and other loose detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent millscale, rust and paint be removed by this process. Millscale, rust and paint are considered adherent if they cannot be removed by lifting with a dull putty knife. SSPC-SP3 Power Tool Cleaning

Power Tool Cleaning removes all loose millscale, loose rust, loose paint and other detrimental foreign matter. It is not intended that adherent millscale, rust and paint be removed by this process. Millscale, rust and paint are considered adherent if they cannot be removed by lifting with a dull putty knife. SSPC-SP11 Power Tool Cleaning to Bare Metal This is a new specification and it fills the obvious gap between the SSPCSP3 and the ISO St3 standards. The definition is as follows: Metallic surfaces which are prepared according to this specification when viewed without magnification, shall be free from all visible oil, grease, dirt, dust, millscale, rust, paint, oxides, corrosion products and other foreign matter. Slight residues of rust and paint may be left in the lower portions of pits if the original surface is pitted. It also states that the surface must be roughened to produce a suitable profile for the specified paint system and will not be less than 1 mil or 25 microns. 1.3 NACE STANDARDS The National Association of Corrosion Engineers, NACE, has also produced written definitions for blasting standards. They are not widely used in the Marine industry and they will only be mentioned here briefly for comparison purposes. The standards are as follows: NACE NACE NACE NACE 1 2 3 4 White Blast Near White Blast Commercial Blast Brush Blast

1.4 JSRA STANDARDS The Shipbuilding Research Association of Japan, JSRA, has also produced a set of visual standards for surface preparation. The standards are mainly concerned with secondary preparation, but they also include standards for primary preparation of steel before it is shop primed. The JSRA primary standards are described here. 1.4.1 Rust Grades Two initial grades before preparation are designated as follows: JA: Steel surface covered with millscale (rarely with a little rust). JB JA steel surface exposed to weather one and a half months. (The surface is covered with red rust, but there remains millscale without pitting underneath the red rust). 1.4.2 JSRA Blast Cleaning Standards There are four grades of blast cleaning described in this standard for both JA and JB steels. These standards are further divided into surfaces produced by steel shots, designated Sh, and surfaces produced by slag, sands or grits

designated Sd. The written definitions for both Sh and Sd standards are virtually the same, as follows: Sh(d)0: Surface prior to blast cleaning of steel shots (slag, sands or grits). Sh(d)1: Surface prepared by light blast cleaning of steel shots (slag, sands or grits). Loose millscale, rust and foreign matter are fairly removed. Sh(d)2: Surface prepared by thorough blast cleaning of steel shots (slag, sands or grits). Almost all millscale, rust and foreign matter are removed. Sh(d)3: Surface prepared by very thorough blast cleaning of steel shots (slag, sands or grits). Millscale, rust and foreign matter are removed to the extent that the surface has a uniform metallic sheen. COMPARISON OF ISO, SSPC, NACE AND JSRA STANDARDS Although the different standards are not exactly the same, Table 7 will give you some idea of how the standards compare in a descending order of cleanliness. The JSRA Pt standards of secondary surface preparation are also included for reference. They will be described next. 2. SECONDARY SURFACE PREPARATION STANDARDS In most instances ships are constructed from flat steel plate and shaped stiffening bars, which have been blasted and painted in wheelabrator and shop priming plants. The wheelabrator blasting is considered as primary surface preparation. Unfortunately the shop primer will suffer a great deal of damage from burning, welding, abrasion and weathering during the construction process. This means that it cannot be directly overcoated with the specialized paint schemes. There are two options open to the shipyard. 1. They can reblast the shop primer to bare steel. This is expensive and will only be done when absolutely necessary. For example in certain ballast or cargo tank applications. 2. They can re-prepare the damaged shop primer. This is considered as secondary surface preparation and is the preferred option, because it is less expensive. There are two standards of secondary surface preparation you should be familiar with. The first, already mentioned in Section 2 is International Paints Pictorial Abrasive Sweep Blasting Standards. The second is the widely used and recognized JSRA standard. 2.1 PICTORIAL ABRASIVE SWEEP BLASTING STANDARDS This standard shows three different coloured shop primers in an untreated state: red oxide green grey The standard then shows these primers after sweep blasting to different standards. The

three sweep blasting standards are defined as follows:AS1 Light abrasive sweeping of a shop primed surface AS2 Medium abrasive sweeping of a shop primed surface AS3 Heavy abrasive sweeping of a shop primed surface 2.2 JSRA SECONDARY SURFACE PREPARATION STANDARDS The JSRA standards look very complex, because they cover so many possibilities. However, they are quite easy to understand if looked at logically. 2.2.1 JSRA Codes before Secondary Surface Preparation The standards initially show three shop primers before secondary preparation. WO Wash primer ZO Organic zinc primer IO Inorganic zinc primer The standards then show these primers in a damaged or rusted grade. There are five different grades which are defined as follows: HO Steel surface with shop primer (W, Z, I) which is exposed to weather about one and a half months after hand welding. AO Steel surface coated with shop primer (W, Z, I) which is exposed to weather about one and a half months after automatic welding. FO Steel surface coated with shop primer (W, Z, I) which is exposed to weather after gas burning and water cooling for removing stain of the steel. DO Steel surface coated with shop primer (Z, I) on which white zinc salts are generated. RO Steel surface coated with shop primer (W, Z, I) on which little rusts in the form of spots are visible because of exposure to weather. For example, IHO refers to an Inorganic zinc shop primer which has been hand welded and exposed to weathering for about one and a half months.