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Training Object

HUAWEI

Principles and various parts of VOIP

Types and applications of the voice interface

Networking and parameter setting of VOIP

Diagnosis and elimination of the common fault

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Development of the IP Phone


HUAWEI

PC-PC in year 1995: IP-Phone, Net2Phone and Netmeeting; PC-Phone in year 1996: various GW products emerged Phone-Phone in year 1997: large-scale toll services started to be bypassed over the IP network Year 1998 saw the appearing of Ethernet-Phone and the original form of the integrated information terminal. The new-generation telephone set is coming.

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HUAWEI

Comparison between VOIP and Traditional Telephone (I)


C o m p a rionItem
Bearer Network Switching Mode Bandwidth Costed by Each Call Network Utilization Ratio Voice Quality Service Provided

V O IP
IP Network Packet Switching Less than 10Kbps High Low More

C u rrent T e l e p h o n e
PSTN Circuit Switching 64Kbps Low High Less

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HUAWEI

Comparison between VOIP and Traditional Telephone (II)


C o m p a rison Item
Signaling

V O IP
The signaling consists of the external and internal signalings By the TCP/IP addressing rules and protocols The routing protocols are very sophisticated Large delay and delay change are prone to occur

C u r r e n tT e l e p h o n e
Versatile signalings are required in the all By the telephone number

Addressing

Routing

The routing is closely related to the numbering rules and lines Distance is the major factor resulting in the delay

Delay

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HUAWEI

Network Structure of the IP Phone System


GK OMC AAA IP Network

GW
C&C08

GW
C&C08

IP Network No.7/No.1/PRI PSTN/PLMN No.7/No.1/PRI PSTN/PLMN

Telephone Set

Fax Machine

Telephone Set Fax Machine

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Functions of the GateWay (GW)


HUAWEI

Communication connection establishment Routing and address Signaling conversion PSTN interface provision Creation and detection of the DTMF number Voice compression and decompression

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Functions of the GateKeeper (GK)


HUAWEI

D o m a inm a n a g e m ent:singleGK,singledom a in ,m u ltiple GKsandmultipledomainsaresupported. Userauthentication:G W >G K >AAAServer A d d ressresolution:GKhandlestheaddresstranslationamongmultipleGW s B a n d w idthm a n a g e m ent:callcontrolbasedonthenetworkbandwidth R o u tin gm a n a g e m ent:m u ltipleroutesestablishedam ongtheGWsandrouteselectionbasedon differentstrategies.DirectconnectionbetweenGW sandtheconnectionbetweenGW sviaGKare available. Securitym a n a g e m ent:m u tualauthenticationbetweentheGWa n dG Kinc o m m u n icationbythe password.

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H.323 Protocol Stack


HUAWEI
D a ta T .1 2 6 T .1 2 7 S ig n a lin g A u d io V id e o

T .3 2 4
T . 1 2 4 , T .1 2 5

H .2 4 5
H .2 2 5 .0

T .1 2 3 T C P L in k

R A S

G .7 1 1 H .7 2 2 G .7 2 3 1 G .7 2 9 A

H .2 6 1 H .2 6 3

R T P ,R T C P U D P L a y e r

N e tw o r k

L a y e r

P h y s ic a l L a y e r

The H.323 protocol group is achieved on the application layer The H.225 protocol is used in the call connection establishement The H.245 protocol is used in creating the logic channel via which the voice is transmitted RTP and RTCP are used in the real-time transmission of the data and in controlling the voice data transmission The RAS protocol is used to exchange the information between GW and GK The G.711, G.7231, G.722 and G.729 protocols are algorithms used in the voice data coding and decoding Other protocols in the protocol groups are not relevant to the VOIP function.

