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Units of Measurement
Data:
Absolute pressure =Gauge Pressure +Atmospheric Pressure =Atmospheric Pressure Vacuum
Pressure =P = X g X h ( (water) =1000 kg/m
3
, (Mercury) =13596 kg/m
3
)
Specific Gravity of Mercury =(Density of Substance/Density of water) =13596/1000 =13.596
Water at Atmospheric Pressure: Freezing point =0C, Boiling Point=100C
NTP (Normal Temperature and Pressure) Atmospheric Pressure =760 mmHg; Temperature =0C
STP (Standard) Pressure =760 mmHg; Temperature 15C
Molar (Universal) gas constant =Ro =8.3143 kJ/kgKmol =MR =Molecular weight X 0.287 kJ/kgK (For
Air)
Air=>Cp =dh/dT =1.005kJ/kgK, Cv =R/( - 1) =0.718kJ/kgK, =Cp/Cv =1.4; R =Cp-Cv =
0.287kJ/kgK
For Copper, Cp =0.394 kJ/kgK

Conversion:
1 kg/cm
2
=10 m of water column =10000 mmwc =10000/13.596 =735.51 mmHg (mm of Mercury)
1 bar =750 mmHg =1.0197 kg/cm
2
=10197 mmwc =100000 Pascal =100000 N/m
2
1 Atmospheric Pressure =760 mmHg =1.0333 k/cm
2
=10333 mmwc =1.0133 bar
C =K 273.16 =(5/9)X(F-32); F =R 459.6 =(9/5)C +32
-40C =-40F; 0C =32F; 0F =-17.8C; 100C =212F
1 Litre =1000cm
3
; 1 m
3
=1000 Litre =1000000cm
3
;
1 yard =3 foot =0.9144 m; 1 mile =1760 yard =1609 m; 1 acre =43560 sq. Foot
1 Lb =0.453592 kg; 1 in =25.4 mm; a kgf =9.81 Newton; 1 Lbf =4.448 Newton; 1 bar =14.505 Lb/Sq. in.

Properties of Gases
Laws: Boyle: PV =C (T=Constant) =>P
1
V
1
=P
2
V
2
; Charles: V/T =C (P=Constant)=>V
1
/T
1
=V
2
/T
2
Combination: PV/T =C = P
1
V
1
/ T
1
=P
2
V
2
/T
2
=>PV =mRT
Real Gases (Van der Waal's Equation)
(P +a/V
2
) X (V-b) =RT (Where a =Force of interaction between molecules; b=volume of molecules)
Avogadro's Law: Molecular volume =V =MRT/P =(8314.3 x 273.16)/101325 =22.413 m
3
/kgmole
Equal volume of all gases at same pressure and temperature contain same number of molecules.
(or) Molecular masses of all the gases occupy same volume at NTP.
Clapeyron-Mondeleyer Equation: a mole of gas =>PV =8314.3 T
Intensive Properties =Not related to masses (Specific Properties, Temperature, Pressure)
Extensive Properties =Related to mass (Volume, Enthalpy, Internal Energy)
Kinetic Energy =() X Mass X (Velocity)
2
; Potential Energy =M X g X (Elevation); Q -W =U
2
- U
1

Steady flow Energy equation =>g Z
1
+u
1
+p
1
v
1
+[(C
1
)
2
/2] +Q =g Z
2
+u
2
+p
2
v
2
+[(C
2
)
2
/2] +W
Mass flow rate =m = X A
1
X C
1
= X A
2
X C
2
=> (A
1
X C
1
)/v
1
=(A
2
X C
2
)/v
2

Nozzles (Adiabatic) =>g Z
2
- g Z
1
=0 =>h
1
+[(C
1
)
2
/2] =h
2
+[(C
2
)
2
/2] =>C
2
=\ [2 (h
1
- h
2
)+(C
1
)
2
]
Throttle Valves =>Workless adiabatic expansion =>K.E. =P.E. =0 =>h
1
=h
2

