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J Control Theory Appl 2013 11 (2) 282–287 DOI 10.1007/s11768-013-1116-0

Robust nonlinear controller design of wind turbine with doubly fed induction generator by using Hamiltonian energy approach

Bing WANG 1,2 , Yanping QIAN 1,2 , Yiming ZHANG 1

1.College of Energy and Electrical Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing Jiangsu 211100, China;

2.Renewable Energy Power Generation Technology Engineering Research Center of Education Ministry,

Hohai University, Nanjing Jiangsu 211100, China

Abstract: Based on Hamiltonian energy theory, this paper proposes a robust nonlinear controller for the wind turbine with doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), such that the closed-loop system can achieve its stability. Furthermore, in the presence of disturbances, the closed-loop system is finite-gain L 2 stable by the Hamiltonian controller. The Hamiltonian energy approach provides us a physical insight and gives a new way to the controller design. The simulation results illustrate that the proposed method is effective and has its advantage.

Keywords: Hamiltonian energy theory; Wind turbine; Doubly fed induction generator; Robust control

1

Introduction

In recent years, with the growing concerns about envi- ronment pollution and energy shortage, the demand for re- newable energy increases dramatically. A lot of on-shore or off-shore wind farms are being built as a typical result of the policy of good tariff for electricity from natural re- newable energy source. At the same time, the research of wind power systems has attracted a lot of attention and made remarkable achievements. The doubly fed induction generation (DFIG) is a common configuration for large and variable-speed wind turbines. The nonlinear control prob- lems of wind turbines with DFIG are studied widely [1–4]. Many advanced design methods are used to design the con- troller for DFIG-based wind turbines [5–7]. As a new design method, the energy-based control method can thoroughly take advantage of the internal struc- tural properties of systems, and make the control design rel- atively simple. The Hamiltonian energy approach was put forward in [8] for modelling physical systems. Then, there have been several attempts to extend this approach in the- oretical and practical aspects. In [9], a new passivity-based control is developed for port-controlled Hamiltonian (PCH) systems. Moreover, in [10], a generalized Hamiltonian real- ization problem is investigated and the new methods as well as corresponding sufficient conditions are presented. In the practical application, the energy-based controller design is used for the pendubot [11] and the induction motor [12]. In this paper, the control problem of wind turbines with DFIG is investigated. During the process of design, we con- struct Hamiltonian energy function and obtain PCH sys- tem model. The key procedure in using the energy function method is to transform the nonlinear system into a port-

Received 11 June 2011; revised 25 February 2012.

controlled Hamiltonian system with dissipation (PCH-D), which is referred to as dissipative Hamiltonian realization in [12]. We employ a pre-feedback and shape the Hamil- tonian function so that the system has a PCH-D structure. Then, by the main theorem, the plant achieves asymptot- ical stability. In the practical engineering, the problem of disturbance attenuation is very important. Therefore, in the presence of disturbances, we design the robust controller to guarantee the finite-gain L 2 stability for the system. Finally, the computer simulation and comparison with the other non- linear controller show the validity and effectiveness of the Hamiltonian energy approach.

  • 2 Hamiltonian energy approach

Consider a nonlinear affine system modelled by equations of the form:

x˙ (t) = f (x(t)) + G(x(t))u(t), y (t) = h(x(t)),

(1)

where x R n is state variable; u R m , y R p are control input and output variables, respectively; f : R n R n is smooth vector field, G : R n R n×m is smooth matrix- valued function, and h : R n R p is smooth vector-valued function. Let x e be equilibrium point, that is, f (x e )=0. For the integral statement, we present the definition of finite- gain L 2 stability as follows.

Definition 1 [1]

A mapping H : L 2e L 2e is finite-

gain L 2 stable if there exist nonnegative constants γ and β such that (Hu) τ L 2 γ u τ L 2 + β, u L 2e , (2)

where L 2e is extended space of L 2 , defined by L 2e = {u|u τ L 2 , τ 0},

Corresponding author. E-mail: icekingking@hhu.edu.cn. Tel./fax: +86-13675124767.

