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This article has been split chronologically into three parts:

Hagiopolitan Octoechos (6th-13th century) Papadic Octoechos (13th-18th century) Neobyzantine Octoechos (18th-21th century)

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Liturgical mode nomenclature compared to modern nomenclature.



Pitches in ascending order in medieval |D| E F G |E| F G A |F| G A B |G| A B C paralance) (A) B C D B (C) D E (C) D E F (D) E F G

I - Authentic modes (tones Dorian Dorian Phrygian Phrygian Lydian Lydian Mixolydian Mixolydian

II - Plagal modes (derived tones) Hypodorian Aeolian A B C |D| E (F) G A Hypophrygian Locrian B C D |E| F G (A) B Hypolydian Ionian C D E |F| G (A) B C Hypomixolydian Dorian D E F |G| A B (C) D [Grout 1973]

The enclosed pitch |X| is the 'finalis' of the mode, what we might today call the tonic note; the pitch enclosed (X) is the 'cofinalis' or what we would call a dominant. In chants sung in a given mode, the cofinalis was often used as a secondary tonal center. In modern harmonic theory, the tonic going up to the dominant always form the interval of the fifth. Among the authentic modes, the Phrygian is the transgressor to this convention. These designated pitches must not be construed in terms of absolute pitch; never, as that concept and standard was not yet developed. A liturgical mode should rather be understood as specified by a sequence of intervals (not well tempered), a range, and by its finalis and cofinalis. It must also be recognized that a mode is a theoretical construct derived by

abstraction from practice. The medieval construct of mode relied also very heavily on the misreading of the available ancient Greek theory. In the modern modal sense, the finalis is always the first note of the mode's 'scale', wwhile the dominant (analog of the cofinalis) is always gotten by counting up four "white steps" from the finalis (tonic). In all cases but the Locrian mode, this gives an interval of a well tempered fifth between tonic and dominant; in the locrian mode, it gives a tritone. If we use an accidental to correct the tritone to a fifth, we have to replace F with F#; doing this, however, gives the G Phrygian mode; so one is really stuck with the tritone relation, the intervallus diabolus. Writing in an essentially C major key, but making the resting tone B (which is classically considered the leading tone - that is leading to C) requires a considerable amount fancy footwork, and a placing of a great emphasis on the returning to B as a resting tone. The Locrian mode was not and is not much used for exactly that reasoning. With regard to use of the accidental operators (#, b), only Bb was in use. An older German notation calls "B" what we now call "Bb" and calls "H" what we call "B": thus the possibility of motivizing the name of BACH, exploited by J. S. Bach himself in the final and uncompleted (B A C H) fugue from his The Art of the Fugue, as well as by numerous other composers in homage to the master; most notably, in works for the organ by Liszt and Reger. Since it is possible to think of a keyboard tuned to a just tempered C major tonality including the Bb, the above notation is a justifiable one, and ones sees either eight or nine (with the Bb) pitches, with different sets of finalis and cofinalis. The expression of these distinguished pitches within the chant was by way of certain characteristic phrases or cadential formulas for the mode to terminate a phrase or semiphrase on the finalis or cofinalis respectively. It is probably worth mentioning that in addition to modes of pitch in medieval church music, there were also modes of rhythm [Grout 1973]. For some other musical definitions Eric's Treasure Trove: music is helpful. If you can serialize pitch intervals ( la Schoenberg), then you can also serialize rhythms la Milton Babbit. This idea, clearly, has a long history.

A Gregorian mode (or church mode) is one of the eight systems of pitch organization used to describe Gregorian chant. Contents

1 History 2 Tonality o 2.1 Authentic mode o 2.2 Plagal mode 2.2.1 In Western Practice 2.2.2 In Byzantine Practice o 2.3 Hierarchy of tones 3 See also

4 References

The name of Pope Gregory I was attached to the variety of chant that was to become the dominant variety in medieval western and central Europe (the diocese of Milan was the sole significant exception) by the Frankish cantors reworking Roman ecclesiastical song during the Carolingian period (McKinnon 2001). The theoretical framework of modes arose later to describe the tonal structure of this chant repertory, and is not necessarily applicable to the other European chant dialects (Old Roman, Mozarabic, Ambrosian, etc.). The repertory of Western plainchant acquired its basic forms between the sixth and early ninth centuries, but there are neither theoretical sources nor notated music from this period. By the late eighth century, a system of eight modal categories, for which there was no precedent in Ancient Greek theory, came to be associated with the repertory of Gregorian chant. This system likely originated from the medieval Byzantine oktchos, as indicated by the non-Hellenistic Greek names used in the earliest Western sources from about 800 (Powers 2001b, II.1(ii)). Ignorant of these developments, Hucbald (840930) created a series of eight modes (Powers 2001a).

