Anda di halaman 1dari 13

ABSTRACT

Nowadays wireless communication is in practice, because of it advantages like


no wire is needed, they are portable and it can transmit intelligence let say a kilometer
depending on the power capacity of both the transmitter and the receiver
(transceiver).
The wireless communication make uses of radio frequency (R.F) to transmit the
intelligence (picture, audio, video) in form if electromagnetic wave which is radiated
into air from the transmitter to the receiver end.
The conversion of the intelligence is achieved by a transceiver circuit which use
microphone as a transducer to convert human voice into electrical signal, arrangement
of transistor to amplifier signal and crystal oscillator for frequency determining.




















INTRODUCTION

1.1Purpose
The goal of this project is to design a transceiver (transmitter and receiver) that
can be use to send and receive information. The receive antenna efficiently accepts
the radiated energy and convert it to an electrical signal. As the signal suffered
attenuation during travel it requires further amplification. The output transducer
converts the electrical signal back into sound energy.
The input sound signal is converted into equivalent electrical current voltage by
a transducer, the transducer output is amplified by a chain of amplifiers (so that it can
travel longer distance). The purpose of the transmit antenna is to efficiently transform
the electrical signal into radiation energy.

1.2 Specification
In this wireless system, short range RF (radio frequency) at fm band is used to
transmit and receive information. The transmitter section utilizes icNE566 (voltage
control oscillator) for generating about 727 KEz frequency.
1.3 HISTORY BACKGROUND
Donald Hings pioneered one of the first Walkie-Talkies. In 1938 he was working
for a mining company that deployed geologists to remote areas of western Canada to
locate mineral deposits. Now, if there was a crash in the bush, pilots had no way of
signaling their location. That year, he developed an effective, portable emergency
voice radio. It could float, featured a folding antenna and its signal had a 130-mile
range. The British Army was very impressed with these "radios" and as Mr. Hings
continued his work to improve his invention, walkie talkies became invaluable war
time tools.
The first radio receiver/transmitter to be nicknamed "Walkie-Talkie" was the
backpacked Motorola SCR-300, created by an engineering team in 1940 at the Galvin
Manufacturing Company (forerunner of Motorola). The team consisted of Dan Noble,
who conceived of the design using FM technology, Henryk Magnuski who was the
principal RF engineer, Bill Vogel, Lloyd Morris, and Marion Bond. Motorola produced
the hand-held AM SCR-536 radio as well during the war. It was called the "Handie-
Talkie" (HT).





2 DESIGN PROCEDURE

In the construction of transceiver there are several stages involved, which is
shown in the block diagram below
2.0 block diagram

Figure 1. Transmitter stages


ANT


LNA MIXER IF FILTER AMPLIFIER PLL AUDIO AMP
SPEAKER






Figure 2. FM receiver stages






Transmitter stage

2.1 Audio input
The input can be output of a CD player or a transducer, the input sound signal is
converted into equivalent electrical current voltage by a transducer. The transducer
output is amplified by a chain of amplifiers (so that it can travel longer distance).
2.2 amplifiers
The function of the audio amplifier is two-fold: (1) to bias the DC level of the
VCO input at 7-V so there is maximum frequency swing on both sides of 300-kHz,
and( 2) to limit the AC amplitude of the VCO input to 500-mV. Proper DC biasing is
accomplished using a 10-k potentiometer acting as a voltage divider. Since the largest
audio signal we applied had a 200-mV amplitude, we chose to set the gain of the
amplifier at 3-dB.
2.3 vco
A Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO) is a circuit that provides a varying output
signal (typically of square-wave or triangular-wave form) whose frequency can be
adjusted over a range controlled by a dc voltage. An example of a VCO is the 566 IC
units, which contains circuitry to generate both square wave and triangular-wave signals
whose frequency is set by an external resistor and capacitor and then varied by an
applied dc voltage.


2.4 mixers:
The mixer correctly up-converted the 300-kHz signal from the VCO to 24.3-
MHz unfortunately, in the process, the mixer did not provide the 14-dB of conversion
gain promised by the specification sheet. Instead, the mixer attenuated the signal by 2-
dB. We were careful to select coupling capacitors at the input and output to represent
low impedance at 300-kHz and 24.3-MHz, respectively, but beyond that, we could had
no other design control over the mixer circuit. We accepted this unexpected loss and
focused our energies on the power amplifier.

