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Reading is a window Inquiry provides a

to the world. framework for learning.

Reading is a foundational skill for learning, To become independent learners, students
personal growth, and enjoyment. The must gain not only the skills but also the
degree to which students can read and disposition to use those skills, along with an
understand text in all formats (e.g., picture, understanding of their own responsibilities
video, print) and all contexts is a key and self-assessment strategies. Combined,
indicator of success in school and in life. these four elements build a learner who
As a lifelong learning skill, reading goes can thrive in a complex information
beyond decoding and comprehension environment.
to interpretation and
development of new Ethical behavior in the use
understandings. of information must be taught.
In this increasingly global world of
information, students must be taught to
seek diverse perspectives, gather and use
information ethically, and use social tools
responsibly and safely.

Technology skills are crucial

for future employment needs.
Today’s students need to develop
information skills that will enable
them to use technology as an
important tool for learning,
both now and in the future.

Equitable access is
a key component
for education.
All children deserve
equitable access to
books and reading, to
information, and to
information technology
in an environment that
is safe and conducive
to learning.
The definition of information literacy
has become more complex as resources and
technologies have changed. Inquire, think
Information literacy has progressed from the simple
definition of using reference resources to find
information. Multiple literacies, including digital,
1 critically, and gain
visual, textual, and technological, have now joined
information literacy as crucial skills for this century.

Draw conclusions,
The continuing expansion of information
demands that all individuals acquire
the thinking skills that will enable
make informed
them to learn on their own. decisions, apply
The amount of information available to our knowledge to new
learners necessitates that each individual acquire
the skills to select, evaluate, and use information
situations, and create
appropriately and effectively. new knowledge.
Learning has a social context.
Learning is enhanced by opportunities to share Share knowledge
and learn with others. Students need to develop
skills in sharing knowledge and learning with
others, both in face-to-face situations and
3 and participate
ethically and
through technology.
productively as
School libraries are essential to members of our
the development of learning skills.
democratic society.
School libraries provide equitable physical
and intellectual access to the resources and
tools required for learning in a warm, stimulating,
and safe environment. School librarians collaborate
Pursue personal
with others to provide
instruction, learning and aesthetic
strategies, and practice growth.
in using the essential
learning skills needed
in the 21st century.

1 Inquire, think critically,

and gain knowledge.

1.1 Skills 1.1.7 Make sense of 1.2.2 Demonstrate 1.3 Responsibilities

information gathered confidence and self-
1.1.1 Follow an inquiry- 1.3.1 Respect copyright/
from diverse sources direction by making
based process in intellectual property
by identifying independent choices
seeking knowledge in rights of creators
misconceptions, in the selection
curricular subjects, and producers.
main and supporting of resources and
and make the real-
ideas, conflicting information. 1.3.2 Seek divergent
world connection for
information, and point perspectives during
using this process in 1.2.3 Demonstrate creativity
of view or bias. information gathering
own life. by using multiple
and assessment.
1.1.8 Demonstrate mastery resources and formats.
1.1.2 Use prior and
of technology tools for 1.3.3 Follow ethical and legal
background knowledge 1.2.4 Maintain a critical
accessing information guidelines in gathering
as context for new stance by questioning
and pursuing inquiry. and using information.
learning. the validity and
1.1.9 Collaborate with others accuracy of all 1.3.4 Contribute to the
1.1.3 Develop and refine a
to broaden and deepen information. exchange of ideas
range of questions to
understanding. within the learning
frame the search for 1.2.5 Demonstrate
new understanding. adaptability by
changing the inquiry 1.3.5 Use information
1.1.4 Find, evaluate, and
focus, questions, technology responsibly.
select appropriate
resources, or strategies
sources to answer
when necessary to
questions. 1.4 Self-Assessment
achieve success.
1.1.5 Evaluate information Strategies
1.2.6 Display emotional
found in selected 1.4.1 Monitor own
resilience by persisting
sources on the basis information-seeking
in information
of accuracy, validity, processes for
searching despite
appropriateness for effectiveness and
needs, importance, progress, and adapt
and social and 1.2 Dispositions 1.2.7 Display persistence by as necessary.
cultural context. in Action continuing to pursue
information to gain a 1.4.2 Use interaction
1.1.6 Read, view, and 1.2.1 Display initiative with and feedback
and engagement by broad perspective.
listen for information from teachers and
presented in any posing questions peers to guide own
format (e.g., textual, and investigating the inquiry process.
visual, media, digital) answers beyond the
in order to make collection of 1.4.3 Monitor gathered
inferences and superficial facts. information, and assess
gather meaning. for gaps or weaknesses.
1.4.4 Seek appropriate help
when it is needed.

2 Draw conclusions, make

informed decisions, apply knowledge to
new situations, and create new knowledge.

2.1 Skills 2.1.6 Use the writing 2.2.2 Use both divergent 2.3 Responsibilities
process, media and and convergent
2.1.1 Continue an inquiry- 2.3.1 Connect
visual literacy, and thinking to formulate
based research process understanding to
technology skills alternative conclusions
by applying critical- the real world.
to create products and test them against
thinking skills (analysis,
that express new the evidence. 2.3.2 Consider diverse and
synthesis, evaluation,
understandings. global perspectives in
organization) to 2.2.3 Employ a critical
drawing conclusions.
information and stance in drawing
knowledge in order conclusions by 2.3.3 Use valid information
2.2 Dispositions and reasoned
to construct new demonstrating that the
in Action conclusions to make
understandings, draw pattern of evidence
conclusions, and create 2.2.1 Demonstrate leads to a decision or ethical decisions.
new knowledge. flexibility in the conclusion.
use of resources by
2.1.2 Organize knowledge 2.2.4 Demonstrate personal 2.4 Self-Assessment
adapting information
so that it is useful. productivity by
strategies to each Strategies
completing products
2.1.3 Use strategies to specific resource and 2.4.1 Determine how to act
to express learning.
draw conclusions by seeking additional on information (accept,
from information and resources when clear reject, modify).
apply knowledge to conclusions cannot
curricular areas, real- be drawn. 2.4.2 Reflect on systematic
world situations, and process, and assess
further investigations. for completeness of
2.1.4 Use technology and
other information tools 2.4.3 Recognize new
to analyze and organize knowledge and
information. understanding.