In the traditional system of eight modes (in use from the 8th century up to 1547) there are four pairs, each pair comprising an authentic mode and a plagal mode.

The eight Gregorian modes: f indicates 'final' Authentic mode The authentic modes were the odd-numbered modes, 1, 3, 5, 7, and this distinction was extended to the Aeolian and Ionian modes when they were added to the original

eight Gregorian modes in 1547 by Glareanus in hisDodecachordon (Powers 2001a). An authentic mode has its final as the lowest note of the scale, though in modes 1, 3, and 7 it may occasionally descend one note further, in which case this added scale degree is called the "subfinal" which, since it lies a whole tone below the final is also the "subtonium" of the mode. The range of mode 5 (Lydian) does not employ a subfinal, and so always maintains the note F as its lower limit (Powers 2001d). These four modes correspond to the modern modal scales starting on D (Dorian), E (Phrygian), F (Ionian = the Gregorian Lydian), and G (Mixolydian). The tenor, or dominant (corresponding to the "reciting tone" of the psalm tones), is a fifth above the final of the scale, with the exception of mode 3 (Phyrigian), where it is a sixth above the final. This is because a fifth above the tonic of mode 3 is the "unstable" B/B. The older Byzantine system still retains 8 tones ( echoi), each consisting of a small family of closely related modes that, if rounded to their diatonic equivalents, would be the eight modes of Gregorian chant. However, they are numbered differently, the authentic modes being 1, 2, 3, 4 (Anon. n.d.). Other Eastern Christian rites use similar systems of eight modes; see Syriac usage of Octoechos and Armenian usage of Octoechos. Plagal mode A plagal mode (from Greek 'oblique, sideways, athwart') (Merriam Webster's 1963; Liddell and Scott 1996) has a range that includes the octave from the fourth below the final to the fifth above. The plagal modes are the even-numbered modes, 2, 4, 6 and 8, and each takes its name from the corresponding odd-numbered authentic mode with the addition of the prefix "hypo": Hypodorian, Hypophrygian, Hypolydian, and Hypomixolydian(Powers 2001c). In Western Practice The earliest definition of the term is found in Hucbald's treatise De harmonica (ca. 880), who specifies the range as running from the fourth below the final to the fifth above. Later writers extend this general rule to include the sixth above the final and the Fifth below, except for the Hypolydian mode, which would have a diminished fifth below the final and so the 4th below, C, remained the lower limit (Powers 2001c). In addition to the range, thetenor (cofinal, or dominant, corresponding to the "reciting tone" of the psalm tones) differs. In the plagal modes, the tenor is a third lower than the tenor of the corresponding authentic mode, except in mode 8 (hypomixolydian), where it is raised to a 4th above the finalis (a second below the tenor of the authentic mode, 7) in order to avoid the "unstable" degree B/B (in the

authentic mode 3, the tenor is similarly raised to the 6th above the finalis, and the tenor of plagal mode 4hypophrygianis therefore also a fourth above the finalis). In Byzantine Practice In Byzantine modal theory (octoechos), the word "Plagal" ("plagios") refers to the four lower-lying echoi, or modes (Powers 2001c). Thus Plagal first mode (also known as "Tone 5" in the Russian naming system (Suchy-Pilalis 2007) represents a somewhat more developed and widened in range version of the first mode. The plagal second mode ("Tone 6" in the Russian system) has a similar relation to the second mode, and the plagal fourth moderespectively to the fourth mode. Though there is no "plagal third mode," the mode that one would expect ("Tone 7") is called the "grave tone" (Takis n.d.). Hierarchy of tones

Rockstro's fourteen modes, showing the range, final, cofinal (or dominant), mediant(s), and participant(s) of each

