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Heat Exchanger Selection Fixed tubesheet o Advantage: low cost, tube can be mechanical cleaning o Disadvantage: shellside cannot

be cleansed using mechanical cleaning and therefore this type of HX is suitable for clean service on shell side. If chemical cleaning is permitted, this HX type can be used for fouling service on shellside. Expansion joint may be required to handle stress diff. between shellside and tube side as this HX type has both tube ends fixed. Fixed tubesheet design cannot be used for shell side in wet sour service. U-tube o Advantage: low cost, can handle stress diff. between tubeside and shell side (one tube end is free). Shellside can be cleaned as the tube bundle can be removed. Suitable for high pressure application and application where leakage must be avoid. o Disadvantage: Tube cannot be cleaned effectively (because of u-bend) and therefore this type of HX is not suitable for dirty fluid in tubeside. Floating head o Advantage: can handle stress diff. between tubeside and shell side. (one tube end is free). Can be used for dirty service for both shellside and tube side (as both sides can be cleaned) o Disadvantage: Expensive

Clean service is defined as a fluid stream with a fouling factor equal to or less than 0.0003 m2 C/W. Shell Selection TEMA E Single-pass shell, the shellside fluid enters the shell at one end and leaves from the other ends. This is the most common shell type. TEMAF Two-pass shell has a longitudinal baffle that divides the shell into two passes. The F shell is used for temperature cross situation. If F shell has 2 tube passes, it will becomes a true counter current arrangement. TEMA J Divided-flow shell where the shellside fluid enters the shell at the centre and divides into two halves (J12) or the stream maybe split into 2 halves that enter the shell as the two ends and leaves as a single stream (J21). The J shell is suitable for situation where shellside pressure drop is a constraint. TEMA G Split-flow shell. There is only a support plate and no baffles, this make this type of shell cannot be used with tube lengths greater than 3 m., since this would exceed the

limit on max. unsupported tube length as specified by TEMA. The G shell is usually employed for horizontal thermosyphon reboiler. TEMA H Double-split shell. H shell can be use in lieu G shell when a larger tube length is required. H shell is also used for horizontal thermosyphon reboiler. Advantage of G and H shall is that the pressure drop is drastically less and there are no cross baffles. TEMA X Pure cross-flow shell where shellside fluid enters at the top (or bottom) and exits from the opposite shell side. Advantage of this type of shell is that it has extremely low pressure drop. This configuration is employed for cooling or condensing of vapors at low pressure, particular vacuum. TEMA K Special cross-flow shell employed for kettle reboiler. The single-pass shell, Type E, shall be selected for general duties, except as indicated below: - Where the temperature profile of the process fluids (temperature cross) requires two or more heat exchangers with more than one tube side pass in series, the Type F may be considered in order to reduce the number of shells in series. However, Type F may be used if: o the longitudinal baffle is welded to the shell (maximum allowable shell side pressure drop to be less than 0.7 bar); and o for a removable bundle, (maximum allowable shell side pressure drop not to exceed 0.5 bar) the gap between the baffle and the shell is closed with a double-sided, multi-layered clip-on spring set; and o on the shell side the difference between the inlet and outlet temperature does not exceed 110C. Where the shell side pressure drop is a constraint, the divided flow shell Type J or cross-flow shell Type X or double-split flow shell Type H should be considered. For horizontal shell side thermosyphon reboilers, the split flow shell, Type G or Type H, should be selected. The kettle type shell, Type K, should be selected for boiling where almost 100% vaporization (0 % to 5 % entrainment) is required or where phase separation is required. Temperature cross in single multi-tube pass shells should be avoided by the use of shells in series or by pure counter flow shells (TEMA X shell) or by two-pass shell (TEMA F shell). Maximum shell diameter is based upon tube bundle removable requirements and is limited by crane capacity.

For removable tube bundle (u-tube and floating head), max. shell ID shall not exceed 1.524 m, for non-removable tube bundle (fixed tubesheet), shell max. ID depends on manufacturer Front End Selection TEMA A (separate channel with removable cover) For service where frequent tube side cleaning is anticipated and the tube side design pressure is less than 10 bar (ga) TEMA B (integral chanel cover, bonet) Should be used for clean fluid in tubeside. TEMA C (combined channel and fixed tubesheet) This front end type is used in high pressure design (> 900 psig).

