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# 2.

0 Mechanics Mechanics is the branch of science concerned with the behavior of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.

Displacement, velocity, speed and acceleration. Displacement (s): The difference between the final and initial position of a point, where the path taken is irrelevant. It is a vector quantity. Distance (s): The difference between the final and initial position of a point, where the path taken is taken into account. It is a scalar quantity. Both quantities are measured in meters (m). Speed: distance covered per unit time. It is a scalar quantity. Speed is always positive. Both speed and velocity are measured in meters per second (ms-1). To convert from kmh-1 to ms-1, convert the distance to meters by multiplying by a hundred. Divide it by (1hr x 60 minutes x 60 sec)

Acceleration: Rate of change of velocity over time. Velocity: displacement per unit time. It is a vector quantity. The instantaneous velocity is the velocity of an object at any given instant.

## The average velocity is the average velocity over a period of time.

Positive velocity means that the object is increasing its displacement moving to the right. Negative velocity means that the object is decreasing its displacement moving to the left.

2.0 If an object moves with constant velocity, it is performing uniform motion. In this case, the displacement changes by equal amounts in equal intervals of time.

Uniform motion questions will mention constant velocity. Example: 1- The initial displacement of a body with a constant velocity of 10 ms-1 is 20m. When does the body reach the point with displacement 20m? What distance does the body cover in this time?

2- Objects A and B travel with uniform motion. Object A has with an initial displacement of 0 and a velocity of 5 ms-1. Object B has an initial displacement of 250m and moves with velocity -2 ms-1. When does A meet B and where does this happen?

Meeting point

x Displacement of A: = Displacement of B: = =

When the two objects meet, they will have the same displacement from the point of origin, hence

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2- Objects A and B are positioned at point X. Object A is released with a velocity of 4ms-1. 5 seconds later, object B is released with velocity 6ms-1. When/Where will B catch up with A?

Meeting point

6ms-1
x

4ms-1

Displacement of A:

Displacement of B:

When the two objects meet, they will have the same displacement, hence:

2.0 Frames of reference The velocity of an object depends on the frame of reference of the observer.

Where

## is the velocity of the moving body is the velocity of the observer

Example: 1- Object A travels to the left with velocity 35ms-1. Object B travels to the right with velocity 20ms-1. What is the relative velocity of A with respect to B?

2- Observer X watches object A travelling Eastwards with a velocity of 10 ms1 . Observer Y is moving northwards with velocity 20 ms-1. What is the velocity of object A relative to observer Y.

10ms-1

10ms-1

20ms-1 v Y

20ms-1

2.0 3- Objects A and B travel with uniform motion. Object A has with an initial displacement of 0 and a velocity of 5 ms-1. Object B has an initial displacement of 250m and moves with velocity -2 ms-1. When does A meet B and where does this happen?

Meeting point

## x The velocity of B relative to A:

The displacement of B is zero when it meets A as object A is the observer, and it is therefore the point of origin.

Tip: Always check questions with two moving objects. Chances are that they can be solved using frames of reference! Uniform Motion Graphs Velocity-Time Graph: the v-t graph for uniform motion is a horizontal straight line. Displacement can be found from the area under the graph.

Velocity

Time

2.0 Displacement-Time Graph: the displacement-time graph for uniform motion is a diagonal straight line.

Displacement

Time This graph represents the equation . Compared with the equation of a straight-line , we can see that the gradient of the graph is the velocity. Uniformly Acceleration Motion Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity of an object. It is a vector quantity.

Uniformly accelerated motion occurs when acceleration is constant; hence the velocity of an object changes by equal amounts in equal time periods.

In one-dimensional motion, the acceleration, displacement, and velocity are all in the same direction. Positive acceleration implies that velocity is increasing. Negative acceleration implies that velocity is decreasing. Acceleration of free fall A body is in free fall when it is allowed to fall freely. Under the conditions of free fall, only gravity is acting on the falling body, while other forces are assumed absent. The magnitude of gravity is the same for all objects regardless of their mass. The magnitude of the acceleration of free fall (g) on earth is 9.81 ms-2.

2.0 If we take that the upward direction to be positive, then the magnitude of the acceleration going up is negative since velocity is decreasing. The magnitude of the acceleration going down is still negative because velocity is decreasing (-10ms-1 is less than -5ms-1) If air resistance is taken into account, the object will accelerate until reaching a terminal velocity. Graphical representation of uniformly accelerated motion Velocity time graph: the velocity time graph for uniformly accelerated motion represents the equation:

The slope of the velocity-time graph is the acceleration. If the acceleration is not uniform, the graph will not be a straight line. In that case, the acceleration at a point can be found by drawing a tangent to the curve at the specific pint. The slope of the tangent is the acceleration. The area under the velocity-time graph is the change in displacement. This gives us the formulas: ( )

## Other suvat equations include:

Acceleration-Time graph: The area under an acceleration-time graph gives the change in velocity. Displacement-time graph: the displacement time graph for uniformly accelerated motion is a parabola. If asked to find which object has the highest average velocity, it would be the one with the biggest area under the graph.

2.0 Example: Object A is dropped from a height of 20.0 m. Object B is thrown down 1 seconds later. Both objects arrive at the same time. What is the initial velocity of object B?

