J Control Theory Appl 2013 11 (2) 282–287 DOI 10.1007/s1176801311160
Bing WANG ^{1}^{,}^{2} ^{†} , Yanping QIAN ^{1}^{,}^{2} , Yiming ZHANG ^{1}
1.College of Energy and Electrical Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing Jiangsu 211100, China;
2.Renewable Energy Power Generation Technology Engineering Research Center of Education Ministry,
Hohai University, Nanjing Jiangsu 211100, China
Abstract: Based on Hamiltonian energy theory, this paper proposes a robust nonlinear controller for the wind turbine with doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), such that the closedloop system can achieve its stability. Furthermore, in the presence of disturbances, the closedloop system is ﬁnitegain L _{2} stable by the Hamiltonian controller. The Hamiltonian energy approach provides us a physical insight and gives a new way to the controller design. The simulation results illustrate that the proposed method is effective and has its advantage.
Keywords: Hamiltonian energy theory; Wind turbine; Doubly fed induction generator; Robust control
1
Introduction
In recent years, with the growing concerns about envi ronment pollution and energy shortage, the demand for re newable energy increases dramatically. A lot of onshore or offshore wind farms are being built as a typical result of the policy of good tariff for electricity from natural re newable energy source. At the same time, the research of wind power systems has attracted a lot of attention and made remarkable achievements. The doubly fed induction generation (DFIG) is a common conﬁguration for large and variablespeed wind turbines. The nonlinear control prob lems of wind turbines with DFIG are studied widely [1–4]. Many advanced design methods are used to design the con troller for DFIGbased wind turbines [5–7]. As a new design method, the energybased control method can thoroughly take advantage of the internal struc tural properties of systems, and make the control design rel atively simple. The Hamiltonian energy approach was put forward in [8] for modelling physical systems. Then, there have been several attempts to extend this approach in the oretical and practical aspects. In [9], a new passivitybased control is developed for portcontrolled Hamiltonian (PCH) systems. Moreover, in [10], a generalized Hamiltonian real ization problem is investigated and the new methods as well as corresponding sufﬁcient conditions are presented. In the practical application, the energybased controller design is used for the pendubot [11] and the induction motor [12]. In this paper, the control problem of wind turbines with DFIG is investigated. During the process of design, we con struct Hamiltonian energy function and obtain PCH sys tem model. The key procedure in using the energy function method is to transform the nonlinear system into a port
Received 11 June 2011; revised 25 February 2012.
controlled Hamiltonian system with dissipation (PCHD), which is referred to as dissipative Hamiltonian realization in [12]. We employ a prefeedback and shape the Hamil tonian function so that the system has a PCHD structure. Then, by the main theorem, the plant achieves asymptot ical stability. In the practical engineering, the problem of disturbance attenuation is very important. Therefore, in the presence of disturbances, we design the robust controller to guarantee the ﬁnitegain L _{2} stability for the system. Finally, the computer simulation and comparison with the other non linear controller show the validity and effectiveness of the Hamiltonian energy approach.
2 Hamiltonian energy approach
Consider a nonlinear afﬁne system modelled by equations of the form:
x˙ (t) = f (x(t)) + G(x(t))u(t), y (t) = h(x(t)),
(1)
where x ∈ R ^{n} is state variable; u ∈ R ^{m} , y ∈ R ^{p} are control input and output variables, respectively; f : R ^{n} → R ^{n} is smooth vector ﬁeld, G : R ^{n} → R ^{n}^{×}^{m} is smooth matrix valued function, and h : R ^{n} → R ^{p} is smooth vectorvalued function. Let x _{e} be equilibrium point, that is, f (x _{e} )=0. For the integral statement, we present the deﬁnition of ﬁnite gain L _{2} stability as follows.
Deﬁnition 1 [1]
A mapping H : L _{2}_{e} → L _{2}_{e} is ﬁnite
gain L _{2} stable if there exist nonnegative constants γ and β such that (Hu) _{τ} _{L} _{2} γ u _{τ} _{L} _{2} + β, ∀u ∈ L _{2}_{e} , (2)
where L _{2}_{e} is extended space of L _{2} , deﬁned by L _{2}_{e} = {uu _{τ} ∈ L _{2} , ∀τ 0},
^{†} Corresponding author. Email: icekingking@hhu.edu.cn. Tel./fax: +8613675124767.
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51007019), and the Priority Academic Program Development of
Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (Coastal Development Conservancy).
c South China University of Technology and Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, CAS and SpringerVerlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013
B. Wang et al. / J Control Theory Appl 2013 11 (2) 282–287
283
and u _{τ} is a truncation of u deﬁned by
resented by (6). Since Γ is a positive deﬁnite matrix, there
semideﬁnite matrix. We conclude that H ˜ (x) 0 and H ˜ (x)
is a Lyapunov function of this system. The closedloop sys
tem is stable.
