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Structural Stability Fall 2006

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Prof. Kang,YoungJong
Chap 5. Continuous Beams
&
Rigid Frames
5.1 Continuous Beams.
The slope deflection equations from 4.3 are
1
]
1

,
_


+ + +
l
S S S S K M
b a
b a ab

) (
2 1 2 1
(5.1-1)
1
]
1

,
_


+ + +
l
S S S S K M
b a
b a ba

) (
2 1 1 2
(5.1-2)
where
EI
Pl
kl S S
l
EI
K
2
2 1
,
1
2
tan 2
1 cosec
,
1
2
tan 2
cot 1
,

Modification of S.D.E for a far end hinged


condition
, , 0
ba
M

( b = hinge)
by eliminating
b
from (5.1-2)
&
(5.1-2).

,
_


+
l
KS M
b a
a ab
) (
3
'

(5.1-3)
where

,
_

1
2
2
2
1
2
3
cot 1 S
S S
S


171
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a limiting value for
3
S when
0 cos , 0 P

3.

172
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Apply LHopital rule. ( to set 3 ).


Example
?
cr
P
FOR AB.
b ba
S K M ) (
3
'

For BC ,
b bc
S K M
2 1
) (
Recall Sign Convention. ( 4.3 )
0 0
'
+

bc ba B
M M M
) 0 ( 0 ] ) ( ) ( [
2 1 1 3
+
b b
K S K S
Stability Criterion 0 ) ( ) (
2 1 1 3
+ K S K S
Where
1
S
&

3
S are function of

.

173
B
M
ba
M
bc
(Positive moment acting).
B A
I
1

I
2

l
1
l
2
0
0

a
a

0
0

b
b

C
Structural Stability Fall 2006
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Prof. Kang,YoungJong
0
1
2 / tan 2
cot 1
cot 1
2
2
2
2
2 2
1
1
1 1
2
1

+
l
EI
l
EI

again
1

& 2
are functions of P. hence the
smallest value of P which satisfy this equation is
cr
P .

H.W. If
l l I I
1 2 1
,
2
1
&
l l
2

?
cr
P

Example

side sway
Sol.)
ba
b
b ba
M
l
K S M

,
_


1
1 3
'
) (

,
_

+ +
2
2 2 1 2 1
) ( ) (
l
K S K S K S M
b
b bc


174
l
1
l
2
(P
1
+P
2
)
P
1
P
2
k


A
C
B
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Prof. Kang,YoungJong

,
_

+ +
2
2 2 1 2 2
) ( ) (
l
K S K S K S M
b
b cb

2 unknowns ;
b

&

b

0
B
M 0
'
+
bc ba
M M

1 additional equation is needed.

0
A
M

0
1 1

b ba ba
P M l V
l
P M
V
b ba
ba

1
+
-----

0
C
M
cb bc bc
M M l V + +
2
2
2 1
) (
l
P P M M
V
b cb bc
bc
+ +

-----

0
v
F

Joint B.
0 +
bc b ba
V k V ---

Sub

into

gives the general form of


0
0
22 21
12 11
+
+
b b
b b
a a
a a


Set det = 0 0 det
22 21
12 11

a a
a a

175
P
1
+P
2
P
1
+P
2
M
cb
V
bc
P
1
P
1
V
ba
M
ba
A B
V
ba
V
bc
Q = K
b
Structural Stability Fall 2006
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Prof. Kang,YoungJong
Buckling Modes of Frames.
2
2
4
c
c
cr
l
EI
P

?
cr
P
2
2 . 20
c
cr
l
EI
P
40 ~ 20
30
(where, side sway lower limit is
Prevented.) H-Fix in
frame.

(side sway Permitted).

176
(a) (b)
P
l
2
I
b
I
b
0
P
l
c
P P
I
b
l
b
I
b
(b)
(a)
I
b
0
(c)
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Prof. Kang,YoungJong
2
2
c
c
cr
l
EI
P


2
2
4
c
cr
l
EI
P

(Strong Beam) (Weak Beam).



177
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Prof. Kang,YoungJong
5.3 Critical Load of a frame by using
Slope-Deflection Equations.

Review of chap. 2 D.E. Method.



The Equil. of moment of Vertical member (Fig. c)

178
(b)
P
l
2
,EI
2
(a)
P
l
1
,EI
1
B
D
C
A

M
ab

b
M
ba
P
P
P
P
EI
1
y
x
y
M
ab
P
P
M
dc
M
cd
M
cb
M
bc
V
V

c
Clockwise +
z
y
x
(c)
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Prof. Kang,YoungJong
Gives "
1 int
y EI M Py M M
ab z


179
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Prof. Kang,YoungJong
or
1
2
1
2
1
, "
EI
P
k
EI
M
y k y
ab
+
P
M
x k B x k A y y y
ab
p h
+ + +
1 1
cos sin
B.C.