Two characteristic notes or pitches in a modal melody are the final and cofinal (tenor, dominant, or reciting tone). These are the primary degrees (often l, 5) on which the melody is conceived and on which it most often comes to rest, in graduated stages of finality (Berry 1987,[page needed]). The final is the pitch in which the chant usually ends; it may be approximately regarded as analogous (but not identical) to the tonic in the Western classical tradition. Likewise the cofinal is an additional resting point in the chant; it may be regarded as having some analogy to the more recent dominant, but its interval from the tonic may not be a fifth. In addition to the final and cofinal, every mode is distinguished by scale degrees called the mediant and the participant. The mediant is named from its positionin the authentic modesbetween the final and cofinal. In the authentic modes it is the third degree of the scale, unless that note should happen to be B, in which case C substitutes for it. In the plagal modes, its position is somewhat irregular. The participant is an auxiliary note, generally adjacent to the mediant in authentic modes and, in the plagal forms, coincident with the cofinal of the corresponding authentic mode (some modes have a second participant) (Rockstro 1880, 342). Given the confusion between ancient, medieval, and modern terminology, "today it is more consistent and practical to use the traditional designation of the modes with numbers one to eight" (Knighton and Fallows 1998, 256)

Mode characteristics
Each mode has a characteristic scale degree and certain harmonic structures that give each its distinctive sound. Although the names are of Greek origin, the tone sequences are different from Greek modes with similar names.

The Ionian mode is the only mode whose dominant seventh chord type occurs naturally on the fifth scale degree, as V7. Without further clarification, "major mode" or just "major" refers to the Ionian mode. The Dorian mode has a characteristic raised sixth relative to the Aeolian mode, which produces a major IV chord and a minor II chord. The dominant seventh chord in this mode occurs on the fourth scale degree, as IV7. The Phrygian mode has a lowered second relative to Aeolian, which creates its characteristic II major and v diminished chords. The dominant seventh chord in this mode occurs on the third scale degree, as III7.

The Lydian mode has a raised fourth relative to the Ionian, and creates a iv diminished, vii minor, and a II major chord. The dominant seventh chord in this mode occurs on the second scale degree, as II7. The Mixolydian mode has a lowered 7th degree relative to the Ionian. The dominant seventh chord in this mode therefore occurs on the tonic, as I7. Other characteristic chords are v minor, and a VII major chord. There is also a iii dim chord, but it is not used extensively in modal compositions. The Aeolian mode has a 3, 6 and 7. The dominant seventh chord in this mode occurs on the seventh scale degree, as VII7. Its other characteristic chords are the minor iv and v chords. There is a subtle distinction between an Aeolian modal composition and a composition in a minor key, because the sixth and seventh degrees in a minor key can be altered to create major IV and V chords. The Aeolian mode is also more commonly known as the Natural (Pure) minor scale. In cases where the Aeolian mode has the same key signature as a particular major key but with a different tonic, it is referred to as the relative minor scale. For example, A Aeolian is the relative minor of the C major scale. The Locrian mode has lowered second and fifth scale degrees relative to the Aeolian and has a diminished i chord. It is highly unstable, and its diminished i chord makes establishing tonality in the mode nearly impossible. The few pieces written in this mode usually used an altered i minor chord (B-D-F) to establish the tonal center, and then used the minor iii (D-F-A) and major V chord (F-A-C) to establish the modality. Omitting the fifth degree when using the i chord is another option. The dominant seventh chord in this mode occurs on the sixth scale degree, as VI7.

Relationship between the modes

Perhaps the simplest way to understand the seven modern modes and the relationship between them is to view them as successive rotations of a single set of seven notes for example, using the notes of the C Major scale: C, D, E, F, G, A, B, C. This is the C Ionian mode because C is the referential note, and the pattern of intervals above that note corresponds to Ionian. (The major scale and Ionian modal scale in any key are identical.) Retaining the notes of the C-major scale as the frame of reference:

C Ionian mode consists of the notes C, D, E, F, G, A, B, C (Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, Ti, Do) D Dorian mode consists of the notes D, E, F, G, A, B, C, D (Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, Ti, Do, Re) E Phrygian consists of E, F, G, A, B, C, D, E (Mi, Fa, Sol, La, Ti, Do, Re, Mi) F Lydian consists of F, G, A, B, C, D, E, F (Fa, Sol, La, Ti, Do, Re, Mi, Fa) G Mixolydian consists of G, A, B, C, D, E, F, G (Sol, La, Ti, Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol) A Aeolian consists of A, B, C, D, E, F, G, A (La, Ti, Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La) B Locrian consists of B, C, D, E, F, G, A, B (Ti, Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, Ti)

