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MICROBIOLOGY - It is a broad term meaning the study of living microorganisms that are individually too small to be seen with

our naked eye. - It include microbes such as: - Bacteria (Bacteriology) - Protozoa (Protozoology) - Fungi (Mycology) - Algae (Phycology) - Viruses (Virology) Concerns of Microbiology: 1. occurrence of microscopic forms of life in nature 2. reproduction and physiology 3. their participation in the process of nature 4. their harmful and harmless effect in man 5. their significance in science and industry Branches of Microbiology: A) Agricultural Microbiology study of microorganisms in relation to soil fertility and plant diseases. B) Food and Dairy Microbiology study of microorganisms in relation to preparation and preservation of foods. C) Industrial Microbiology Study of microorganisms in relation to industrial processes. D) Medical Microbiology Study of microorganisms in relation to diseases in humans and animals. Distribution of microorganism in nature: They are present in every spot where life is possible. They are abundant not only in the soil, natural waters and vegetation but also in the dust of rooms, air, food and water. The only place in which the microbes are not naturally found is within the healthy tissues of the living body. Origin of microbes: 1. Spontaneous Generation theory of development of living forms from nonliving 2. Biogenesis living things come from pre-existing living things Milestones of Progress: The First observations: In the history of biology, one of the most important discoveries occurred in 1665, when Robert Hooke reported that life smallest structural unit was cell. His discovery marks the beginning of cell theory all living things are composed of cells. Around 1675, a cloth merchant from Holand Anton Van Leeuwenhoek, first describe microbes (bacteria and protozoa). He is known as the Father of bacteriology because it was he

who first accurately described the different shapes of bacteria and pictured their arrangement in infected material. Golden Age of Microbiology: Period from 1857-1914 has been regarded as the Golden age of microbiology. During this time , rapid advances, beginning from the work of Pasteur and Koch, led to the establishment of microbiology as a science. Also, agents of diseases and the role of immunity in the prevention and cure of diseases were discovered. Some of the major events of this period were listed below: 1857 Pasteur Fermentation 1861 Pasteur Disproved spontaneous generation 1864 Pasteur Pasteurization 1865 Joseph Lord Lister - aseptic surgery 1876 Koch germ theory of disease kochs postulate 1881 koch pure culture 1882 Koch discovered Mycobacterium tuberculosis 1884- Gram Gram staining procedure 1887 Petri Petri dish 1910 Erlich syphilis 1928 Fleming penicillin 1935 Stanley crystallized virus 1953 Watson and Crick DNA structure 1969 Whittaker five kingdom classification system 1973 Berg, Boyer, Cohen Genetic engineering Fermentation utilization of yeast for the conversion of sugar into alcohol in the absence of air. Pasteurization - only kills organisms that may spoil the product, but it allows many microbes to survive. Vaccination: The first vaccine was developed by Edward Jenner. He was a british physician who find a way to protect people from smallpox. Vaccination, from the latin word vacca which means cow. Birth of Modern Chemotheraphy: Magic Bullet - Treatments of disease using chemical substances are called chemotheraphy. - Chemotherapeutic agents prepared from chemicals in the laboratory are called synthetic drugs - Chemicals produced naturally by some microorganism ( bacteria and fungi) to act against other microorganisms are called antibiotics. - First synthetic drug Paul Ehrlich, found a chemotherapeutic agent called salvarsan, effective against syphilis.

First Antibiotic, was accidentally discovered by Alexander Flemming. He was looking at the mold that could inhibit the growth of bacteria. The mold was later identified as Penicillium notatum. In 1928 he name the molds active inhibitor penicillin. Thus, penicillin is an antibiotic produced by fungus.

Virology: The study of viruses, virology, originated during Golden age of microbiology when Dmitiri Iwanoski (1892) reported the organism causing mosaic disease of tobacco. By that time he was not aware that it was a virus. It was in 1935, when Wendell Stanley, demonstrated that the organism, called TMV( tobacco mosaic virus) was different from other microbes. Role of Microbes in Geochemical Cycle: 1. Mineralization of organic C, S and N ( converted to CO 2, SO4 and NH3) so that it can be used cyclically from generation to generation for the growth of plants and animals. 2. Soil fertility is enhanced by bacteria that converts N 2 from organic matter into nonvolatile forms of NO3. 3. Marine algae, a photosynthetic bacteria responsible for the formation of organic matter from CO2 by photosynthesis. Role of microbes in human welfare: 1. Bioremediation processes use bacteria to clean up toxic wastes. 2. Bacteria that cause diseases in insects are being used as biological controls of insect pests. Biological controls are specific for the pest and do not harm the environment. 3. Using microbes to make products such as foods and chemicals is called biotechnology. 4. Using recombinant DNA, bacteria can produce important human proteins, such as insulin, beta-endorphin and hepatitis B vaccine. 5. Genetically engineered bacteria are used in agriculture to protect plants from frost and insects and to improve shelf life of product. Role of Microbes in diseases: 1. Everyone has microorganism in and on the body; these make up the normal microbiota or flora. 2. The disease-producing properties of a species of microbe and the hosts resistance are important factors in determining whether a person will contact a disease. 3. Kochs Postulate. a) organism should always be present in diseased animal but not in healthy ones. b) Organism must be isolated from the diseased animal, grown in pure culture away from the animal. c) Organism isolated in pure culture must initiate and reproduce the same disease when inoculated into a susceptible animal. d) Organism can be reisolated from the experimentally infected animal. this postulate provided proof of the Germ theory of disease.

