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LEVELOFTRAINING
1.1. BasicAmbulanceAssistant(BAA/BLS) Fulltime: 7weeks Parttime: 5moths Courseincludes: BasicAirwaymanagement CPR AED BasicTraumaandmedicaltraining Emergencychildbirth Noninvasivetechniques Accumulate1000hoursbeforeoneisabletoapplyfororstartAEA/ILS. AMBULANCEEMERGENCYASSISTANT(AEA/ILS) Fulltime: 4month Parttime: Courseincludes: Cardioversion OnemanCPR Drugtherapy Advancedairwaymanagement AdvancedECGinterpretation Advanceobstetricalemergenciesandtreatment Accumulate_________hoursbeforeoneisabletoapplyfororstartCCA/ALS. CRITICALCAREASSISTANT(CCA/ALS) OnlyFulltime: 12months Courseincludes: Intravenousfluidadministration ECGrecognitionanddefibrillation OnemanCPR Selectdrugtherapy Accumulate_________hoursbeforeoneisabletoapplyfororstartCCA/ALS.

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1.4. B.TECHEMERGENCYMEDICALCARE/HEALTHSCIENCES(BTEMC) OnlyFulltime: 4years Courseincludes: Advancedrescueskills Ambulancetechnology ChemistryandPhysics AdvancedAnatomyandPhysiology EMERGENCYCARETECHNICIAN(ECT) OnlyFulltime: 2years THEROLEOFTHEPROVINCIALADMINISTRATION Hastheroletorenderaservicetothepublicanddoesdobymeanofagents

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THEROLEOFTHEPRIVATEENTERPRISE
3.1. 3.2. Tocaterforpeoplewhocanaffordtousethem Andhelpwheretheprovincialservicecannotserviceduetotheunavailabilityofambulancesor equipment

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DUTIESOFANAMBULANCEASSISTANT(LETTERTOREMEMBER:PRESEARTH)
4.1. P PREPARATION Ofyourself,yourpartnermentallyandphysically Ofyourvehicleandequipment RESPONSE Mentalplanning:quickestandsafestroute Beawareofotherroadusers Usingyourlightsandsirensonlywhenrequired SAFETY Protectyourselfandyourpartneratascene(BSI) Safearrivalatthescene Assessingpossiblehazardsandusingotherresourcestoassist Useofequipmenttoensurecontinualsafety ASSESSMENT Completethoroughandaccurateassessment Knowledgeandacquiredskills EMERGENCYCARE ONLYuptoyourleveloftraining Callforbackupifneeded DONTTAKEANYSHORTCUTS EXTRICATION Quick,safeandcorrect Stabilizationofpatient Useofotherresources TRANSPORT SafeandquicktransporttonearMOSTAPPROPRIATEmedicalfacility NotifyhospitalsofpatientconditionESPECIALLYCRITICALPT HANDOVER Completedpt.reportform Fillinginthecorrectinformation Handingoveralljewellerythatneedorhavebeentakenoff,aswellasanyotherpersonal belongingsReceivereceiptofcollection/handoverforvaluables NotingALLchangestopt.condition RECORD Fillinginthehospitalbooksandforms Handingoverpt.reportforms Logsheets,receiptbooks,statementsetc.

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ROLEOFTHEEMERGENCYCAREPRACTITIONER(ECP):BASIC
5.1. 5.2. 5.3. Provideahighpt.carestandardwithinethicalandlegalparameters DONTperformpt.careoutsideyourscopeofpractice(protocols) RecordALLemergencycarerenderedtopt.accurately

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PROFESSIONALISM
6.1 6.2 Aprofessionisaserviceinvolvedwithimportantaspectsofhumanlifeofwhichknowledge,skills, capabilityandresponsibilityareimperative. CHARACTERISTICSOFAPROFESSION Essentialservicewithhighdegreeofresponsibility Professioncallsforknowledge Importantskillsandcapabilities Friendlyattitude Aprofession/professionalwouldstoreknowledgeforfuturegenerations

CODEOFCONDUCTOFANECPBASIC
7.1 ECPBWILLATALLTIMESPRACTICETHEPROFESSIONWITH: Compassion Dignity Conscience ConserveLife AlleviateSuffering Respecthumanlifeanddignity Actinthebestinterestofthept. Respecttherightsofthept. Highstandardsifprofessionalethics Maintainowncompetence NEVERperformprocedures/treatmentsthatexceedyourabilities/scopesoftraining Maintainhonourandtraditionoftheprofession Behaveinacceptablemannertowardscolleagues/otherprofessionalsandrespecttheirrights Respectconfidentialnatureofinformation,whichisconfidedtoyou,evenafterpt.died. DONOTTREATPT.DIFFERENTBECAUSEOF: Religion Nationality Race PartyPolitics Socialstanding Ormotiveofprofit