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HUAWEI

Compression Algorithms Supported


VOIP Codec Transmission Rate after the Compression kb/s 64 8 8 6.4/5/3 6.4/5/3 Algorithm Complicity Quality Delay

Protocol

G.711 G.729 G.729A G.723 G.723.1

PCM CS-ACELP CA-ACELP MP-MLQ MP-MLQ

Low High (30MIPS) Medium Nearly high Very high

Excellent Good Common Good Good

Ignorable Low Low High Low

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HUAWEI

Factors Affecting the Voice Quality


Compression algorithm Voice activity detection Echo Voice delay Pacekt losing Delay due to the trunk switching Jitter
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HUAWEI

Measures to Improve the Voice Quality


Echo Canceller (EC) Mute compression Comfortable background noise Voice Activity Detection (VAD)

M u lte compression:VAD isusedtoreducethebandwidthcostinthemuteperiod. C o m fort background noise: it is used to elim inatethevoicediscontinuitybetweenthetalking andpausingduetothemutecompression. Echo canceller: it is used to improvethevoicequalityandeliminatethediscomfortduetothe echoresultedfromthemismatchingresistance.

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HUAWEI

Measures to Reduce the Delay


Because of the high real-time requirements of the voice service, the voice packet should be firstly sent, which is guaranteed by the Priority Queue (PQ) and Customized Queue (CQ) mechanism adopted at the transmitting end, e.g. Priority Queue (PQ) Customized Queue (CQ)

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HUAWEI

Voice Ports Supported by the Router


FXO (Foreign exchange station) FXS (Foreign exchange office) E&M port

FXS (Foreign exchange station): it connects to the basic telephone equipment such as the telephone, Modem, Fax and analog exchange. FXO (Foreign exchange office): the standard telephone set provides one FXO port and the voice Router connects to the PSTN port via the FXO port. The FXO port acts as a standard telephone set that requires the dial tone to perform the call. Equipment only with the FXO port can only connects to the equipment with the FXS port. E&M: known as the 'Ear and mouth' the E&M port provides the off-hook and on-hook signals and reduces the interference. It often connects to the PBX trunk or connecting lines.

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HUAWEI

Router Supporting the Voice Processing

Aferbeingequippedwiththevoiceinterfaceboardandhavingthesoftwareupgradedtosupportthe V O IPfunction,theQuidwayseriesmedium-endmodularRouterscanprovidetheIPPhonefunctions. Thevoiceinterfaceboardmaybepluggedinanyslot.Theboardserialnumberandvoiceinterface numberrequiredintheIPPhoneparametersettingshouldbecountedasshowninthefigurebelow.

The backview of Router shows that there are three voice interface boards plugged and their serial numbers are counted from right to left and from bottom up. The interface number is counted fromleft to right w ith reference to the board number.

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HUAWEI

Starting Mode of the Analog Port

Outgoing Call Incoming Call Peer port Current change Receiving the FXS FXO over the loop ringing current Receiving the FXO Form the loop FXS ringing current Detect the Send the current E&M current via the E E&M via the M line line
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HUAWEI

VOIP Features of Huawei's Product


F u n c t i o n S e ttin g *56# *57*abcd# *58*abcd# *55*abcd# C a n c e li n g #56# #57# #58# #55#

DoNotDisturb CallForwarding U n c o n d ition a l CallForwardingonBusy AlarmC a ll In telligentRoutingatthe FXOandE&MPorts A u tom a tic Detectionofthe BusyToneattheFXOPort

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VOIP Configuration Tasks


HUAWEI

1.Define the dial peer of the VOIP type for the remote telephone 2.Configure the remote telephone number for the remote dial peer 3.Configure the remote IP address for the remote dial peer 4.Define the dial peer of the POTS type for the local telephone 5.Configure the local telephone number for the local dial peer 6.Configure the local Router port for the local dial peer
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HUAWEI

Router Directly Connecting to the Common Telephone Set


0101001 Port4 1.1.1.1 07552001

Telephone Router A

Port5
Telephone

QoS WAN

1.1.1.2

Port4
Telephone Router B

Beijing

0101002

Port5 Shenzhen Telephone 07552002

Router parameter setting in Beijing: Quidway#Config Quidway(config)#Dial-peer voice 3 voip Quidway(config-peer-voip3)# Destination 0755.... Quidway(config-peer-voip3)# Session target ipv4:1.1.1.2 Quidway(config-peer-pots4)# dial-peer voice 4 pots Quidway(config-peer-pots4)# Destination 0101001 Quidway(config-peer-pots4)# Port 4 Quidway(config-peer-pots4)# dial-peer voice 5 pots Quidway(config-peer-pots5)# Destination 0101002 Quidway(config-peer-pots5)# Port 5

Router parameter setti ng in She nzhe n is simi lar to that in Beiji ng.

