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Operations Management Assignment Dominos LLC

Prepared by Group 8 Achyut Gandham Anuj Wilson Biranchi Tripathy Sudarshan Garg Wisallaya Thaithammayanon Zafar Shah

MBA Challum 2011/12 9th December 2011 Word Count 5,970

Operations Management Assignment

Table of Contents
Table of Contents ............................................................................................................. i 1 2 Executive Summary ............................................................................................... Operations Strategy ............................................................................................... 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 8 9 10 10 13 13 13 14 16 17 17
i

2.1 Introduction............................................................................................................... 2.2 Corporate Vision ...................................................................................................... 2.3 Global Strategic objectives ...................................................................................... 2.4 Order qualifiers, Order winners................................................................................ 2.5 The Core Competencies of Dominos ...................................................................... 2.6 The Value Chain ...................................................................................................... 2.7 Product value chain ................................................................................................. 2.8 Operations Strategy Implications (Store Level) .......................................................

2.9 Competitor Analysis ............................................................................................... Figure 7 Dominos versus its Competitors (UK) .............................................................. 3 Product & Service Design ...................................................................................

3.1 Introduction............................................................................................................. 3.2 Product Life Cycle .................................................................................................. 3.3 Failed Product and Product Re-design: ................................................................ 3.4 Operations Challenge of the Product/Service Mix ................................................ 4 Process Design ....................................................................................................

4.1 Product Service Continuum ...................................................................................


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4.2 The Conversion Process........................................................................................ 4.3 The Production Process.........................................................................................

17 19

4.3.1 Store Layout .. 23 4.4 Suggested Areas of Improvement ......................................................................... 24

4.4.1 Process .. 24 4.4.2 Store and Production Layout .. 25 25

4.5 Proposed Improvements ........................................................................................

4.5.1 Process 25 4.5.2 Store Layout .. 25 5 5.1 Planning and Control ........................................................................................... Goldratt s Theory of Constraints (TOC) applied to Dominos: ............................... 26 26 27 27 29 29

5.2 Demand Forecasting

..............................................................................................

5.3 Promotions Planning .............................................................................................. 6 Innovation and Improvements............................................................................

6.1 Paradigm Innovation .............................................................................................. 6.1.1 Radical innovation: Need pull 6.2 Position Innovation

..29 30

.................................................................................................

6.2.1 Radical innovation: Eureka moment

..30 30

6.3 Process Innovation ................................................................................................ 6.3.1 Radical innovation: Need Pull & Eureka moment 6.3.2 Incremental innovation: Need Pull

30

. 30 30

6.4 Product Innovation ................................................................................................. 6.4.1 Radical innovation: Eureka moment


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6.4.2 Incremental innovation: Need pull: Knowledge push 7

..30 31 31 31 33 34 34 34 34 35 36

Supply Chain Management .................................................................................

7.1 Introduction............................................................................................................. 7.2 Dominos Supply Chain .......................................................................................... 7.3 Critic and recommendations .................................................................................. 8 Quality Management ............................................................................................

8.1 Introduction............................................................................................................. 8.2 Quality Assurance and Quality Control.................................................................. 8.3 Critic and recommendations .................................................................................. 9 10 Conclusion and Recommendations .................................................................. References ............................................................................................................

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1 Executive Summary
This report has been prepared to analyse the processes and strategies such as control of operations systems, design and planning of Dominos LLC. Theoretical frameworks have been applied to evaluate the company s operational strategy in terms of it product and service offering. While the report considers Dominos L overall strategy, it also focuses on the daily operations of Dominos DPG franchises. Particular focus has been placed on the daily operations processes of the Dominos store located on Alexandra Parade in Glasgow, UK. The report is a result of team research, case study analysis, a store visit, interviews and insights from Dominos existing employees, application of theoretical concepts, models and prior experience.

LC s

The study evaluates how Dominos has been able to position itself as a leader in its market segment and analyses the strengths and weakness in the company s existing strategy. Upon dissecting various aspects of the company s processes, it provides an appreciation of the company s efforts to continuo usly evolve in the changing market conditions by incorporating new product design and being innovative to stay at par with its competition. in the company s existing strategy, Finally, upon identifying the areas of improvement the report proposes changes and recommendations that can be incorporated in order to further ensure operational efficiency thereby maximizing profits and increasing its value offering.

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2 Operations Strategy
2.1 Introduction Dominos is one the leading pizza delivery companies globally. The Company has a unique business and operation model and is a pioneer in the fast food industry. Since 1960, Dominos Pizza has successfully expanded from three outlets in the US to 9,350 stores operating in seventy countries. Dominos operation in the UK and overseas uses the franchise model. The parent company, Dominos Pizza LLC is head quartered in Michigan, USA. It maintains overall control on the sourcing and supplying of raw materials to the master franchises and enforces quality of the service and products sold. Figure 1 show the structure of the Dominos franchise model in the UK.

Dominos Pizza LLC


Master Franchise

SubFranchisees

SubFranchisees Sub-Franchisees

Figure 1: Domino's Franchise Model: UK

2.2 Corporate Vision The Dominos Corporate Vision statement focuses on the following key areas: Being better than the competition. Ensuring a quality product. Providing excellent service. Creating lasting relationships with its employees and the communities within which it operates.

Passionate about winning Passionate about Service

Passionate about Quality

Passionate about relationships

Figure 2 Corporate Vision: Dominos

A clear corporate vision ensures that the company and its franchises can work towards meeting common goals thereby increasing its business in a potentially virtuous cycle. Figure 2 show the graphical representation of the Dominos Vision. The
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overall global vision translates into specifics at a country level in a seamless manner so that the overall strategic vision is kept in mind at all times. 2.3 Global Strategic objectives Strategic objectives adhere to strategic objectives are:

the company s vision statement

, D ominos key

competitors. Targeted international growth Menu expansion, vary price points, 24 hour delivery model competitors. Use Company owned stores in the US and Australia as a test bed for new innovations IT Strategy. Increase investment in training and auditing of stores to provide a consistent Human Resource Strategy. service and good quality of products Allow master franchisees to apply their knowledge of the local market and cuisines Knowledge Management Strategy. 2.4 Order qualifiers, Order winners Order qualifiers are the basic criteria the product meets to quality for selling. Order winners are the criteria that win the customers when it comes to purchasing. Figure 3 shows the order qualifiers and order winning criteria s for Dominos .

Order Qualifiers for a customer ordering take away : Convenient : Tasty : Quick : Cheap

Potential Order losers : Inconsistent taste : Delay in delivery : Poor quality of food : Pricing at a premium

Order Winners for Dominos : Core competency on Delivery : Consistent quality : Delivered with no delays : Wide variety on menu : Tasty

Figure 3 Order Winner and Order Qualifiers: Dominos

2.5 The Core Competencies of Dominos Dominos core competencies have evolved over time. Their unique sets of strengths have helped the Company dominate the pizza food service industry, and a leader in the home delivery / take away.

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Unique Supply chain model : Better quality & consistency

Focussed on the core competency of delivery

Dominos Competitive advantage - Global leader in Pizza take away / home delivery

Unique GLOBAL model: Allows flexibility at the regional level

Leaner Stores : Better operating margins

Figure 4 Core Competencies: Dominos

2.6 The Value Chain It is important to consider how a customer need drives Dominos to create the product. The customer need that drives the entire value chain is the need for a dependable take away restaurant, reasonably priced hot quality food and variety that suits the local palette. Dominos has focused on these key customer needs throughout the value chain, and has not allowed any digressions in this area unlike other competitors who have evolved a mixed model of full service restaurants and takeaway outlets, or a hybrid combination of both. This has diluted their strengths in the segment Dominos focuses on - Takeaway / Home delivery. Its global operational model allows for lean stores, well-trained staff and flexibility at a country level to customise menus to suit customer tastes. Operational requirements have prompted the use of technology to make the they were the first to customer experience more enriching, it has a history of firsts use TV as a distribution channel, an online tracking system that allows customers to track the pizza order and a proprietary point of sale system. A combination of the Company level strategy and the Operational Strategy has resulted in Dominos having these strategies have a reputation for reliability and consistent pizza quality) ensured that Dominos continues to meet its customer needs.

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Process Flow & Infrastructure : Seamless from the customers point of view, centrally located stores

Customer Need : Dependable takeaway restaurant : Hot Food delivered reliably

Global Strategy : Franchise model, Lean Stores, Investment in Staff, Robust quality control

Operational Strategy : Innovative use of technology to ease the transaction, Well trained staff with local knowledge

Figure 5 Customer Value Chain: Dominos

2.7 Product value chain Figure 6 illustrates Porters model, which depicts Dominos operations as a collection of value-adding activities. The five primary activities are processes that are mainly concerned with the production of the products and services to the external customers. These are necessary to the business processes. The activities indicated as support activities are activities that are vital for the development of the appropriate transforming resources. These can be looked as value adding activities, for instance incorporating the use of technology such as being able to place orders by text message add to the convenience Dominos provides and increases the accuracy of order. All these constitute the business processes of the organization.