Rear End Selection TEMA S (split ring) The S type is the most commonly used floating head. Advantage: Less space between tube bundle and shell resulting in less bypass flow (stream C) and hence increasing thermal efficiency. Disadvantage: Shell cover must be removed prior to remove the tube bundle. TEMA T (pull thru) The T type is normally use with shell type K. Advantage: Tube bundle can be removed without removing shell cover. This make this type of rear end suitable for service where regular shellside cleaning is required. Disadvantage: Large free space between tube bundle and shell resulting in more bypass flow and hence decrease in thermal efficiency. Large shell diameter is required. Expensive.

Rear end head Type M should be used for fixed tubesheet designs; however, for heat exchangers with a Type A front end stationary head and an odd number of tube passes, Type L shall be selected. Rear end head Type S should be used for floating head type heat exchangers with a nominal shell diameter of more than DN 250. For heat exchangers with a shell diameter up to DN 250 an alternative construction is allowed if agreed by the Principal. Rear end head Type T shall be used for a kettle type heat exchanger with floating head. Shell cover heads shall be of true semi-ellipsoidal shape, ratio 2:1, or Korbbogen. Klpperboden (torospherical) heads shall not be used.

Tube Selection Table 1 below shows the outside tube diameters and minimum required nominal tube wall thickness for bare tubes of copper, carbon steel, aluminium and alloys. TABLE 1 BARE TUBE DIAMETERS AND GAUGES Nominal Tube tube outside diameter wall gauge (SWG) mm (inch) 15.87 (5/8) 16 19.05 (3/4) 16 25.40 (1) 14 31.75 (1 1/4) 12 38.10 (1 1/2) 12 15.87 (5/8) 14 19.05 (3/4) 14 25.40 (1) 12 31.75 (1 1/4) 10 38.10 (1 1/2) 10 Nominal tube wall thickness mm 1.626 1.626 2.032 2.642 2.642 2.032 2.032 2.642 3.251 3.251 (inch) (0.064) (0.064) (0.080) (0.104) (0.104) (0.080) (0.080) (0.104) (0.128) (0.128)

Tube material

Copper and copper alloys

Carbon steel, aluminium and aluminium alloys

Other alloys

15.87 19.05 25.40 31.75 38.10

(5/8) (3/4) (1) (1 1/4) (1 1/2)

16 16 14 12 12

1.626 1.626 2.032 2.642 2.642

(0.064) (0.064) (0.080) (0.104) (0.104)

NOTES:1. For special materials e.g. titanium tubes, the minimum wall thickness shall be 18 BWG/SWG, irrespective of whether mechanical cleaning of tubes is required or not. 2. In the thermal design phase, the Principal or the Contractor may choose Birmingham Wire Gauge (BWG) with the same gauge number instead of Standard Wire Gauge (SWG). The Standard used shall be specified on the data requisition sheet. Selection of bare tube diameter Tubes with an outside diameter of 15.87 mm (5/8 inch) may be considered for: o Feed/Effluent heat exchangers in relatively clean applications (the socalled Texas Towers in Platformer units). Tubes with an outside diameter of 19.05 mm (3/4 inch) should be used for: o Heat exchangers where the tube-side medium has a fouling resistance of less than 0.00034 m2.K/W. o Water-cooled heat exchangers with the cooling water through the tubes, with no restrictions with respect to fouling resistance. Tubes with an outside diameter of 25.40 mm (1 inch) should be used for: o Heat exchangers where the tube-side medium has a fouling resistance of 0.00034 m2.K/W or higher. o Heat exchangers where it would be economical to use this size because of process design restraints, e.g. pressure drop limitations. Tubes with an outside diameter of 31.75 mm (1 1/4 inch) or 38.10 mm (1 inch) should be used for: o Special types of shell and tube heat exchangers in SRU and SCOT units. The tube wall thickness may be increased for these special applications. o Heat exchangers where it would be economical to use these sizes because of process design restraints, e.g. pressure drop limitations. For mechanical cleaning, the smallest practical size is 19.05 mm. For chemical cleaning, smaller sizes can be used provided that the tubes never plug completely.