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EVERYBODYHASTHERIGHTTOEQUALQUALITYANDAVAILIBILTYOFEMERGENCYCARE

MEDICAL,LEGAL,ETHICALRESPONSIBILITYOFBAA
8.1 8.2 Allmedicalprofessionalsandemergencycareworkersaresubjecttoprosecutionbecauseof negligence,incorrecttreatment,abandonment,etc. Throughcorrectpt.careinYOURLEVELyouwillbeabletojustifyallyouractionsandtreatments

LIABILITYOFTHEEMERGENCYCAREWORKER
9.1 9.2 Allmedicalprofessionalsandemergencycareworkersaresubjecttoprosecutionbecauseof negligence,incorrecttreatment,abandonment,etc. DONOTTREATPT.DIFFERENTBECAUSEOF:

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Insufficienttreatmentaccordingtoleveloftraining Illtreatingofpt. Carryingourproceduresaboveleveloftraining Recklessandnegligencedrivingthatmayinjurept./worsenconditionofpt.

RESPONSIBILITIESANDDUTIESTOWARDSTHEPT.
10.1 Assoonasyoustarttreatingapt.youareexposingyourselftoprosecution,thereforeitisimportant tounderstandyourdutiesandresponsibilities.

APPLIEDLEGISLATION 11.1 MOSTIMPORTANTISTHECONSTITUTION: Everypersoninthecountryhadtherighttomedicaltreatment Everypersonshallhavetherighttolife Everypersonshallhavetherighttodignity Everypersonshallhavetherighttoprivacy Detained,arrestedandaccusedpersonsshallhavetherighttobetodetainedunderconditions consonantwithhumandignity,whichshallincludemedicaltreatmentatstateexpense. EVERYSHILDSHALLHAVETHERIGHTNOTTOBESUBJECTTONEGLECTORABUSE. MEDICOLEGALASPECTS
12.1 Twowaysanemergencycarepractitionermayrunafoulofthelaw:CRIMINALCODEANDDIALECTIC/ CIVILLAW 12.2 CRIMINALCODE: Tobeprosecutedunderthecriminalcode: Committedanoffenceagainstlaiddownstatutesofthecriminalcodeoflawinthecountry E.g.criminalinjury,assaultandmurder 12.3 DIALECTIC/CIVILLAW: Whilethereisnothinginthecriminalcodethathasbeentransgressedifitcanbeprovenbyyour commissionoromissionofanactdamagedorinjuredanythingpertainingtoanotherperson/or property,youmaybeprosecutedincourt. 12.4 Legalliabilitymayinvolveoneorbothcriminalorcivilaction.Basicdifferenceremedyofeach 12.5 CRIMINALLIABILITYREMEDYISAIMEDATPUNISHMENTOFTHEOFFENDER Lossoflicense Serveajailsentence 12.6 DIALECTIC/CIVILLIABILITYREMEDYBYWAYOFDAMAGES Paymentforlossofincomebreadwinner

NEGLIGENCE
Failuretoperformanecessary/importanttechnique Performingsuchtechniquesincareless/unskilledmanner Whenviolationcausesfurtherinjury/damaged/hurttopt.

DUTYTOACT
Everypersonhastherighttoreceivetreatmentwithoutinterruption

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Accordingtotheconstitutioneverypersonhastherighttomedicalcare Youhaveadutytoactthemomentacallisreceiveduntilitiscompleted/handedover. Ifyoustarttreatingapt.youhavealegalobligationtothatpt.

ABANDONMENT
Ifyoustarttreatingthatpt.youhavealegalobligationtothept. Ifyoustoptreatmentbeforehandingpt.overtosomeonewhomhaseitherthesameorhigher qualificationitsabandonment Thisappliestoincompletehandingoverofpt.(andpersonalbelongings)tohigherqualifiedperson orhospitalstaff.