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Operations Management Assignment

Figure 6 Product Value Chain: Dominos

2.8 Operations Strategy Implications (Store Level) Dominos operations strategy mainly focuses on the providing high service quality to the customer: 1.Minimize operations cost: To minimize the operating cost by improving the efficiencies and process at the stores. 2.Strategic store locations to facilitate the delivery service: To leverage the strategic location of the store in order to facilitate quick service to the customer and maximize the revenue. 3.Production oriented store designs: To utilize the production oriented store design in order to facilitate efficient production and quick service to the customer. 4.Efficient order taking, production and delivery: To execute an efficient operational process that includes order taking, pizza preparation, cooking, boxing and delivery. 5. Use of Domino s PULSE point -of-sale system: Use of Dominos PULSE system to improve operating efficiencies, provide corporate management with easy access to financial and marketing data and reduce time consumption and expenses. 6.Product and process innovations: To promote an innovative culture that increases both quality and efficiency. 7.A focused menu: To maintain a focused menu that is designed to present an attractive quality offering to customers, while minimizing order errors, and expediting the order taking and food preparation processes. 8.A comprehensive store operations evaluation program: To utilize a comprehensive store audit program to ensure that stores are meeting both as the expectations of the customers.

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2.9 Competitor Analysis

Brand Shares of Chained 100% HD/TA


80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Figure 7 Dominos versus its Competitors (UK)

1. Dominos DPG is the leading player in home-delivery and take-away food services in the UK region (Figure 7). It has the highest market share when John s over the last five compared to other food outlets such as Yum! and Papa years. This is a huge contribution in sales due to the fact that no other pizza companies offer delivery as fast as Dominos (Order-qualifying criteria).

Figure 8: Dominos versus its Competitors (Global)


th among all the top food chains in world. 2. From a global perspective, it ranks 12 Other snacks joints and coffee shops are a long way ahead. Figure 8 shows that

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Dominos needs to implement some new strategies in order to rank itself higher relative with other food chains.

Figure 9 Performance Prioritizing Curve

The Slack Model of Performance Prioritizing (Figure 9) would help Dominos in prioritizing its operational strategies based on the order-winning criteria and the current issues it faces in relation to the competition. Dominos invests in promotional strategy to a greater extent A. Excess zone as compared to other food chain outlets. It offers many discount coupons to attract customers. Discount offers do help to some extent in attracting customers but too many discount and promotions tend to lower the brand image. So Dominos need to cut down some expenses in that section which will not affect its sales. B. Appropriate zone Dominos has got an excellent unmatched home delivery service through which it stays ahead of its riv als. The 30 -minute luxury of Dominos has given the brand a strong image among the customers. This gives Dominos a clear balance between its competitors and customers. C. Improve zone Dominos need to improve its product quality in order to maintain reputed. It needs to emphasize on the pizza quality and prioritizing all aspects that relate to the customer. For example, Pizza Hut specifies the calories consumption in each pizza as illustrated in Figure 10. This reflects the brand concern for the customer. So Dominos should also initiate some measures which would foster the emotional connect ionto its customers .

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Figure 10 Comparison to competition

In order to increase the service to customers, D. Urgent action zone Dominos should ensure speedy delivery of pizzas to customers. For this, Dominos need to work on its existing process design. There should be enough space and staff for service and extra machines to handle any machinery failure during peak periods.

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3 Product & Service Design


3.1 Introduction Dominos has positioned and established itself as the pioneer in the pizza delivery service. Pizza comprises the company s core product with additional items such as subs, chicken strips/bites, wings, garlic bread and potatoes wedges. A fair degree of flexibility is available where customers can customize their pizza and can choose to purchase combos thereby provid ing better value for money. Additional items such as soft drinks accompany these choices. Dominos has successfully implemented this concept of mass customization by catering to customer s individual needs through unique combinations of modular components. Dominos standard product and services offering is universal across the world quality pizza delivery in approximately thirty minutes. Across all geographical regions, the target segment is a cost conscious consumer whose prime concern is convenience. It is useful to analyse the company s product performance and use it to evaluate how successful the product has been, this sets the stage for Dominos product redesign. 3.2 Product Life Cycle

