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BEHAVIORAL CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGE ECHOIC (Vocal Imitation)

Antecedent Someone's Verbal Behavior

Repeating precisely what is heard, usually immediately. A tendency to say "candy" because someone else just said it. Learner Behavior Verbal Behavior (Matches Other Learner) Reinforcer Social

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MOTOR IMITATION
Antecedent Someone's Verbal Behavior

Copying Someone's Motor Movements. A tendency to sign "candy" when someone else signs candy Learner Behavior Verbal Behavior (Matches Other Learner) Reinforcer Social

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MAND (Request)
Antecedent Desire or Motivation (EO)

Asking for Reinforcers that you want. A tendency to say "candy" when you want it, e.g. when there is an EO or motivation for it. Learner Behavior Verbal Behavior Reinforcer Specific to the EO

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TACT (label)

Naming or identifying objects, actions, events, relations, properties, etc. A tendency to say "candy" when you see candy Reinforcer Social

Antecedent Learner Behavior Non-Verbal Stimulus Verbal Behavior ______________________________________

Workshop #3: Teaching Manding: How to Capture and Contrive Motivation Adapted from Dr. Carbone Introduction to Verbal Behavior Workshop Manual. Complete references can be found at: http://www.verbalbehaviornetwork.com/Instructional/References.pdf

INTRAVERBAL

Answering "wh" questions or having a conversation so that what you say is determined by what the other person says. A tendency to say "candy when someone else says "What do you like to eat?" or something you eat is ____________. Reinforcer Social

Antecedent Someone's Verbal Behavior

Learner Behavior Verbal Behavior (Does not Match Other Learner) _________________________________________

RECEPTIVE LANGUAGE
Antecedent Someone's Verbal Behavior

Following instructions or complying with the request (mands of others). A tendency to give someone the candy after they say Give me a piece of candy Learner Behavior Non-Verbal Compliance Reinforcer Social

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RECEPTIVE BY
FEATURE, FUNCTION AND CLASS

Responding to respond to items in the environment when provided a description of them and not their "names". A tendency to point to "candy" when someone says "touch what you like to eat".

(RFFC)

Antecedent Learner Behavior Reinforcer Someone's Verbal Non-verbal Compliance Social Behavior ____________________________________________

Workshop #3: Teaching Manding: How to Capture and Contrive Motivation Adapted from Dr. Carbone Introduction to Verbal Behavior Workshop Manual. Complete references can be found at: http://www.verbalbehaviornetwork.com/Instructional/References.pdf

NOTE 1. A word is not defined by its form. The definition of a word is determined by its functional category, e.g. mand, tact, etc. 2. The same word (coffee) has many different meanings based upon the conditions under which you learned to say it. 3. Many children with autism do not have verbal repertoires that include responses in each of the categories for the same word(topography). 4. This happens because the categories are functionally independent and the responses (words) may not transfer across the categories without explicit training. For example, being able to mand a cookie by saying "cookie" does not guarantee that the same child will be able to tact (label) a cookie when the see one and there is no EO (motivation) for it. 5. A common profile of children with autism includes a large receptive repertoire, many tacts, and very few mands and almost no intraverbals. Failing to have responses in all of the categories leads to less than adequate and useful verbal repertoire. 6. This problem may be the result of instruction which failed to assess the language repertoire of the child according to the behavioral classification and then failed to recognize the need for explicit teaching. Usually the child's "cognitive abilities" and not the teaching is said to account for failure to develop spontaneous language and conversational skills.

Teach All The "Meanings"

MAND TACT ECHOIC/MIMETIC COFFEE INTRAVERBAL RECEPTIVE RFFC TEXTUAL


Workshop #3: Teaching Manding: How to Capture and Contrive Motivation Adapted from Dr. Carbone Introduction to Verbal Behavior Workshop Manual. Complete references can be found at: http://www.verbalbehaviornetwork.com/Instructional/References.pdf