DIVERSITY OF MICROORGANISM: BACTERIA - Single-celled (unicellular) organisms whose genetic material is not enclosed in a special nuclear membrane, thus they are called prokaryotes, from the Greek word which means pronucleus. - Bacterial cells appear in one of several shapes. Bacillus ( rodlike), Coccus ( spherical or ovoid) and Spiral (corkscrew or ovoid). - Cell wall is composed of substances called peptidoglycan. - Reproduction is by means of binary fission, diving the parent cell into two equal daughter cell. - Most bacteria move or swim, using flagella. FUNGI - Eukaryotic organisms whose cells have a distinct nucleus that contains the cells genetic material and surrounded by nuclear membrane. - Unicellular or multicellular - Cell wall is primarily composed of chitin - Their body is made of long threadlike filament known as hyphae. Mass of hyphae constitutes the mycelia. - Reproduce sexually or asexually. PROTOZOA - unicellular - multicellular - can move by means of pseudopods ( false feet), cilia or flagella. - Reproduce sexually or asexually. ALGAE - Eukaryotic, unicellular or multicellular microbes. - some are photosynthetic - cell wall made up of cellulose. - Reproduce sexually or asexually. VIRUSES - so small, that can be seen only using electron microscope. - Acellular ( not cellular) - Contain only one kind of nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA - They are parasites of other forms of life. FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF PROKARYOTIC CELL: Chief distinguishing characteristics of prokaryotes : 1. The genetic material (DNA) is not enclosed within a membrane. 2. They lack other membrane bounded organelles. 3. Their DNA is not associated with histone proteins ( special chromosomal proteins found in eukaryotes) 4. Their cell walls almost always contain the complex polysacharride peptidoglycan 5. They usually divide by binary fission.

BACTERIA SIZE, SHAPE AND ARRANGEMENT: Bacteria vary in sizes and shapes. They have a few basic shapes: spherical coccus ( meaning berries), rod shaped bacillus ( bacilli means little staffs) and spiral. 1. SPHERICAL or ELIPSOIDAL COCCI (coccus) Round cells which multiply predominantly by binary fission and arrangement depends on the plane of division a. diplococci occurs in pair of cells b. streptococci arrange in beads or chains c. staphylococci irregular clusters resembling grapes d. tetrads four cells arrange in square e. sarcinae cuboidal arrangement of usually 8 or more cells along three dimension 2. CYLINDRICAL or ROD SHAPED BACILLI ( bacillus) a. diplobacilli b. streptobacillin 3. SPIRAL SHAPED SPIRILLUM - bacterial species exhibit differences in a. length b. number of spirals c. amplitude of spirals d. rigidity of cell wall approximate compostion of bacterial cell water 70% dry weight 30% : protein 70% lipids 6% RNA 12% polysaccharides 5% DNA 3% phospholipids 4%

EXTERNAL STRUCTURES OF THE CELL : 1. FLAGELLA are thin hairlike appendages protruding through the cell wall: - consist of three parts: a. basal body or granular body b. hooklike axial structure c. long thin untapered filament

- according to location and number of flagella, bacteria are classified as: a. monotrichous with one polar flagellum B. Lopotrichous with two or more polar flagella c. Amphitrichous tufts of flagella at both poles d. Peritrichous 8 or more flagella distributed over the surface e. Atrichous no flagella

chemical composition : flagellin (protein) functions : a. motility b. antigenicity detection of flagella a. motility test directly observed by microscopic examination using - wet mount method - hanging drop method * this will differentiate browninan movement from true motility indirectly observed by growth of bacteria in semisolid medium - motile growth of bacteria away from inoculation line - non motile growth of bacteria is away from inoculation line 2. PILI - shorter and finer than flagella - seen in both motile and non motile bacteria therefore are not concerned with motility - chemical composition : protein

- two types a. ordinary pili b. sex pili - functions a. sex pili serves as a port of entry of ggenetic material during bacterial conjugation b. attachement site for viruses c. facilitate adherence to tissue d. antiginecity 3 GLYCOCALYX. CAPSULE / SLIME LAYER / - glycocalyx ( means sugar coat) is a viscous, gelatinous polymer that is external to cell wall. - composition : polysaccharide and polypeptide - the term CAPSULE is used to described a glycocalyx that is firmly attached to the cell wall, however if it is unorganized and loosely attached to the cell wall it is described as slime layer

Bacterial capsules outlined by India ink viewed by light microscopy

4. CELL WALL semi-rigid structure responsible for the shape of the cell. Function: prevent the cell from rupturing when pressure inside the cell is greater than Outside Composition: peptidoglycan ( also called as murein) N acetylglucosamine ( NAG) N- acetyl muramic acid ( NAM) COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTIC OF GRAM POSITIVR AND GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA Gram- positive Gram - negative Gram reaction violet Red Peptidoglycan layer Thick ( multilayered) Thin ( single layer) Techoic acid Present Absent LPS content None High Lipid content Low High Susceptibility to penicillin High Low Susceptibility to streptomycin Low High Resistance to drying high low

5. PLASMA MEMBRANE - phospholipids molecules arranged in two rows, called phospholipids layer - selective barrier through which materials enter and exit the cell