Idea Generation phase - The concept of pizza had been around for a while and was adopted by Dominos in the 1960s. It started from USA and then established its stores in UK and other parts of the world, which were controlled by the USA headquarters. Concept Development phase - The concept of pizza took a concrete hold in the market. Local franchisees took over the existing stores in UK. There was a paradigm shift as the online ordering and interactive TV ordering replaced the traditional methods. This period witnesses a substantial rise in sales. Production phase - The existing pizza phenomena continued for two decades until there was a sudden decline in sales in 2009. "The fact is, we love our pizza, but as times change, so do consumer tastes," said Russell Weiner, Domino's Chief Marketing Officer. Service -There was nearly 80% change in existing menu. New items like ovenbaked sandwiches and crunch cakes were introduced to the stores. The 30 minute delivery doctrine was highly stressed upon. Also, Dominos launched new pizza -tracker to maximize its services. iPhone apps and the Withdrawal Since the new consumers needed freshness in Dominos menu. The company addressed this decline in sale by analyzing its failed product and re-designing its core product. Figure 11 below show the breakdown of product life cycle at Dominos.

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Figure 11 Evolution of Dominos

3.3 Failed Product and Product Re-design: A good example of how Dominos re-designed its core product is to look at a how the company dealt with its core product failing in the past. It was a bold move for the company to a publically acknowledge that their pizza tasted bad. Additionally it is refreshing to see a corporation openly acknowledge shortcomings and use customer feedback constructively to revise their strategy and approach. In an effort to design their core competency, the company reconfigured its recipe. They tested several combinations of cheeses, sauces and crust to finally arrive at a recipe that was welcomed by the public. It is useful to note that the end customer was heavily involved in the process of the product being re-designed and influenced the outcome largely. This approach of using customer feedback can be credited the company witnessing an increase in sales following the redesigning of their product. Figure 12 and Table 1 iterate this.

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Figure 12 New Product Development

Customer Role NPD Phase Key Issue/Managerial Challenge Customer as resource Ideation Select customer opinion to develop new product Market researchers collect customer information by studying customer buying patterns and using tools such as customer surveys and focus groups. Gather customer opinion that is utilized in the design and development task. Set new product approach along with core competency of the company. Product development team works on exploratory project by mixing component and taste test. Blind taste test to ensure taste and quality compared to competitor.

Customer as cocreator

Design and development

Customer as user Product testing

Product support

Work with advertising agency to present new product and development and do a road show with franchisees. Get feedback from customer and support customer interaction

Table 1 Product Re-design using the customer feedback

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3.4 Operations Challenge of the Product/Service Mix Outside the US, Dominos does not have any corporate stores. There are over 4,500 franchised stores. This one aspect can pose as a problem. The Youtube video that surfaced in 2009 illustrates how employees can tarnish an employer s reputation and eventually sales. The video showed two Domino employees violating numerous health codes standards in a Dominos store. To make matters worse one of the employees has a criminal record. Better hiring practises and enforcing a stringent code of ethics will help the company deal with issues such as these. Additionally the thirty minutes delivery guarantee that was initially introduced but later cancelled due to a relatively high incidence of accidents. This is an example of a service delivery challenge the company faced. Recognizing that the thirty-minute delivery was an attractive option for the customer, Dominos reintroduced the concept, however allowing itself some leeway and positioning it as a gift to the customer.

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4 Process Design
4.1 Product Service Continuum Dominos as an entity is rather unique in that it straddles both the product based supported by a service package and Service based with a product element in the Product-Service continuum.

Product Based supported by a service package - The Product (Pizza) not only needs to be manufactured acurately, it needs to be delivered to the end customer within a specified amount of time and in optimal conditions

Service Based with product element The Customer buys into a service which delivers an end product in the form of a Pizza

Figure 13 Product Service Continuum: Dominos

4.2 The Conversion Process The value conversion process has tangible and intangible elements, with the customer being present in important stages in the value chain. With the introduction of open kitchens, the customer who is waiting for his / her takeaway is a part of the entire experience right from the time the order placement to the food consumption.

Transforming Resources (1) Staff (2) Kitchen Equipment

Transformed resources (1) Ingredients (2) Recipies

Product Pizza's & other food items

Figure 14 The Conversion Process: Dominos

Operations Management Assignment

Dominos is also in a unique position when it comes to the product they manufacture: Volume : High volume the overall volume justifies modern kitchens and trained staff who operate the kitchen and the front desk. Variety: While the overall products are standard (pizzas), the customers might, based on their own preferences ask for certain toppings to be added or removed which means the system needs to cope and be flexible. Variation in demand : The order volume peaks during lunch and dinner times. Alternatively, there are periods in the day where the demand is low. Degree of visibility : This varies from very high to low, given the open kitchen format that Dominos has adopted, a customer choosing the takeaway format has full visibility of the production process while a customer choosing the home delivery option has no visibility until such time the product reaches his doorstep. Dominos has chosen a unique Product / Service mix that reflect in the production line method the company follows.