Displacement of object A:

Displacement of object B:

Forces and Dynamics A force is any influence tending to change the motion of a body or produce motion or stress in a stationary body. It is a vector quantity measured in newtons (N). There are several types of forces. 1- Weight A bodys weight is the gravitational force experienced due to an attraction between the mass of the body and the mass of earth.

Where m is the mass of the body g is the gravitational field strength of earth measured in N kg-1 2- Tension The force that arises at the stretching of a body is called tension. In a string, tension occurs when forces are applied in opposite directions.

2.0 3- Normal (contact) force The force that arises when two bodies make contact is called the contact force. It is perpendicular to the body exerting the force. 4- Drag forces Drag forces are forces that oppose the motion of a body through a fluid. They are directed opposite the velocity of a body and increase proportionally to its speed. 5- Upthrust Upthrust is the upward force experienced by a body immersed in a fluid. 6- Friction Frictional forces are forces that oppose the motion of a body.

Free-body diagrams A free-body diagram shows all the forces acting on a body. Since force is a vector quantity, the forces acting on a body should be added vectorially. If the forces are balanced, then the components of the forces in any two perpendicular directions should be balanced. When the net force on a body is zero, the body is in equilibrium. If dealing with an object not completely vertical, like an object held by two strings, then all the components of all forces should cancel out in all directions. Newtons laws of motion Newtons first law: A body will remain at rest or moving with constant velocity unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. Newtons second law: The net force on a body is proportional to the bodys acceleration and is in the same direction.

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If multiple individual forces act on a body, they must be added vectorially to find the net force, or the second law will not be applicable. Newtons third law: If body A exerts a force f on body B, then body B exerts an equal but opposite force on body A. This law applies to equal and opposite forces acting on different bodies. Linear momentum Momentum is the product of the mass and velocity of an object, measured in kgms-1 or Ns.

It is a vector quantity, and its direction is the same direction as the velocity of the body. The average net force on a body equals the rate of change of the bodys momentum. If the mass is constant, it is equal to Impulse Impulse is the total momentum change of a mass. It is equal to the area under the curve of a force-time graphs.

Example: A 500g object moves on a frictionless table to hit a vertical table with a speed of 5.0 ms-1, and rebounds with a speed of 4 ms-1. The object was in contact with the wall for 0.150 s. Find the average force acting on the ball.

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The law of conservation of momentum When no external forces act on a system, the total momentum of the system stays the same. Work done by a force Work done is the product of the force times the distance moved by the object in the direction of the force.

It can be found by calculating the area under a force (magnitude)- distance graph if the force is not constant in magnitude. Gravitational Potential energy The work done by gravity is independent of the path followed. It only depends on the vertical distance between the final and initial positions.

Energy is the ability to do work. When a force equal to mg elevates objects, the external force changes the state of the system and does work. The work performed is stored as potential energy in the new state of the system. Kinetic Energy The kinetic energy of an object is the energy which it possesses due to its motion.

2.0 The work done by the net force on a body is equal to the change in the kinetic energy of the body.

Example: A mass of 5.00 kg moving with an initial velocity of 20 ms-1 is brought to rest by a horizontal force over a distance of 20 m. What is the magnitude of the force?

Conservation of energy The law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system cannot changeit is said to be conserved over time. Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can change form; for instance, gravitational potential energy can be converted to kinetic energy. (Wikipedia- conservation of energy) Speed if minimum energy required

The mechanical energy will not be conserved in the presence of friction or other resistance forces. Example:

2.0 A body of mass 2.5 kg slides down (initially at rest) a path of total length 25m from a height of 5m. Its final speed is equal to 4ms-1. Prove the presence of a resisting force and determine its magnitude. Without resistance, the speed at the bottom is:

Using the principle of conservation of energy, the energy at the top is:

## The difference is equal to the work done by the resisting force:

The energy at the initial point of a slope has both kinetic and potential components if the object was not at rest and had an initial velocity.

If asked to find the work done by the frictional force along a horizontal surface, the following formula is used:

2.0 Power Power is the rate at which work is performed. It is measured in watts (W) (Joules per second)

If a body is moving with no acceleration, the power and the speed can be used to find the resisting force. Efficiency Efficiency is the ratio of the energy delivered (or work done) to the energy needed (or work required). Elastic and Inelastic Collisions Elastic collision: Kinetic energy is conserved. Inelastic collision: Kinetic energy is not conserved.

Circular Motion A change in the direction of motion is a change in velocity. The object is therefore accelerating in the direction of the change in velocity. This is the case in circular motion. Centripetal Force: If a body accelerates, there is an unbalanced force acting on it. For an object moving in a circle, the acceleration is directed towards the centre. This is found by newtons second law, which states that the unbalanced force is in the direction of the acceleration.

The centripetal force is not an extra force. It is merely one of the existing forces or a component of one of them. Time period: time taken for one complete circle.

2.0 Since the distance covered is , the speed can be found using the formula:

Angular velocity (): Angle swept out per unit time, measured in radians per second/ s-1. Since the object covers an angle of radians in one period, the formula is:

## The velocity vector is tangent to the circle.

Centripetal Acceleration: All bodies moving in a circle accelerate towards the centre.

Since the centripetal force acts at right angles to the direction of motion, the work done by the force is zero. The average acceleration of motion can be found by: