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Rizal Technological University College of Engineering and Industrial Technology


Submitted to: Engr. Noel Binag

Submitted by: NAME GRADES



Aggregate is a broad category of coarse particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, rushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates. These are also used as base material under foundations, roads, and railroads. In other words, aggregates are used as a stable foundation or road/rail base with predictable, uniform properties (e.g. to help prevent differential settling under the road or building), or as a low-cost extender that binds with more expensive cement or asphalt to form concrete. This chapter will determine the sizes of aggregates used in highway construction and classify the aggregates use in asphalt pavement construction. Bituminous materials or asphalts are extensively used for roadway construction, primarily because of their excellent binding characteristics and water proofing properties and relatively low cost. Bituminous materials consists of bitumen which is a black or dark coloured solid or viscous cementitious substances consists chiefly high molecular weight hydrocarbons derived from distillation of petroleum or natural asphalt, has adhesive properties, and is soluble in carbon disulphide. Under bituminous materials, the topic will mainly discuss about determining the different bituminous binders used in asphalt pavement. It will also include the procedure in the construction of asphalt pavement and determine the specifications / standards use in asphalt construction.



ROAD MATERIALS AGGREGATES A hard inert mineral material, such as gravel, crushed rock, slag, or crushed stone, used in pavement applications either by itself or for mixing with asphalt. Aggregates which is intended for either bituminous or Portland cement concrete pavement should be of good quality and in accordance with the requirements of AASHTO standard under ITEM 703 of the Department of Public Works and Highways pecifications which generally provides that: The aggregates shall consist of hard durable particles or fragments of crushed stone, crushed or natural gravel. AGGREGATE FOR BITUMINOUS PAVEMENT Generally for bituminous or asphalt pavement, the aggregates constitute 88% to 96% by weight or more than 75% by volume. The AASHTO standard specifications provide that: The aggregate shall consist of hard, durable particles of fragments of stone or gravel and sand or other fine mineral particles free from vegetable matter and lumps or balls of clay and of such nature it can be compacted readily to form a firm, stable layers. It shall conform to the grading requirements shown in table 3 when tested by AASHTO T-11 and 27. GRADING REQUIREMENTS SIEVE DESIGNATION Standard mm 25 10 5 2 0.5 0.075 Alternate US Std. 1" 3/8 No. 4 No. 10 No. 40 No. 200 MASS PERCENT PASSING Grading A 100 50-85 35-65 25-50 15-30 5-20 Grading B 100 60-100 50-85 40-70 25-45 5-20 55-100 40-100 20-50 6-20 70-100 55-100 30-70 8-25 Grading C 100 Grading D 100

The following materials are classified under Item 300 of the DPWH standard specifications. The coarse aggregate material retained on the 2.00 mm (No.10) sieve shall have a mass percent of wear by the Los Angeles Abrasion Test (AASHTO T-96) of not more than 45. When crushed aggregate is specified, not less than 50 mass percent of the particles retained on the 4.75 mm (No. 4) sieve shall not have at least one fractured face. The fraction passing the 0.75 mm (No. 200) sieve should not be greater than two thirds of the fraction passing the 0.425 mm (No. 40) sieve. The fraction passing 0.425 mm (No.40) sieve shall have a liquid limit of not greater than 35 and a plasticity index range of 4 to 9 when tested by AASHTO T89 and T-90respectively. The Department of Public Works and Highways standard specifications classify aggregate under Item 703, and specifically provides that: Aggregate shall consist of hard, durable particles of fragments of crushed stone, crushed slug or crushed or natural gravel. Coarse aggregate is the material retained on the 2.00 mm (No. 10) sieve and shall have a percentage of water or more than 50 for sub-base and not more than 45 for base and surface courses as determined by AASHTO designation test T-96. Fine aggregate is the material passing the No. 10 sieve (2.00 mm) consisting of natural, crushed sand and fine minerals particles. The Fraction Passing the 0.075 mm (No. 200) sieve should not be greater than 0.66 (2/3) of the fraction passing the 0.425 mm (No. 40) sieve.

MINERAL FILLER The strength of the road pavement will be increased if dust additives which denses the graded mixture is added. It is called mineral filler which reduces the void contents in the mixture. This dust additive is not the ordinary dust that is being found in our floor or tables. Dust additive is classified into: Finely powdered limestone Slag Hydrated lime Portland cement Trap rock dust Fly ash

The DPWH standard specifications relative to mineral filler states that: Mineral filler shall consist of finely divided mineral matter such as rock dust, slag dust, hydrated lime, hydraulic cement, flyash or other suitable mineral matter. It shall be free from organic impurities and at the time of use shall be sufficiently dry to flow freely and shall be essentially free from agglomerations. AASHTO M-17 provides that: Percentage passing by weight shall be as follows: No. 30 (0.66 mm) sieve 50 No. 50 (0.30 mm) sieve 95-100 No. 200 (0.75 mm) sieve 70-100 AASHTO further stipulates that for all materials other than hydrated lime or Portland cement, the Plastic Index (PI) value shall be 4 or less.