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51007019), and the Priority Academic Program Development of

Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (Coastal Development Conservancy).

c South China University of Technology and Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

B. Wang et al. / J Control Theory Appl 2013 11 (2) 282–287

283

and u τ is a truncation of u defined by

resented by (6). Since Γ is a positive definite matrix, there

exists an orthogonal matrix Q such that u τ (t) = u(t), 0 t τ, ⎡
exists an orthogonal matrix Q such that
u τ (t) = u(t), 0 t τ,
γ 1
0 ···
0
0,
t > τ.
0 γ 2 ···
0
Lemma 1 [1] Let x e be an equilibrium point for the
Q T Γ Q =
.
.
.
,
nonlinear system (1), when u(t)=0. Let V : D → R be
.
.
.
.
.
.
a continuously differentiable positive definite function on a
0
0 ··· γ m
˙
domain D . Let S = {x ∈ R n | V (x)=0} and suppose that
where γ i > 0 (i = 1, 2,
,m)
is the eigenvalue.
no solutions can stay identically in S , other than the trivial
Therefore,
solution. Then, the point x e is asymptotically stable.
Assume that there exists a Hamiltonian function H (x),
γ 1
0 ···
0
we have an alternative representation of nonlinear systems,
0 γ 2 ···
0
Q −1
called PCH system model:
Γ = Q −T
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
=
Ψ ∇H + G(x)u,
(3)
0
0 ··· γ m
y = G T (x)∇H,
1
where ∇H is the gradient of H (x). In general, the PCH
0
···
0
2γ 2
system model for mechano-electrical systems is attainable.
1
However, the key problem is to convert it into the PCH-D
0
2γ 2 ···
0
Q −1
= Q −T
form, which is defined as follows:
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
x˙ = (J − R)∇H + G(x)v,
(4)
1
y = G T (x)∇H,
0
0
···
2γ 2
where v
R m is control vector, G
:
R n
→ R n×m is
1
γ 1 −
0
···
0
smooth function, J is a skew-symmetric matrix and R is
2γ 2
a positive semidefinite matrix. We improve the relevant re-
1
0
γ 2 −
2γ 2 ···
0
sults of the former research [1, 12–13] into the main theo-
Q −1
+Q −T
rem.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Theorem 1
For the PCH-D system (4), i) if there exists
1
the following control law
0
0
··· γ m −
2γ 2
v
= −Γ G T (x)∇H,
(5)
1
1
where Γ is a positive definite matrix, such that no so-
Υ T Υ,
2γ 2 I m +
2
lutions to the closed-loop system can stay identically in
1
˙
S = {x ∈ R n | H (x)=0}, other than the equilibrium point
where γ
>
0 is chosen to make γ i −
>
0 (i
=
2γ 2
x e , and then, the system is asymptotically stable; and ii) in
1, 2,
,m).
In view of system (6), we have
the presence of disturbances, assume that the system can be
described by
˙
H (x)
=
−(∇ T H )R(∇H )+(∇ T H )G(x)(v + ω )
=
(J − R)∇H + G(x)(v + ω ),
(6)
1
= −(∇ T H )R(∇H ) − 1
2 γω − γ G T (x)∇H 2
where ω ∈ R m is unknown disturbance. Then, the control
law (5) guarantees that the closed-loop system is finite-gain
1
+(∇ T H )G(x)[v + 1
I m + Υ T Υ G T (x)∇H ]
L 2 stable with respect to disturbance ω .
2
γ
2
Proof
i) In the case of no disturbances, if the system
1
can be represented in the form of PCH-D system (4), by
+ 2 {γ 2 ω 2 − Υ y (x) 2 }.
applying the control (5), the system becomes
˙
Under the control law (5), H (x) can be rewritten as fol-
x˙ = J − R − GΓ G T ∇H.
lows:
Hamiltonian function H (x) can be constructed so that
1
˙
H (x) =
−(∇ T H )R(∇H ) − 1
2 γ 2 ω −
G T (x)∇H 2
˜
2
H = H (x) − H (x e ) 0. Then,
γ
˙
1
˜
˙
H (x)
=
H (x)=(∇ T H )x˙
+ 2 {γ 2 ω 2 − Υ y (x) 2 }
= −(∇ T H )R(∇H ) − (∇ T H )GΓ G T (∇H ),
1
{γ 2 ω 2 − Υ y (x) 2 }.
where Γ
is
a
positive definite matrix, R
is
a
positive
2
˙

semidefinite matrix. We conclude that H ˜ (x) 0 and H ˜ (x)

is a Lyapunov function of this system. The closed-loop sys-

tem is stable.