For removable bundles maximum preferred limits are: Bundle weight 20 Tonnes Bundle diameter 1524 mm (60 inch) Tube straight length 6096 mm (20 ft) Tube Pitch, Tube Layout Pattern and Tube Length Tube Pitch - For a triangular pattern / rotated triangular pattern TEMA specifies a minimum tube pitch of 1.25 times the tube O.D. Triangular or rotated triangular pattern should not be used for retractable tube bundles. For a square pattern TEMA additionally recommends a minimum cleaning lane of in. (or 6.35 mm) between adjacent tubes. Thus, the minimum tube pitch for the square patterns is either 1.25 times the tube O.D. plus 6 mm, which ever is larger. Therefore, for a square pattern tubes shall be spaced with a minimum nominal ligament of 6.35 mm for tubes of nominal tube OD of 25.4 mm or less. For tube ODs greater than 25.4 mm a minimum center-to-center distance of 1.25 times the tube outside diameter shall be provided.

Tube Layout Pattern The tube lay-out shall ensure that the allowable stresses in the tubes due to temperature differences between tubes in adjacent passes are not exceeded. For shell side heat transfer and the mechanical construction of the pass partition plates, there shall be at least two tube rows per pass.

Triangular pattern (30) for shell side fouling factor up to and including 0.0003 m2. C/W (0.00171 Hr F ft/Btu), unless mechanical cleaning requested. (clean service) Square pattern (90) for shell side reboilers and fouling factor above 0.0003 m2.C/W (0.00171 Hr F ft/Btu) (dirty service) Rotated square pattern (45) for shell side laminar flow

Triangular and rotated triangular pattern is better for heat transfer and surface area per unit length (greatest tube density) Square and rotated square pattern is needed for mechanical cleaning. Triangular, rotated triangular, and rotated square pattern are staggered, and square pattern are in-line. For identical tube pitch and flowrates, the tube layout in decreasing order of shellside heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop are: 30, 45, 60 and 90. The square pattern (90) is generally not used in the fixed tubesheet design because cleaning is not feasible. Tube Length For straight tubes, standard tube lengths of 2440, 3050, 3660, 4880, 6100 and 7315 mm shall be used. For U-tubes, the maximum tube length shall be 7315 mm and for a TEMA G shell, the maximum tube length shall be 3000 mm. The ratio of tube length to tube bundle outer diameter for removable bundles should not exceed 12 : 1. During the design stage the ease of handling of the tube bundle and exchanger shall be ensured. Tube lengths exceeding 7315 mm shall be subject to the approval of the Principal. The tube length for vertical thermosyphon reboilers shall not exceed 6100 mm. Shell diameter to tube length ratio should be within limits of 1/5 to 1/15. Fluid Stream Allocation Remembering that the heat exchanger's primary responsibility is to perform its thermal duty with the lowest cost yet provide in-service reliability, the selection of fluid stream allocations should be of primary concern to the designer. When designing, keep the following points in mind: - The higher pressure fluid normally flows through the tube side. With their small diameter and nominal wall thicknesses, the tubes are better able to accept high pressures, and this approach avoids having to design more expensive, larger diameter components for high pressure. If it is necessary to put the higher pressure fluid stream in the shell, it should be placed in a small diameter, long shell. - All other items being equal, place corrosive fluids in the tubes. It is much less expensive to use the special alloys designed to resist corrosion for the tubes than

for the shell. Other tube-side components can be clad with corrosion-resistant materials or epoxy coated. Flow higher fouling fluids through the tubes.Tubes are easier to clean using common mechanical methods than the shell. Many possible designs and configurations - affecting tube pitch, baffle use and spacing, and multiple nozzles, to name a few - can be used when laying out the shell circuit. Because of this, it is best to place fluids requiring low pressure drops in the shell circuit. The fluid with the lower heat transfer coefficient normally goes in the shell circuit. With this setup, low-fin tubing, which will increase available surface area, can be used to offset the low heat transfer rate.