The invariant set S = {x ∈ R ^{n}  H ˙ (x)=0} can be ob
˙
tained from H ˜ (x)=0. Based on Lemma 1, the closed
loop system is asymptotically stable at the equilibrium point
x _{e} ∈ S .
ii) Suppose there exist disturbances and the system is rep
By integration on both sides of the above inequality, we
can conclude that the system is ﬁnitegain L _{2} stable.
3 Hamiltonian controller design
3.1 Model of wind turbine with DFIG
The wind turbine system includes the drive train and
DFIG. The drive train of wind turbine system is represented
with a onemass model [14] and the DFIG is modelled by
284 B. Wang et al. / J Control Theory Appl 2013 11 (2) 282–287
a secondorder model when the electromagnetic transients
of the stator are neglected [15–16]. In this paper, the model
of the wind turbine with DFIG is a thirdorder model [6] as
follows:
⎧
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎨
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎪
⎩
2H tot
dE
q
dt
dE
d
dt
ds
dt
= P _{s} − P _{m} = −E _{d} i _{d}_{s} − E _{q} i _{q}_{s} − P _{m} ,
=
−sω _{s} E
d
= sω _{s} E
q
−
−
1
T
0
[E _{q} − (X _{s} − X )i _{d}_{s} ]+ ω _{s}
s
L
m
L
rr
v
dr ,
1
T
0
[E _{d} +(X _{s} − X )i _{q}_{s} ] − ω _{s}
s
L
m
L
rr
v
qr ,
(7)
where X _{s} = ω _{s} L _{s}_{s} , X
s
= ω _{s} (L _{s}_{s} −
L
2
m
L
rr
), T
0 =
L
rr
R r
,
s is the rotor slip; H _{t}_{o}_{t} is the total inertia constant of the
turbine and the generator; P _{s} is the output active power of
the stator of the DFIG; P _{m} is the mechanical power of the
wind turbine; L _{s}_{s} is the stator selfinductance; L _{r}_{r} is the ro
tor selfinductance; L _{m} is the mutual inductance; ω _{s} is the
synchronous angle speed; X _{s} is the stator reactance; X
s
is
the stator transient reactance; E _{d} and E _{q} are the d and q
axis voltages behind the transient reactance, respectively;
v _{d}_{r} and v _{q}_{r} are the d and q axis rotor voltages, respectively.
The model of the wind turbine with DFIG (7) is a system
with two inputs in the dq reference frame. s, E _{d} and E
q
are the states, and v _{d}_{r} and v _{q}_{r} are the inputs.
The model of the wind turbine system with DFIG can be
described by the following form:
d
dt
⎡
s
⎣ E
⎢
E
q
d
⎤
⎥
⎦
=
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎣
−
i
qs
2H tot
E
q
−
i
ds
2H tot
E
d
−
P m
2H tot
1
E _{q} − sω _{s} E
−
T
0
sω _{s} E
q
−
1
T
0
E
d
d +
−
i ds
(X _{s} − X )
i
T
0
qs
s
T
0
(X _{s} − X )
s
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎦
+
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎣
ω s
0
L
m
L
rr
0
0
0
−ω _{s}
L
m
L
rr
⎤
⎦ v dr
⎥
⎥
⎥
v
qr
.
(8)
3.2
Control design of singlemachine system
Constructing PCH system.
Based on the structure of the system, Hamiltonian energy
function can be chosen as
H =
s ^{2}
1
^{+}
2
_{2}
(E
q +
P m
2i qs
1
) ^{2} + _{2} (E
d
+
P m
2i ds
) ^{2} .
(9)
Under this Hamiltonian function, the model of the origi
nal system (8) can be represented in PCH form:
d
dt
⎡
s
⎣ E
⎢
E
q
d
⎤
⎥
⎦
=
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎣
0 −
i
qs
2H tot
0
1
−
T
0
0
sω _{s}
i
ds
−
2H tot
−sω _{s}
1
−
T
0
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎦
∇H
+
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎣
0
i
ds
T
0
(X _{s} − X ) +
s
P m
2T
_{0} i qs
+ sω _{s}
P m
2i ds
−
i
qs
T
0
(X _{s} − X ) +
s
P m
2T
_{0} i ds
− sω _{s}
P m
2i qs
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎦
where
+
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎣
ω s
0
L
m
L
rr
0
0
0
−ω
_{s}
L
m
L
rr
⎤
⎦ v dr
⎥
⎥
⎥
v
qr
,
∇H = [ s E
q +
P m
2i qs
E
d ^{+}
P m
2i ds
].