The invariant set S = {x R n | H ˙ (x)=0} can be ob-

˙

tained from H ˜ (x)=0. Based on Lemma 1, the closed-

loop system is asymptotically stable at the equilibrium point

x e S .

ii) Suppose there exist disturbances and the system is rep-

By integration on both sides of the above inequality, we

can conclude that the system is finite-gain L 2 stable.

  • 3 Hamiltonian controller design

    • 3.1 Model of wind turbine with DFIG

The wind turbine system includes the drive train and

DFIG. The drive train of wind turbine system is represented

with a one-mass model [14] and the DFIG is modelled by

  • 284 B. Wang et al. / J Control Theory Appl 2013 11 (2) 282–287

a second-order model when the electromagnetic transients

of the stator are neglected [15–16]. In this paper, the model

of the wind turbine with DFIG is a third-order model [6] as

follows:

2H tot

dE

q

dt

dE

d

dt

ds

dt

= P s P m = E d i ds E q i qs P m ,

=

s E

d

= s E

q

1

T

0

[E q (X s X )i ds ]+ ω s

s

L

m

L

rr

v

dr ,

1

T

0

[E d +(X s X )i qs ] ω s

s

L

m

L

rr

v

qr ,

(7)

where X s = ω s L ss , X

s

= ω s (L ss

L

2

m

L

rr

), T

0 =

L

rr

R r

,

s is the rotor slip; H tot is the total inertia constant of the

turbine and the generator; P s is the output active power of

the stator of the DFIG; P m is the mechanical power of the

wind turbine; L ss is the stator self-inductance; L rr is the ro-

tor self-inductance; L m is the mutual inductance; ω s is the

synchronous angle speed; X s is the stator reactance; X

s

is

the stator transient reactance; E d and E q are the d and q

axis voltages behind the transient reactance, respectively;

v dr and v qr are the d and q axis rotor voltages, respectively.

The model of the wind turbine with DFIG (7) is a system

with two inputs in the d-q reference frame. s, E d and E

q

are the states, and v dr and v qr are the inputs.

The model of the wind turbine system with DFIG can be

described by the following form:

d

dt

s

E

E

q

d

=

i

qs

2H tot

E

q

i

ds

2H tot

E

d

P m

2H tot

1

E q s E

T

0

s E

q

1

T

0

E

d

d +

i ds

(X s X )

i

T

0

qs

s

T

0

(X s X )

s

+

ω s

0

L

m

L

rr

0

0

0

ω s

L

m

L

rr

v dr

v

qr

.

(8)

3.2

Control design of single-machine system

Constructing PCH system.

Based on the structure of the system, Hamiltonian energy

function can be chosen as

H =

s 2

1

+

2

2

(E

q +

P m

2i qs

1

) 2 + 2 (E

d

+

P m

2i ds

) 2 .

(9)

Under this Hamiltonian function, the model of the origi-

nal system (8) can be represented in PCH form:

d

dt

s

E

E

q

d

=

0

i

qs

2H tot

0

1

T

0

0

s

i

ds

2H tot

s

1

T

0

H

+

0

i

ds

T

0

(X s X ) +

s

P m

2T

0 i qs

+ s

P m

2i ds

i

qs

T

0

(X s X ) +

s

P m

2T

0 i ds

s

P m

2i qs

where

+

ω s

0

L

m

L

rr

0

0

0

ω

s

L

m

L

rr

v dr

v

qr

,

H = [ s E

q +

P m

2i qs

E

d +

P m

2i ds

].

(10)

(11)

Since the PCH-D system is required in the following de-

sign process, we modify the model of PCH system through

pre-feedback control.

Transforming PCH system into PCH-D system.

In order to complete the dissipative Hamiltonian realiza-

tion, the control law is employed as follows:

u = v dr = K + μ = K dr

v

qr

K qr

+ μ dr

μ

qr

.