Properties of Steam
Enthalpy of steam =m X [h
f
+(x X h
fg
) +Cp (Tsup Tsat)]
Vsup =[Vg X (Tsup/Tsat)] [where Psup =Psat]; And for wet steam Vw =[(1-x) X (x X Vg)]
Bucket Calorimeter: [m
s
X {h
f1
h
3
+(x X h
fg1
)}] =(m
c
m
w
) X (h
3
h
2
) X Specific heat of water
[Where h
f1
, h
fg1
and m
s
for steam, m
c
and m
w
for Calorimeter; t
2
and h
2
for water in; t
3
and h
3
for water out]
Separating Calorimeter: x =(Mass of dry steam/Total mass of steam) =m/(m+m
1
)
Throttling Calorimeter: h
f1
+(x
1
X h
fg1
) =h
f2
+Cp (Tsup Tsat)
Combined Separating & Throttling: x =(x
1
X x
2
); Where x
2
=m/(m+m
1
)
(First separates mass m and then throttles); Moisture-Mass to Throttling =[(1 x
1
) X m];
Mass to Separator =[(1-x) X (m+m
1
)]; Removed by Separator =[(1- x
2
) X (m+m
1
)]
Duplex Feed Pump =Double acting Pump - Two pumps mounted side by side.
Brake Power to drive pump =(m X g X H)/(Efficiency) watts, where m is in kg/s
Volume of water pumped =Area X Length X Number of strokes X Number of Cylinders

Performance of Boilers
Standard Evaporation Unit =2256.9 kJ/kg [Steam =1 kg, T
FW
=100C, p =1.01325 bar, Tsat =100C]
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Equivalent evaporation =[ m {(h
f
h
1
) +(x X h
fg
)}] / (2256.9) [Where m is mass of steam per kg of coal]
Efficiency of Boiler =[ m {(h
f
h
1
) +(x X h
fg
)}] / [Mass of Coal X CV of coal]

Draught
At NTP, Volume of 1 mol =22.4 m
3
And molecular mass of air =[(23X32) +(77X28)]/100 =28.97 kg
Density of air at NTP =28397/22.4 =1.293 kg/m
3
; Amd density of air at TaC =[1.293 X (273/Ta)] =353/Ta
Density of Flue Gas at TgC =[1.293 X (273/Tg)] =353/Tg
Mass of air is 'm' kg per (1) kg of fuel =>Density of Flue gas =
FG
= [(m+1)/m] X (353/Tg)
Draught =Static head =Differential Pressure X Area and h is in mmwc =>
Differential Pressure =p =(
water
X (h/1000) X g) in N/m
2
. =(h X g) in N/m
2
.
So, Draught =[(h X g) X A] =[(
a
X g X H X A) (
FG
X g X H X A)] {Where H is the height of Chimney}
Draught =h =[H X (
a

FG
)] = H X [(353/Ta) (353/Tg) X {(m+1)/m}]
Now, Hot gas column (height of gas above chimney top) =H'. And p =h' X g =
FG
X g X H'
p =
FG
X g X H' = (h X g) =[H X (
a