Figure 15 Volume Variety Mix: Assembly Line: Dominos Challum Group 8 18

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Given that the pizzas and other items need to be prepared with a high degree of consistency, Dominos has chosen to use the assembly line approach to produce its pizzas, while at the same time they have retained the flexibility of a batch flow process. Essentially, the production process at a Dominos kitchen utilizes the consistency and efficiencies that comes from using an assembly line approach while retaining the flexibility that comes from adopting a batch type manufacturing process. It is useful to note that using the assembly line approach also gives a Dominos outlet the flexibility to meet higher volumes during peak hours. Dominos calls the assembly line the make line . 4.3 The Production Process The production process is very streamlined and structured - from the order placement to the final delivery to the end customer. Step 1: The customer initiates the order. It could be through the phone, internet or a walk-in to the restaurant.

Figure 16 Dominos: Order Taking

Step 2: The Dominos representative takes the order and enters it into the Dominos PULSE system (a proprietary system that streamlines the order taking process). The PULSE system increases efficiencies at a store level. The key functions of this system are: (a) Touch screen ordering: Improves order taking accuracy and efficiency especially during busy periods. (b) Delivery driver routing system: Improves delivery efficiency. (c) Improved MIS capabilities.
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Step 3: The order displayed on the screen on the assembly line along w specifications.

ith the customer s

Figure 17 Dominos: Assembly Line

Step 4: One of the team members in the assembly line picks up the work order, prepares the dough and applies the sauce and cheese accordingly. Step 5: In the next step of the make line another team member add amount of toppings, and then places it into the oven. the appropriate type /

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Figure 18 Dominos: Oven Baking

Step 6: After the allotted baking time, a third member of staff removes the pizza from the oven, and places it in a box (which has the order type & number displayed to ensure accuracy of delivery). The pizza is then ready for delivery.

Figure 19 Packing: Dominos

Step 7: The pizza box is put into a hot-bag and is dispatched through a delivery driver or handed out for collection by the waiting customer.
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The following figures further illustrate various aspects of Dominos operations. Figure below establishes the entire value chain until delivery.

Order Placed

Phone Web Collecti on

Assembly Line

Pizza Personal Small Medium Large Side Orders Chicken Strips Chicken Dunkers Potato Wedges Chicken Wings Drinks Icecreams

Cook in g

Placed in Oven

Pa ck i ng

Personal Box Small Box Medium Box Large Box Side Orders Boxes

Sa l e s

Delivery Collection

Master Franchise Support Services

Dough production, ingredients and equipment purchasing and supply, training, operations, IT, marketing, PR, finance, HR, property, franchise sales, leasing, transport, warehousing and administration.

Figure 20 Process Flow Design: Dominos

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Figure 21 diagram establishes the volume based positioning of Dominos:

Figure 21 Volume Based Positioning: Dominos

4.3.1 Store Layout:

Dominos adopts a process dominated store layout wherein common processes are clubbed together as the product moves between stations. The integrated floor plan at most Dominos stores facilitate the movement of products and team members between stations to manage capacity during peak hours and minimize bottlenecks. The store layout is designed to cope with the average peak hour movement of goods and people. The storage area is setup to stock the ingredients for three days. The layout design enables the optimal use of space and equipment thereby enhancing the skills and efficiency of the team members, it also allows them to adapt to different level of production. Dominos also ensures that the health and safety norms are adhered to in order to maintain safe working conditions for the staff. The standardization of the surface materials for the interiors across all its stores in UK provides a comfortable environment for the staff and the customer and enforces the brand image. A typical Dominos store layout includes the following: Reception, Assembly Line, Oven Packing area, Office, Cold Storage, and Washing Area. Figure 22 shows the typical layout of the Dominos Store.
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Storage

Washing Area

Cold Storage Office Oven Assembly Line

Packing Area / Ready for Delivery are

Reception

Waiting Area

Figure 22 Typical Store Layout: Dominos

4.4 Suggested Areas of Improvement 4.4.1 Process: One of the common problems faced at the Domino s make line is that by its nature, the line is not balanced, and this is because of two factors: (1) Time taken for each activity is not the same. (2) Since the process is not automated, individual efficiencies of team members results in an uneven flow of work. The above two reasons tend to cause inefficiencies in the make line and results in bottlenecks, especially during peak hours in the evenings. Another major concern facing the local Glasgow franchise is that the drivers are not equipped a GPS based navigation system, efficient on-time deliveries are primarily dependent on the topographical knowledge of the individual drivers and once again, it is left to an ind ividual s capabilities to ensure on time deliveries, which account for 70% of the total sales.