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HUAWEI

Router Connecting to PBX via FXS


0101001 07552001 port4
Router A

Telephone

1.1.1.1

QoS WAN

1.1.1.2
Router B

port6

FXS
2003

Telephone

port5
Telephone

Beijing

Shenzhen

PBX

Telephone

0101002

07552002

Router parameter setting in Beijing: Quidway# Config Quidway(config)# Dial-peer voice 4 pots Quidway(config-voice-pots4)# Destination-pattern 0101001 Quidway(config-voice-pots4)# Port 4 Quidway(config-voice-pots4)# Dial-peer voice 5 pots Quidway(config-voice-pots5)# Destination-pattern 0101002 Quidway(config-voice-pots5)# Port 5 Quidway(config-voice-pots5)# Dial-peer voice 0775 voip Quidway(config-voice-voip775)# Destination-pattern 07552003 Quidway(config-voice-voip775)# Session target ipv4:1.1.1.2

What about the Router parameter setting in Shenzhen?

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HUAWEI

Router Connecting to PBX via FXO


0101001 07552001
Telephone

port4

1.1.1.1

1.1.1.2

port6

Router A

port5 Beijing
Telephone

QoS WAN

FXO
200 Router B 3 Shenzhen
PBX

Telephone

0101002

Telephone 07552002

Router parameter setting in Beijing: Quidway# Config Quidway(config)# Dial-peer voice 4 pots Quidway(config-voice-pots4)# Destination-pattern 0101001 Quidway(config-voice-pots4)# Port 4 Quidway(config-voice-pots4)# Dial-peer voice 5 pots Quidway(config-voice-pots5)# Destination-pattern 0101002 Quidway(config-voice-pots5)# Port 5 Quidway(config-voice-pots5)# Dial-peer voice 9 voip Quidway(config-voice-voip9)# Destination-pattern 9........ Quidway(config-voice-voip9)# Session target ipv4:1.1.1.2

What about the Router parameter setting in Shenzhen?

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HUAWEI

FXO Port Working in the PLAR Mode


07552001 0101001 port6 FXO 07552003 Shenzhen
PBX

port4

1.1.1.1

Router B Telephone

QoS WAN

1.1.1.2
Router B

Telephone

Beijing

Router parameter setting in Beijing: Quidway# Config Quidway(config)# Dial-peer voice 4 pots Quidway(config-voice-pots4)# Destination-pattern 0101001 Quidway(config-voice-pots4)# Port 4 Quidway(config-voice-pots4)# Dial-peer voice 0755 voip Quidway(config-voice-voip755)# Destination-pattern 9....... Quidway(config-voice-voip755)# Session target ipv4:1.1.1.2

What about the Router parameter setting in Shenzhen

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HUAWEI

Intelligent Routing of the FXO Port

F X O

QoS WAN

e&m

In the intelligent routing of FXO, the 'destination-patten' parameters of a group of dial-peers are configured in the same way. This feature is also applicable for the E&M port.