BITUMINOUS MATERIALS BITUMINOUS MATERIAL Bituminous material or asphalt is a viscous (gelatinous) liquid used as binder for aggregates in road construction. At normal temperature, asphalt is either lightly thicker than water or hard but brittle material that breaks under a hammer blow when cold. Bituminous material is in liquid form when mixed or combined with aggregates. This liquid form maybe produced either by heating the hard asphalt, by dissolving in solvent or by emulsifying in water. However, there are bituminous liquid materials available and ready to use. The action of the asphalt binder depends on its type and the aggregate it is combined with. The purpose of the asphalt binder is to resist the abrasive force brought about by heavy traffic. If the pavement is of the open type, consisting entirely of coarse particles and asphalt, heavy binder is needed requiring more asphalt. On the otherhand, if the aggregates on the pavement contain fine particles, cohesion will be developed by the surface tension in the thin asphalt film surrounding these sine particles hence, less viscous asphalt is required.

BITUMINOUS BINDER Three different forms of asphalt that are used as binders in pavements are: (1) asphalt cement; (2) cutback asphalts; and (3) asphalt emulsions. Asphalt Cement In this form, asphalt behaves as a solid at normal atmospheric temperatures. To produce a pavement with it, the asphalt is heated to a temperature (275F/135C) at which it becomes fluid and can readily be intermixed with aggregate. The product is variously called: hot mix, hot mix asphalt (HMA), asphalt concrete, and asphalt cement concrete (acc). The hot mix is then spread out on roadways and compacted. HMA is used to create high-quality pavements as opposed to patch-quality repairs of pot-holes, or treatments for low-volume country roads. Asphalt cement is used as binder for almost high types of bituminous pavement. Asphalt cement is a semi-solid hydrocarbons retained after fuel and lubricating oils are removed from petroleum. The softest grade used for pavement is the 200-300 penetration and the hardest is the 60-70 penetration. Cutback or Liquid Asphalt To be mixed with aggregate, asphalt must be put into liquid form. With asphalt cement, this is done by heating the binder to a sufficiently high temperature so that it becomes very fluid. One alternative is to dissolve asphalt more volatile phases of petroleum that have higher fluidity at low temperatures. Mixtures of asphalt dissolved in petroleum solvents are typically called cutbacks. Such cutback asphalts can be applied to roadways. After application, the solvent phase gradually evaporates leaving behind the asphalt binder. The evaporation of the solvent leads to the hardening of the cutback, and this is called curing.

Cutback or liquid asphalt is classified into: Slow Curing (SC) road soils o These use the least volatile petroleum solvents such as diesel and gas oils. The uses are similar to those of MC cutbacks: patching mixes and prime-coats. An additional application of SC cutbacks is as dust palliatives on low-volume gravel roads Medium Curing (MC) cutback asphalt o These use petroleum solvents less volatile than gasoline and naphtha like kerosene. MC cutbacks are typically used stockpiled patching mixes, or for prime-coats of roadways, or for some readymixing operations. Rapid Curing (RC) cutback asphalt o These are achieved by using highly volatile phases of petroleum like gasoline or naptha as the solvent. Because these phases evaporate very quickly, they lead to rapid curing of the cutback.

Emulsified Asphalt It is well known that water and asphalt will not mix, except under carefully controlled conditions using highly specialized equipment and chemical additives. The blending of asphalt cement and water is somewhat like trying to wash grease from your hands with only water. It is not until a detergent or soapy agent of some type is used that grease can be successfully removed. The soap particles surround the globules of grease, break the surface tension that holds them, and allow them to be washed away. Some of the same physical and chemical principles apply in the formulation, production, and use of asphalt emulsion. Emulsified asphalt is a kind of mixture wherein the minute globules of asphalt disperses in water. Asphalt content ranges from 55% - 70% by weight. Emulsion could be applied or mixed at normal temperature, because when the water content evaporates the asphalt remains. Binder Properties Adhesion -Bituminous materials adhere to clean dry surfaces. Viscosity -All bituminous materials are viscous, i.e. when subject to a long term load they deform continuously. Softening point -This is the temperature at which the binder softens to a predetermined point.

PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH BITUMINOUS BINDERS 1. The thickness of asphalt in the pavement ranges from 0.005 to 0.10 mm. Test results showed that the thicker the asphalt film, the lesser is the process of aging. Where pavement has lower percentage of voids, aging is also relatively low. 2. Mixtures that are too dry, cracks and breaks easily. 3. Higher asphalt content and lower percentage of voids may cause instability of the pavement. 4. Improper construction procedures can age asphalt prematurely. One example is mixing asphalt with an overheated aggregates. 5. Storing the mixed materials for an extended period of mixing temperatures produces a substantial reduction of asphalt penetration. 6. Climatic conditions can seriously affect the behaviour of asphalt binders. 7. Different brand or source has variability in behaviour. The viscosity of some asphalts varies with temperature from that of the others. 8. An asphalt meeting a specified penetration requirement at 77F but with high viscosity temperature ratio will become hard and brittle at lower temperature.

BITUMINOUS PAVEMENT The bituminous pavement is a combination of mineral aggregate and bituminous binders. The mixture of rock material particles with asphalt has created so many names such as: Plant mix Asphalt sheet Road mix Armor coat Oil mat, etc. Asphalt macadam Asphaltic concrete Mastic National paving

Although several names were affixed to the bituminous pavement, yet, there is only one thing to remember that, all bituminous roadway is nothing more than a mixture of mineral aggregates and asphalt. Meaning, asphalt road is virtually a bituminous road.

Qualities of asphalt road The surface must free from cracks or raveling due to shrinkage and fatigue failure It must withstand weather condition, including the effect of surface water, heat, cold and oxidation It must be resistant to internal moisture such as water vapor It must posses a tight or porous impermeable surfaces the case may be suitable to underlying base on sub-base It must be smooth riding and skid free surface The success of an asphalt pavement lies or depends of the construction quality of the sub-grade, and the base course. On the contrary, pavement failure would be considered as a forgone conclusion.

A satisfactory asphalt pavement could be attained under the following construction procedures: Viscous asphalt binder is heated to a fluid condition and mixed with heated aggregates. The mixture is then laid and compacted while still hot. Mixing liquid or emulsion asphalt with aggregates at normal temperature is either by plant or road mixing. The mixture is laid and compacted at the normal temperature before the solvent evaporates or the emulsion breaks. Spread and compact the clean crushed stones, sprayed with heated or emulsified asphalt binder over it. Cover the sprayed pavement with fine aggregates. This process is referred to as the penetration method.

BITUMINOUS concrete PAVEMENT failures Caused by excessive loads. Heavy loads creates deflection on the road surface, with insufficient underlying strength. Repetitious underlying of the excessive load with roughen and crack the road pavement will ultimately result to complete failure of the roadway Deflection on the road surface may be the effect of the elastic deformation from the consolidation of the base or subsoil or from the combination of elastic and plastic deformation. Repeated heavy wheel load on highly resilient soil causes deflection leading to fatigue failure of the asphalt surface.

Alligator or the map cracking of the surface will be substantially evident. Elastic deformation in the sub-grade penetrate to depth of 6meters although mostly to a depth from the surface.

DPWH STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS ON PRIME COAT, TACK COAT AND SEAL COAT ITEM 301- BITUMINOUS PRIME COAT Materials Bituminous material is either Rapid Curing (RC) or Medium Curing (MC) cut back asphalt, whichever specified. Equipment 1. The liquid bituminous material is sprayed by means of a pressure distributor of not less than 1000 liters capacity mounted on a pneumatic tires of such width and number that the load produced on the road surface will not exceed 1kN (100 kg.f) per centimeter width of tire 2. The tank has a heating device able to heat a complete charge of bituminous liquid up to 180C. The heating device shall be such that overheating will not occur. 3. The flame should not touch directly the casing of the tank containing the bituminous liquid. The liquid should be insulated that when the tank is filled with bituminous liquid at 180C, the temperature will not drop to less than 20C per hour when the tank is not being heated. 4. A thermometer is fixed to the tank in order to measure the liquid temperature continuously. The tank is furnished with a calibrated dip stick to indicate the content. 5. The pipe for filling the tank is furnished with an easily changeable filter.