FG
)] X g =>H' = [H X (
a

FG
)] /
FG

H' = (H X [(353/Ta) (353/Tg) X {(m+1)/m}] )/{(353/Tg) X {(m+1)/m}
H' =H X [{m/(m+1)} X (Tg/Ta) 1]
Actual Draught =Ha =(1 loss) X H'
Velocity of flue gas =V =\ [2 X g X Ha]
Flue gas Flow through Chimney =Q =K X A X V [Where K =coefficient of velocity =(0.3-0.5)]
Condition for maximum discharge through chimney =>Tg =2 X Ta X {(m+1)/m}
h' =H metre =>h =176.5 X (H/Tg)
Loss due to chimney (Due to high exhaust temperature):
Heat carried away =(Sp. Heat of Flue gas)X(Temp. of FG in natural draught Temp. of FG in artificial
draught )
Heat carried away =Cp X (t t
2
)
Maximum energy that a height of hot gas column can give =H X [{m/(m+1)} X (Tg/Ta) 1] X g
Efficiency of Chimney =(H X [{m/(m+1)} X (Tg/Ta) 1] X g)/[Cp X (t t
2
)]
Heat carried away by Flue Gas =(m+1) X Cp X (t t
2
)
Heat carried away by Flue Gas as % of Heat supplied =[(m+1) X Cp X (t t
2
)] / (CV per kg of coal)
Power required to drive fan =Brake Power =(h X g X V) / (Efficiency of Fan) {Where V =Volume handled}
Volume of 1 kg of air at NTP =Vo =1/(Specific mass) =1/(1.293) [At temperature To =273K]
Forced Draught fan =>V =[Vo X(Ta/To)X N X m]{Where N =Coal rate (kg/hr); m =air mass (kg/kg of
coal)}
Induced Draught fan =>V =[Vo X (Tg/To) X N X (m+1)]
(B.P. - ID)/(B.P.-FD) =[{(m+1)/m} X (Tg/Ta)]
Velocity head to be imparted to air Hv =(v
2
)/(2 X g)
Pressure equivalent to Velocity Head =m X g X Hv =( X V) X g X Hv =1.293 X 1 X 9.81 X [(v
2
)/(2 X g)]
Draught lost =(p/g) in mmwc =(Where p is in Pascal)
pV =mRT =>Volume of Air =(m X 287 X Ta) / (1.013 X 100000)
Volume of Flue Gas =[(m+1) X 287 X Tg] / (1.013 X 100000)
Inclined leg manometer =>a X d =A X h
2
=A X (h h
1
) =A X [h (d X sinu)]

