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Interface dan adc/dac

Hardware interfaces Hardware interfaces exist in computing systems between many of the components such as the various buses, storage devices, other I/O devices, etc. A hardware interface is described by the mechanical, electrical and logical signals at the interface and the protocol for sequencing them (sometimes called signaling).[1]

Real Time Data Acquisition and Control.

Hardware interfaces
A standard interface, such as SCSI, decouples the design and introduction of computing hardware, such as I/O devices, from the design and introduction of other components of a computing system, thereby allowing users and manufacturers great flexibility in the implementation of computing systems.[1] Hardware interfaces can be parallel where performance is important or serial where distance is important. ISA, EISA, VESA, PCI , IDE

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21.1 Input/Output Devices and Controllers


Table 3.3
Input type
Symbol

Some input, output, and two-way I/O devices.


Other examples
Music note, OCR

Prime examples
Keyboard, keypad

Data rate (b/s)


10s

Main uses
Ubiquitous

Position
Identity Sensory Audio Image

Mouse, touchpad
Barcode reader Touch, motion, light Microphone Scanner, camera

Stick, wheel, glove


Badge, fingerprint Scent, brain signal Phone, radio, tape Graphic tablet

100s
100s 100s 1000s 1000s-106s

Ubiquitous
Sales, security Control, security Ubiquitous Photos, publishing

Video

Camcorder, DVD

VCR, TV cable

1000s-109s

Entertainment

Output type
Symbol Position Warning Sensory Audio Image Video

Prime examples
LCD line segments Stepper motor Buzzer, bell, siren Braille text Speaker, audiotape Monitor, printer Monitor, TV screen

Other examples
LED, status light Robotic motion Flashing light Scent, brain stimulus Voice synthesizer Plotter, microfilm Film/video recorder

Data rate (b/s)


10s 100s A few 100s 1000s 1000s 1000s-109s

Main uses
Ubiquitous Ubiquitous Safety, security Personal assistance Ubiquitous Ubiquitous Entertainment

Two-way I/O
Mass storage Network

Prime examples
Hard/floppy disk Modem, fax, LAN

Other examples
CD, tape, archive Cable, DSL, ATM

Data rate (b/s)


106s 1000s-109s

Main uses
Ubiquitous Ubiquitous

Feb. 2011

Computer Architecture, Input/Output and Interfacing

Slide 5

Diagram Dasar

I/O Organization for Greater Performance


CPU
Cache
Interrupts

Main memory

Memory bus
Bus adapter Bus adapter

Proprietary

AGP

Intermediate buses / ports

PCI bus

Standard
I/O bus
Bus adapter

I/O controller I/O controller

Graphics display

I/O controller

I/O controller

Network

Disk

Disk

CD/DVD

Figure 21.2 Input/output via intermediate and dedicated I/O buses (to be explained in Chapter 23).
Feb. 2011 Computer Architecture, Input/Output and Interfacing Slide 7

Baca Memori

Tulis Memori

Baca I/O PORT

Tulis I/O Port

Timing

Counters

Timers

Antarmuka Parallel Vs. Serial


Using Serial than Parallel Transmitting data to a relatively distance peripherals Requires only one data wire
8 wires for parallel

Less cable, line drivers and receivers


Esp. Long distance

To use commercial communication facilities such as regular telephone or data lines


Chap 0 16

Slot paralel

Port

Sistem interupsi

Pengontrol interupsi

Peta Memori

Desain interface

Kaset

Decoder addr 703

Latch

Antarmuka paralel

Printer

Data bus paralel port

Buffer + latch

Antarmuka arus/tegangan besar

Paralel port

Rs 232-c

Current-loop

Komunikasi Asinkron

Asinkronus Adapter

25 pin communication

ADC vs DAC

konverter

ADC vs DAC

Analog to Digital? How's it done?


Forouzan Chapter 4.3 (around lecture 16)

3 March 2004

Peter Komisarczuk & VUW, 2004.

40

ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER

Diagram ADC

Rangkaian ADC

Contoh ADC

Komponen ADC

DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTER (DAC)

Contoh Rangkaian DAC

Komponen DAC

BIOS

SEKIAN

SCSI: Small Computer System Interface


SCSI is actually an acronym for Small Computer System Interface and it is pronounced as "skuzzy". It is the second-most popular hard disk interface used in PCs today. It's a high-speed, intelligent peripheral I/O bus with a device independent protocol for transferring data between different types of peripheral devices. The SCSI bus connects all parts of a computer system so that they can communicate with each other. The bus frees the host processor from the responsibility of I/O internal tasks. A SCSI bus can be either internal, external, or cross the boundary from internal to external. The SCSI protocol is a peer-to-peer relationship: one device does not have to be subordinated to another device in order to perform I/0 activities. Only two of these devices can communicate on the bus at any given time.


Each SCSI bus can connect up to 8 or up to 16 peripherals; one of those devices will always be the computer or the SCSI card, because they too are devices on the SCSI. SCSI devices are designated as either initiators (drivers) or targets (receivers) and the interface to the host computer is called the host adapter. Every device connected to the bus will have a different SCSI ID, ranging from 0 to 7. The host adapter takes up one ID leaving 7 ID's for other hardware. SCSI hardware typically consists of hard drives, tape drives, CD-ROMs, printers and scanners Reference: http://seminarprojects.com/Thread-small-computersystem-interface--3468#ixzz1qbhKlhNt