BASIC VERBAL BEHAVIORS


1. THE MAND: a verbal behavior in which the form of the response is controlled by the motivational or aversive condition which determined the behavior. (Asking for food when hungry is a mand) Mands occur when Establishing Operations (EOs) are strong. For example when you are hungry or thirsty or when you really dont want to do something and therefore want to escape or avoid a situation. An establishing operation is a condition of deprivation or aversion which 1) momentarily increases the value of some reinforcer (food, attention) AND 2) increases the likelihood that all behavior which has produced the reinforcer in the past is more likely. Mands also occur when you want an activity or object you havent had in awhile (deprivation) or when you havent had attention in awhile and therefore want some. The mand is usually the first form of verbal behavior to be acquired since it may produces immediate and the specific reinforcement requested. A babys cry may be the first form of mand that develops. Persons with developmental delays tend to develop mands which are maladaptive, e.g. SIB, aggression, tantrums, screaming, etc. Teaching another mand response form, e.g. vocal or sign, may well replace these maladaptive behaviors. Establishing operations are the most important motivational variable in language training. Tacts do not transfer to mands. In other words, becausey ou can say cookie when you see one doesnt mean that you will ask for a cookie when one is not visible even though you are hungry (strong EO). The transfer occurs when taught and not as a result of a cognitive process inside the person.
Workshop #3: Teaching Manding: How to Capture and Contrive Motivation Adapted from Dr. Carbone Introduction to Verbal Behavior Workshop Manual. Complete references can be found at: http://www.verbalbehaviornetwork.com/Instructional/References.pdf

2. THE DUPLIC: Echoic and Motor Imitation (mimetic) A verbal behavior whose form is controlled by someone else's verbal behavior with 1-1 correspondence

Echoic repertoire is shaped by parents because it is useful to the


parent and others An echoic repertoire is an essential first step towards teaching more complex verbal behavior and shaping articulation Echoic repertoire develops quickly in typical children and transfers to tacting (labeling) very quickly , just a few trials. Typical adults still use the echoic repertoire to make their behavior more effective e.g. repeat complicated directions to help understand them. The echoic repertoire can usually be developed in persons with developmental delays but the behavior does not transfer to other more useful situations or occur spontaneously without training. Many persons with developmental delays are best taught motor imitation initially as a first step towards teaching sign language Sometimes time is wasted in trying to develop an echoic repertoire (vocal imitation) when motor imitation should be taught to facilitate sign language.

Workshop #3: Teaching Manding: How to Capture and Contrive Motivation Adapted from Dr. Carbone Introduction to Verbal Behavior Workshop Manual. Complete references can be found at: http://www.verbalbehaviornetwork.com/Instructional/References.pdf

3. THE TACT: A verbal behavior under the control of the nonverbal environment which includes nouns, adjectives, pronouns, actions, relations etc.

Tacts are strengthen by social reinforcement. Listeners


reinforce speakers for tacting because tacts provide useful information to them. Persons who are not susceptible to social reinforcement, e.g. persons with autism, do not readily acquire tacts during initial language training. Many teachers believe that once a person can either follow commands to touch or get items (receptive skills) and can tact objects they then possess the meaning of words and should be able to ASK for the item or TALK ABOUT the item. Many teachers believe that the inability to ask for things or talk about them once they can be tacted is an indication of the depth of the persons disability. He cant make the cognitive associations or doesnt have the cognitive processes necessary for complex language. It is the teacher who has failed to make the associations not the student. Consequently, many persons with disabilities never develop verbal behavior beyond receptive compliance and tacting even though they could under the proper teaching conditions. Every new tact does not have to be taught directly since the process of tact extension occurs. For example, the ability to identify all books as books after having been taught to tact only a few books.

Workshop #3: Teaching Manding: How to Capture and Contrive Motivation Adapted from Dr. Carbone Introduction to Verbal Behavior Workshop Manual. Complete references can be found at: http://www.verbalbehaviornetwork.com/Instructional/References.pdf

4. THE INTRAVERBAL: A Verbal behavior which is under the control of other verbal behavior and is strengthened by social reinforcement. For example, a tendency to say apple when asked to name a fruit.

Intraverbal behavior allows a person to talk about objects or


events even when they are not present. Conversations are examples of Intraverbal behavior. Nursery rhymes, counting by rote, and saying the alphabet are all examples of intraverbal behavior we learn as young typically developing children. As we get older, the acquisition of this repertoire allows us to learn about science, politics, psychology, etc. Many persons with developmental delays do not have strong intraverbal repertoires. They have strong receptive skills and tact skills but not Intraverbal or mand repertoires. Many linguistic language training programs emphasize receptive skills and tacting and do not directly teach intraverbals skills. Many persons with developmental delays are able to touch a picture of bike when asked to find the bike (Receptive Skill) will say bike when asked what is this? (Tact) But, wont be able to ask for a bike when he/she wants to ride on, (Mand) or Won't be able to say bike when asked What has two wheels? (Intraverbal) The reality is, if a person has a strong tact repertoire albeit small, the intraverbal repertoire can be developed very quickly. The argument teachers use against teaching this conversational repertoire to persons with developmental delays is He wont understand what he is saying anyway.


1. 2. 3. 4.