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HUAWEI

Problems Resulted from the Connection between FXO and SPCE


07552001 Beijing 1002 FXO Router A
PBX

0101001

Telephone

QoS WAN

Shenzhen
Router B FXO
PBX

Telephone

As shown in the above figure, telephone 0101001 connecting to PBX that further connects to the Router FXO port1 via the common telephone line. If the operator on telephone (0101001) dials the telephone line number (1002) from PBX to the Roter FXO port1, after establishing the call connection, he/she may hear the dialing prompt tone. Then the operator on telephone (0101001) further dials 07552001 and starts the call to PBX from the Router FXO in Shenzhen and establishes the connection to the telephone 07552001. After the telephone2 is picked up, both sides enter the conversation state. After the conversation, when any party hangs on the phone, SPCE will release the busy tone to Router and the busy tone will be sent to the telephone set connecting to the peer PBX via the Router. If the peer end hangs on the phone firstly, PBX will also release the busy tone to the router via the telephone line. At that time, two FXO ports of the Router will receive the busy tone at the same time. If the FXO port can not detect the busy tone, the conversation state will be maintained and the connection will never be disconnected, that is, the system enters the dead lock state. In such circumstance, the only way to solve this problem is to automatically hang on the phone once the busy tone is detected at the FXO port.

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HUAWEI

Operations to Detect the Busy Tone (I)

C o n figuretheparam e teratthevoiceport
Quidway#config Quidway(config)#voice 0 Quidway(voice-port0)#tim ing initial 30

Becauseth ebusytoneautom a ticdetectionw illlastforatleasttw e n tyseconds,soth etim e rfor th ed ial tim e -outshouldbechangedtobemorethantwentyseconds. T h e n th e operator on telephone 2 0 0 1d ials th e telephone 2 0 0 2 ,a fter establishing th e connection,th eRouterF X Oportw illreleaseth ed ialprom p tin gtonetoS P C Ea n dth etonew ill b es e n ttoth etelephone2 0 0 1viaS P C E .A fterreceivingth etone,telephone2 0 0 1w illh a n go n th ep h o n ea n dS P C Ew illreleaseth ebusytonetoRouterviath etelephonelin econnectingto Routerandprovidethebusytoneinputforthedetection.

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HUAWEI

Parameters of the Busy Tone Detection (II)


Operations on the control console: Quidway#config Quidway(config)#vpm busytone-detect 0 Quidiway(config)#exit Quidiway#w rite

Becauseth ebusytonedetectionisonlyapplicableforth ePort0ofeachin terfaceboard,soth e param e ter b e h in dth e'V p mbusytone-detect'com m a n dm u s tb ea nevenn u m b e r .B e s ides, calculationofth eportn u m b e risa ss a m ea sth ecom m oncalculation.Inenteringth ebusytone detectionprocess, th esystemw ill prom p tfor w a itin g .A t th ee n dof th edetection, w h e nth e systemw il prom p t'testok'theoperatorcanrecordthetestresultthen.

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HUAWEI

Routing Connecting to PBX via E&M Port


0101001 07552001 Telephone port 4 1.1.1.1
Router A

port 5 Beijing Telephone 0101002

QoS WAN

1.1.1.2
Router B

port 6 E&M

Telephone

Shenzhen

PBX Telephone 07552002

Router parameter setting in Beijing: Quidway#Config Quidway(config)#dial-peer voice 3 voip Quidway(config-peer-voip3)# Destination 0755.... Quidway(config-peer-voip3)# Session target ipv4:1.1.1.2 Quidway(config-peer-pots4)# dial-peer voice 4 pots Quidway(config-peer-pots4)# Destination 0101001 Quidway(config-peer-pots4)# Port 4 Quidway(config-peer-pots4)# dial-peer voice 5 pots Quidway(config-peer-pots5)# Destination 0101002 Quidway(config-peer-pots5)# Port 5

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Immediate-start Mode
HUAWEI

200ms Send the DTMF Code Calling Party M Wire Called Party
E Wire

E Wire

M Wire

Precondition: theequipmentontheotherendof thelinkimmediatelydetectsthedialsignalafter identifying the off-hook signal and the calling party w ill immediately instruct the off-hook conditionbytheE&Mphysical connection. Inashorttime,thecalledDTMFnumberissent via the audio wire rather than the E or M wire The above duration is fixed as 200ms. Calledparty:whenitmonitorsthecallrequestviatheEw ire,itw illimmediatelyenterthenumber receiving state. After receiving the sufficient number, it w ill send the signal via the Mw ire to notify the calling party to start the conversation.

