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A PROPOSED DESIGN FOR CLASSROOM FENESTRATIONS

A Research Presented to The Faculty of Architecture University of Baguio

In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Subject ARRESM1: Research Methods for Architecture

Hilbert Cabanlong Mangonon February 2013

Abstract It is important that architects, builders and designers create classroom fenestrations in accordance to the usage of institutional edifices and compliance to the existing building laws that are in full effect. Classroom fenestrations should be designed taken into consideration architectural requirements, thermal performance, economic criteria and human comfort. Fenestrations should adapt to the changing environment to provide comfort and for it to be more functional. This research then aims to assist and guide people related to building industry when creating and designing these complex fenestration systems in terms of the three viable approach; arrangement, proportioning and design. This research aims to answer queries concerning proper material selection, design and location of these fenestration systems. Observations, data gathering and other methods are used in coming up with answers related to the complex fenestration systems.

Acknowledgement Several people played an important role in the accomplishing of this thesis proposal. And the researcher would like to acknowledge them here. First, The Lord Almighty, the source of true wisdom, for his divine guidance in my studies, and who has been my foremost inspiration and reasons that are too numerous to mention. To my parents, who believed that I could finish the race no matter how difficult and long the road is. And shared valuable insights and prompting the idea of doing the project. Lastly, Arch. Ryan M. Benaoe, our adviser for his assistance, wise suggestions and valuable time as well as his profound help and expert advice even when this research work was still premature, and has given the researcher intangible supports.

H.C.M.

Table of Contents TITLE PAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Acknowledgement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table of Contents CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM Background of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Theoretical/Conceptual Framework . . . . . . . . . . 9 Statement of the Problem and Hypotheses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 2 DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY Research Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Population and Locale of the Study . . . . . . . . .19 Data Gathering Tool/s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Data Gathering Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Treatment of the Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA Presentation of the General Problem . . . . . . . . 23 4 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Recommendations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 CURRICULUM VITAE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Abstract It is important that architects, builders and designers create classroom fenestrations in accordance to the usage of institutional edifices and compliance to the existing building laws that are in full effect. Classroom fenestrations should be designed taken into consideration architectural requirements, thermal performance, economic criteria and human comfort. Fenestrations should adapt to the changing environment to provide comfort and for it to be more functional. This research then aims to assist and guide people related to building industry when creating and designing these complex fenestration systems in terms of the three viable approach; arrangement, proportioning and design. This research aims to answer queries concerning proper material selection, design and location of these fenestration systems. Observations, data gathering and other methods are used in coming up with answers related to the complex fenestration systems.

Acknowledgement Several people played an important role in the accomplishing of this thesis proposal. And the researcher would like to acknowledge them here. First, The Lord Almighty, the source of true wisdom, for his divine guidance in my studies, and who has been my foremost inspiration and reasons that are too numerous to mention. To my parents, who believed that I could finish the race no matter how difficult and long the road is. And shared valuable insights and prompting the idea of doing the project. Lastly, Arch. Ryan M. Benaoe, our adviser for his assistance, wise suggestions and valuable time as well as his profound help and expert advice even when this research work was still premature, and has given the researcher intangible supports.

H.C.M.

The Problem 6 CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM Background of the Study Classroom fenestrations play an important role when speaking of learning environment especially on educational facilities and there are ways on how to ameliorate these fenestrations. According to American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Org. in 2008, fenestration is an architectural term that refers to the arrangement, proportion and design of window, skylight and door systems within a building. It is a connection either physically or visually on the outside and is also a means of solar radiation for daylighting or natural lighting, for heat gain to a space, for natural ventilations and could also be an egress in low-rise buildings. Optimal solutions could be done by the designer with the help of the users, particularly the students, teachers/instructors and even other people that will be using the said facility. Fenestrations do not only speak of doors and windows, there are other forms such as door view panels, peepholes, louvers, vents, wall panels, skylights, storefronts, curtain walls and sloped glazed systems. These fenestrations can either be