(10)
(11)
Since the PCHD system is required in the following de
sign process, we modify the model of PCH system through
prefeedback control.
Transforming PCH system into PCHD system.
In order to complete the dissipative Hamiltonian realiza
tion, the control law is employed as follows:
u = ^{v} ^{d}^{r} = K + μ = ^{K} ^{d}^{r}
v
qr
K qr
_{+} μ dr
μ
qr
.
(12)
By analyzing the form of (10), we design the pre
feedback control K , which makes the system satisfy PCHD
form. Moreover, μ will be specially design in next step. We
take
K
= ^{K} ^{d}^{r}
K qr
⎡
⎢
= ⎣
L
rr
−
ω s L m
_{(} i ds
T
0
(X _{s} − X )+
s
P m
2T
_{0}
i qs
+( ^{ω} ^{s} ^{P} ^{m} −
2i ds
L
rr
(− ^{i} T ^{q}^{s} (X _{s} − X )+
0
s
ω s L m
P m
2T
_{0}
i ds
− ( ^{ω} ^{s} ^{P} ^{m} +
2i qs
i
qs
2H tot
i
ds
2H tot
)s)
)s)
⎤
⎥
⎦
(13)
and substitute (13) into (10). The closedloop system is
changed into the PCHD form:
d
dt
⎡
s
⎣ E
⎢
E
q
d
⎤
⎥
⎦
=
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎣
0
i
qs
2H tot
i
ds
2H tot
−
i
qs
2H tot
1
−
T
0
sω _{s}
i
ds
−
2H tot
−sω _{s}
1
−
T
0
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎦
∇H
+
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎣
ω s
0
0
L
m
L
rr
0
0 −ω _{s}
L
m
L
rr
⎤
⎦ μ dr
⎥
⎥
⎥
μ
qr
,
where
J =
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎣
0
i
qs
2H tot
i
ds
2H tot
−
i
qs
2H tot
0
sω _{s}
i
ds
−
2H tot
−sω _{s}
0
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎦
,
R =
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎣
00
0
1
T
0
0
0
(14)
0
0
1
T
0
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎦
,
and J is a skewsymmetric matrix and R is a positive
semideﬁne matrix. Therefore, the model (14) satisﬁes PCH
D form. Here, the output function is given by
y = G ^{T} ∇H =
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎣
ω s
L
m
L
rr
(E
q +
P m
2i qs
)
−ω _{s}
L
m
L
rr
(E
d ^{+}
P m
2i ds
)
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎦
.
(15)
Showing the asymptotical stability.
B. Wang et al. / J Control Theory Appl 2013 11 (2) 282–287
285
˙
Due to H (x)=0, we have
^{} ^{} ∇ ^{T} H ^{} R(∇H ^{} = 0,
^{} ∇ ^{T} H ^{} G(x)=0.
(16)
Therefore, the invariant sets can be written as
{x ∈ R ^{3} :
and
1
T
0
(x _{2} +
P m
2i qs
) ^{2} +
1
T
0
(x _{3} +
P m
2i ds
) ^{2} = 0},
{x ∈ R ^{3} :
ω _{s}
L
m
L
rr
(x _{2} +
P m
2i qs
)=0, −ω _{s}
L
m
L
rr
(x _{3} +
P m
2i ds
)=0},
where x _{1} = s, x _{2} = E _{q} , x _{3} = E _{d} . The intersection of them
is represented by
{x ∈ R ^{3} : x _{2} +
P m
2i qs
= 0, x _{3} +
P m
2i ds
= 0}.
(17)
From f (x _{e} )=0, it is known that the equilibrium point
x _{e} belongs to the above set and x _{e} is the only solution that
can stay identically in S . Therefore, according to Lemma 1,
the system is asymptotically stable.
Designing the control law.
Based on Theorem 1, the nonlinear controller can be de
signed. Let positive deﬁnite matrix Γ
= ^{γ} ^{1} ^{0} 2 ,
0 γ
where
γ _{i} > 0(i = 1, 2). The control law v is taken as
μ = ^{μ} ^{d}^{r} = −Γ G ^{T} ∇H =
μ
qr
⎡
⎢
⎣
−γ 1 ω s
L
m
L
rr
(E
q +
γ 2
ω s
L
m
L
rr
(E
d ^{+}
P m
2i qs
P m
2i ds
)
)
⎤
⎥
⎦
.