Thermal Design Criteria Velocity Flow velocities of fluids should be chosen as high as compatible with process requirements and acceptable power consumption (the higher fluid velocity, the higher heat transfer coefficient), having regard to the effect of erosion and corrosion caused by this velocity. This may be aggravated by the presence of sediments. The lower velocity limit corresponds to limiting the fouling, and the upper velocity limit corresponds to limiting the rate of erosion. o Shellside: the effective velocity (taking due account of bypass streams) should be not less than 0.5 m/s. Shellside velocity normally varies from 0.6 m/s to 1.5 m/s Shell-side velocities can often be improved by the installation of more shells in series. o Tubeside: velocity should be not less than 1.0 m/s. Tubeside velocity normally varies from 1.0-2.4 m/s For cooling water the preferred tube-side flow velocity depends on the tube material as shown in table below. The minimum allowed velocities are also given. Preferred velocity for Velocity design m/s m/s Minimum Maximum 1.5 1.8 2.1 1.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.2 2.5 3.0 2.2

Tube material* 1. 2. 3. 4. Aluminium brass, B111-C68700 Copper nickel (90 Cu-10 Ni), B111-C70600 Copper nickel (70 Cu-30Ni), B111-C71640 Carbon steel

5. 6.

Stainless steel Titanium

2.5 3.5

2.0 2.5

4.5 5.0

(From Shell DEP) Pressure drop The maximum allowable pressure drop generally limits the fluid velocity. This means that for designs where low pressure drops have to be applied the fluid velocities will often become low. When the specified fouling resistance is high, resulting in the installation of considerable over-surface in clean condition, the maximum attainable velocity may reduce appreciably. This, in turn, will increase the tendency of fouling. By taking a lower fouling resistance, a smaller heat exchanger will be adequate, thus making it possible to apply a higher velocity and still stay within the limits of allowable pressure drop. o Shellside: 0.5-0.7 kg/cm2 (for liquid) and 0.05-0.2 kg/cm2 with 0.1 kg/cm2 beting typical (for gas/vapor) o Tubeside: Nozzle load o Shellside: The maximum shell inlet and outlet nozzles v2 (= density in kg/m3, v= velocity in m/s), is 5953. (See also TEMA Section RCB-4.61). o Tubeside: Baffle Spacing TEMA standard specifies the minimum baffle spacing as one-fifth of the shell ID or 2 in., whichever is greater. The maximum baffle spacing is determined by considerations involving supporting the tube bundles. A simple formular from PERRY for estimating the maximum is 74D00.75 inchs, where D0 is the OD of tube measured in inches. Baffle cuts Recommend baffle cuts between 20% and 25% for liquid service and 40-45% for gas service. Baffle must overlap at least one tube row in order to provide adequate tube support. LMTD Minimum LMTD correction factor is 0.8. Vibration A comprehensive check for possible tube damage due to flow induced vibration should be made using HTRI or HTFS software for all exchangers. The methods included in TEMA Section 6 are not considered an acceptable method of checking for vibration. Consideration should be given to double segmental baffles, no tube in window baffles, and special support baffles under the shell nozzles to avoid possible tube damage.

Where flow is over U-bends, or where shell diameter is large, careful consideration must be given to support of U-bends.
x D y

The unsupported combined circumferential and straight length of the tube is calculated by L = D + x + y 2 This value should not exceed 80%of TEMA maximum unsupported straight tube span. Refer TEMA Table RCB4.52.