QUALITYOFCARE
Everypersonhastherighttoreceivetreatmentwithoutinterruption Accordingtotheconstitutioneverypersonhastherighttomedicalcare

CONSENT Everyadultthatisofsoundmindhastherighttorefusetreatment/transport YouMUSTrespectthept.wishes Beforetreatingapt.youNEEDhis/herconsent! Theconsentcanbewithdrawnatanytime 17.1 EXPRESSED,INFORMED/VOLUNTARYCONSENT: Apt.oflegalage(18)whoisinformedofrisk/benefitsoftreatmentcanvoluntarilygiveconsent Verbalrefusalissufficient,butasignatureandprintednameispreferred!!!!! 17.2 IMPLIED/SILENTCONSENT: Unconsciouspt. Minorswhoseguardians/parentsarenotavailable Thept.conditionimpliesthathe/shewouldhavegivenconsentifhewereabletodoso. 17.3 INVOLUNTARYCONSENT: Incompetentindividualse.g.: Mentallyillorheadinjury Withoutaforementionedconsentonemaybechargedwithassault/battery NOpersonshallagreetoseriousphysicalinjury(suicide) 17.4 MINORCONSENT: Whenaminormarrieshe/sheacquirestherightsofanadult Onlyparents/guardianofminorcanrefusetreatmentonbehalfofminor Ifparent/guardianNOTpresentyoucanassumetheywouldhavegivenconsent 17.5 PSYCHIATRICCASES: Policeofficersaretheonlypeoplethatmaytransportapsychiatricpatientagainsttheirwill/giveyou permissiontotransport.Ifadoctorhascertifiedapatient,youmaytransporthim/her. 17.6 OTHERCONSIDERATIONS: Keeprecordofallincidents Reportanyactuponachildwhichisconsideredmorally/legallyimproper Reportallchildbirthsatmedicalfacility Reportallevidencethatacrimehasbeencommitted

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YOUMUSTREADANDKNOWACTSANDREGULATIONSAPPLICABLETOYOU

REFUSALOFTREATMENT
Anypersonovertheageof18hastherighttorefusemedicaltreatment,evenifthisresultsindeath. 18.1 LIVINGWILL: LivingWillisadeclaration/anadvancedirectivewhichwillrepresentthept.wishestorefusemedical treatmentandattentionintheformofbeingkeptalivebyartificialmeanwhenthepatientmayno longerbeabletocompetentlyexpressaview.

EXEMPTION
Ifyouexceedyourleveloftraininglegalstepsmaybetakenagainstyou. Youmaybesuspended/allyourresponsibilitiestakenawayfromyoubytheHPCSA

CONFIDENTIALITY
ALWAYSprotectthepts.Privacy DONOTdismissdetailsofpt.withfriends/family.Ifyoudiscusstheemergencykeepthedetails(pts. Nameandpersonaldetails)toyourself

RESPONSIBILITYTOWARDSPOSSESSIONS
Incertaincasesyouneedtoremovejewelleryfrompt.youMUSTkeeparecordofeverythingyou remove.Takeitwithyoutohospitalhanditovertothehospitalstaffandinsistonawrittenreceipt forallitems.Thisincludeshandingoveratthemortuary.

RECORDSANDREPORTS
ANYinformationthathasamassedduringassessment/treatmentofpt.MUSTbenotarizedonpt. reportformcopytobegiventothehospitalstaff.DocumentsshouldformpartofyourPERSONAL RECORDSandshouldbekeptincaseofcourtcases.

CRIMINALSITUATIONSTOGUARDAGAINST
23.1 INDECENTASSAULT: Theunlawfulandintentionalassaultofanotherwiththeobjectifcommittinganindecency Theactitselfmustbeindecent Theremustbeintentiontoact/behaveindecentlythiscanbeexpressedbywordsandconduct andNOTmerelybythenatureoftheact. Ameretouchingofapersonmaybesufficiente.g.awomanbreastsaretouchedwithoutconsent Crimecanbecommittedbyeithermaleorfemalesameappliestothepersonagainstthecrimeis committed 23.2 CULPABLEHOMICIDE: Unlawful,negligentactcausingdeathofanotherhumanbeing Thelawalsopunishesunlawfulactscommittedunintentionallyorunintentionalcausingofdeath. 23.3 THEFT: Unlawfulorintentionalappropriationofanothersproperty.