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Delay-start Mode
HUAWEI Check poi nt del ay st ar t del ay dur at i on Ent er t he conversation Status Cal l ed Par t y MW ire EW ire

EW ire

MW ire

Calling party: The delay-start mode provides a way by which the voice Router sends the telephone number to PBX in the delay mode until the peer equipment prepares well to receive the telephone number. Calledparty: Once the E&Mport of Router detectsthe call request via the Ewire, it will notify the peer end via the Mwire that it has received the call request and is to enter the number receiving status. When it has well parepared the number receiving, the Router will disconnect the current along the M wire and notify the peer end that it has well parepared the number receiving operationandthe calling party can send the telephone number. Relevant Commands:
Timing delay-start milliseconds Timing delay-duration milliseconds

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Wink-start Mode
HUAWEI

Ent er t he conver s a t i on st at us Cal l i ng par t y MW ire wi nk E W ire MW ire Cal l ed Par t y E W ire

The wink-start mode is the most safe and most commonly used protocol to set the time for the telephone number transmission. The basic principle of it is as follows: before sending the telehphone number, the originating end must wait for the acknowledgement signal from the peer end. Calledparty: After receiving the seizurerequest fromthe peer endvia the Ewire, in120ms, the called partywill returnto the peer endone seizureacknowledgement signal that will last for 200ms andthen enter the number receiving status. When it has received the sufficient digits, it will send the corresponding signal along the M wire and both ends will enter the conversation status. Relevant commands (only applicable for the calling party):
Timing wink-wait milliseconds Timing wink-duration milliseconds

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Networking of GW with GK
HUAWEI
GK server

0101001 port4
Telephone

07552001

Router A

QoS WAN

Router B

Telephone

Beijing

Router parameter setting in Beijing: Quidway(config)#interface ether 0 Quidway(config-if-ethernet0)#h323-gateway voip interface Quidway(config-if-ethernet0)#gatekeeper Quidway(gatekeeper)# h323-gateway voip id beijing@huawei.com ipaddr 1.1.1.3 1719 Quidway(gatekeeper)#h323-gateway voip h323-id beijing@huawei.com Quidway(gatekeeper)#h323-gateway voip tech-prefix 1# Quidway(config)#Dial-peer voice 0755 voip Quidway(config-voice-voip755)# Session target RAS Quidway(config-voice-voip755)# Destinatin-pattern 0755.... Quidway(config-voice-voip755)# Dial-peer voice 4 pots Quidway(config-voice-pots4)# Destination-pattern 4 Quidway(config-voice-pots4)# Port 4

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HUAWEI

Use the 'show' Command to Show the FXO Port Information


Quidway#show voice 4 Voice-port 4 type LINE FXO , Line state is opened channel status is CH_IDLE coding protocol 0, decoding protocol 0 caller number calling number , direction outgoing Call-ID is 0 Call-reference is 0 comfort-voice is enabled, reset 0 times Foreign Exchange Office Slot is 7, Port is 0 Administrative State is UP In Gain is Set to 0 dB Out Attenuation is Set to 0 dB Echo Cancellation is enable Initial Time Out is set to 10 s Interdigit Time Out is set to 10 s Pre-dial delay time is set to 1 s InterDigit Duration Timing is set to 120 ms

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HUAWEI

Use the 'show' Command to Show the E&M Port Information (I)

Quidway#show voice 2 Voice-port 2 type LINE E&M , Line state is opened channel status is CH_IDLE coding protocol 0, decoding protocol 0 caller number calling number , direction outgoing Call-ID is 0 Call-reference is 0 comfort-voice is enabled, reset 0 times recEive And transMit Slot is 5, Port is 0 Administrative State is UP In Gain is Set to 0 dB Out Attenuation is Set to 0 dB Echo Cancellation is enable Initial Time Out is set to 10 s Interdigit Time Out is set to 10 s

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Debugging Commands Relevant to VOIP