For no tube in window designs consideration shall be given to tie rods and bundle runners with unsupported spans that may be subject to vibration damage. The possibility of flow-induced vibration could add some major constraints on the thermal design of exchangers. The methods are based on predicting the natural frequencies and forcing frequencies. Potential problems exist if exciting frequencies are close to the natural frequencies. Several possibilities to minimize the risk could be then examined. Vibration Type There are two possible vibration types on S&T exchangers are: - tube vibration - shell acoustic vibration Vibration Mechanism The 3 main vibration mechanisms are: - fluidelastic instability - vortex shedding - turbulent buffeting Shell acoustic vibration rarely causes tube damage, however, it may cause damage to the foundations and the noise generated has been source of Client complaint. Vibration Parameter The evaluation procedure is defined by HTRI, which could be summarised with the following parameters: Tube Vibration - Ratios of flow velocities / critical velocities at different points of the exchanger - Vortex shedding ratios (ratio of vortex frequencies / tube natural frequencies) - Turbulent buffeting ratios (ratios of turbulent buffeting frequencies /tube natural frequencies) - Tube displacement amplitudes

Span length V values or energy level Damping effect of shell fluid

Shell Acoustic Vibration - Vortex shedding ratios (ratio of vortex frequencies / shell natural frequencies) - Turbulent buffeting ratios (ratios of turbulent buffeting frequencies / shell natural frequencies) - Chen number evaluation Three steps of risk have been defined by HTRI with relevant values of the above parameters: Unlikely Possible Probable. The most safe area is obtained when all parameters are under unlikely risk. Design of New Heat Exchanger The HTRI vibration output must be always reviewed. For new designs, geometry changes to avoid vibration problems are better than attempting changes after the exchanger has been built and installed. The vibration criteria are approximate. To avoid any risk, all the parameters defined above must be in a safe area. In case of probable vibration, the design can be improved with the following geometry considerations: Tube Vibration Damage Increase tube natural frequency. This can be obtained by lowering the maximum tube-unsupported span, increasing tube wall thickness, or changing tube material. It should be noted that for special materials (i.e. titanium) with normally low tube wall thicknesses, design and vibration risk should be carefully analysed. Decrease shell side velocity. For specific cases, multisegmental baffles could be used instead of segmental ones, J or X type exchangers could be installed instead of E type. If shellside coefficient is controlling, these solutions could increase the required heat transfer surface. Special bundle configuration: No Tube In Windows type. This is the most useful way to reduce vibration. Tube unsupported spans can be easily reduced by adding tube supports between baffles, with minimal impact on heat transfer performance. However, a larger shell is normally necessary. Increase in size of shellside nozzles and/or clearance heights under nozzles could reduce inlet velocities under the critical limit. Take care that V limitation must be below TEMA limitations; an impingement plate could be installed. For critical cases, an annular distributor could be used to obtain uniform inlet distribution

Change tube layout and tube pitch. Special or additional tube support. This can be achieved using HTRI Fivers, ROD baffles ( Phillips), Holtec supports or various specifically designed grid or rod supports. U-bend maximum unsupported lengths should not exceed 80% of TEMA values for straight tubes.

Shell Acoustic Vibration Any acoustic vibration problems must be advised to the Chief Engineer. Experience has shown this type of vibration is difficult to predict and avoid. However, possible methods to consider are: Change tube layout. 45 layout must be avoided. Change the shell diameter. This option could have a serious impact on the performance. Add deresonating baffles, to increase acoustic frequency. Decrease shellside velocity. Changing baffles spacings (inlet / outlet / middle) can affect the flow and acoustic vibration parameters.

All the above guidelines often involve an increase of the heat transfer surface and exchanger size. The designer must check the chosen solution, to ensure that the changes can be done without significantly penalising the overall performance. However, if no design gives an economic solution, the case must be reviewed with the Chief Engineer. The HTRI VIB program could be then used to have a more detailed evaluation of possible tube damage. It should be noted that the fluidelastic instability is the parameter that causes the largest number of tube vibration failures and must be considered as the most important factor in the final evaluation. Rating of Existing Heat Exchanger When rating existing exchangers under new conditions, checking for vibration is always necessary. If possible the original design condition should also be checked. Remember that software predictions change over time and the original case may have been checked using software with different correlations giving a different prediction. In general the latest edition of the software should be regarded as correct.