2.1.5 Collaborate with 2.4.4 Develop directions for

others to exchange future investigations.
ideas, develop new
understandings, make
decisions, and solve

3 Share knowledge and

participate ethically and productively
as members of our democratic society.

3.1 Skills 3.1.3 Use writing and 3.2 Dispositions 3.3.3 Use knowledge and
speaking skills to in Action information skills
3.1.1 Conclude an inquiry-
communicate new and dispositions
based research 3.2.1 Demonstrate
understandings to engage in public
process by sharing leadership and
effectively. conversation and
new understandings confidence by
debate around issues
and reflecting on the 3.1.4 Use technology and presenting ideas
of common concern.
learning. other information to others in both
tools to organize and formal and informal 3.3.4 Create products that
3.1.2 Participate and
display knowledge and situations. apply to authentic,
collaborate as
understanding in ways real-world contexts.
members of a social 3.2.2 Show social
that others can view,
and intellectual responsibility by 3.3.5 Contribute to the
use, and assess.
network of participating actively exchange of ideas
learners. 3.1.5 Connect learning to with others in learning within and beyond the
community issues. situations and by learning community.
3.1.6 Use information and contributing questions 3.3.6 Use information
technology ethically and ideas during and knowledge in
and responsibly. group discussions. the service of
3.2.3 Demonstrate democratic values.
teamwork by working 3.3.7 Respect the principles
productively with of intellectual freedom.

3.4 Self-Assessment
3.3 Responsibilities Strategies
3.3.1 Solicit and respect 3.4.1 Assess the processes
diverse perspectives by which learning was
while searching achieved in order to
for information, revise strategies and
collaborating learn more effectively
with others, and in the future.
participating as
a member of the 3.4.2 Assess the quality and
community. effectiveness of the
learning product.
3.3.2 Respect the differing
interests and 3.4.3 Assess own ability
experiences of others, to work with others
and seek a variety in a group setting
of viewpoints. by evaluating varied
roles, leadership,
and demonstrations
of respect for other

4 Pursue personal and

aesthetic growth.

4.1 Skills 4.2.4 Show an appreciation 4.4 Self-Assessment

for literature by Strategies
4.1.1 Read, view, and listen
electing to read
for pleasure and 4.4.1 Identify own areas
for pleasure and
personal growth. of interest.
expressing an interest
4.1.2 Read widely and in various literary 4.4.2 Recognize the limits
fluently to make genres. of own personal
connections with knowledge.
self, the world, and
previous reading. 4.3 Responsibilities
4.1.3 Respond to literature 4.2 Dispositions 4.3.1 Participate in the
and creative in Action social exchange
expressions of ideas of ideas, both
4.2.1 Display curiosity by
in various formats electronically and in
pursuing interests
and genres. person.
through multiple
4.1.4 Seek information for resources. 4.3.2 Recognize that
personal learning in a resources are created
4.2.2 Demonstrate
variety of formats and for a variety of
motivation by seeking 4.4.3 Recognize how
genres. purposes.
information to answer to focus efforts in
4.1.5 Connect ideas to own personal questions 4.3.3 Seek opportunities for personal learning.
interests and previous and interests, trying a pursuing personal and
knowledge and variety of formats and aesthetic growth. 4.4.4 Interpret new
experience. genres, and displaying information based
4.3.4 Practice safe and on cultural and
a willingness to go
4.1.6 Organize personal ethical behaviors in social context.
beyond academic
knowledge in a way personal electronic
requirements. 4.4.5 Develop personal
that can be called upon communication and
easily. 4.2.3 Maintain openness interaction. criteria for gauging
to new ideas how effectively own
4.1.7 Use social networks ideas are expressed.
by considering
and information tools
divergent opinions, 4.4.6 Evaluate own ability
to gather and share
changing opinions to select resources
or conclusions when that are engaging
4.1.8 Use creative and evidence supports the and appropriate for
artistic formats to change, and seeking personal interests
express personal information about and needs.
learning. new ideas encountered
through academic or
personal experiences.
American Association of School Librarians
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© 2007 by the American Library Association

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Dispositions Self-Assessment
Skills Responsibilities
in Action Strategies

Key abilities needed Ongoing beliefs Common behaviors Reflections on one’s

for understanding, and attitudes that used by independent own learning to
learning, thinking, guide thinking and learners in researching, determine that the
and mastering intellectual behavior investigating, and skills, dispositions,
subjects. that can be measured problem solving. and responsibilities
through actions taken. are effective.

key question key question key question key question

Does the student have Is the student disposed Is the student aware that Can the student recognize

the right proficiencies to higher-level thinking the foundational traits for personal strengths and

to explore a topic or and actively engaged in 21st-century learning require weaknesses over time and

subject further? critical thinking to gain self-accountability that extends become a stronger, more

and share knowledge? beyond skills and dispositions? independent learner?