6. The distributor has the capacity to vary the spray width of the bituminous liquid in maximum steps for 100mm to a total width of 4 meters. The spraying bar shall have a nozzle from which the liquid is sprayed in fan-shaped over the road surface equally distributed over the total spraying width. 7. The pump is furnished with an indicator showing the rate of the liquid flow. A thermometer is fixed to indicate the temperature of the liquid immediately before it leaves the spraying bar. 8. The distributor is furnished with a Tachometer, indicating its forward speed, visible from the drivers seat. 9. The distributor shall be designed where the deviation from the prescribed rate of application does not exceed 10% and is equipped with a device for hand spraying of the bituminous liquid. Application of bituminous Materials 1. The surface to be treated is swept and cleaned with broom including the removal of all dirt and other objectionable materials before applying the Prime Coat. 2. Prior to the application of the Prime Coat, the surface is slightly sprayed with water but not saturated. 3. The rate of bituminous material application is within the range of 1 to 2 liters per square meter. 4. The prime coat is left undisturbed for a period of 24 hours and closed to traffic until it has penetrated and cured sufficiently so that it will not be picked up by the wheels of passing vehicles. 5. The prime coat should not be in excess of the specified amount. Any excess is blotted with sand or removed. 6. Areas which are not accessible by the distributor is sprayed manually using the device for hand spraying. 7. The surface of the road and trees adjacent to the areas being treated is protected to prevent their being spattered or marred by the asphalt. ITEM 302 BITUMINOUS TACK COAT The standard specification for tack coat is the same as that of the prime coat. The difference will be enumerated as follows: 1. The rate of application of either the rapid curing cutback or the emulsified asphalt within the range of 0.2 to 0.7 liter per square meter. 2. The tack coat is sprayed in advance on the surface course to permit it to dry into a Tacky condition. The tack coat is maintained until the next course is applied. ITEM 303 BITUMINOUS SEAL COAT

This item consist of an application of bituminous materials with or without the application of aggregate to an existing bituminous surface course. Materials required 1. The approximate amount of materials required for seal coat per square meter is provided on table 5-14 2. Bituminous material is the asphalt cement penetration grade 120-150 rapid curing or medium curing cutback asphalt. 3. The cover aggregate for type 2 seal coat consist of sand or fine screening free from dirt or other organic matter. 4. The aggregate for type 3 seal coat is crushed stone, crushed slag or crushed gravel. Only one type of aggregate shall be used in a project unless other alternative type is approved. TABLE 5-14 QUANTITY OF MATERIALS FOR SEAL COAT Material Bituminous Material L/m Cover Aggregate kg/m Type-1 0.20-0.50 None Type-2 0.50-1.00 5.00-10.00 Type-3 0.85-1.50 8.00-14.00

5. The aggregate shall have a mass percent of wear not exceeding 40 when tested by AASHTO T-96 6. When crushed slag is used, it should be uniformed in density of not less than 960 kg. per square meter as determined by AASHTO T-19 TABLE 5-15 GRADING REQUIREMENTS Sieve mm 12 10 4.75 2.36 1.18 0.300 0.150 Designation Inch 3/8 No.4 No.8 No.16 No.50 No.100 Mass Percent Passing Type-3 Type-2 Grading A Grading B 100 100 100 85-1000 85-100 85-100 10-30 60-100 10-40 0-10 0-10 0-5 0-5 0-10 -

Constructions Requirements 1. Seal coating should not be undertaken on a foggy or rainy day or when the surface to be treated is wet. 2. Wet cover coat material should not be used on the work and no seal coating work be continued at night unless provided with sufficient lighting.

3. Seal coating operation should not be started until the bituminous surface is thoroughly compacted by traffic and rolling. 4. Seal coating should not be placed on newly constructed or reconditioned road sufaces in less than ten days after such surface is laid and opened to traffic. 5. Road surface to receive bituminous material should be cleaned of dirt, sand, dust and objectionable materials. The cleaning should be effected by means of a rotary power broom or power blower. Application of Bituminous Materials 1. Bituminous material should be applied by means of a pressure distributor at the rate of approximately 0.9 to 1.8 liters for asphalt cement and 1.5 to 3.0 liters for cutback asphalt per square meter of surface in a uniform, unbroken spread over the section to be treated. 2. The pressure distributor specification including its appurtenances are the same as that enumerated in Item 301 bituminous Prime Coat 3. Application of bituminous material at the junction of spreads should not exceed the specified quantity. Any excess be removed from the surface by squeegee. 4. If necessary to obtain proper junction of spreads, a strip of Manila paper approximately one meter wide and at least as long as the spray bar should be used at the beginning and end of each spread. The paper is removed immediately after use. 5. Any skipped areas or recognized deficiency should be corrected immediately by hand application of operated pressure device. Spreading of Cover Aggregates 1. Immediately after the application of asphalt , the cover aggregate should be spread evenly over the surface at the rate of approximately 0.004 to 0.007 cubic meter per square meter. 2. Spreading is accomplished by aggregate spreader to obtain an even and accurate distribution. The use of spreader boards attached to the tail gate of truck should not be permitted. 3. The tires of the aggregate truck should not be allowed to come in contact with the uncovered and newly applied asphalt. 4. After spreading the cover aggregate, the surface is broomed lightly with an approved push or drag broom to insure an even distribution then rolled with an approved power roller weighing not less than 5 nor more than 6 tons to a uniform surface.