P
M
B y x
ab

0 , 0

0 0 , 0
'
A y x
Thus,
) cos 1 (
1
x k
P
M
y
ab

Denoting the horizontal displ.


1
l x be

,
Then, ) cos 1 (
1 1
l k
P
M
ab

Moment Equil. (Fig. b) dictates that


+ P M M
ba ab

No Shear.
Sub eq.

into eq

, gives.
0 cos
1 1
+
ba ab
M l k M
------

The equation for horizontal member.


) 2 (
2
b
2
2
c bc
l
EI
M +

No axial force ! ordinary


slope-deflection Equation.)
Since
c b
( Positive )
b bc
l
EI
M
2
2
6


180
Structural Stability Fall 2006
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Prof. Kang,YoungJong

The compatibility condition at joint B requires


that
b
of Eq.

must be equal to the slope of


eq.


l x
.
Hence
1 1
1 1 2
2
sin
6
l k
EI k
M
EI
l M
ab bc

or
0 sin
6
1 1
2 1 1
2

bc ab
M l k M
l I k
I
------

Ordinarily, a frame with n numbers would require n


such ( Eq.

) eqns. However in this case,


the two vertical members are identical, two eqns
suffice.
We set the det for
ab
M


bc
M equal to zero.
1 2
2 1
1 1
1 1
l I 6
l I
l k
l k tan

stability condition equation.
The critical load is the smallest root of this
equation.
For example, , ,
2 1 2 1
l l l I I I then
2
34 . 7
71 . 2 ,
6
1 tan
l
EI
P kl
kl
kl
cr

which is
2 2
4
87 . 9
87 . 9
l
EI
P
l
EI
cr
> >
as expected.

181
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Prof. Kang,YoungJong
Similarly
cr
P for Portal frame where side sway
prevented.
2 2 2
2 87 . 9 2 . 25 87 . 9 4
l
EI
l
EI
P
l
EI
cr

> >

Same Example ) by slope-deflection Equation.


a) Portal Frame, Side-Sway prevented.
Horizontal
force is
needed.
Mode 1(symm) Mode 2(antisymm)
Applying slope-deflection Eqn.
b ba
S M
1 1
) ( K ,
c b bc
S S M
2 2 2 1
) ( ) ( K K +

b
K S S
2 2 1
] ) ( [

182
+
z
y
x
P P P P
Structural Stability Fall 2006
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Prof. Kang,YoungJong
Since there is no axial force in member BC.
4 ) (
2 1
S and 2 ) (
2 2
S

+ 0 , 0
bc ba B
M M M
If ,
2 1
I I I and l l l
2 1
.
then 0 2
1
+ S , or 2
1
S .
or in matrix form.

0
B
M
0 ) ( ] ) ( ) ( [
2 2 2 1 1 1
+ +
c b
S S S K K K

0
c
M
0 ) ( ] ) ( ) ( [
2 2 2 1 1 1
+
b c
S S S K K K
Noting , 4 ) (
2 1
S 2 ) (
2 2
S
we have

'

'

1
]
1

+
+
0
0
4 ) ( 2
2 4 ) (
1 1
1 1
c
b
S
S

Set the det = 0

0 4 ) 4 (
2
+ S .
which gives
6 2 or S
.
Using graphical methods, or by computer program.
095 . 3 55 . 2 / or P P
E
( Second mode ).
2 2
55 . 30
,
17 . 25
l
EI
P
l
EI
P
cr cr


183
Structural Stability Fall 2006
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Prof. Kang,YoungJong
Example) Portal Frame Side Sway Allowed.
Axial Force

Shearing Small bending


Force in Column.
Axial shortening in BC is negligible

same.

+ 0 : 0
bc ba B
M M M

0
B
M for member AB.
0
1
+ + + P M M l H
ba ab AB

0
H
F (
0
N
externally applied load )
Hence 0 +
dc ab
H H

Express
ab
H in terms of
M
,
dc
H Likewise.

184
+
z
y
x
P
(a)
P
H
AB
B
D
C
A

H
DC
Structural Stability Fall 2006
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Prof. Kang,YoungJong
Only two independent kinematic DOF since the
s

are equal

the rotation of
C B
, ( The
s

dependent on each other as so are
B


C
).
For I I I l l l
2 1 2 1
,
Solving DET = 0 For
b


gives
2
34 . 7
l
EI
P
cr


185
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Prof. Kang,YoungJong
5.5 Effect of Primary Bending and
Plasticity on Frame Behavior.
No Primary Bending Primary Bending.
Note : a) Primary Bending does not significantly
lower the critical load of a frame as long as
stresses remain elastic. ( small displ. theory ) ,
Hence, Primary Bending is neglected in the
determination of the critical load of framed
structures. However, they should be reflected in

186
P

P
P
cr
(1) Bifurcation (No.Primary Bending),Elastic
(2) Elastic - with P.B
(3) Inelastic - with P.B
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design.