Condenser
Corrected Vacuum =760 (Barometric Height Vacuum ) mm
Absolute Pressure in Condenser =Ptot =Barometric Height Vacuum Reading
Dalton's Law: P =Ps +Pa; Gas Law: Pa X V =m
a
X R X T;
m
a
=V/Va & m
s
=V/Vs; m =m
a
+m
s
=[(1/Va) +(1/Vs)] =m
a
[1 +(Va/Vs)] =m
s
[1 +(Vs/Va)]
P
1
=Ideal pressure corresponding to condensate temperature; P =Actual Pressure =Ptot - Pa
Vacuum Efficiency =Actual Vacuum/Ideal Vacuum =(Barometric Pr P) / (Barometric Pr - P
1
)
Condenser Efficiency =(Temp rise in cooling water) / (Vacuum related Temp CW Inlet Temp)
Coefficient of Performance (COP) (Measure of efficiency of surface Condenser in removing latent heat only)
Cooling Water Outler Temp =Saturation Temperature =>COP =(Tcwo Tcwi)/[(Tsat Tcond) +5]
Condenser heat exchange =>m
w
X Cpw X (Two Two) =m
s
[h
f
+(x X h
fg
) h
1
]
If separate pumps for water and air are given and vacuum is same throughout the condenser
Mass of vapour associated with air [=m
s1
At air pump suction Ta
1
)][=m
s2
At air pump discharge Ta
2
)]
Jet Condenser: Steam & water are mixed => m
s
X x X h
fg
=m
w
X Cpw X (Two Two)
[ h
fg
=Latent heat at Ps and Two =Tsat] [Vs =Volume of condensed steam/water with Density =1000 kg/ m
3
]
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Capacity of Dry Air Pump =Va =[(m
a
X R X Ta) / Pa] m
3
/hr; Capacity of Wet Air Pump =Va +Vs
Evaporative Condenser: Heat from steam =m
s
[h
f
+(x X h
fg
) h
1
]
[Vs =Sp. Volume of steam at Ps and Va =Sp. Vol by PaV =mRT] [P =Pa +Ps]
Mass of vapour associated with 1 kg of air =m
si
=(Vai/ Vsi) and m
so
=(Vao/Vso)
Heat given to air =m
a
X Cpa X (To Ti) and Heat given to vapour = m
a
X [(m
so
X Ho) - (m
si
X Hi)]
Water vapour evaporated = m
a
X [m
so
- m
si
] per kg of dry air
Steam Engines
Average Piston Speed =2 X (Length of Stroke) X RPM = 2 X L X N
Mean height of Indicator Diagram =(Area of indicator Diagram)/(Base of Indicator Diagram)
Expansion is hyperbolic =>pV =Constant
P
1
=Inlet pressure; P
b
=Back pressure; V
1
=Volume of Cylinder at cut off; V
2
=Swept Volume
Ratio of Expansion =r =(V
2
/ V
1
) =[(Vs +Vc)/(Vcut +Vc)]
Net work done per cycle =(P
1
X V
1
) +(P
1
X V
1
) X log(V
2
/ V
1
) - (P
b
X V
2
) =(Pm X V
2
) = (Pm X V
s
)
=>Pm =(P
1
/r) X [1 +log(r)] - Pb
Diagram Factor =(Actual Area)/(Theoretical Area) [Area or Mean Height or Pm or Power]
Indicated Power (Single Acting) =Pm X L X A X (N/60) =Pm X L X {(t/4)X D
2
) X n
Indicated Power (Double Acting) =[(P
1
X A
1
) +(P
2
X A
2
)] X L X (N/60)] {A
2
=(A
1
- Area of piston rod)}
Tractive Effort =T and v =Speed of locomotive =>Power developed =T X v
Pony Brake =>Brake Power =P X Lp X [2 X t X (N/60)] {Dynamometer Constant =[2 X t X (Lp/60)]}
Rope Brake =>Braking Torque =(W S) X R [where R ={(D +d)/2}]
Work done per revolution =[(W S) X R X 2 X t] =>Brake Power =(W S) X (D +d) X t X (N/60)
Brake Power =[(W S) X N] / K { Where (t X D)/60 =1/K}
Mechanical Efficiency =(Power at Crank shaft) / (Power Developed)
=(Brake Power / Indicated Power) =[ 1 (Friction Power) / (Indicated Power)]
Steam Consumption =[{Vcut / (x X Vs)} X N X 60] kg/hr
= |{(t/4) X D
2
X (L/r)} X {1/ (x X Vs)} X N X 60] kg/hr {Where r is cut off ratio)
Thermal Efficiency =(Work done by steam)/(Heat supplied)
Overall efficiency =Thermal Efficiency X Mechanical Efficiency =(Brake Power) / (Heat supplied)
Heat supplied =E =(Total Enthalpy at P
1
) (Sensible heat at Pb) =H
1
- h
2
Total Heat Input =(Mass of steam in kg/hr) X (Heat supplied) =M X E
Specific Steam Consumption: Ci (indicated) =M/(IHP in kW); Cb (brake) =M/(BHP in kW)
Throttle governing: Specific Steam consumption at fractional load more (than for cut off governing)
Equation for Willian's line =[{(Slope A) X (Indicated Power)} +Intercept B] {B is loss due to condensation]

Area, Perimeter, Surface Area & Volume
Triangle: A = X Base X Height; P =a +b +c Rectangle: A =length X width; P =(length +width)
Circle: A =(t/4)X D
2
) ; P =t X D Annulus: A =(t/4) X (D
2
- d
2
)
Sector: A = X r X s; s =r X [(t/360) X u] Segment: A = X r
2
(radA sinA)
Ellipse: A = t X (a +b); P =t X (a +b) X constant Sides of Ellipse big =2 X a; small =2 X b
Regular Prisam: V = X n X r X a X h; Lateral area =n X A X h =P X h; P =perimeter of base and a =side
Cylinder: V =t X r
2
X h ; S = (2XtXr
2
) +
(2XtXrXh)
Truncated: h = X (h
1
+h
2
); V =t X r
2
X h
Hollow Cylinder: V =t X h X (R
2
- r
2
) Sphere: V =(4/3)Xt X r
3
; S =4Xt X r
2