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DEATHANDMORTUARYPROCEDURES 24.1 CLINICALDEATH: Apt.isclinicallydeadthemomentbreathingandtheheartbeatstops 24.2 BIOLOGICALDEATH: Apt.isbiologicallydeadwhenbraincellsdie Ifpt.isNOTbreathingandtheheartisNOTcirculatingoxygenatedblood,potentiallylethalchanges begintotakeplacewithin46minutes(ourbodiescarry+5minworthofoxygenatedblood) Braincellsusuallybegintodiewithin10min(thiscanbedelayedbecoldtemperatures) 24.3 DEATHASSUMPTIONANDCERTIFICATION: AssumeclinicaldeathinallEXCEPTTHREEinstances: o Abodywhichisdecapitated o Abodywhichhasstartedtodecompose o Abodywithrigormortis/lividity ONLYifoneoftheaboveispresentmayyouassumethepatientisbiologicallydead. IfNONEoftheaboveexceptionsarepresentCPRmustbestartedonthatpt. 24.4 MORTUARYPROCEDURES: Ifapt.iscertifieddeadonsceneandunnaturalcauseofdeathiscompletelyruledout,thefamilyof thedeceasedmaycontactanundertakeroftheirchoicetotransportthebody. IfunnaturalcauseofdeaththeSAPSmustbecontactedtosendoutdetectives,photographersand medicolegallaboratoryhearsetotransportthebody. Ifyouaretransportingapt.andonarrivalthept.isdeclareddeadonarrival,youMUSTaskthe doctorforadeathcertificateasyoumusttransportthebodytoamortuary. ATTHEMORTUARY:YouMUSThandoverthedeathcertificateandcompleteallthenecessaryforms Besuretowritedowneverypieceofclothing,ALLjewellery,money(withthenumbersandtotalsof allthenotes),creditcardsandotherbelongingsofpt. Keepthereceiptthepersonyouhavehandedovertohassignedforeverythingandwritedown thepersonsnameandcontactdetailsincaseofanyqueriesoftheftcases.(andifpossiblemakea copyoftheinventorylistofpt.belongings) Ifthebodyishandedtostatemortuary,SAPSmemberwillaskyoutowriteadeclarationofthe treatmentgiven,andifthepatientsustainedanyfurtherinjurieswhilstunderyourcare. THECHILDCAREACT(ACT74/1983)
ThepurposeoftheAct:theprotectionandwelfareofcertainchildren,fortheestablishmentof institutionsandintakeandtreatmentofchildrenandforadoptionofchildren IfECPcomesacrossanincidentwherechildrequiresmedicaltreatmentandparents/guardians/ otherpersonsrefusethatchildreceivesmedicaltreatmentseekadvicefromseniorofficer/Duty MedicalOfficer. Ifcircumstancesarenoticedwhereprotection/welfareofachildissuspectedtobeneglected,it MUSTbebroughttotheattentionoftheSocialWelfareDepartment/SAPS.

MEDICAL,DENTALANDSUPPLEMENTARYHEALTHSERVICEACT(ACT56/1974)
Purpose:providefortheestablishmentfortheHPCSA,forcontrolovertraining&registrationof medicalpractitioners,dentistsandpractitionersofsupplementaryhealthserviceprofessions.

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ToprovideFORcontroloverandthetrainingOFandFORregistrationofpsychologistsandtoprovide formattersincidentalthereto. ActdealslargelywithpowersofHPCSA o Theircontrolovertraining&registration o OffensescommittedintermsofMedical,DentalandSupplementaryHealthServiceActand theirrespectivepenalties Section15oftheActgivescouncilauthoritytoestablishcertainprofessionalboards.Purposeofthe boardspromotehighstandardsofprofessionaleducationandprofessionalconductamongstother membersofprofession. NOrulesorregulationsrelatingtoparticularprofessionmaybemadeUNLESStheprofessionalboard hasbeenconsulted. Termsofrulesmadeby:ProfessionalBoardforEmergencyCarePersonnel: o ItiscompulsorytoregisterwithHPCSAinordertobeabletofunctionasanECP.

REGULATIONSDEFININGTHESCOPEOFTHEPROFESSIONOFEMERGENCYCARE
Whatisanemergencysituation? Aneventwhichleadstoapersonbeinginjured/orforsomeorotherreasonleadstomortaldanger andneedsemergencycare. THEACTMAKESPROVISIONFORYOUTO: Identifyemergencycareneedsofapersoninemergencycaresituation Evaluationofemergencycareneeds Rescueofapersonfromemergencysituation Provideemergencycare Preventfurtherinjury Transportationofpt.tomedicalfacility HPCSAANDPROFESSIONALBOARDSDISCIPLINARYACTION: ALLcomplaintsAREinvestigated PractitionerswhoremainwithinboundsofprofessionalproprietyandwhoDONOTACToutsideof normandservingthebestinterestofthept./publichaveNOconcernswithcouncilsdisciplinary powers. PROFESSIONALBOARDFOREMERGENCYCAREPERSONNEL: Theboardprotects&promotestheinterestsofallambulancepersonnel Uniteambulancepersonneltoexclusiveoccupation Provideanadequateambulanceservice Andhighstandardofpatientcare

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WHATISSCOPEOFPRACTICE
Listofskillstaughtonspecificlevel,basedonnationalcurriculum PersonnelshouldNEVERperformadditionalskillstheyARENOTregisteredforevenifbelievedto benefitthept.

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