Must be treated as beam column.



187
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Prof. Kang,YoungJong
For Example, AISC 8
th
ed. demands that when
15 . 0 / >
E
P P , amplification must be considered.
b)Inelastic Buckling.
i) If instability were the only factor leading
to collapse, failure should occur at the
critical load.
ii) If collapse were only due to plasticity
effect, the frame will fail when it becomes a
mechanism due to formation of plastic hinge.
iii) In the actual case, both instability and
plasticity might be present and collapse
occurs due to a interaction of these two at a
load that is lower than either the critical
load or the mechanism load.
To Predict this failure load ;
0 . 1 +
P
f
E
f
P
P
P
P
(Usually yields conservative
load yet reasonably accurate.
where, f
P
: Failure load.

E
P : Elastic Buckling load.

P
P : Plastic Mechanism load.

188
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Strength Requirement.

Stiffness Requirement.
( serviceability ? deflection).
5.6. Design of Framed columns.

No side sway.

Side sway.

189
lever
P
Stiffness failure
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Prof. Kang,YoungJong
1)No side sway.
Add column loads from each story.
( A simple beam approx. will do ).
Approx. Methods.
(1) Assume an inflection point at the mid-height.

h
Portal Frame

inflection point.

No Moment.
then Determinate Structure
So Can solve it.
(2)Cantilever Method.
(behave as cantilever beam)

190
Inflect point
drift
Drift control
600
H
L

Leeward Col. will carry
additional compressive load
from the overturning moment.
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For tall building gives wild results.

191
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(3)K-coeff method.
Conduct a stability analysis for the entire frame.

Practically impossible to carry out without


compute.

Improved Approx. method.


Side sway Prevented Case.
Assume
A D C
Rigid frame.

B F E

0
) 3 ) ( 2 (
2
AC C A
bl
blt
ac
l
EI
M + +

A
bl
blt
l
EI

2

192
E
C
F
D
B
A
l
bl
I
cb
I
brt
I
ct
I
blt
I
c
I
blt
I
brt
l
ct
l
c
l
cb
l
br
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Prof. Kang,YoungJong
likewise
A
br
brt
ad
l
EI
M
2

B
bl
blb
be
l
EI
M
2

B
br
brb
bf
l
EI
M
2

c
B A c
ab
l
S S EI
M
) (
2 1
+

c
B A c
ba
l
S S EI
M
) (
1 2
+

Assume
ac
M


ad
M are distributed between cols AB
and the one above AB in the ratio of l I / .
( relative stiffness, assuming homogeneous material ).
Joint Equilibrium require that

+
+

,
_

+
ct
ct
c
c
ad ac
c
c
ab A
l
I
l
I
M M
l
I
M M
) (
0 ---

Similarly

+
+

,
_

+
cb
cb
c
c
bf be
c
c
ba B
l
I
l
I
M M
l
I
M M
) (
0 ---


193
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Prof. Kang,YoungJong
In of

two unknowns
A



B
.
hence, 0
12 11
+
B A
a a
0
22 21
+
B A
a a
Set the det = 0 and expanding, yields.
0
4 1 1
2
1
2
2
2
1

,
_

+ +
B A B A
G G G G
S S S
---


where,
br
brt
bl
blt
ct
ct
c
c
A
l
I
l
I
l
I
l
I
G
+
+

P 193

br
brb
bl
blb
cb
cb
c
c
B
l
I
l
I
l
I
l
I
G
+
+


After Some manipulations eq.

may be rewritten as
1
2
tan 2
tan
1
2 4
2

,
_

,
_

,
_


,
_

K
K
K
K
G G G G
B A B A
where,
c
c
EI
Pl
K
2

; effective col. length factor.


Corresponding to
2
2
) (
c
c
cr
Kl
EI
P

.

194
Structural Stability Fall 2006
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Prof. Kang,YoungJong
above Equation on K is the basis for Jackson,
Mooreland alignment chart for effective column
length.
Braced frame
(side sway prevented )

0 . 1 K

for unbraced frame ( Side sway Permitted).

,
_

k
k
G G
k
G G
B A
B A

tan
) ( 6
36
2
2

195
G
A
(G
top
)
G
B
(G
Bottom
)
K