Cone: V =(1/3) X t X r
2
X h ; S =(t Xr Xs) +(t X
r
2
)
Cone Frustum: V =(1/3)t r h X ( r
2
+r r
'
+r'
2
)
Cube: V =a
3
; S =6 X a
2
Box: V =a X b X c ; S =2 X (ab +ac +bc)

Trains
Distance =d meter; velocity =V m/s, acceleration =a m/s
2
, time =t seconds, Subscripts: i =initial; f =final
d =(Vi X t) +( X a X t
2
) ; Vf =Vi +(a X t); a =(Vf Vi)/t ; t =(Vf Vi)/a
d ={[Vi X (Vf Vi)/a ] +[ X a X {(Vf Vi)/a}
2
] =>d =[(Vf)
2
(Vi)
2
]/(2Xa)
If Vi =0 =>d =( X a X t
2
) and Vf =(a X t)
If a =0 =>d =Vi X t and Vf =Vi
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Trains A & B are running parallel: Effective Velocity =V
A
- V
B
; Running opposite: Effective Velocity =
V
A
+V
B

On meeting A and B, time will be equal. And d =d
A
+d
B
Starting from the same point: On overtaking; d
A
=d
B
and t
A
=t
B
+delay

Stress
Hoop Stress: ft =(pd/2t); {as [p X (d X l)] =[ft X (2t X l)]
Longitudinal stress ft =(pd/4t); {as [p X (t/4) X (d)
2
] =[ft X t X d X t]
Maximum shear stress =(fmax fmin) / 2
Riveted joints: Original strength =P =ft X p X t ; Tearing Tension =Pt =ft X (p-d) X t
Shearing =Ps =Single =1 X fs X(t/4) X (d)
2
; Double riveted = 1.875 (or 2) X fs X(t/4) X (d)
2
Crushing =Pc =fc X n X d X t ; Efficiency =(Least of Pt, Ps & Pc)/P
Actual load =Pa =(P)/(Factor of safety); Actual stress =f =(Pa)/A
Fuels
HCV =[35 X (C/100)] +[143 X {(H O/8)/100}] +[9.16 X (S/100)] MJ/kg [C, H, O & S are in %]
LCV =HCV Hw
Oxygen in fuel is believed to be associated with hydrogen only. For 8 part oxygen there is 1 part hydrogen.
Enthalpy of steam at 25C =2442.5 kJ/kg of steam = 2.4425 MJ/kg of steam
=>Heat loss in evaporation of H
2
O formed from hydrogen of fuel =2.2425 X (9 X H/100) =22X (H/100)
=>LCV =[35 X (C/100)] +[121 X {(H O/8)/100}] +[9.16 X (S/100)] MJ/kg [C, H, O & S are in %]

There are fixed number of molecules in a Mole. Mass of mole may be different as shown.
H =1 =>H
2
=2; O =8 =>O
2
=16; C =12; S =32; N =14 =>N
2
=28; H
2
O =18; CO
2
=44; CO =28.
Number of molecules are same in H
2
and in H
2
O, but mass is different. One mole of H
2
and half mole of O
2

makes one mole of H
2
O. Same way, one mole of C and one mole of O
2
makes one mole of CO
2
.
One mole of substance occupies 22.4 m
3
(at NTP)
Energy Release (Change in internal energy) Solid/Liquid =>Isothermal (V=C) Gas=>Isothermal (P=C)
In gaseous preocess volume gets changed =>work is to be considered.
Bomb Calorimeter: M(fuel) X CV =(Mw +Meq-container) X Cpw X (Two Twi)
Gas Calorimeter: (Pn X Vn)/Tn =(1.01333 X Vn)/272 and Ts =(273+15)K
LCV can be calculated by substracting (Mcondensate X 2442.5)