HUAWEI

O u tputtheconnectionm essageswitchdefinedintheh.225protocol debugh225asnc O u tputtheeventswitchdefinedintheh.225protocol debugh225event O u tputtheconnectionm essageswitchdefinedintheh.245protocol debugh245asnc O u tputtheeventswitchdefinedintheh.245protocol debugh245event C o m m a n dreceiving/transm ittedbytheVPMModule d e b u gv p mc o m m a n d

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Debugging Commands Relevant to VOIP


HUAWEI

M e s s a g ea n dc o m m a n ds w i t c hr e c e i v e d / t r a n s m itted betw e e nt h eV P Mm o d u l ea n dH .323 protocol d e b u gv p mi p p S w itchofthevoiceRoutertosendthevoicepacket d e b u gv p ms e n d S w itchofthevoiceRoutertoreceivethevoicepacket debugvpmreceive S w itchofthevoiceRoutertoreceive/transm ittheE&Mportrelevantcom m a n d s d e b u gv p me m S w itchtodisplaytheconnectionerrorinform ation debugvpmerror

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FOIP
HUAWEI

Basic Principles of FOIP

Interworking Protocols Provided

Common Fault and Their Solutions

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Basic Principles of FOIP


HUAWEI

FOIP is based on IPPHONE Functions to be provided: 1. Modulation/demodulation for the signal conversation 2. T30 protocol for the Fax on PSTN side 3. T38 protocol for the Fax on IP side

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HUAWEI

Interworking Protocols Provided

supports the T38 transmission protocol, which handles the packet encapsulation and process the Fax data and signaling process as required by the T38 protocol. In the T38 protocol mode, two interworking modes are spported: RTP and VT, of which the main difference between them resides in the UDP channel establishment and header of the transmitted packet.
In the RTP mode:the Fax data and voice data are transmitted via the same UDP channel and each IP packet has one RTP header. In the VT mode: the Fax UDP channel is established in the voice call establishing process and the Fax data and voice data are transmitted via different channels. Besides, in such mode, the IP packet has no 12-byte RTP header.

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Basic Principles of IPHC


HUAWEI

1.IP H Cconsistsofaseriesofsub-m odulesthatcom p ress/de-com p resstheIP headerandsub-headeroverIPintheIP+UDP+RTPandIP+TCPform a t. 2.IP H Crequiresthesupportofthelinklayerprotocol.ItisapplicableforthePPPlink layerprotocolsandnowthesupportisavailable. 3.IP H Cistheheadercom p ressionalgorithmbasedonthepacketflow .Pleaserefer R F C 1 1 4 4 ,R F C 2 5 0 7 ,R F C 2 5 0 8a n dR F C 2 5 0 9for m oreinform a tion.

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Basic Functions of IPHC


HUAWEI

1. The common voice packet header contains forty bytes, including the IP, UDP and RTP header (20, 8 and 12 bytes respectively) 2. For the voice packet in the G729 coding, its payload is thirty bytes. 3. Therefore, the payload only costs no more than half of the bandwidth--it is a huge waste. 4. After enabling the IPHC function: the header is compressed to two to four bytes (4 bytes w ith the UDP check sum included; otherwise, 2 bytes.) 5. Similarly, for the voice packet in the G729 coding, its payload is thirty bytes as well. 6. However, in such coding, the payload costs a large part of the bandwidth and greatly improves the bandwidth utilization ratio.

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Common Commands of IPHC


HUAWEI

Start or close the IPHC compression function: quidway(config-serial0)# [no] ip rtp header-compression Enable or clear the UDP check and function: quidway(config-serial0)# [no] ip rtp header-compression delete-udpchk Configure the maximum connection number in the RTP format: quidway(config-serial0)# ip rtp compression-connections number Configure the maximum connection number in the TCP format: quidway(config-serial0)# ip tcp compression-connections number

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HUAWEI

Debugging Commands of IPHC


Command to display the statistics information of the header compression: quidway(config-serial0)# show ip rtp header-compression quidway(config-serial0)#show ip tcp header-compression quidway# debug ip tcp header-compression quidway# debug ip rtp head-compression

Above four commands can help to observe the statistics information on the header compression, including the number of the compressed packet, number of the de-compressed packet, number of the error packet and so on.

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