5.1

All parameters with the new service are under safe limit. Vibration risk is unlikely. Except for other considerations, no more checking will be necessary. mechanical

5.2

Some parameters exceed allowable limits involving probable / possible risk. The actual service operation to-date must be checked to compare the vibration parameters with the new ones. If the actual service vibration parameters to-date is more onerous, potential risk for the new service is considered as unlikely. However, experience has shown that site measurements of operating conditions are not always accurate, and equipment may never have operated at its specified design conditions. If the new service vibration parameters are more onerous (or if there is no valid information on actual service in operation), potential risk for new service is considered as probable. The proposed corrections to avoid eventual vibration risks on the existing exchanger are as follows: Remove tubes to create by-pass and reduce flow velocity. This solution reduces the shellside performance and surface area. Remove tubes under nozzles to reduce bundle inlet flow velocity. Install shellside annular distributors to avoid excessively high local inlet velocities. Increase shell nozzle size to reduce shell inlet flow velocity. Add deresonating baffles, to avoid acoustic vibration. It may be necessary to remove some tubes to do this. The bundle can be locally stiffened (under nozzles, in the middle of baffle spaces) by connecting tubes with stiffeners such as rods, supports or Holtec inserts. Replace the bundle. If no simple corrections are possible, the only way is to design a new bundle. Plug tubes. When tubes have been damaged, they should be plugged to avoid leakage.

Additional Comments There are a number of HTRI reports, which give detailed information on the methods and the HTRI research basis see HTRI Report Book 1B.

The HTRI research for acoustic vibration is limited. The HTRI data bank on which the methods are based has no cases below 740mm shell I.D. and few cases with a tube pitch ratio of 1.25. Therefore, for the following conditions any production of acoustic vibration must be carefully reviewed with the Chief Engineer - shell I.D. below 800mm - vacuum conditions, which can have high velocities with little energy input (i.e. low pressure drop). - Tube pitch of 1.25. Additional care is required for equipment with long life requirements, such as offshore or nuclear plant. The reason is that present methods are not designed to predict long term wear due to fretting between tube and baffle. Some tube/baffle material combinations give rise to increased wear see Thermal Engineering Data Base, section TD 22.504. Extra care is required with low fin tubes as only a small proportion of tube surface is in contact with the baffle. It may be necessary to increase baffle thickness. Plain tube sections at baffle locations could also be considered. Particular care must be given to large shells with NTIW baffles. The tie rods in such bundles are not always contacted by any baffle or support plate and may have very long unsupported spans. Overdesign / Margins Margin on area The margin required on surface area for a Shell and Tube exchanger is generally 0%, however as it is not worth recycling calculations for a small improvement a margin of 0 to 5% is acceptable. Margin on pressure drop Allowable pressure drops with the following typical margins Shellside 15% if crossflow (B)-stream is less than 0.6 Shellside 10% if crossflow (B)-stream is greater than 0.6 Tubeside 5% for single phase flow. Tubeside 10% for two phase flow Margin on weight Add no margin, (0%), to HTRI weights for input to Setting Plans. However HTRI kettle weights are wrong. Shellside Stream Analysis There are 5 different shellside flow streams in a baffled heat exchanger - Stream A is the leakage between baffle hole and tube wall. - Stream B is the main effective cross flow stream. - Stream C is the leakage between tube bundle and shell wall.

- Stream E is the leakage between baffle edge and shell wall. - Stream F is the leakage through tube pass partition. (Stream F only happens in multi-tube pass heat exchanger) From Bell Delaware Method
h0
hideal

hideal J c J l J b J s J R

Jc Jl Jb

Js Jr Ji

= heat transfer coefficient for pure cross flow in an ideal tube bank (stream B fraction is 1) = factor for baffle cut and spacing, this factor will decrease if baffle spacing increase. If there is no tube in window, this factor will be come one. This factor will increase if window velocity increase. = for leakage effect including tube to baffle and shell to baffle (stream A and E). Fraction of stream A and E will increase compare to stream B is baffle spacing decrease. = bundle bypass flow (stream C and F). For fixed tubesheet Jb = 0.9 , for floating head, Jb = 0.7. Seal strip can increase value of Jb. Sealing strips shall not restrict fluid flow in or out of exchanger and shall cause minimum obstruction to mechanical cleaning lanes. Sealing rods shall also be provided in pass lanes parallel to shellside flow. = variable baffle spacing in the inlet and outlet section = adverse temperature gradient build-up = Colburn j-factor