All of the above examples consist of precisely the same notes; the distinction amongst them is the tonal center of each mode. The D Dorian scale assumes the note D to be central. In other words, the note D becomes the tonic, while all the notes remain the same as those of the C-major scale. This concept can be transposed chromatically to every major scale. Applying this principle to the fixed-do solfge syllables and scale-degree numbers from the original major scale results in movable-do solfge and scale-degree numbers relative to each new tonic (and with accidentals applied in relation to the degrees as found in the major scale) as follows: Ionian mode Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, Ti, Do 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 1 Dorian mode Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, Ti, Do, Re 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 1, 2 ---becomes--Do, Re, Me, Fa, Sol, La, Te, Do 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 1 Phrygian mode Lydian mode Fa, Sol, La, Ti,

4, 5, 6, 7, 1, 2, 3 ---becomes--Do, Re, Mi, Fi, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,

Mixolydian mo

Mi, Fa, Sol, La, Ti, Do, Re, Mi 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 1, 2, 3 ---becomes--Do, Ra, Me, Fa, Sol, Le, Te, Do 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 1

Sol, La, Ti, Do,

5, 6, 7, 1, 2, 3, 4 ---becomes--Do, Re, Mi, Fa,

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,

The seven modern modal scales may therefore be regarded as a shifting of center onto successive degrees of the major scale. It follows that each interval within a mode is assigned a new interval designation according to its position relative to the new tonic.
california girl 01-11-2006, 09:12 AM hey Silentdeftone ... erm, i reassure you, that on Mattias IA Eklundhs site there are 7 church modes (ie. the ones mentioned above!!) but and i am not 100% sure on this, but i think i know what you mean by saying that there are 8. here goes... Liturgical mode nomenclature compared to modern nomenclature. Liturgical Modern I - Authentic modes Dorian Dorian Phrygian Phrygian Lydian Lydian Mixolydian Mixolydian II - Plagal modes Hypodorian Aeolian Hypophrygian Locrian Hypolydian Ionian Hypomixolydian Dorian

as you can see above, yes there are 8, but two of them are dorian! (look at right hand side...) so erm, that makes 7 then yes?! for further study/info go to Mattias IA Eklundhs own website. hope this helped ps.(this benefits no-one... lets keep things simple next time!!!)


07-23-2007, 12:52 PM Extremely facinating, they are batched into 4 pairs ( the original scale name and with a hypo prefix) They begin with what is called the "final note", let's do a dorian Hypodorian pair in D. With this mode the dorian would be d-e-f-g-a-b-c-D, the first note is called the "final note". This is called an "Authentic" mode. To create the second scale, the three highest notes of the last scale are removed and the preceding 3 low notes are added. Hypodorian in D would look like a-b-c-d-e-f-g-a. The forth is Final in this case and has a dominant note of A. This is called the "plagal" mode. The patter is the same for phrygian Lydian and mixolydian, as always you just up one step to switch modes. I don't understand how you got from Dorian to Hypodorian. Can you explain again please? =\ zhille Here is something to clear this out a little bit.

07-23-2007, 02:19 PM

In the medieval church choral there were rules about the use of the Tonus Finalis(in further text - finalis) which is the starting note of the mode, and the Dominant. They were very very strict (the rules) and that's why all the music from Medieval period sounds almost the same. Dark or not... In Authentic (normal) modes, the finalis is both the starting and the finishing note, and the melody never went below the finalis. And the dominant was the fifth tone with one exception, the B in Phrygian was altered one half-step up to C, because the tritone you get in E phrygian was an avoid interval. The other type, the PLAGAL modes, were the same thing, basically, with the upper tetrachord moved to the bottom. The difference is in the span, The span of a plagal mode was fourth below the finalis and fifth above it. And the melody always began the fourth below the finalis. Another difference is in the Dominant, which was a third lower then in the corresponding Authentic Mode. The Dominant exceptions in the plagal modes were the Hypophrygian(A insead of G) and Hypomixolydian(C instead of B). Another thing to note, back then modes were not thought of like the scales of today, they were considered mostly as a span of notes within which the melody moves. So Hypodorian and Aeolian did have the same W-h formula, but the use of them was completely different. The Locrian mode did not even exist back then :D Now to clarify how to get the e.g. Hypodorian. Dorian: D E F G A B C D - D is the finalis. Now take that finalis, the D and make it a base for the hypodorian. Extend to fourth down and fifth up and you get it. Hypodorian: A B C D E F G A. Hope this clarifies a bit. Now apply the dominant rule, and you get F as a dominant. There were a lot more rules to the application of modes to Medieval church "music" they were very strict, but I don't have the nerves to write about that...this is maybe confusing enough :D In Serbia music students learn that in the third year of music high school, from a book called the Vocal Counterpoint, which studies a lot from that period, mostly the vocal choral music. I was not a music school student but I own a lot of books from which I have learned that things. Get those books :D from your music school and you'll learn a lot. I firstly learned my modes from that Vocal Counterpoint book.
Scale Degree Names Here are the names of the scale degrees.