Workshop #3: Teaching Manding: How to Capture and Contrive Motivation Adapted from Dr. Carbone Introduction to Verbal Behavior Workshop Manual. Complete references can be found at: http://www.verbalbehaviornetwork.com/Instructional/References.pdf

MAND TRAINING
1. Manding is verbal behavior that produces immediate benefit for the learner and therefore strengthens it. 2. Development of a strong manding repertoire may be essential for the development of all other types of verbal behavior, e.g. tacting, intraverbal, etc. 3. Manding teaches a child that verbal behavior is valuable; the other repertoires teach what to say once the learner wants to talk. 4. This is the first repertoire learned by all children, e.g. children cry when they are hungry and as a result they receive food. Eventually the child learns to say words to ask for different things which are reinforcing. 5. By teaching a mand repertoire you may replace many problem behaviors. 6. It is unlikely that you will be able to develop a verbal behavior repertoire in an early learner by just requiring the child to label items or talk about things. 7. It is imperative that you begin teaching the child to ask for his or her strongest reinforcers. 8. In addition, teach mands at times when the motivation is the greatest for the item or activity. These times will change from moment to moment, day to day, week to week, etc. so it will be important to be flexible so that you teach manding at a time when the motivation is greatest.

Workshop #3: Teaching Manding: How to Capture and Contrive Motivation Adapted from Dr. Carbone Introduction to Verbal Behavior Workshop Manual. Complete references can be found at: http://www.verbalbehaviornetwork.com/Instructional/References.pdf

PROMPT AND PROMPT FADE PROCEDURES FOR TEACHING MANDS


SIGN - MAND PROMPTS Physical (full and partial)-------------------------Move hands Gestural (demonstration)------------------------Demonstrate sign Vocal (Echoic)------------------------------------- Name of Sr+ Item or activity reinforcer is present---------- Item is present Motivation is strong------------------------------- Child wants Sr+ Fade prompts to: Motivation is strong CHILD SIGNS SPONTANEOUSLY

VOCAL- MAND PROMPTS Vocal (Echoic)-----------------------------------------Name of Sr+ Item is Present----------------------------------------Item is present Motivation is strong----------------------------------Child wants Sr+ Fade prompts to: Motivation is strong CHILD ASKS SPONTANEOUSLY

Workshop #3: Teaching Manding: How to Capture and Contrive Motivation Adapted from Dr. Carbone Introduction to Verbal Behavior Workshop Manual. Complete references can be found at: http://www.verbalbehaviornetwork.com/Instructional/References.pdf

RULES FOR TEACHING MANDING


1. Teaching must occur in the natural and everyday environment where the motivation is typically strong. 2. Capture and contrive as many opportunities per day to teach mands. Set a goal of hundreds of mands per day across many reinforcers, teachers and settings for early learners. 3. Count the number of mands, prompted and unprompted, per day and graph your results. 4. Prompt the mands initially to teach the child that it is easy to get things with verbal behavior and so as to not turn the child off to communicating by requiring a difficult response at first. 5. Get the best quality response with the least amount of prompting. 6. Practice teaching mands so that your are skilled in how and when to reinforce, what approximations to accept, what level of prompt to provide and how to fade the prompts as quickly as possible. 7. Consistency in methods across trainers is essential and lots of opportunities for generalization. 8. An orderly and progressive curriculum must be in place.

Workshop #3: Teaching Manding: How to Capture and Contrive Motivation Adapted from Dr. Carbone Introduction to Verbal Behavior Workshop Manual. Complete references can be found at: http://www.verbalbehaviornetwork.com/Instructional/References.pdf

WHAT I WILL DO WHEN I GET HOME Teaching Mands 1. I will place heavy emphasis upon manding so that my child has many opportunities, e.g. hundreds, per day to mand a variety of reinforcers. 2. I will review the echoic-mand teaching procedure and will practice transferring my childs ability to echo to mands for reinforcers. I will practice the methods of prompting and fading prompts. 3. I will develop a plan using some of the forms provided to contrive many not so obvious opportunities to mand each day. I will capture motivation at different times during the day, e.g. meals, bath time, etc. to increase mand. 4. I will train everyone who works or interacts with my child to capture and contrive the motivation to teach mands across all learning and social environments. 5. I will use the ABLLS assessment to guide the types of mands I teach.
Workshop #3: Teaching Manding: How to Capture and Contrive Motivation Adapted from Dr. Carbone Introduction to Verbal Behavior Workshop Manual. Complete references can be found at: http://www.verbalbehaviornetwork.com/Instructional/References.pdf