2.5 Power amplifier:
The power amplifier is designed to supply up to 20-dB of gain to compensate for
the weak mixer output. Other than the basic Gali-5 amplifier. To ensure maximum
power transfer between the mixer and the power amplifier, the matching network
must be used. The network transforms the output impedance of the mixer (including a
1.8-nF coupling capacitor) into approximately 50-. Additional matching was
unnecessary, since both the input and output impedances of the Gali-5 were
measured on the network analyzer to be very close to 50-.
RECEIVER STAGE
2.6 LNA
The importance of the LNA to the overall functionality of our receiver cannot be
overstated. This stage has the highest signal to noise ratio (SNR) of all stages and can
potentially have the greatest impact on overall system noise according to Friis
equation. Figure below shows that we used the shunt-shunt feedback topology
presented in lecture. The collector and emitter resistances are designed to draw 9-mA
of current through the transistor. In actuality, the entire LNA circuit is using close to
10-mA. Bias resistances of 10-k are chosen to draw a current much smaller than the
collector current and much larger than the base current. Originally, the feedback
resistance was set at 100k-, but we experimentally found that 2.2-kM moved the
collector current and bias voltages closer to desired levels. The feedback capacitance
we will talk about shortly. This circuit is able to provide 22-dB of gain with a noise
figure of 7-dB, resulting in an SNR of 15-dB, which is much higher than the SNR of
subsequent stages.





2.7 mixers
Again, the mixer failed to provide the expected 14-dB conversion gain, but
fortunately it did not attenuate the signal passing through it. Both of the inputs are
matched to 50-. The output of the mixer terminates into the first IF amplifiers input,
which has very large impedance, so matching in that case did not make much sense.
The linearity characteristics of this stage are -10-dBm for 1-dB compression and -13-
dBm for IP3.
2.8 IF Filter and Amplifier:
The passive filter in the IF section provides frequency selectivity of 200-kHz
around 300-kHz center, as depicted in Figure below. Unfortunately, the filter cannot
remove noise in the pass-band. Each amplifier in this stage contributes 20-dB gain at
300-kHz but also raises the noise
floor by 10-dB, resulting in an SNR of only 10-dB. This indicates that the IF stage
is not as efficient as the LNA at amplifying the signal without introducing more noise.

2.9 PLL:
After determining the correct bias components, the PLL did not present any
problems in the latter integration steps. Its minimum detectable signal has -50-dBm
power. Thus, given a weak -110-dBm on the antenna and assuming 62-dB gain prior to
the PLL, the -110-dBm signal can be demodulated. Lock range was found to be S.SKEz
480-kHz, slightly larger than predicted. The implication of this discrepancy is that the
PLL will lock onto more signals around 300-kHz but will also introduce more noise into
the final output. Nonlinearity of the PLL is negligible given the very small total
harmonic distortion.
3.0 Audio Amplifier:
The audio amplifier between the PLL and the speaker is necessary for two
reasons: 1) the PLL output may be too weak to be heard clearly on the speaker, and 2)
the PLL output contains a leakage of the 300-kHz signal from the input, resulting in
high-frequency perturbations on top of an otherwise clean audio signal. To the PLL
output of -15-dBm power, we added 6-dB of gain through the audio amplifier. To
eliminate the 300-kHz leakage, we used a low-pass filter with a 20-kHz cutoff in the
feedback path of the amplifier. The low-pass filter resulted in remarkably clean audio
outputs.



















3.1 DESIGN CALCULATION FOR COMPONENT USED
VOLTAGE CONTROL OSCILLATOR
A Voltage-Controlled Oscillator
signal (typically of square-wave or
adjusted over a range controlled by a dc voltage
3.2 The control voltage VC.


Ic =

CHAPTER THREE
DESIGN METHODOLOGY
DESIGN CALCULATION FOR COMPONENT USED
VOLTAGE CONTROL OSCILLATOR
Controlled Oscillator (VCO) is a circuit that provides a varying output
wave or triangular-wave form) whose frequency can be
range controlled by a dc voltage.

Ic =
R2
R1 +R2
Ic
=
1Suk
22k +1Suk
S: = 4.4:
provides a varying output
wave form) whose frequency can be

3.3 The free running-frequency


o =
1Su

Phase-locked Loop (PLL)
A phase-locked loop (PLL) is an electronic circuit that consist of
A low-pass filter and a voltage

3.4 center-operating frequency,

o



frequency fo.
o =
2
R2C1
(
I -Ic
I
)
2
1Su 1u
3
2.2 1u
-12
(
S -4.4
S
)
o == 727 KEz
locked Loop (PLL)
locked loop (PLL) is an electronic circuit that consist of
and a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO).
operating frequency, fo.
o =
u.S
R1C1

o =
u.S
1.8 1u
3
22uuu
-12

o == 8KEz
locked loop (PLL) is an electronic circuit that consist of a phase detector,