The Problem 7 permanent or operable. Proper dimensions, locations and usage should also be taken into consideration as well as proper materials not only for aesthetics but also for durability, performance, maintenance costs, and other economical aspects. Functions also differ and there are designs that could clarify or easily define its function in just a simple glimpse. Though daylight greatly helps in illuminating the interior of rooms and has vast effect on human comfort there are challenges and opportunities when integrating daylights to learning environment. Dave (2002) points out that Daylight is highly dynamic due to weather and other interruptions. From moving clouds to leaves rustling in the wind, the variables that interact with daylight between the sun and an interior space are entirely unpredictable and unique in almost every instance. The weather, the climate, and the obstructions between a window faade and the sun present a substantial variety of potential daylight conditions. Assumptions of clear skies and constant solar radiation simply overestimate the role of daylight in a built space. But statistical climate data can be used to address aspects of uncertainty related to weather. (p. 16) The sun does not stay in one position the whole day, as it shifts from one point to another the interior shading of

The Problem 8 classrooms also changes. It also creates glare which causes irritation to end users and visual discomfort. The researcher then would like to come up with designs, particularly on classroom fenestrations where people usually stay long and for some spends the day. Apply daylighting on rooms which displaces the use of artificial lighting during daytime, lessen the consumption of energy if properly used and makes people more productive, comfortable and healthier. (Dave, 2012) Take into consideration architectural requirements, thermal performance, economic criteria and human comfort in designing these fenestrations. Introduce designs that will make a difference on classroom experience and try to make it more comfortable for the users. This study will also be used as reference for other professions not only for architects, designers, engineers and builders but also for those people who wishes to design, propose, or create their own fenestrations. Knowledge of the study would also help you as individual to have an idea about the chosen topic. This would also help future researchers to have a reference on the said subject and improve it depending on how they view the chosen topic.

The Problem 9 Conceptual/Theoretical Framework The learning environment particularly on school rooms/classrooms greatly affect an individuals capacity to be taught, trained, gain knowledge or become skilled. These openings or building components helps a person excel by providing daylight which makes people more productive and makes people happier. Daylights could be very helpful when properly controlled to penetrate thru rooms and could also be a source of discomfort if not. The term daylighting refers to the use of natural light from the sun inside buildings and has implications in various aspects of the buildings performance (Dave, 2012: p.14) Daylight affects energy performance of the building as well as occupant visual comfort and then to health, well-being and worker productivity. While occupant visual comfort is inherently a subjective concept, it is possible to value the benefits of comfort. Thru time the utilization of daylight was altered due to technological advancement, resource availability and social paradigm shifts. It is also the safest way in illuminating the interior of the rooms wherein it does not cost money, produce smoke or risk fires. (Dave, 2012) Lighting associates in 2002 enumerated eight (8) daylighting guidelines for specific sidelighting and toplighting schemes in learning environment designs. (1) A view window - is

The Problem 10 vertical glazing at eye level, which provides a view to the exterior or interior adjacent spaces. (2) High sidelighting clerestories - are vertical glazing in an exterior wall above eye level (usually above 7 ft). Since the penetration of daylight from vertical glazing is about two times the window head height, moving the window higher in the wall increases daylight penetration in the space. (3) A light shelf - is a horizontal panel placed below high clerestory glazing (with a view window generally below it) to bounce daylight deeper into the space. Light distribution is improved as daylight reflects off the top surface of the light shelf or louver onto the ceiling. A series of smaller horizontal louvers (6 in. to 24 in. wide) can replace a single large light shelf with a slight sacrifice in performance. The larger the louver, the deeper it will deliver daylight into the space. Light shelves and louvers can be located on the exterior, interior, or both. Exterior shelves shade the lower window from solar heat gain and reflect high angle summer sun into the room. Interior shelves reflect lower angle winter sun while blocking the penetration of direct sun and reducing glare from the upper glazing. (4) Wall wash toplighting - provides daylight from above through a linear skylight or monitor to wash an interior wall. The glazing is obscured from direct view by the skylight or monitor well. Daylight is diffused with diffusing glazing, baffles or