(12)

By analyzing the form of (10), we design the pre-

feedback control K , which makes the system satisfy PCH-D

form. Moreover, μ will be specially design in next step. We

take

K

= K dr

K qr

=

L

rr

ω s L m

( i ds

T

0

(X s X )+

s

P m

2T

0

i qs

+( ω s P m

2i ds

L

rr

(i T qs (X s X )+

0

s

ω s L m

P m

2T

0

i ds

( ω s P m +

2i qs

i

qs

2H tot

i

ds

2H tot

)s)

)s)

(13)

and substitute (13) into (10). The closed-loop system is

changed into the PCH-D form:

d

dt

s

E

E

q

d

=

0

i

qs

2H tot

i

ds

2H tot

i

qs

2H tot

1

T

0

s

i

ds

2H tot

s

1

T

0

H

+

ω s

0

0

L

m

L

rr

0

0 ω s

L

m

L

rr

μ dr

μ

qr

,

where

J =

0

i

qs

2H tot

i

ds

2H tot

i

qs

2H tot

0

s

i

ds

2H tot

s

0

,

R =

00

0

1

T

0

0

0

(14)

0

0

1

T

0

,

and J is a skew-symmetric matrix and R is a positive

semidefine matrix. Therefore, the model (14) satisfies PCH-

D form. Here, the output function is given by

y = G T H =

ω s

L

m

L

rr

(E

q +

P m

2i qs

)

ω s

L

m

L

rr

(E

d +

P m

2i ds

)

.

(15)

Showing the asymptotical stability.

B. Wang et al. / J Control Theory Appl 2013 11 (2) 282–287

285

˙

Due to H (x)=0, we have

T H R(H = 0,

T H G(x)=0.

(16)

Therefore, the invariant sets can be written as

{x R 3 :

and

1

T

0

(x 2 +

P m

2i qs

) 2 +

1

T

0

(x 3 +

P m

2i ds

) 2 = 0},

{x R 3 :

ω s

L

m

L

rr

(x 2 +

P m

2i qs

)=0, ω s

L

m

L

rr

(x 3 +

P m

2i ds

)=0},

where x 1 = s, x 2 = E q , x 3 = E d . The intersection of them

is represented by

{x R 3 : x 2 +

P m

2i qs

= 0, x 3 +

P m

2i ds

= 0}.

(17)

From f (x e )=0, it is known that the equilibrium point

x e belongs to the above set and x e is the only solution that

can stay identically in S . Therefore, according to Lemma 1,

the system is asymptotically stable.

Designing the control law.

Based on Theorem 1, the nonlinear controller can be de-

signed. Let positive definite matrix Γ

= γ 1 0 2 ,

0 γ

where

γ i > 0(i = 1, 2). The control law v is taken as

μ = μ dr = Γ G T H =

μ

qr

γ 1 ω s

L

m

L

rr

(E

q +

γ 2

ω s

L

m

L

rr

(E

d +

P m

2i qs

P m

2i ds

)

)

.

(18)

  • 3.3 Robust control design

In the presence of disturbance, the system can be de-

scribed by

d

dt

s

E

E

q

d

=

0

i

qs

2H tot

i

ds

2H tot

i

qs

2H tot

1

T

0

s

i

ds

2H tot

s

1

T

0

H

+

ω s

0

L

m

L

rr

0

0

0

ω s

L

m

L

rr

μ dr

μ

qr

+ ω

1

+ ω

2

,

(19)

where ω i (i = 1, 2) is disturbance, which comes from mod-

elling simplifications and modelling error.

According to Theorem 1, we can conclude that under the

control law

u = K + μ = K dr

K qr

+ μ dr

μ qr

,

the closed-loop system is finite-gain L 2 stable.

4

Simulations

In order to illustrate the design results, the Hamiltonian

controller is implemented in MATLAB. The simulations in-

clude two parts: the first one is DFIG-based wind turbine

closed-loop system, and the second one is the closed-loop

system with disturbances.

To verify its advantage, the simulation results of the

Hamiltonian controller are compared with those of the non-

linear controller in [6], which is for the same system model

(7). In the simulations of closed-loop systems, the param-

eters of the wind turbine with DFIG is given as follows:

H tot

=

3 s, L m

=

2.9 p.u., L r

=

0.156 p.u., L s

=

0.171 p.u., ω s = 3.14 p.u./rad, and R r = 0.005 p.u.