3.5 The lock range is:

I=_
8]
c

I=_
88k
12

I=_5.3KHz



3.6 Capture range is:

c=_
1
2n
_
2P
l
R2C2

c=_
1
2n
_
25.3k
3.4k100010
-12

c=_275MHz


3.7. Antenna
a telescopic antenna is used with the ground plane for the transmitter. In order for
the transmitter to send the frequency 66 MHz to the receiver. The antenna length
should be about a quarter of the wave length.
C
= = 1.136 m
4. f









4

The oscilloscope and the spectrum analyzer are used to verify weather the RF oscillator, the
subcarrier oscillator, and the transmitter works properly.
4.1 RF oscillator
Figure 4.1 and Figure 4.2 show a shape of the sinusoidal wave, which is generated b
oscillator at the frequency range between 54 MHz and 70 MHz
Figure 4.1. Oscillation frequency at 54 MHz
The spectrum in Figure 4.3 and Figure 4.4 show that the oscillator generates the fr
between 59.9 MHz and 75.9 MHz.
Figure 4.3. Spectrum of oscillation frequency at 59.9 MHz
Figure 4.4. Spectrum of oscillation frequency at 75.9 MHz

4. DESIGN VERIFICATION
The oscilloscope and the spectrum analyzer are used to verify weather the RF oscillator, the
oscillator, and the transmitter works properly.
Figure 4.1 and Figure 4.2 show a shape of the sinusoidal wave, which is generated b
oscillator at the frequency range between 54 MHz and 70 MHz
Figure 4.1. Oscillation frequency at 54 MHz Figure 4.2. Oscillation frequency at 70 MHz
The spectrum in Figure 4.3 and Figure 4.4 show that the oscillator generates the fr

Figure 4.3. Spectrum of oscillation frequency at 59.9 MHz
Figure 4.4. Spectrum of oscillation frequency at 75.9 MHz
The oscilloscope and the spectrum analyzer are used to verify weather the RF oscillator, the
Figure 4.1 and Figure 4.2 show a shape of the sinusoidal wave, which is generated by the RF
Figure 4.2. Oscillation frequency at 70 MHz
The spectrum in Figure 4.3 and Figure 4.4 show that the oscillator generates the frequency range
Figure 4.3. Spectrum of oscillation frequency at 59.9 MHz

4.2 Subcarrier Oscillator
The plot from the oscilloscope and from the spectrum analyzer in Figure 4.5 and
Figure 4.6 show the subcarrier oscillator produces the frequency at 4.5
Figure 4.5. Subcarrier frequency at 4.5 MHz from the oscilloscope
Figure 4.6. Subcarrier frequency at 4.5 MHz from the spectrum analyzer
4.3 Modulator and Low Pass Filter
Figure 4.7 shows the spectrum at the output of the transmitter without the
input signals. The low pass
harmonics significantly. The difference in power gain between the fundamental
frequency and the second harmonic at the output of the transmitter should be at
least 30 dB to avoid the harmonics causing the distortion to the funda
frequency. The spectrum shows that our transmitter has about 27 dB difference in
power gain. This number is considerably closed to 30 dB gain.
Figure 4.7. Transmitted signal gain difference
The plot from the oscilloscope and from the spectrum analyzer in Figure 4.5 and
Figure 4.6 show the subcarrier oscillator produces the frequency at 4.5
Figure 4.5. Subcarrier frequency at 4.5 MHz from the oscilloscope
rier frequency at 4.5 MHz from the spectrum analyzer
and Low Pass Filter
Figure 4.7 shows the spectrum at the output of the transmitter without the
input signals. The low pass filters do filter out and cut down the power of the
harmonics significantly. The difference in power gain between the fundamental
frequency and the second harmonic at the output of the transmitter should be at
least 30 dB to avoid the harmonics causing the distortion to the funda
frequency. The spectrum shows that our transmitter has about 27 dB difference in
power gain. This number is considerably closed to 30 dB gain.
Figure 4.7. Transmitted signal gain difference
The plot from the oscilloscope and from the spectrum analyzer in Figure 4.5 and
Figure 4.6 show the subcarrier oscillator produces the frequency at 4.5 MHz
Figure 4.5. Subcarrier frequency at 4.5 MHz from the oscilloscope
rier frequency at 4.5 MHz from the spectrum analyzer
Figure 4.7 shows the spectrum at the output of the transmitter without the
cut down the power of the
harmonics significantly. The difference in power gain between the fundamental
frequency and the second harmonic at the output of the transmitter should be at
least 30 dB to avoid the harmonics causing the distortion to the fundamental
frequency. The spectrum shows that our transmitter has about 27 dB difference in
Figure 4.8 shows the spectrum of the transmitter with the input signals. The
carrier frequency, the sound carrier, and the transmitted signal power at the output of
transmitter are seen in this spectrum. This shows that the modulated and amplified to
achieve a certain level power for transmission.

Figure 4.8. Transmitted signal power