Combustion of Fuels
Air Composition: By Mass (23% Oxygen, 77% Nitrogen); By Volume - (21% Oxygen, 79% Nitrogen
Theoretical Air required for combustion =(100/23) X [(32/12)C +8H +S O]
Gravimetric Analysis: For hydrocarbons (fuel with Carbon and Hydrogen only)
x kg carbon in 1 kg fuel, y kg air; (12 kg C in one mole, 2 kg H in one mole, 32 kg O in one mol etc.) =>
Mols =[(x/12) X C] +[(1-x)/2 X H
2
] +[(0.23y/32) X O
2
] +[(0.77y/28) X N
2
] =
=a(CO) +b(CO
2
) +c(O
2
) +d(H
2
O) +[(0.77y/28) X N
2
]
When fuel % is given in volume, division by molecular mass is not required, as % shows mols. (20% =0.2
mol)

Flue gas volumetric analysis: To find Air supplied for combustion
(Mass of N
2
in Flue Gas) / (Mass of carbon in FG) =[28 X (N% in FG)]/ [12 X (CO% +CO
2
% in FG)] =>
Mass of N
2
in Air (or FG) per kg of fuel ={[28 X N%]/ [12 X (CO% +CO
2
% )]} / [C% in Fuel/100]
And Mass of N
2
in Air =0.77 X Wair =(77/100) X Wair
Comparing, Wa =[(N% in FG by vol.) X (C% in fuel by mass)] / [33 X (CO% +CO
2
% in FG by vol)]
Now, N
2
in excess air by vol is (79/21) X (O
2
%) and N
2
in total air by vol is N
2
%
And N
2
ratio =Air Ratio =>(Excess Air/Total Air) =[(79/21) X (O
2
%)] /[N
2
%]
Excess Air =[(79/21) X (O
2
%)] /[N
2
%] X [N% X C% ] / [33 X (CO% +CO
2
% )]
When C, N CO
2
& CO are given in mass, then for 1 kg of fuel,
Wa =[N% X C% ] / [77 X {(12/28)CO% +(12/44)CO
2
% )] =[N% X C% ] / [(33XCO%) +(21XCO
2
% )]
Requirement of oxygen for gaseous fuel: H
2
-> m
3
; CO -> m
3
;C ->1 m
3
;CH
4
->2; C
2
H
4
->3; C
3
H
6
->6
And Air requirement =(100/21) X Oxygen in m
3

When Dry Flue Gas Analysis is given (To find Excess air supplied)
Quantity of air supplied = V +V
1
(Minimum Air =V, Excess Air =V
1
)
Excess Air =(Oxygen % in FG)/ (21%) =(V
1
)/(V +V
1
) => V
1
=(V Oxygen %) / (21 Oxygen %)
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Calculation of heat losses
Dry Flue gas per kg of fuel =m X Cp X (T-t) [where Cp =1.004 kJ/kgK]
Water formed by combustion of H
2
of fuel =9 X H X 4.1868 X [(100-t) +h
fg
+{0.48 X (T-100)}]
Water (Moisture) in fuel =Mw X [ 4.1868 X (100-t) +h
fg
+{0.48 X (T-100)}]
Incomplete combustion =(C% in fuel) X [(CO%) / (CO% +CO
2
%) by vol] X 24800 kJ/kg
Hydrocarbon e.g. CH
4
=(CH
4
% in fuel by vol) X [(CO% +CO
2
% +CH
4
% ) by vol]X (4/3) X 55700 kJ/kg
Unbutnt in Ash: [(C% in Ash X Mass of Ash) / 100] X 35000 kJ/kg
In case of IC Engine (By circulating water) =Mcw X Cw X (To Ti)
Unaccounted losses =Total Heat supplied (Heat utilized +Counted Losses)
APH Leakage in % =[(Down stream O
2
Upstream O
2
) / (21 - Down stream O
2
)] X 100
CO
2
% +O
2
% =19 (coal fired) =15.5 (Oil fired)
ORSAT Apparatus: A =Measuring burette, E =Levelling bottle
B absorb CO
2
20 times of KOH (Caustic Potash)
C absorbs O
2
two times of pyrogallic acid (alkaline); it absorbs CO
2
also.
D absorbs CO with Cuprous Chloride (acidic) and Metal Copper (one times); it absorbs O
2
also.
Nitrogen is obtained by difference.