The Problem 11 reflections off of matte reflective light well and interior walls. (5) Central toplighting - uses a central monitor or skylight (or cluster of skylights) to distribute daylight evenly across the room. Daylight is diffused with diffusing glazing or baffles that can be fixed or operable. Daylight levels are highest directly under the aperture and gradually reduce toward the perimeter of the space. (6) Patterned toplighting - provides daylight through a two-dimensional grid of skylights or rows of linear monitors (sawtooth or square). It provides even, glarefree daylight across large areas. Spacing of the pattern is largely a function of the ceiling height. (7) Linear toplighting - is a downlighting scheme that provides a line of high intensity daylight directly under it, which diminishes as an individual moves perpendicularly away from it. It establishes a strong longitudinal orientation in the space and is best coupled with a corresponding circulation pattern or linear visual cue. Used bilaterally (from two sides), it can frame a larger space. (8) Tubular skylights - are small clear-domed skylights with mirrored reflective ducts connecting them to the ceiling plane of the space. They have an interior diffuser at the ceiling plane to spread daylight in the space. They may have electric lighting within the duct or diffuser that is switched or dimmed in response to the available daylight. Since they depend on multiple reflections to deliver daylight to the space, they

The Problem 12 perform better under direct sun than overcast sky conditions. These guidelines if applied should give the user the sense of comfort as well as the proper illumination to view the task on hand and have the proper shading on interiors of the classrooms. Since fenestration systems provide so many functions and because environmental conditions and user needs vary widely, it is difficult to make a completely optimal selection of a fenestration system. Aesthetic and cost considerations are perhaps the most important to residential users, with visual and comfort performance also being of interest. Considering annual energy costs, peak load consequences, and acoustic characteristics, the choice is seldom optimal. (ASHRAE, 2008) When speaking of materials durability, performance and maintenance costs should as much as possible be the main criteria. A residential user often demands for low maintenance cost and low costs but at the same time has incomparable quality. There are varieties of materials that could be used or integrated when designing these fenestration types, some to mention would be wood, aluminum, metals and polymers or if possible would be composite materials which speaks of combination. AHSRAE expounds on this fenestration materials which were used for framings stating that (1) wood has good structural integrity and insulating value but low resistance to

The Problem 13 weather, moisture, warpage, and organic degradation (from mold and insects). (2) Metal is durable and has excellent structural characteristics, but it has very poor thermal performance. The metal of choice in windows is almost exclusively (3) aluminum, due to ease of manufacture, low cost, and low mass, but aluminum has a thermal conductivity roughly 1000 times that of wood or polymers. The poor thermal performance of metal-frame windows can be improved with a thermal break (a nonmetal component that separates the metal frame exposed to the outside from the surfaces exposed to the inside). (4) Polymer frames are made of extruded vinyl or poltruded fiberglass (glass-reinforced polyester). Their thermal and structural performance is similar to that of wood, although vinyl frames for large windows must be reinforced. (ASHRAE, 2008) The National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) establishes guidelines and protocols that can help in determining how well a product will perform the functions of helping to cool your building in the summer, warm your building in the winter, keep out wind, and resist condensation. (NFRC, 2012)

The Problem 14

INPUT VARIABLES User criteria Architectural requirements Design principles Fenestration guidelines Thermal performance Economic criteria

OUTPUT The arrangement of classroom fenestrations The proportioning of classroom fenestrations The design of classroom fenestrations

PROCESS Component analysis Material applications Location theories Sketches

Fig. 1 Paradigm of the Study

The Problem 15 Statement of the Problem and Hypotheses Classroom environment is very important when it comes to learning. It affects both awareness and unconscious domain of an individual especially when it comes to the openings. Classroom fenestrations could then be properly designed by taking into account the following: 1.1 What would be the purpose of these classroom fenestrations? a. When speaking of sizes of this classroom fenestrations? Hypothesis: There are no definite size(s) in designing classroom fenestrations. b. When speaking of locations of this classroom fenestrations? Hypothesis: There are no exact locations when introducing classroom fenestrations. c. When speaking of appropriate usage of this classroom fenestrations? Hypothesis: There are appropriate uses of these fenestrations.