Here is what each of the names mean. Tonic -- The tonal center -- the final resolution tone Supertonic -- One step above the Tonic Mediant -- Between the Tonic and the Dominant Subdominant -- The lower dominant -- one fifth below the Tonic and one fourth above the Tonic Dominant -- Because its function next to the tonic Submediant -- The lower mediant -- between the Tonic and the lower dominant (Subdominant) Leading Tone -- Melodically leads to the tonic; only used when it is a half step below the tonic Subtonic -- Only used to designate the 7 of the natural minor scale
A medieval mode whose scale pattern is that of playing D to D on the white keys of a piano.

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orian mode or Doric mode can refer to three very different but interrelated things: one of the Ancient Greek harmoniai (characteristic melodic behaviour, or the scale structure associated with it), one of the medieval musical modes, or one of the modern modal diatonic scales (also called Russian minor by Balakirev[1]) .


1 Greek Dorian mode 2 Medieval and modern Dorian mode o 2.1 Medieval Dorian mode

o 2.2 Modern Dorian mode 3 Notable compositions in Dorian mode o 3.1 Traditional o 3.2 Classical o 3.3 Jazz o 3.4 Popular 4 See also 5 References

Greek Dorian mode

Greek Dorian mode (enharmonic genus) on E, divided into two tetrachords.


Greek Dorian mode (chromatic genus) on E.


Greek Dorian mode (diatonic genus) on E


The Dorian mode (properly harmonia or tonos) is named after the Dorian Greeks. Applied to a whole octave, the Dorian octave species was built upon two tetrachords (four-note segments) separated by a whole tone, running from the hypate meson to the nete diezeugmenon. In the enharmonic genus, the intervals in each tetrachord are quarter-tonequarter-tonemajor third; in the chromatic genus, semitone-semitone-minor third; in the diatonic genus, semitone-tone-tone. In the diatonic genus, the sequence over the octave is the same as that produced by playing all the white notes of a piano ascending from E to E: E F G A | B C D E,[2] a sequence equivalent to the modern Phrygian mode. Placing the single tone at the bottom of the scale followed by two conjunct tetrachords (that is, the top note of the first tetrachord is also the bottom note of the second), produces the Hypodorian ("below Dorian") octave species: A | B C D E | (E) F G A. Placing the two tetrachords together and the single tone at the top of the scale produces the Mixolydian octave species, a note sequence equivalent to modern Locrian mode.[3]

Medieval and modern Dorian mode

Medieval Dorian mode
The early Byzantine church developed a system of eight musical modes (the octoechoi), which served as a model for medieval European chant theorists when they developed their own modal classification system starting in the 9th century. [4] The success of the Western synthesis of this system with elements from the fourth book of De institutione musica ofBoethius, created the false impression that the Byzantine oktchos were inherited directly from ancient Greece. [5] Originally used to designate one of the traditional harmoniai of Greek theory (a term with various meanings, including the sense of an octave consisting of eight tones), the name was appropriated (along with six others) by the 2nd-century theoristPtolemy to designate his seven tonoi, or transposition keys. Four centuries later, Boethius interpreted Ptolemy in Latin, still with the meaning of transposition keys, not scales. When chant theory was first being formulated in the 9th century, these seven names plus an eighth, Hypermixolydian (later changed to Hypomixolydian), were again re-appropriated in the anonymous treatise Alia Musica. A commentary on that treatise, called the Nova expositio, first gave it a new sense as one of a set of eight diatonic species of the octave, or scales. In

medieval theory, the authentic Dorian mode could include the note B "by licence", in addition to B.[6] The same scalar pattern, but starting a fourth or fifth below the mode final D, and extending a fifth above (or a sixth, terminating on B), was numbered as mode 2 in the medieval system. This was the plagal mode corresponding to the authentic Dorian, and was called the Hypodorian mode.[7] In the untransposed form on D, in both the authentic and plagal forms the note C is often raised to C to form a leading tone, and the variable sixth step is in general B in ascending lines and B in descent.[8]

Modern Dorian mode

Modern Dorian scale on D


Dorian mode in Ernest Bloch's Chanty from Poems of the Sea, mm. 1-8.[9]


The modern Dorian mode, by contrast, is a strictly diatonic scale corresponding to the white keys of the piano from "D" to "D", or any transposition of its interval pattern, which has the ascending pattern of: Whole Step - Half Step - Whole Step - Whole Step - Whole Step - Half Step - Whole Step or more simply: w-h-w-w-w-h-w. It can also be thought of as: Tone - Semitone - Tone - Tone - Tone - Semitone - Tone T-S-T-T-T-S-T. or simply as a scale with a minor 3rd and 7th, a major 2nd and 6th, and a perfect 4th and 5th. It may be considered an "excerpt" of a major scale played from the pitch a whole tone above the major scale's tonic (in the key of C Major it would be D, E, F, G, A, B, C, D), i.e., a major scale played from its second scale degree up to its second degree again. The resulting scale is, however, minor in quality, because, as the "D" becomes the new tonal centre, the F a minor third above the D becomes the new mediant third degree. If we build a chord on the tonic, third and fifth, it is a minor chord. Examples of the Dorian mode include:

The D Dorian mode, which contains all notes the same as the C major scale starting on D.

The G Dorian mode, which contains all notes the same as the F major scale starting on G. The A Dorian mode, which contains all notes the same as the G major scale starting on A.

The Dorian mode is symmetric, meaning that the pattern of tones and semitones (T-s-T-T-T-s-T) is the same ascending or descending. The modern Dorian mode is equivalent to the natural minor scale (or the Aeolian mode) but with the sixth degree raised a semitone. Confusingly, the modern Dorian mode is the same as the Greek Phrygian mode. The only difference between the Dorian and Aeolian scales is whether or not the 6th is major (in the Aeolian it is minor, in the Dorian it is major). The I, IV, and V triads of the Dorian mode are minor, major, and minor, respectively (i-IV-v), instead of all minor (i-iv-v) as in Aeolian. In both the Dorian and Aeolian, strictly applied, the dominant triad is minor, in contrast to the tonal minor scale, where it is normally major (see harmonic minor). It is also worth noting that the sixth scale degree is often raised in minor music, just as it is often lowered in the Dorian mode (see melodic minor). The major subdominant chord gives the Dorian mode a brighter tonality than natural minor; the raised sixth is a tritone away from the minor third of the tonic. The subdominant also has a mixolydian ("dominant") quality. The Dorian mode is commonly used in funk because of its major/minor sound.[vague] The Dorian mode is also the basis of the ascending melodic minor scale, which is also known as the jazz minor scale.

Notable compositions in Dorian mode


"Drunken Sailor"[10] "Scarborough Fair"[10]


The "Et incarnatus est" in the Credo movement of Beethoven's Missa Solemnis.[11]


"Maiden Voyage" by Herbie Hancock[12] The composition takes the form aabba with the a sections in G Dorian and the b sections in A Aeolian.[13] "Milestones" by Miles Davis[12] "Oye Como Va" by Tito Puente, popularized by Santana[14] "So What" by Miles Davis[12] Written in D dorian and E dorian.[15]


"Along Comes Mary" by The Association[16] "Billie Jean" by Michael Jackson[12] "Eleanor Rigby" by The Beatles[17] is often cited as a Dorian modal piece, and while the melody line is a Dorian melody (bar some portions), the song is based on an Aeolian modal progression (IVI and VII).[18] "Smoke on the Water" by Deep Purple[14] "The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald" by Gordon Lightfoot[19]

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ymous, "Traditional & Folk MusicEncyclopedic Dictionary (Section M3)". Retrieved 2008-09-05.


Modes in We
Dorian Phrygian Lydian Mixolydian Hypodorian Hypophrygian Hypolydian Hypomixolydian


Gregorian Plagal

Ionian Hypoionian Aeolian Hypoaeolian Locrian Hypolocrian Ionian (I) Dorian (II) Phrygian (III) Lydian (IV)



Mixolydian (V) Aeolian (VI) Locrian (VII) Melodic minor (I) Dorian 2 (II) Lydian Augmented (III) Lydian Dominant (IV) Mixolydian 13 (V)


Locrian 2 (VI) Altered (VII)

See also: Properties

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