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Semester 2, 2002

Lecture Content - Beam deflections Method of successive integration SF and BM for indeterminate beams (Module 18 in the Study Book, Workbook exercises Set 48)

BEAM DEFLECTION Although strength is the most important criteria in the design of a beam, deflection will usually need to be considered. Most building codes limit the mid-span deflection of a simple beam to about Span/400. Deflections much greater than this can cause cracks in plaster ceilings fixed to the underside of the beam and can also give a disconcerting springiness to the beam under loads. In fact, in most domestic and commercial structures, deflection criteria rather than strength will decide the beam size. Several methods have been developed over the years to calculate deflections. Several of these use energy principles, which would have fitted in well with your study of truss deflections. However, the method specified in the syllabus for this subject is the method of successive integration. Although I find this a fairly cumbersome and complicated method, I guess it follows on logically from your studies in mathematics and also reinforces your studies in SF and BM in this course. The method has an advantage in that it defines the deflected shape of the whole beam and hence allows deflections to be readily calculated for any point of interest along the beam. METHOD OF SUCCESSIVE INTEGRATION As explained in Module 18 of the Study Book, the radius of curvature 1 d2y of a plane curve can be defined as = R dx 2 And in lecture 11 (Module 15) we learned Thus
1 M = R EI M d2y d2y = or EI = Mx, where Mx is the equation for EI dx 2 dx 2 bending moment at any point along the beam.

Example Calculate the end point deflection for a cantilever beam of length L supporting a distributed load of w per metre as shown below. EI is constant.

w per m L

Load = -w S.F. = V = load = - wx + A Since V = 0 at x = 0, then A = 0 M =


wx 2 2

+ B

Since M = 0 at x = 0, then B = 0 Thus Mx = wx 2 2

We could have found this equation by considering the equilibrium of a length of beam x. i.e. w/m x V = -wx M = -wX x X/2 = wx 2 2

Whichever method you used, we now have, d2y wx 2 EI = M = 2 dx 2 EI

dy dx

= -

wx 3 6

+ C

dy = slope of the deflected beam at any point. For a fixed end cantilever dx dy wL3 is zero at the fixed end, i.e. where x = L. Hence C = + dx 6 dy wx 3 wL3 Thus EI = + dx 6 6

This is the equation for the slope of the deflected curve at any point ( in radians). Integrating again to get the deflection y, we have, EI y = wx 4 24

wL3 x 6 wL4 6

+ D
3wL4 24 wL4 8

Y = 0 at the fixed end, i.e. where x = L i.e. 0 = wL4 24

wx 4 24

+ D
wL3 x 6 wL4 8

D =

Hence EI y = -

This formula gives the deflection at any point x along the cantilever beam. Maximum deflection will be at the free end, i.e. at x = 0 ym =
wL4 8 EI

as on the formula sheet.

The same procedure can be used to calculate each of the deflection formulae on the formula sheet.

STATICALLY INDETERMINATE BEAMS A statically indeterminate beam is one that has more than three unknown reaction components. Examples could include a beam continuous over three or more supports, or a propped cantilever as below. Loads H1 V1 V2 V3 V1 V2 Loads H2 M2

One of the ways we can solve such structures is to remove one of the supports, calculate how much the beam would deflect at that point if the support was not there, then work out what the value of the support must be for the deflection to be zero. Example - Determine the shearing force and bending moment diagrams for the propped cantilever beam shown below

8 kN/m 5m Post V1 Fixed End V2

M2 H2

Solution (a) Remove the post and calculate the deflection that would occur there (Note that a load of 8 kN/m is the same a 8 N/mm.) i.e. y =
WL4 8 EI

8 x5000 x5000 x5000 x5000 8 EI

625 x1012 EI


(b) Calculate the upward deflection at the post caused by the post reaction force V. i.e. y = (c)

Vx5000 x5000 x5000 3EI

41.7Vx10 9 EI

However, we know the deflection at the end 1 is zero, therefore 41.7 V = 625 x 103 i.e. V1 = 15000 N = 15 kN

(d) Knowing that V1 = 15 kN, we can apply our equations of equilibrium to determine H2, V2 and M2 i.e. Fx = 0 H2 = 0

Fy = 0 and M = 0

V1 = (8 x 5) - 15 = 25 kN -(15x5) + (5x8)2.5 + M2 = 0 i.e M2 = -25 kN-m

V = 15 8x 15 S.F.D. 1.875

13.1 kN-m

B.M.D. -25 kN-m Notice that if this cantilever beam was not propped at the LH end, the BM at the support would be (8x5)x2.5 = 100 kN-m. Hence if we were designing a steel beam with an allowable bending stress of 200 MPa, a much larger section size would be required for the unpropped awning. i.e. Propped Min Z =
25 x10 6 200

= 125 x 103 mm3

Use 180 UB 18 (Z = 139) Unpropped Min Z =

100 x10 6 200

= 500 x 103 mm3

Use 310 UB 40 (Z = 569)