Figs. 1–3 show the dynamic response curves of three state

variables (s, E q , E d ) under two controllers. From the fig-

ures, it is shown that the closed-loop systems remain sta-

ble and the states converge to the equilibrium point quickly

under both of the controllers. Therefore, both of them are

effective for DFIG-based wind turbine system. For the con-

vergence time, the nonlinear control in [6] is quicker than

Hamiltonian control proposed in this paper.

In the presence of disturbances, the simulation results are

shown in Figs. 4 and 5. Fig. 4 is the results under Hamilto-

nian controller and Fig. 5 is under the nonlinear controller.

From Fig. 4, it is obvious that Hamiltonian controller is still

able to render the system stable in the presence of distur-

bance by adjusting the parameters in the matrix Γ . However

in presence of disturbance, Fig. 5 shows that the response

curves of the state variables diverge and the closed-loop sys-

tem is unstable under the nonlinear controller. Therefore,

the nonlinear controller becomes invalid when there exist

some disturbances in the closed-loop system, and Hamilto-

nian controller shows better quality of robustness.

In summary, Hamiltonian controller is better than the

nonlinear controller, which not only guarantees the stabil-

ity of wind turbine with DFIG but enhances the ability of

disturbance attenuation.

B. Wang et al. / J Control Theory Appl 2013 11 (2) 282–287 285 ˙ Due
Fig. 1 Rotor slip s. Fig. 2 q -axis voltage E q .
Fig. 1
Rotor slip s.
Fig. 2 q -axis voltage E
q .
  • 286 B. Wang et al. / J Control Theory Appl 2013 11 (2) 282–287

286 B. Wang et al. / J Control Theory Appl 2013 11 (2) 282–287 Fig. 3
Fig. 3 d-axis voltage E . d
Fig. 3 d-axis voltage E
.
d

Fig. 4 Simulation results of Hamiltonian control.

286 B. Wang et al. / J Control Theory Appl 2013 11 (2) 282–287 Fig. 3

Fig. 5 Simulation results of nonlinear control.

5

Conclusions

In this paper, we have proposed the robust nonlinear con-

troller for DFIG-based wind turbines based on Hamiltonian

energy theory. The closed-loop system without disturbances

is asymptotically stable, while the system with disturbances

is finite-gain L 2 stable. During the energy-based design, the

main difficulties are in the construction of the Hamiltonian

energy function and transformation into the port-controlled

Hamiltonian system with dissipation. The Hamiltonian en-

ergy approach provides an effective design means to the

nonlinear control. In this paper, the robust control problem

of single-machine system is investigated. Then, the con-

troller design problem of multimachine system is an impor-

tant issue, being worth researching in the future.

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286 B. Wang et al. / J Control Theory Appl 2013 11 (2) 282–287 Fig. 3

Bing WANG was born in Jiangsu, China. He re-

ceived his B.S. degree from Huazhong University

of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China, and

Ph.D. degree from University of Science and Tech-

nology of China, Hefei, China, in 1998 and 2006,

respectively. He is currently an associate profes-

sor with College of Energy and Electrical Engi-

neering, Hohai University. His research interests in-

clude nonlinear control systems, wind power con-

trol and renewable energy. E-mail: icekingking@hhu.edu.cn.

B. Wang et al. / J Control Theory Appl 2013 11 (2) 282–287

287

B. Wang et al. / J Control Theory Appl 2013 11 (2) 282–287 287 Yanping QIAN

Yanping QIAN was born in Zhejiang, China. He

received his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from South-

east University, Nanjing, China, both in Control

Theory and Control Engineering, in 2003 and 2007,

respectively. He is currently a lecturer with the

College of Energy and Electrical Engineering, Ho-

hai University. His research interests include con-

trol theory applications for wireless communica-

tion systems and networks, and renewable energy

systems. E-mail: qianyp@hhu.edu.cn.

B. Wang et al. / J Control Theory Appl 2013 11 (2) 282–287 287 Yanping QIAN

Yiming ZHANG was born in Jilin, China. He

received his B.S. degree from Hohai University

in 2010. He is currently a M.S. degree candi-

date at the College of Energy and Electrical En-

gineering, Hohai University. His research inter-

est is nonlinear control of wind turbine. E-mail:

zym20062174@163.com.

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