(18)
3.3 Robust control design
In the presence of disturbance, the system can be de
scribed by
d
dt
⎡
s
⎣ E
⎢
E
q
d
⎤
⎥
⎦
=
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎣
0
i
qs
2H tot
i
ds
2H tot
−
i
qs
2H tot
1
−
T
0
sω _{s}
i
ds
−
2H tot
−sω _{s}
1
−
T
0
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎦
∇H
+
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎣
ω s
0
L
m
L
rr
0
0
0
−ω _{s}
L
m
L
rr
⎤
⎦ μ dr
⎥
⎥
⎥
μ
_{q}_{r}
+ ω
1
+ ω
2
,
(19)
where ω _{i} (i = 1, 2) is disturbance, which comes from mod
elling simpliﬁcations and modelling error.
According to Theorem 1, we can conclude that under the
control law
u = K + μ = ^{K} ^{d}^{r}
K qr
_{+} μ dr
μ qr
,
the closedloop system is ﬁnitegain L _{2} stable.
4
Simulations
In order to illustrate the design results, the Hamiltonian
controller is implemented in MATLAB. The simulations in
clude two parts: the ﬁrst one is DFIGbased wind turbine
closedloop system, and the second one is the closedloop
system with disturbances.
To verify its advantage, the simulation results of the
Hamiltonian controller are compared with those of the non
linear controller in [6], which is for the same system model
(7). In the simulations of closedloop systems, the param
eters of the wind turbine with DFIG is given as follows:
H _{t}_{o}_{t}
=
3 s, L _{m}
=
2.9 p.u., L _{r}
=
0.156 p.u., L _{s}
=
0.171 p.u., ω _{s} = 3.14 p.u./rad, and R _{r} = 0.005 p.u.
Figs. 1–3 show the dynamic response curves of three state
variables (s, E _{q} , E _{d} ) under two controllers. From the ﬁg
ures, it is shown that the closedloop systems remain sta
ble and the states converge to the equilibrium point quickly
under both of the controllers. Therefore, both of them are
effective for DFIGbased wind turbine system. For the con
vergence time, the nonlinear control in [6] is quicker than
Hamiltonian control proposed in this paper.
In the presence of disturbances, the simulation results are
shown in Figs. 4 and 5. Fig. 4 is the results under Hamilto
nian controller and Fig. 5 is under the nonlinear controller.
From Fig. 4, it is obvious that Hamiltonian controller is still
able to render the system stable in the presence of distur
bance by adjusting the parameters in the matrix Γ . However
in presence of disturbance, Fig. 5 shows that the response
curves of the state variables diverge and the closedloop sys
tem is unstable under the nonlinear controller. Therefore,
the nonlinear controller becomes invalid when there exist
some disturbances in the closedloop system, and Hamilto
nian controller shows better quality of robustness.
In summary, Hamiltonian controller is better than the
nonlinear controller, which not only guarantees the stabil
ity of wind turbine with DFIG but enhances the ability of
disturbance attenuation.
286 B. Wang et al. / J Control Theory Appl 2013 11 (2) 282–287
Fig. 4 Simulation results of Hamiltonian control.
Fig. 5 Simulation results of nonlinear control.
5
Conclusions
In this paper, we have proposed the robust nonlinear con
troller for DFIGbased wind turbines based on Hamiltonian
energy theory. The closedloop system without disturbances
is asymptotically stable, while the system with disturbances
is ﬁnitegain L _{2} stable. During the energybased design, the
main difﬁculties are in the construction of the Hamiltonian
energy function and transformation into the portcontrolled
Hamiltonian system with dissipation. The Hamiltonian en
ergy approach provides an effective design means to the
nonlinear control. In this paper, the robust control problem
of singlemachine system is investigated. Then, the con
troller design problem of multimachine system is an impor
tant issue, being worth researching in the future.
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Bing WANG was born in Jiangsu, China. He re
ceived his B.S. degree from Huazhong University
of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China, and
Ph.D. degree from University of Science and Tech
nology of China, Hefei, China, in 1998 and 2006,
respectively. He is currently an associate profes
sor with College of Energy and Electrical Engi
neering, Hohai University. His research interests in
clude nonlinear control systems, wind power con
trol and renewable energy. Email: icekingking@hhu.edu.cn.
B. Wang et al. / J Control Theory Appl 2013 11 (2) 282–287
287
Yanping QIAN was born in Zhejiang, China. He
received his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from South
east University, Nanjing, China, both in Control
Theory and Control Engineering, in 2003 and 2007,
respectively. He is currently a lecturer with the
College of Energy and Electrical Engineering, Ho
hai University. His research interests include con
trol theory applications for wireless communica
tion systems and networks, and renewable energy
systems. Email: qianyp@hhu.edu.cn.
Yiming ZHANG was born in Jilin, China. He
received his B.S. degree from Hohai University
in 2010. He is currently a M.S. degree candi
date at the College of Energy and Electrical En
gineering, Hohai University. His research inter
est is nonlinear control of wind turbine. Email:
zym20062174@163.com. 
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