The Problem 16 1.2 What would be the materials when designing these classroom fenestrations? a. When speaking of durability of this classroom fenestration materials? Hypothesis: There are proper materials when it comes to durability. b. When speaking of performance of this classroom fenestration materials? Hypothesis: There are proper materials when it comes to performance. c. When speaking of maintenance costs of this classroom fenestration materials? Hypothesis: There are proper materials when it comes to maintenance costs. d. When speaking of economical aspects of this classroom fenestration materials? Hypothesis: There are proper materials when it comes to economical aspects.

The Problem 17 1.3 What would be the appearance/form of these fenestrations? a. When speaking of beauty/aesthetics of this classroom fenestrations? Hypothesis: There are factor/issues when it comes to beauty/aesthetics of these fenestrations. b. When speaking of appearance/form of this classroom fenestrations? Hypothesis: There is proper appearance/form when speaking of fenestration function.

Design and Methodology 18 CHAPTER 2 DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY In this research, three (3) relative performance metrics are presented as a viable approach in designing these fenestration types. The succeeding sections of this chapter will discuss more on how the researcher will answer the questions raised in the statement of the problem, discuss how related information were gathered, difficulties encountered during the collection of data, analyses and the methods that are used, how the gathered data was treated, including the subject and the location of the study. Research Design This study is a quantitative research since it will discuss more on how these complex fenestration systems provide human comfort in terms of three (3) viable reasons. It is also a descriptive method given that the research emphasizes on the designs, proper usage, proper materials, and locations of this classroom fenestrations. Field and library research are also used in conducting the study to be able to describe best the topic. Information relevant to the study were gathered from several reference materials, research sources such as books, journals, periodicals, newspapers, and other online sources.

Design and Methodology 19 Population and Locale of the Study The study limits only in the municipality of Baguios institutional establishments, one that is known as the University of Baguio, UB buildings having six (6) storeys up qualifies as the proponent of the said proposal. Since data gathered crystallized the importance of these classroom fenestrations, this is to classify fenestrations since openings on the ground level require varied treatment as compared to those on the upper floors. Data Gathering Tool/s To make this research possible, some different tools are used such as (1) Web site research a practice of using international networking for research. Considering that the internet has a wide range of data that can be gathered. Using this tool, the researchers are able to gather some data easier that has different sources to compare with. (2) Books - a set of information written, printed, illustrated, or blank sheets, made of ink, paper, parchment, or other materials. The researcher used books for some guidelines and principles that can be applied to the study of the paper. The researcher used the information in books as concrete basis for data. (3) Camera - a tool which captures images or records a video. The researcher

Design and Methodology 20 uses this tool to have more understanding about the chosen topic. These materials made the study credible by providing sufficient information concerning the fenestration designs for classrooms/school rooms. Data Gathering Procedure From the initiative of the instructor and instructions given to the researcher the chosen topic should be (1) specific, it should either be international, global or local. The objectives of the topic specifically state the main focus of the study. The topic should be (2) measurable, it should be counted, enumerated, calculated, computed either by numbers, letters or anything that would represent the value of it. (3) Achievable,

the objectives of the chosen topic should be achieved or taken into reality and assessed given circumstances. The topic should also be (4) realistic, before setting a deadline for the objectives the researcher should have reviewed its sources and other related literatures concerning the research proposed. Lastly the topic should be (5) time scaled or time bounded wherein the objectives should be achieved given an agreed timeframe/schedule. An array of guidelines, theories and principles helped the researcher in coming up with designs appropriate in designing these type of fenestrations. The researcher then started by

Design and Methodology 21 defining the problem first and listing down the problems encountered by the existing fenestration designs for classrooms or the learning environment which later on followed by data gathering or data mining, the use of reputable publications and integrating them into the research paper. The researcher also conducted observations which involve personal effort and taking of pictures to support the problems raised in the previous chapters of this paper. Data analysis was also taken into consideration by modeling the data and highlighting useful information. Sorting every concept, principles and other related theories to the proposed classroom fenestrations were also used by the researcher. The duration of the study are only limited within the timeframe of the 2nd semester for school year 2012-2013 and milestones were checked by the instructor to improve the research. Treatment of the Data The researcher categorized the data being gathered and then analyzed them to come up with better solutions when designing these classroom fenestrations. Summing up the necessary information and arranging them from least up to the main priority. Schematics are also involved giving the researcher

Design and Methodology 22 ideas and concepts about the designs of classroom fenestrations. Designs that comply with the existing building laws, those are in full effect that might affect the development of the said proposal.

Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data 23 CHAPTER 3 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA The ability to choose, recommend, prefer or select fenestration systems basing it on the need of the end-users are the key components presented on this chapter. Since there is a broad category of these fenestration systems, sections of this chapter will at least provide ideas or concepts when integrating them particularly into the learning environment. The purpose, materials to be used and the forms or appearance of these fenestrations are also considered on this part of the research, since fenestrations assisted greatly in the overall comfort of the inner space it is then proper to apply this theories, concepts and principles for the benefit of those using the said environment. 3.1 Purpose of Classroom Fenestrations Classroom fenestrations mainly have different types and purpose as compared also to other facilities that needs or requires daylighting. Purpose also speaks of privacy, publicity or introduces both. The size, location and usage speak the purpose of these fenestration types.

Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data 24 a. Size(s) According to the National Building Code of the Philippines the size of the openings should be ten percent (10%) of the floor area of the room but this would be the minimum size a room or a space should provide. Logically speaking size will then depend on the activity inside the room, how much light quantity is required and how often these activities are done in a day. For some, sizes may also differ or vary when taking into account the exterior view of these fenestration types. Others would mainly focus on the need of the users, which is the other way around. The Lighting Associates (2002) has mentioned or identified eight (8) types of these fenestrations that are used in classrooms or learning environment namely (a) View Windows;(b) High Sidelighting-Clerestory;(c) High SidelightingClerestory with Light Shelf or Louvers;(d) Classroom DaylightingWall Wash Toplighting;(e) Central Toplighting;(f) Patterned Toplighting;(g) Linear Toplighting;(h) Tubular Skylights which might help in defining the sizes of these fenestration systems. Take into consideration their function and the type of operation or activity it will support for the benefits of those using the said facility.

Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data 25

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

Fig.2 Fenestration Types from Lighting Associates In some instances, proportion of these fenestrations affects greatly the comfort of the users making them uncomfortable due to heat, glare and improper illumination thus making them move from time to time and from one place to another. View door panels are also inadequate or lacking.

Fig.3 Existing UB classroom fenestration designs

Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data 26 The existing fenestrations in the university affect the comfort of the users since during late mornings or early afternoon the amount of the daylight entering the classrooms creates glare or too much daylight which in turn makes the users uncomfortable. On the other hand, during lecture hours or lecture proper, because of the absence of door view panels some students or instructors tend to enter an occupied room which causes distraction to the people inside. b. Location(s) There are no exact locations on where these fenestrations should be used or introduced. The main concern is the activity present in a certain area. Locations vary but to suffice the need of the end users and to provide comfort. Protection from the changing climate without sacrificing daylighting is a factor that complex fenestration systems should provide. c. Appropriate Use/Usage Usage speaks of applicability of this fenestration systems. For instance, view windows are essential in all school spaces except spaces requiring visual privacy to provide relaxing views and information about exterior natural conditions, and also to allow people outside of a space to view and connect with

Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data 27 activities inside. They are applicable to all climate regions and should be planned in the schematic design phase. High clerestory windows can be used in all school spaces to provide deep penetration of daylight. They are applicable to all climate regions and should be planned in the schematic design phase. A toplighting scheme applies to single-story buildings or the top floor only of a multistory building. Appropriate spaces for wall wash toplighting may include classrooms, libraries, multipurpose spaces, gyms, corridors, and administration offices. It is applicable to all climate regions, and must be planned for in schematic design. Daylighting pattern is useful for any large area that needs even daylight levels. It is especially good for gymnasium, library, multipurpose, or cafeteria spaces. For gymnasium ball courts, add baffles or high light well cutoff angles to minimize direct views of bright glazing surfaces during ball games. Patterned toplighting is appropriate for all climate regions, and should be considered during the programmatic, schematic, and design development phases. Linear toplighting also is useful for enclosed hallways and linear walkways within a larger space, or for use bilaterally to

Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data 28 frame centrally focused areas like gymnasiums, libraries, and multipurpose areas. Linear toplighting may also be used in covered exterior walkways to minimize their shadow, especially in covered walkways adjacent to rooms with sidelighting. (Lighting Associates, 2002) Practically, complex fenestration systems should portray its purpose. 3.2 Materials for Classroom Fenestrations Materials used play a major role in creating this fenestration types, mainly for weatherproofing. Durability, performance and maintenance costs are also included in this part of the research. a. Durability Toughness of materials used should be a concern. The exposure to the outside requires a treatment which differs largely on the inside. These materials should be capable of withstanding wear and tear or decay and are able to compete over a period of time without significant deterioration.

Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data 29 b. Performance Performance speaks on how it suffices the need of the users. Adequate lighting but less glare, not too much heat. Weather proofing is also under this category, protection from the shifting climate. c. Maintenance The fenestration designs should limit the requirement of a man to sustain them. Surely the owners of the classrooms as well as the maintenance department wanted cheaper costs but incomparable quality when it comes to economical aspects. 3.3 Appearance/Form of Classroom Fenestrations Classroom environment make or take away the right attitude to learn. Introduction of design and innovations to suit the mood might be a response in a problem such as this. a. Beauty/Aesthetics The image of these fenestrations should be encouraging the persons inside to learn, not to be discouraged because of inadequate daylights in such a way that they will be leaving off class and looking for spaces that is comfortable for them.

Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data 30 b. Function Aesthetic and Function should come together. In every design, innovations and introduction of improvements or alterations there should always be a reason behind or a basis why something was integrated and used.

Fig.4 Weatherproofing design for UB classroom fenestrations Based from the researchers ocular observations, the existing fenestrations do not provide weatherproofing during change of seasons, such as summer and rainy seasons. Classrooms during typhoon are frequently wet due to water leakage and too much heat during summer.

Conclusions and Recommendations 31 CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMMENDATIONS Facades that use natural lights are observed today as a trending way to design buildings that shelter the human activity. Three (3) relative performance metrics are discussed as viable way in dealing with complex fenestration systems. Conclusions Subsequent to the cautious investigation on the problems identified. UB buildings having six (6) storeys up should invest newer materials and technologies. Wherein the long run, users will benefit and save the maintenance costs it will give to the administrators. Recommendations Based from the previous chapters, the researcher came up with recommendations such as 4.1 When it comes to purpose of these fenestrations according to size, there should not be a fixed height and width or module since they do not function as a single component. Furthermore, complex fenestration systems vary at a different place and time so there are no exact locations.

Conclusions and Recommendations 32 4.2 When it comes do materials in designing these complex fenestration systems stainless aluminums are much more applicable since they are lightweight and easy to install. In addition, there are materials today that could be used as a glass pane such as thermotropic windows wherein it lessens the heat without sacrificing the daylight. 4.3 When coming up with designs for fenestrations it should be appropriate to the environment it will cater to.

References 32 REFERENCES Ashraetcs. (2008). HOF fenestration minus shading.pdf. Retrieved December 16, 2012, from http://tc45.ashraetcs.org/subcommittees_files/HOF_Fenestratio n_MinusShading.pdf Comfortable Low Energy Architecture (CLEAR) is a site that presents the full text of many essential works in the literature of fenestrations and its components (http://www.new-learn.info/packages/clear/index.html) Dave, S. (2012). Comprehensive Performance Metrics for Complex Fenestration Systems Using a Relative Approach. MIT : Massachusetts Lighting associates. (2002). Daylighting and fenestration design.pdf. Retrieved December 16, 2012, from http://www.lightingassociates.org/i/u/2127806/f/tech_sheets/D aylighting_and_Fenestration_design.pdf