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4.4.2 Store and Production Layout: While the typical dimensions of the floor enhance efficiency and facilitate optimum usage of floor space, serious health and safety hazards exist for team members working in close proximity to the oven - there have been cases of severe burns. A detailed interview with some of the stores employees who have requested for anonymity indicates that this hazard peaks during the busiest hours. The store we visited was the busiest Dominos in Scotland as it handled sales for both Central & Eastern Glasgow (in terms of sales / and number of units produced), so clearly there quite literally is space for improvem ent - the store might want to provide more space around the oven. It is understood that the given the limited space only one oven with two conveyor belts can be accommodated. This creates a serious bottleneck when the conveyor belts of the oven fail or if the oven breaks down. Primary investigation suggests that during peak hours the demand is significantly higher than the capacity of the oven resulting in severe delay in service times. Additionally, there is no dedicated parking for the delivery driver in the proximity of the store. This results in illegal parking in the loading areas in front of the store and the Co-op Parking. This creates serious hazardous conditions for the drivers and other road users in the proximity for the store with series legal implications. 4.5 Proposed Improvements 4.5.1 Process: The assembly lines need automation in order to remove the inefficiencies caused by the manual movement of products along the assembly line. The provisions of mobile phone with blue tooth headset and navigation system would enable a reduction in the delivery times, and thus driving up overall efficiencies. 4.5.2 Store Layout: The store space needs restructuring to create more space for movement of goods and people especially during peak hours. Consideration should be given to the idea of separating the operations of the Dominos store for Central Glasgow and Eastern Glasgow to manage the demand. The oven needs to be re-located to make it safer for the team members to work in the area. This is especially important from health and safety point of view during busy hours. The parking for the dominos delivery drivers should be clearly marked. The drivers must be restricted from using the loading area to eliminate the potential hazardous conditions. Given these changes to the store structure, and operational aspects, we believe that the store can create a healthier, more efficient atmosphere within the store, and drive up efficiencies across the value chain.

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5 Planning and Control


5.1 Goldratts Theory o f Constraints (TOC) applied to Dominos: The maximum capacity of baking pizzas simultaneously is 24, which is a bottleneck in case of getting a bulk order, or during peak demand. In case of excess demand on one outlet, the load should be shared with the nearest outlet. In case the load is persistently high on a particular outlet, then the baking capacity should be upgraded.

Figure 23 Production Constraints: Dominos Store

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Figure 24 Dominos Demand Strategy

5.2 Demand Forecasting Dominos uses the Prescient distribution -planning suite for its inventory and demand planning (forecasting). With the help of Prescient, Dominos created a solution called Matched receipts to demand module which maximizes their overall supply chain efficiency by facilitating lean operations. The prescient-planning suite monitors inventory and determines when a distribution centre needs a product. It optimizes the orders by looking at the minimum material required for each product, based on the existing inventory levels at the distribution centre. requests from its retail stores through the company s The planning suite receives PeopleSoft Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system; it aggregates these requests to establish replenishment requirements. It also considers any constraints such as dollar amount per purchase order the next order is then based on the prior order. 5.3 Promotions Planning The Prescient-planning tool manages promotions, which substantially increase the supply chain demand for certain products. Dominos plans promotional forecasts by looking at 4 months of historical and internal information. The Prescient system contains a library of promotion profiles and real-time analysis of the current period, and can overlay new knowledge from the corporate
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marketing department that is likely to influence the new promotion. Based on this data, it provides recommendations for promotion adjustments.

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6 Innovation and Improvements


Over the last 50 years, Dominos has innovated many new products and processes hence increasing its quality and efficiency. The company has developed its innovative approaches in four main areas: Paradigm Innovation Position Innovation Process Innovation Product innovation As shown in the Figure 25 below, each of these are at times a combination of Market based, Eureka and Resource Based sources of innovation. Each area is examined in detail below.

Figure 25 Innovation: Dominos

6.1 Paradigm Innovation 6.1.1 Radical innovation: Need pull This is one of the radical innovations the company incorporated. Expansion of the business created a need for the company to develop its own system of supply chain, which is explored in detail under the Supply Chain section of the vertically integrated. This topic is report. This shift of operating procedures can be looked at as a need pull factor. Simply

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put, the need for a new more effective innovation approaches to save cost and time resulted in this strategy. 6.2 Position Innovation 6.2.1 Radical innovation: Eureka moment This innovation is another radical approach where Dominos invented the three dimensional car top signs. Being the first to this invent this marketing technique was a eureka moment for Dominos. Due to its viral marketing effects, Dominos is able to reach out to various customer bases and position itself as a highly recognized pizza delivery brand. 6.3 Process Innovation 6.3.1 Radical innovation: Need Pull & Eureka moment The Company has developed several innovative approaches in their processes. The need for more efficient and multi- functional tools resulted in the development of the Spoodle which is a saucing tool that combines a spoon and a ladle. Their eureka innovation was the introduction of the mesh screen that helped cooked the pizza crust more evenly. In addition to this, the need to be the more attractive option in the market resulted in the 30minute delivery guarantee. Again, Dominos were the first to come up with innovative approaches like these. Thirdly, the company improved the routing software for Dominos delivery vehicles further cutting costs and delivery time. All these approaches stemmed from the need to outperform the competition in terms of quality, cut costs and operate more efficiently. 6.3.2 Incremental innovation: Need Pull Dominos has also successfully incorporated incremental innovations such as online ordering with additional feature like a Pizza Tracker and Pizza builder (available in certain locations), smart phone apps through which customers can place their order and text message order placing. Additionally the Out of the door time concept was introduced the time it takes between new orders being placed online or in store and the ready to eat pizza leaving the store en route to the customer reduced from 17 minutes to 13 minutes. 6.4 Product Innovation 6.4.1 Radical innovation: Eureka moment Another radical innovation was applied to Dominos product. The Corrugated pizza box protects the pizza from physical damage, weakening due to moisture, and prevents cheese from sticking to the top during delivery. The latest Heat Wave bags have a patented insulation system that keeps pizzas both hot and crisp. 6.4.2 Incremental innovation: Need pull: Knowledge push The need for incremental innovation was developed by creating a dependency between two previously unrelated variables price and delivery time thereby creating a high value proposition for the customer. The Company has also expanded its core product to include products such as Cheesy bread and Cinna Stix, Domino s Oven Baked Sandwiches, etc. This expansion is credited to the knowledge push Dominos has in relation to the product offering.
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7 Supply Chain Management


7.1 Introduction Dominos Pizza has adopted the Make-to-Stock Approach for its Supply Chain Management. The company supply chain is supports lean production and is based on just in time stock management and stock control. 7.2 Dominos Supply Chain Dominos has an innovative supply chain model that ensures all purchases are managed centrally across all franchises around the world. The core entity, which runs the supply a fully owned subsidiary which chain network is called Dominos supply chain services supplies the dough, raw materials (the condiments, and ingredients that go into the food products), the kitchen equipment / machinery. This entity supplies to all the master franchises advantages: effectively giving the company a few key

(1) With a centralized buying department, the company is able to leverage its buying power, and is able to negotiate the best costs for its purchases. This also ensures purchases on a scale which makes suppliers want to tie into the Dominos supply chain services. For instance Coca-Cola is integrated into Dominos supply chain network, and is seen more as a partner rather than a supplier; this was made possible because centrally Dominos has agreed to only sell Coca-Cola products at all its outlets around the world. (2) Consistency and Quality of products across the board- Since the sourcing is centralized, this ensures consistent quality of food products used, and similar machines / kitchen equipment that make training easy for staff.

(3) Economies of scale: Dominos is also able to use its large buying power to hedge better costs when commodity prices fluctuate, it also gives it a better bargaining power with suppliers.

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Farmers

Producers

Dominos Commissaries

Store s C
(4)

Store s C C
Figure 22 Supply Chain Model

Store s C C

Store s C

Even at a master franchisee level, Dominos has been able to standardise and centralise the supply chain services. Taking the UK s supply chain as an example, we look at the country level supply chain works: (1) All the raw materials and food stuffs (dough, ingredients) are prepared at a central commissary in the UK located at Milton Keynes. (2) The commissary, then supplies to distribution centers which are located in Milton Keynes, Penrith and Nass. (3) The distribution centers then supply to the individual stores once in 3 days (to it could be on a more need basis, and this is tracked by ensure a JIT philosophy) the PULSE system which keeps track of stocks at an individual store level.

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Figure 23 Supply Chain at a Country Level

7.3 Critic and recommendations It is useful to note that the stores have faced issues w ith stock of dough, side orders and packing boxes when the demand has exceeded the predicted demand in the past. It also needs a stock check on a daily basis to arrive at the quantity for the next order. A more sophisticated and comprehensive stock management and control tool to enable store to predict the demand and manage its stock is highly recommended.

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8 Quality Management
8.1 Introduction Quality of products and service is very essential to for Dominos to maintain its brand image and reputation as a company that serves quality products; this becomes even more critical unhealthy food. considering the fact that pizza is often stereotyped as an 8.2 Quality Assurance and Quality Control Dominos owns its own supply chain network, 99% of its Master franchises source their ingredients and other requirements from this entity, these are then stocked at central commissaries, which then distribute the items needed to the smaller franchises / stores directly on a 3 day basis, hence reducing the need for stockpiling of resources, and ensuring a JIT type set-up. This central control on supplies ensures consistency is maintained in all the raw materials that go into the food produced by the restaurants. Dominos Pizza Group has a documented Supplier Approval Proced ure in place. Dominos is in agreement with all suppliers of food ingredients and packaging to a detailed product specification for the products supplied. This is reviewed by a Food Technologist to ensure that the product is safe, legal and consistently of high quality. Dominos ensures that all food products are risk assessed and their production is either audited by Food Technologist or is certified to the BRC Global Standard for Food Safety. A database of Domino s approved products and suppliers is mainta ined. Suppliers are continually assessed in various ways. Quality checks carried out on delivery, samples sent for analysis or feedback received from stores or consumers. 8.3 Critic and recommendations Dominos has some high quality standards for the food, however when it comes to service it does very little to ensure the quality of service, a more robust approach to ensuring quality of customer service is recommended to maintain, build customer loyalty.

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9 Conclusion and Recommendations


Based on our study of Dominos operations, and its global operating model summarize that Dominos is currently in a state of flux. we

As a company, Dominos has in the past shown resilience and an ability to innovate in the face of competition, but this has been more push-based rather then pull-based. Dominos has shown the ability to innovate but it has been more as a catch -up and not as a more intuitive customer led change. The reworking of the recipe in the US market in 2009 was a brilliant test case in a company reacting to change, and Dominos had to do this because it was losing market share to other competitors, and there was consistent negative feedback from US customers on the poor quality of its pizzas. Dominos needs to drive changes more intuitive and customer led, rather than use one successful operating model in an unchanged manner, it needs to make adjustments to it when needed rather than just go in for one overall revamp. Dominos also seems to be diluting its core proposition, which is: (1) Delivery / Takeaway of Pizza s (2) On- time, speedy delivery of Pizza s (3) Minimum number of products / product base which enables quick delivery of Pizza s In response to a potential threat from other fast food companies Dominos is expanding its product base - the Dominos Sub sandwich is an example of Dominos moving away from its core-value proposition. This has some potential drawbacks such as complicating the supply chain networks, potentially increasing cooking times and thereby increasing service delivery times. If Dominos manages this expansion well, then it can add to its product offerings while leveraging its core strengths, which might increase its market share. A big threat for Dominos is that it is a service entity but it has adopted a product manufacturing approach. The company s key focus areas have always been to deliver pizza on time. Over time, Dominos has not been focusing on its service aspect, and in a increasingly customer centric world it is critical that Dominos improves its hiring / training practices and deliver world class customer service along with the best in class product that it currently offers.

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References

1. Charlene Li, Harvard Business Review: The Art of Admitting Failure, 2011 http://blogs.hbr.org/cs/2011/03/the_art_of_admitting_failure.html 2. BIS John Reynolds, Dominos Pizza Inc . http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?sid=5b87caa3-d294-4899-9e929941787fd7ab%40sessionmgr14&vid=3&hid=12&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2 ZQ%3d%3d#db=bth&AN=53576535 3. Geoff Riley, Dominos Pizza - Growth & Strategy (Part 2) - Innovation, Service and Smart, Operations, 2010 http://tutor2u.net/blog/index.php/business-studies/comments/dominos-pizzagrowth-strategy-part-2-innovation-service-and-smart-operation/ 4. Dominos Corporate profile http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=135383&p=irol-homeprofile 5. Global Logistics & Supply Chain Strategies, Planning, Sourcing, Replenishment Are Easy as (Pizza) Pie, 2008 http://www.supplychainbrain.com/content/industry-verticals/food-beverage/singlearticle-page/article/planning-sourcing-replenishment-are-easy-as-pizza-pie/ 6. Dominos annual report 2011 http://www.dominos.com.au/corporate/investors/investors.aspx 7. Stephanie Clifford, The New York Times, Video Prank at Dominos Taints Brand, 2009 http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/16/business/media/16dominos.html 8. Jacob Goldenberg, David Mazursky, The Cambridge Press, Creativity in Product innovation, 2002 http://catdir.loc.gov/catdir/samples/cam033/2001018106.pdf 9. BIS: Euro Monitor Dominos company profile 06 Sept 2011

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